In this study, four mononuclear M(II)-pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate (M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid or isocinchomeronic acid, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [Co(Hpydc)2(phen)]·H2O (1), [Ni(pydc)(phen)2]·6.5H2O (2) [Cu(pydc)(phen)(H2O)2] (3) and [Zn(pydc)(phen)(H2O)2]·H2O (4) have been synthesized. Elemental, thermal and mass analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibilities, IR and UV/vis spectroscopic studies have been performed to characterize the complexes. Subsequently, these ligands and complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method on Gram positive, negative bacteria and yeast. In addition, cytotoxic activity tests were performed on rat glioma (C6) cells by MTT viability assay for 24 and 48h. Antimicrobial activity results demonstrated that when compared to the standard antibiotics, phen displayed the most effective antimicrobial effect. The effect of synthesized complexes was close to phen or less. Cytotoxic activity results showed that IC50 value of phen was determined as 31μM for 48h. (1) and (2) compared to the alone ligand had less toxic activity. IC50 values of (3) for 24 and 48h treatments were 2.5 and 0.6μM, respectively. IC50 value of (4) for 48h was 15μM. In conclusion, phen, (3) and (4) may be useful as antibacterial and antiproliferative agents in the future.
Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) levels of fingernails were measured in 135 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and compared with the sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Zinc levels in OI nails were significantly higher than that in normal subjects, but in cases and controls Ca and Mg levels were not significantly different. The ratios of Ca/Zn and Mg/Zn in OI nails differed significantly from those in controls, but a similar Ca/Mg ratio was found in nails of both groups. These results suggest that Zn levels in fingernails may reflect abnormal Zn metabolism in OI. To determine Zn metabolism changes in OI, further studies are needed.
The effect of the administration of captopril on Zn (zinc), Cu (copper), Ca (calcium) and Mg (magnesium) concentrations in guinea pig tissues was studied. For nine weeks 2 mg captopril per kg b.w. were administered daily to adult male guinea pigs intraperitoneally. The concentrations of the studied metals were determined in several tissues. Captopril significantly decreased Zn concentration in liver, Cu concentration in liver, adrenals, jejunum, urine and hair and Mg concentrations in blood and urine. A significant increase was observed in testicular and epididymal Zn, in heart, epididymal and fecal Cu, in Mg concentration of lung, kidney, adrenals, jejunum, epididymis and hair and in Ca concentrations in brain, heart, lung, kidney, spleen and stomach. No significant changes were observed in the colon and the thigh bone concentrations of the various elements tested. In conclusion Captopril treatment can produce translocation and/or elimination of Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca ions in various tissues of guinea pigs.
Plasma selenium (Se) concentrations were measured in 1134 British people aged 65 years and over, living in mainland Britain during 1994-1995. Eight hundred and eighty-three lived in the community ("free-living"), while the remainder lived in institutions (residential and nursing homes). The overall mean plasma Se concentrations was 0.90 micromol/l (inner 95% range 0.50-1.36 micromol/l). Free-living people had significantly higher values than counterparts living in institutions, and there was an overall inverse correlation with age. Plasma Se varied with season (lower from October to December than at other times of the year), while values were higher in southern Britain than in the North. Socio-economic associations also existed (lower plasma Se in people receiving state benefits or with poorer educational attainment), while smokers had lower values than non-smokers. Several indices of poor health status or of medicine use were correlated with lower plasma Se, which was also predicted by several biochemical or haematological indices of infection or inflammation. Plasma Se was strongly and directly correlated with plasma albumin, zinc, cholesterol, vitamin C, several carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, pyridoxal phosphate, and with blood haemoglobin and several anthropometric indices. All relationships were independent of age and gender, and are consistent with the view that plasma Se levels are higher in fit and well-nourished elderly people and lower in those who are frail, poorly-nourished and unwell. Whole-blood glutathione peroxidase generally did not share these relationships, was only very weakly correlated with plasma Se, and appeared to be less useful as a status indicator in this population group.
Wheat is an important source of minerals such as iron, zinc, copper and magnesium in the UK diet. The dietary intake of these nutrients has fallen in recent years because of a combination of reduced energy requirements associated with sedentary lifestyles and changes in dietary patterns associated with lower micronutrient density in