Journal of Transport Geography

Published by Elsevier
Print ISSN: 0966-6923
Publications
The arrival of high-speed trains (HSTs) leads to unprecedented time-space effects, potentially assisting face-to-face contacts in knowledge-generating process, yet its wider spatial-economic impacts are still open to debate. This research attempts to fill in this gap with empirical evidence by studying the inter-regional impacts of upgraded British InterCity 125/225 on British economic geography over 30years. The six study routes of London-outbound trains serving major railways stations in 26 local authorities were selected as units of analysis, with the observation of differential effects both between HSTs and non-HSTs towns and among each group of towns, to understand time-space effects of InterCity 125/225 whose potential impacts on local economic strength and knowledge intensive development. The key findings suggest that the differential HST effects on British economic geography could be classified into three influential zones, namely 1-h, 2-h, and over-2-h towns. HST has had substantial and demonstrable effects in aiding this transition within a 2-h travel limit of London, thus helping to generate renewed economic growth, but that the effects have not been automatic or universal. Regarding future British HST policy, the implications arising from this study is that cities connected to a new HST could seize opportunities which non-HST cities will not be able to do so, but this is not a zero-sum situation. Instead, it involves a national strategy to develop a hierarchical network with HST between London and key regional hubs, well integrated at these hubs with intra-regional transport systems. This indicates a strong case for a finer-grained and deeper probing analysis at an intra-regional level of the potential for rail improvement as an agent of change in city-region development. We hope to report further on this in a subsequent paper.
 
The paper examines the assumption about the complementarity between telecommunications and transport on the level of individual persons. Taking into account that previous studies have shown the particularly strong correlation between mobile phone use and travel behaviour, telecommunications use is considered by focussing on the mobile phone. Using panel data from Germany for the years 2003 and 2007 the first step consisted in an investigation of changes in mobile phone use taking into consideration also the level from which potential changes started. About one half of the respondents had changed their mobile phone use, in most cases by an increase of use. In a second step a comparison was made to potential changes in travel behaviour of the observed persons. The results show that in those groups of persons where the mobile phone use was on a high level or even increased from a high level in 2003, travel behaviour in terms of travel frequency decreased less than for all other persons or even increased. The assumption that changes in “life circumstances” such as new place of residence or change of household size trigger the change in mobile phone use or travel behaviour could be generally confirmed.
 
The paper uses 1834 individual life histories to examine changes in journey to work transport modes in Britain since 1890, and 90 in-depth interviews to investigate modal choice amongst commuters since the 1930s. There have been three main periods of change in the transport mode used for commuting, but there has also been considerable inertia in individual modal choice. The reasons why people use particular forms of transport have been quite stable over time, with some long-established differences between men and women. It is suggested that such trends have implications for the formulation of present-day transport policy.
 
This paper considers the problems which confronted governments in restoring international railway services after the Peace Treaties of 1918–20 in the Eastern Marchlands of Europe, namely the states of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Romania and Yugoslavia. The states which emerged from the old Austro-Hungarian Empire inherited railway networks which did not meet their needs, necessitating new construction for which funds were scarce. The railway infrastructure had been damaged by war and lack of maintenance again requiring substantial investment. The service patterns are compared by means of a city pairs analysis which examines minimum frequencies/journey times between five capital cities – Warsaw, Prague, Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade between 1925 and 1935. An examination of border delays is also undertaken for the same period. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
This paper examines the role of railway geography in the process of drawing the borders of the new Polish state after 1918 and discusses in particular the way in which the railway geography of the area was affected and also the influence existing railway routes had on the delimitation of those new borders. Each border area is discussed in turn and the status of resulting rail routes is examined. The border demarcation process was remote, resulted in the creation of a number of corridor and transit routes and gave rise to boundaries which lacked security for the new state.
 
This paper assesses the historical impact of central government policy on the planning and ownership of UK airports with particular reference to development at Ringway, Manchester. We argue that during a crucial period in the creation of airport infrastructure, central government policy proved equivocal. This meant that it was left to the municipal owners to undertake investment if the airport was to grow. The only significant state support was the provision of grant aid when government generally rejected the principle of subsidised airport operations. The local authority displayed considerable initiative, and the result was the nurturing of an international gateway.
 
In recent decades, trends in travel behaviour have been characterised by increasing trip distances and a modal shift towards the private car. This paper reports findings from longitudinal analyses of the German nation-wide travel survey KONTIV for the period 1976–2002. It focuses on travel mode choice, subdivided by distance categories, and also takes car availability and city size into account. In addition, trends in car availability itself are examined by city size categories. The results indicate that even within the same distance categories car use has considerably increased. In some cases bicycle use has increased as well. Gains in the use of the private car are mainly at the expense of trips on foot and by public transport. Accordingly, the shift in modal split towards the car is not (only) caused by increasing trip distances but took place even within distance classes. Once car availability is taken into account, the modal shifts appear to be considerably weaker. This suggests that once car availability is held constant the decision rationales of mode choice for a certain trip distance have remained relatively stable. The increase in motorisation over the study period was considerably weaker in large cities than in small towns, although the cities started from a lower level in the 1970s. Thus, the motorisation divide between cities on the one hand, and suburban and rural areas on the other hand has become ever wider. For travel mode choice, the picture is similar. What is more, the results suggest that even car owners are more inclined to walk a given distance in the cities than in small towns, even more so if they live in a central urban area. The built environment, thus, appears to have a strong impact on whether an available car is used or not.
 
The influence of regulatory reform (deregulation) on trucking shipment rates within the Province of Ontario is investigated in this paper. A before and after comparison of shipment data from two years, 1983 and 1991, is conducted in order to consider the timing of rate effects and to provide a more long-term look at the influence of reform. The results suggest that rate levels for truckload shipments declined before the de jure introduction of reforms. Following reform, there appears to be no industry-wide decline in rate levels and no elimination of crosssubsidy based on community size and relative location.
 
In the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, the Port of Kobe (Japan) suffered severe damage that essentially shut it down and required over two years to fully repair. This paper explores the impact of the disaster on the Port, focusing on international container traffic. Prior to the disaster, Kobe had ranked sixth among container ports worldwide; in 1997, it ranked 17th. Analysis reveals that foreign transhipment cargo was especially vulnerable to loss. This loss must be seen in the context of Asian port competition; indeed, the earthquake served to highlight and accelerate pre-disaster economic trends. Implications for seismically vulnerable ports in the US and Canada are discussed.
 
This paper examines the dramatic improvement in inter-city connectivity by focusing on scheduled passenger air service linking the United Kingdom and Ireland with continental Europe. Between 1996 and 2004, inter-city connectivity as defined by the operation of scheduled non-stop service improved dramatically in two key ways: the number of cities served (increased by 40% from 94 to 135) and the number of city-pairs served (increased by 91% from 224 to 428). A large portion of this increase is attributable to the new generation of low-fare carriers. This improvement in inter-city connectivity benefited a large number of small, provincial towns with no adverse impact on flights out of traditional gateway cities and capitals.
 
While maritime transport ensures about 90% of world trade volumes, it has not yet attracted as much attention as other transport systems from a graph perspective. As a result, the relative situation and the evolution of seaports within maritime networks are not well understood. This paper wishes verifying to what extent the hub-and-spoke strategies of ports and ocean carriers have modified the structure of a maritime network, based on the Atlantic case. We apply graph measures and clustering methods on liner movements in 1996 and 2006. The methodology also underlines which ports are increasing their position by carriers’ circulation patterns on various scales. This research demonstrates that the polarization of the Atlantic network by few dominant ports occurs in parallel with the increased spatial integration of this area by shipping lines.
 
Phoenix adopted overlay zoning (an additional, targeted layer of regulations) in some light-rail transit (LRT) station areas at the site-selection stage to reduce planning-related uncertainty. This prompts consideration of advance transit-oriented development (TOD)—development that takes place before LRT system operation. In this paper we break down almost $1 billion worth of advance TOD in the Phoenix area by type of TOD, type of station area, and use of overlay zoning. Factor analysis and cluster analysis are applied to GIS-based parcel-level data to identify five distinct station-area types. We then use ANOVA to verify statistically significant relationships between station-area type and: the value of advance TOD, the percentage of parcels with overlay zoning, and the percentage of advance TOD with overlay zoning. The five station-area types, ordered from highest to lowest advance TOD per station, are employment centers; Middle-Income Mixed-Use areas; transportation (park-and-ride) nodes; high population/rental areas; and urban poverty areas. Overlay zoning was used most in areas of urban poverty and least in station-area types with the most single-family housing. Advance TOD coincided strongly with overlay zoning in areas of urban poverty and least in employment and amenity centers.
 
The case for developing railway networks rests on a mix of economic, social and environmental factors. A crucial factor is the relationship between the network and developing patterns of urban form and policy intentions with regard to securing modal shift from road to rail as part of the search for greater environmental sustainability. This article explores these relationships in contemporary Britain in the context of the recent attempt to privatise the railway network. It concludes that although there are serious shortcomings in the current situation, there is a case for further development of the network, but that this is now a matter for public sector leadership.
 
An analysis of long-haul routes identifies trends and patterns underlying their development. Five distinct perspectives: geography, regulation, manufacturers, passengers and airlines are taken to investigate the drivers of long-haul route development. From the insights gained it is inferred that the demand for long-haul aircraft is a complex function thereof, whereby long-haul routes are operated between cities with strong business and social connections as influenced by the dynamics of change and underlying geography.
 
This paper examines the impact of a major road improvement programme on the economic development of North Wales. The paper identifies the economic impacts of the road on a selection of firms and organisations in North Wales, and provides a modelling framework to examine the static and dynamic effects of road improvements. Road improvements across North Wales are found to be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for economic development in this peripheral area.
 
Automobiles and roads are as much of a way of experiencing national parks as they are a means of conveyance. This study examines experiential aspects of transportation on Acadia National Park’s primary scenic road – Ocean Drive. Interviews with vehicle-based road users were conducted to identify indicators to measure and manage experiential quality on Ocean Drive. Also, a survey was conducted to make comparisons with important variables identified on “transportation-only” urban roads. Results suggest that (1) Ocean Drive is important to park visitors’ experience; (2) experiential indicators for Ocean Drive include vehicle crowding, scenery, and travel freedom/convenience; and (3) experiential aspects of transportation on scenic roads in parks may differ substantially from urban roads. Study findings suggest a need to deliberately and thoughtfully plan and manage for quality recreational experiences on roads in national parks and related areas.
 
This paper examines how a transport pricing policy aimed to reduce car use may affect individuals’ Quality of Life (QoL), to what extent this policy is acceptable to the public and if people intend to change car use when the policy is implemented. Also, comparisons were made amongst five countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Italy, The Netherlands and Sweden). An internet survey among 490 respondents showed that a stringent measure, i.e., doubling costs of car use, hardly affects people’s general QoL. Respondents are unsure whether they would accept the policy and whether they intend to change their car use if the policy is implemented. Respondents from The Netherlands and Sweden are more pessimistic about the QoL consequences of the policy, think the policy is less acceptable and are less inclined to reduce car use than respondents from the Czech Republic, Italy and, to a lesser degree, Austria. Implications and recommendations for developing, adjusting or supplementing QoL measurement instruments and policies are discussed to ensure effective and efficient policy making.
 
Shopmobility provides a vital link in the community transport chain. It has been designed to secure for mobility-impaired people equality of access to shopping facilities and `barrier-free' movement within town centres. This agenda is important in the UK given the growing incidence of age-related disability, the spread of pedestrianisation to smaller shopping centres, and publicised development of wayfinding technologies to help disabled people navigate in unfamiliar surroundings. The recent millennium audit of Shopmobility schemes furnishes a national data-base highlighting the demand for services, operating practices in contrasting built-environments, stockholding of equipment, financial management and planning intentions. This report overviews the key findings of that audit within the context of a government commitment to an `inclusionary' and integrated transport policy. It concludes that an adequate and secure stream of financial support is essential for the sustained development of Shopmobility in local contexts, and recommends that Local Transport Plans should ensure that Shopmobility schemes are effectively linked to community and public transport services, and accessible car parking provision for disabled motorists.
 
People involved with rural activities in Brazil and their main transport demands, 1991
Rural children in developing countries face many problems in getting to and staying in school. In addition to well-known social and economic factors, distance-related obstacles to schooling are very important but surprisingly disregarded in the available literature. This paper analyzes the present situation in rural Brazil and specially in the state of São Paulo, where a large rural school transport system has been operated since the 1960s. The analysis considers mainly policy issues as a guide to the provision of rural pupil transport. The analysis considers also the advantages and limitations of different strategies for improving the access to schools in rural areas of developing countries. An example of pupil transport coupled to rural school consolidation is provided. Finally, a preliminary framework for the definition of a specific public policy is proposed.
 
In the past two decades urban time policies have been proposed and implemented in many European cities as a complement to traditional spatial planning methods. Such policies seek to provide an answer to the growing number of people facing time problems as a result of an erosion of collective time rhythms and a desynchronisation of different time structures of urban life. Particular emphasis is being placed on the reconciliation of opening hours of public service facilities with the travel and activity patterns of citizens in order to increase individual accessibility to urban services. In spite of the increasing relevance of time policies, only limited quantitative research has been conducted about the relationships between opening hours and accessibility. This paper seeks to extend this line of inquiry by exploring if and to what extent the accessibility of public facilities can be ameliorated by redesigning the timetables of service delivery. A method is proposed to optimise the temporal regime of public service delivery in terms of accessibility. The method is illustrated in a case study of accessibility of government offices within the city of Ghent (Belgium). Our findings suggest that by rescheduling the opening hours of public service facilities individual accessibility to service delivery can be improved significantly. Our study may support urban service deliverers, policymakers and urban planners in assessing timetables for a better ’accessible’ service provision.Highlights► Individual accessibility to services is influenced by opening hours of facilities. ► We propose a method to determine opening hours that maximises accessibility. ► Example case on rescheduling government office opening hours in Ghent (Belgium). ► Substantial improvements in accessibility can be made by rescheduling opening hours.
 
The concept of accessibility has been attracting increasing attention from transportation planners and researchers. The goal of "smart growth" is to promote accessibility rather than mobility. Accessibility mapping is a highly effective tool to support smart growth planning. Studies on accessibility mapping and analysis have proliferated over the last decade as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been widely adopted to produce accessibility maps. Nevertheless, a major negative aspect of these efforts is the lack of dynamic access measurement. Traffic conditions change significantly over space and time, leading to non-stationary travel time estimation which is central to accessibility measurement. In this paper, we propose a dynamic accessibility measure based on real-time travel speeds that are derived from floating car data (FCD). We introduce a novel integrated access measure to compute accessibility to Points of Interest (POIs) constrained by road networks. POI accessibility measures are obtained by means of both Network Kernel Density Estimation (NKDE) and Network Linear Density Estimation (NLDE). Therefore, we are able to capture temporal dynamics by taking into account speed variability using FCD during peak and off-peak hours on weekdays and weekends. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of accessibility using FCD for Wuhan city in China. Empirical studies were conducted to examine the impacts of density estimation parameters (search bandwidths) and POI weights on the integrated accessibility. We find that search bandwidth and POI weights would impose profound influence on final accessibility values. Experiments also show that NKDE and NLDE would produce significantly different estimation results.
 
Central to the Singapore's land transportation strategy is to develop an extensive rapid transit network to provide quality public transport services and maximize accessibility for commuters to key nodes of employment, housing, leisure and other social activities. This paper presents a study on the impact of the mass rapid transit (MRT) network on accessibility in Singapore using an integrated GIS tool. Four types of accessibility are assessed, including the accessibility to the central business district, to working population, and to industrial and commercial opportunities. It also analyzes the changes in accessibility brought about by the new MRT lines. The accessibility analyses conducted in this study show that the closer to the central area of Singapore and the East–West MRT line a location is, the higher accessibility it attains, and the new North–East MRT line has greatly improved accessibility of the northeastern areas, but has insignificant impact on accessibility of the northern, northwestern and eastern part of the country.
 
On the basis of a literature review on `accessibility', we propose a new type of accessibility measure that can be used to estimate if jobs are accessible for employees. The basis for the measure is a traditional potential accessibility measure. This kind of measure means calculating the number of jobs which can be reached in a certain amount of time, weighted for travel time (or distance). However, the competition for jobs on the employment market is not taken into account in these measures. This seems to be an omission, considering that the attractiveness of a living area is not only determined by the number of jobs that are within reach, but also by the amount of competition for these jobs. If there are many competitors in the area, the chance of getting the desired job is lower than in a situation with no or few competitors. Therefore we suggest an accessibility measure based on a `normal' potential accessibility measure corrected for competition on the employment market. We applied the proposed accessibility measure to a Netherlands' case study. The correction factor for employment market competition was found to affect the results. Using the proposed measure, the calculated job accessibility in many Dutch residential areas changes in comparison to calculations using the normal accessibility measure.
 
This paper proposes a methodology to measure spatial spillovers of transport infrastructure investment and to monetize them by distributing the costs of the infrastructures envisaged according to the regional distribution of the potential accessibility benefits. We use a transport master plan (the Spanish “Plan Estratégico de Infraestructuras y Transporte” 2005–2020, PEIT) as a case study for applying our methodology. In order to calculate and map regional spillovers, economic potential values are computed using network routines in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by comparing two scenarios: firstly, the scenario PEIT 2020; and secondly the scenario which includes the improvements envisaged for the year 2020 in all the regions except the region whose spillover effects are being analyzed. The differences between these two scenarios represent the potential spatial spillover effects of this region on the rest of the regions. This procedure is repeated for each of the Spanish regions in order to calculate a matrix of inter-regional spillovers in economic potential units. In a second step, this matrix is monetized by distributing the costs of the investment in infrastructures envisaged in the region according to the regional distribution of the economic potential benefits. This inter-regional matrix of investments flows characterizes the “inner”, “export”, and “import” values of each of the regional road investments. Subtracting from the direct investment the exports to other regions and adding the imports from other regions, an estimation of the real investment of the plan in each region taking into account all the spillover effects is obtained. This value can be compared with the direct investment in the region, analyzing whether one region has more or less direct investment than real. The proposed methodology makes it transparent which regions benefit more from national transport investment irrespective of where the investment occurs. The spillover matrix can be a valid instrument, especially in federal states or in the case of transnational projects, in the field of regional economics because it offers very useful information for both planners and policy makers.
 
There is a strong need to explore the determinants of worker’s commuting time as the declines in job accessibility associated with the dramatic growth of commuting time have become a serious negative effect on the quality of urban life in megacities of China. Most well-developed theories exploring change in commuting time are based on neo-classical economic theory. This paper argues however that in the case of China institutional factors of the housing provision system and labour mobility management have been more important. The paper conceptualizes an institutionalist approach incorporating housing and controls over labour mobility and applies it to analyse these influences on workers’ commuting time in Beijing. The analysis shows that the interaction of housing provision, the market system and the Hukou system together have significant impact upon individual commuting time allowing for worker’s annual household income, occupation and transport mode. The findings suggest that the market-oriented housing reforms have changed the local jobs–housing balance that prevailed in pre-reform era and have thus induced growth of commuting time; the remaining the unfair treatment of residents according to their Hukou status may influence the floating worker’s ability to connect housing and workplace opportunities that could reduce commuting time. With respect to future studies, the institutionalist approach seems to be an efficient means of exploring particular factors that emerge in the transformation of an economy.
 
Transportation scholars are challenging traditional formulations of the spatial mismatch hypothesis because previous studies have disregarded the considerable difference between travel modes. This case study of the Detroit metropolitan region uses 2000 census data and a gravity-based model of transportation accessibility to test differences in access to jobs among places and people, and provides support for recent calls for reconceptualizing spatial mismatch. It shows that even though Detroit experiences the greatest distance between African Americans and jobs of any region in the country, most central city neighborhoods offer an advantage in accessibility to jobs compared to most other places in the metropolitan region – as long as a resident has a car. Policies aimed at helping carless people gain access to automobiles may be an effective means of improving the employment outcomes of inner-city residents.
 
A review of accessibility measures is presented for assessing the usability of these measures in evaluations of land-use and transport strategies and developments. Accessibility measures are reviewed using a broad range of relevant criteria, including theoretical basis, interpretability and communicability, and data requirements of the measures. Accessibility impacts of land-use and transport strategies are often evaluated using accessibility measures, which researchers and policy makers can easily operationalise and interpret, such as travelling speed, but which generally do not satisfy theoretical criteria. More complex and disaggregated accessibility measures, however, increase complexity and the effort for calculations and the difficulty of interpretation. The current practice can be much improved by operationalising more advanced location-based and utility-based accessibility measures that are still relatively easy to interpret for researchers and policy makers, and can be computed with state-of-the-practice data and/or land-use and transport models. Research directions towards theoretically more advanced accessibility measures point towards the inclusion of individual's spatial–temporal constraints and feedback mechanisms between accessibility, land-use and travel behaviour. Furthermore, there is a need for theoretical and empirical research on relationships between accessibility, option values and non-user benefits, and the measurement of different components of accessibility.
 
This paper briefly reviews the inexorable rise of the social exclusion policy paradigm and uses an adaptation of Amartya Sen’s theory of entitlement to determine appropriate policy responses. In particular, the promotion by the UK Department for Transport of accessibility planning is examined. Although this initiative is not totally without merit, the resulting analysis may be too aggregate, both spatially and socially. The weakness of such an approach is that transport-related social exclusion is not always a socially and spatially concentrated process. Instead we suggest a matrix of area accessibility, area mobility and individual mobility as a possible schema for identifying concentrated and scattered manifestations of social exclusion and inclusion and for suggesting appropriate policy responses. This schema helps produce a more spatially and socially differentiated conceptualisation of social exclusion, helps identify policy responses and most critically highlights that the problems of the socially excluded immobile should not be analysed in isolation from the socially included mobile.
 
Recently, China has launched a major programme of motorway construction – the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS). The present study analyses the impacts of this highway development programme on the pattern of accessibility gradients, trying to draw implications for regional growth. Obviously, this programme will bring about substantial improvements in accessibility across the nation. There is evidence, however, that highway investment exhibits diminishing returns over time. Greater improvements in the nodal accessibility of the major coastal cities, as compared with cities in interior and periphery provinces, in the initial stage of the highway development programme are found. But as time progresses, the NTHS will bring about more balanced development in the spatial sense.
 
Everyday traffic accounts for a significant share of overall greenhouse gas emissions, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2). While several solutions have been proposed for decreasing the emissions, a new kind of land use planning is required in order to achieve long-term effects. This study focuses on the effect of large retail store locations in the urban structure on overall CO2 emissions, by using the Oulu region, Finland, as a case study. The aim was to utilize GIS tools to assess store locations in terms of CO2 emissions from private cars used for consumer traffic. In this case, not only are the locations of the existing and planned retail units investigated with respect to population distribution and car ownership, but the analysis is also carried out by regarding any location within the study area as a hypothetical site for a large retail unit. According to the applied method, CO2 values are lowest near the centre of the studied region, the region with the highest population density, although the city centre itself did not turn out to be the most optimal location for a retail store in terms of CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, by generally reducing trip length, a compact urban structure is an important way of achieving long-term cuts in CO2 emissions.
 
Regressions to predict commuting duration
Percent change in travel time with a 1% change in accessibility
lkansit commute trips -correlation matrix
This study analyzes the effect of accessibility to jobs and houses at both the home and work ends of trips on commuting duration for respondents to a household travel survey in metropolitan Washington, DC. A model is constructed to estimate the effects of demographics and relative location on the journey to work. Analysis finds that residences in job-rich areas and workplaces in housing-rich areas are associated with shorter commutes. An implication of this study is that, by balancing accessibility, the suburbanization of jobs maintains stability in commuting durations despite rising congestion, increasing trip lengths, and increased work and non-work trip making.
 
Australia belongs to a small group of countries that are low density but affluent, and characterised by very high vehicle ownership levels but very little public transport in rural areas. It is widely believed that there are few problems of mobility and accessibility, apart from long distances, because everyone has a car. A literature review generally confirms this perception, although there are hardly any suitable local case studies. An analysis of the rural areas of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia sought indicators of transport-related problems, using mainly census data. While the basic urban/rural distinction is clearly defined, within the rural areas patterns of vehicle ownership are unusual, and in the remotest areas are not as high as would be expected. Relationships with socio-economic variables are not consistent. Accessibility measures are incorporated in the analysis, and a travel needs index suggested. Appropriate case studies are required to establish travel behaviour patterns and the responses of disadvantaged groups.
 
This paper develops a methodology for calculating the European value added value (EVA) generated by transport infrastructure projects. This approach is particularly useful for evaluating projects in the framework of Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T), although it may also be used in trans-national projects in other geographical areas. The methodology is based on the appraisal of spatial spillovers generated by trans-national projects by using accessibility indicators (access to markets) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Projects are split into sections and spillover effects of each section are then computed. The sections that produce a high proportion of spillovers in relation to internal benefits generate a high EVA. Additionally, indicators are obtained of the effects of each section in terms of spatial concentration on the different countries affected, efficiency (general improvement in accessibility) and territorial cohesion (reduction in accessibility disparities between regions). The validity of this approach is verified by applying it to TEN-T priority project 25. This methodology does not seek to replace existing project appraisal methodologies (particularly the cost-benefit analysis); rather it provides complementary data for decision-making. Sections which are scarcely profitable from the cost-benefit analysis perspective but which have high European value added should receive more European funding than more profitable sections of markedly national interest.Research highlights► A methodology for calculating European value added (EVA) of projects is developed. ► Sections of transport projects producing more spillovers have a greater EVA. ► Sections located near borders tend to have a greater EVA and need more EU funding.
 
During the past decade, air passenger service in the United States has been exposed to numerous carrier bankruptcies, antitrust investigations, mergers, labor problems and a massive increase in competition. These internal elements, combined with the rising costs of fuel and the threat of terrorism combine to make a relatively uncertain air travel landscape for both passengers and operators. Moreover, these dynamics have generated significant geographical shifts in airline route structures and airports serviced by commercial carriers. These factors, combined with increasing levels of consumer access to fare and routing information, have altered the landscape of air travel accessibility in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to examine issues of consumer air travel accessibility through an analysis of three critical measures: flight segments, flight time and ticket costs. In addition, a typology of air passenger accessibility is generated for the 156 busiest commercial airports in the United States using these three measures. Results suggest significant local and regional biases in time and cost, relative to distance, for many US markets.
 
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are enabling people to access opportunities in virtual space without facing the friction of distance and travel time alongside the long-existing opportunities in physical space. Hence, society is now dealing with hybrid space circumstances, in which new meanings of distance and accessibility are developing. In physical space, accessibility is measured on the basis of the spatial separation between the locations of opportunities and opportunity seekers. In virtual space, spatial separation loses its importance, but the nature of jobs (whether they can be accessed in virtual space or not) and the personal capabilities of workers (having ICT skills or not) gain more importance. This study explores how this virtual component can be incorporated into existing accessibility models. The influence of the use of ICTs on job accessibility is analysed with two models, the Hansen and the Shen model. The outcomes of this measuring exercise show that job accessibility in hybrid space is likely to improve, but this improvement shows distinct patterns of regional variation. Of the two accessibility measuring models, the classic Hansen potential-accessibility approach performs best in quantifying job accessibility in hybrid space.
 
This paper presents an exploratory spatial data analysis of accessibility impacts of a large-scale national motorway building programme. Accessibility is calculated for Spanish municipalities from 1980 to 2000 using two indicators: motorway network access and market potential accessibility. The average distance from municipalities to their nearest motorway has been reduced markedly over this period. Market potential accessibility maps show that there have been gains in all locations, but some of the highest gains occurred in some of the more peripheral regions. A review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the economic impacts of transport investments indicates important implications for regional development.
 
Diary studies have become increasingly popular in the field of transport research since their first recorded use just over 60 years ago, allowing collection of data not only on patterns of travel, but also on the full context for travel. However, few have incorporated recording of people’s use of new technologies, specifically, the Internet. This paper discusses a methodology, the accessibility diary, designed so to do. With a focus upon usability for participants and utility for researchers, the paper describes the diary design in full, assessing its efficacy with reference to focus group, interview and questionnaire data, alongside lessons from the analysis. The paper concludes with a consideration of the dilemma facing transport researchers: the wish to collect ever more complex information to advance understanding versus the need to develop methodologies that are simple to use, to maximise data quality and response rates.
 
The aim of this paper is to analyse the current conditions of temporal daily accessibility among the seven Canary Islands by means of sea transport for both passengers and vehicles. To do this a method is proposed that can be applied to other areas sharing similar characteristics of territorial remoteness and fragmentation. Time available daily at the destination is also studied in relation to administrative or commercial working hours.
 
Accessibility has become established as a mainstream policy goal in the service of the UK Government’s aims of achieving greater social inclusion and social justice. It is argued that a better understanding of the relationship between conceptualisations of accessibility and these policy aims would be of value in understanding the potential of accessibility to contribute to policy. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this understanding.The paper discusses a conceptual framework placing accessibility centrally in the social justice and social inclusion agenda. The location of the idea of accessibility in the rural context, and as a ‘rural challenge’, is traced. Its relationship with welfare geography, and its essentially normative nature, are discussed, and connections with need are made.It is suggested that there is not just one account, either of what, in terms of accessibility, people ‘need’, or what they experience. Neither can there be just one account of what accessibility people ‘should have’. The ideas of ‘absolute’ and ‘relative’ accessibility are referred to. A ‘nested’ framework is set out which relates social inclusion and accessibility, in turn, to social justice. Alternative philosophies of social justice are explored, and accessibility is discussed in the contexts of philosophical positions on needs, rights, wants and deserts.The development of accessibility as a policy element is analysed. Setting greater accessibility as a goal is a potentially powerful driver of policy because it requires that policy sectors interact: otherwise the goal of achieving greater accessibility as a means of greater social inclusion and social justice cannot be fully attained. It is concluded that the new narrative of accessibility, if itself soundly conceptualised, is a sine qua non for the social justice project.
 
In this paper, we analyze the impact of orbital motorways on intra-metropolitan accessibility, using as an example the Madrid M-40 orbital motorway. The maps of changes in accessibility show that, as one might expect, the nodes situated near the M-40 are those that most benefit from the new infrastructure and that the further their distance from the M-40, the weaker the changes, although the gradient is much steeper towards the city centre than towards the exterior. All the indicators used point to the fact that the new orbital motorway has brought about relevant changes, but the intensity with which such changes are registered depends on the variable used as a mass (changes are higher in accessibility to population indicators than in accessibility to employment indicators), and on the type of operationalization adopted (the most complex ones are those which least noticeably reflect the effect of the new orbital motorway). It has been verified, in the case of the Madrid M-40, that orbital motorways do not necessarily lead to an increase in the equality of intra-metropolitan accessibility, for this will depend on their location within the metropolitan area: the further out they are, the greater equality they bring, even though they attract less traffic.
 
This paper compares the spatial structure of car accessibility to towns and to railway stations during peak and off-peak hours in Belgium for the country’s 2616 municipalities. A clustering method is applied. It is shown that in a highly urbanised country, the situation is far from being spatially equitable in terms of accessibility, and some areas are more favoured than others. Congestion increases spatial inequalities, differently according to absolute or relative measures of change. By means of examples, this paper shows that even simple accessibility indicators could be useful to support decisions taken by planners and politicians (e.g. as regards the development of residential, industrial and business park areas). Maps indicate the spatial inequalities in terms of accessibility to urban centres and transport nodes, and the impact of congestion on these inequalities. The absolute and relative time losses due to congestion affect different areas in different ways. The location of new developments further increases the congestion problem and the spatial disparities. This paper also insists on the caution that should be adopted when measuring and interpreting “accessibility”, its measurements, its inputs, its temporal changes in absolute and relative terms as well as the need for spatially disaggregated data.
 
For developing countries, integration into the international airline industry is an important prerequisite to access global flows of money, goods, people, and information. This research examines how patterns of international air transport accessibility changed in Southeast Asia over the period 1979–1997. Particular attention is given to the competition between the major hubs of the region. The paper argues that national governments have used a variety of tools, including airline industry liberalization and airport development, to shape the development of air transport networks. The results of these strategies are assessed using network analysis.
 
This paper evaluates the accessibility impact of the future Madrid–Barcelona–French border high-speed line. Accessibility impact of the new infrastructure is measured by means of three indicators: weighted average travel times, economic potential and daily accessibility. These indicators respond to different conceptualizations and offer complementary information about the issue accessibility. The results are quite different: very concentrated effects in the daily accessibility indicator, less concentrated in the economic potential one and more dispersal in the location indicator. The sign (polarizing/balancing) of these effects depend on the geographic scale: polarizing effects at the national level and balancing effects at both corridor and European levels are identified. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to carry out this study.
 
The principal aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the future European high-speed train network on accessibility, by reducing time distance between places and modifying their relative location. We compare the current situation with that foreseen for the year 2010, according to the Outline Plan of the European High-Speed Train Network, in order to analyse which areas will most benefit from construction and improvement of the infrastructure. It is hypothesized that the high-speed train will certainly bring the peripheral regions closer to the central ones, but will also increase imbalances between the main cities and their hinterlands. A weighted average distance indicator is applied for this purpose. This measure identifies the spatial distribution of accessibility in the area of study, emphasizing the infrastructure effects, and locates accessibility changes at the European level. A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to carry out this study.
 
The network and planar K-function methods are applied to traffic accident data to illustrate the risk of false positive detection associated with the use of a statistic designed for a planar space to analyze a network-constrained phenomenon. We also demonstrate the benefits of using a method specifically designed for a network space. The results clearly indicate that the planar K-function analysis is problematic since it entails a significant chance of over-detecting clustered patterns. Analyses are implemented based on Monte Carlo simulation and applied to 1997 traffic accident data in the Buffalo, NY area.
 
This paper examines the impact of the introduction of New Zealand’s graduated driving licence system (GDLS) on patterns of road traffic accident mortality amongst the young driving population from 1980 to 2001. Results show that the mortality rate has declined, but that rates in New Zealand are three times greater than in England and Wales and twice those of Scotland. When the data is adjusted to take account of differences in the minimum driving age, rates remain consistently higher in New Zealand and the proportional reduction in road traffic accident youth mortality is not significantly better than that experienced in Great Britain.
 
This paper reports on a study of the urban poor adapting to their own poverty and to unreliable public transport services by task sharing among extended family units. It draws on material from interviews conducted in two low-income communities in Accra, Ghana. In typically large households, the practice of fostering children, hiring domestic servants and doorstep petty trading by elderly women are three notable strategies for relieving middle-aged adults from transport stress and under-provision, and enabling them to be wage earners. As resources, rather than responsibilities, children fetch and carry, and attend school in shifts. From a transport activity or survival network approach, these elements can be viewed as key strategies in the organization of travel and transport.
 
The global shipping industry is undergoing a transformation through the establishment of strategic alliances involving nearly all the major carriers. The near universality of the phenomenon would lead one to believe that being part of a global alliance is the only means of survival today. The case of CP Ships, the maritime arm of Canadian Pacific, provides a radically different model. CP Ships began as a small market player, but through direct acquisition has grown in size to be comparable with many of the large global carriers. It has remained focused as a niche player, venturing to confront the mainline carriers only peripherally. This paper explores the bases for CP Ship's success, highlighting the fact that alliances need not be the only path to survival in a global industry.
 
This paper analyses the competitiveness of the Lower Mississippi seaport from a cluster perspective, discussing the importance of local governance and collective action regimes for the competitiveness of the cluster. The case study of the Lower Mississippi port cluster shows that collective action regimes are relatively poorly developed in this cluster, compared with the seaport cluster of Rotterdam. Furthermore, the case shows these ineffective regimes are one of the reasons explaining the declining market share in overall throughput in the Gulf region. Houston, its nearest and main competitor, has grown much more than the Lower Mississippi port cluster. A number of collective action problems require effective collective action regimes that render significant benefits at the cluster level. Several proposals are formulated to improve the quality of the collective action regimes and hence enhance the performance of the Lower Mississippi port cluster.
 
Port activities often give rise to distinctive regions within their town or city and it might be expected that they would have on effect on the spatial differentiation and spatial structure of urban areas. However, urban spatial theory appears to ignore this possibility, urban structure models having little or nothing to say about the role of port activities in shaping the spatial structure of towns and cities. Given this, the paper investigates the possibility of port activities having influenced the spatial structure of Freetown, Sierra Leone. It discusses the historical development of the port and city as a framework for consideration of the role of port activities in shaping the growing urban area. Attention is focused particularly on those areas where the influence is clearest, i.e. the central area with its concentration of business, commercial and administrative activities, and on the location of modern industrial areas in the emerging metropolitan area. Other factors that have shaped the urban area are discussed also. It is argued that, whilst port activities have been important historically, other influences have become more significant as the basis of the economy has broadened, the structure of society has become more complex and the city has assumed additional functions. The findings are tested by a brief and preliminary examination of other port-cities in tropical Africa, establishing that spatial associations between port activities and the central business area and between them and industrial areas are common.
 
Top-cited authors
Antonio Páez
  • McMaster University
Karst Geurs
  • University of Twente
David Banister
  • University of Oxford
Theo Notteboom
  • Shanghai Maritime University / University of Antwerp / Ghent University / Antwerp Maritime Academy
Frank Witlox
  • Ghent University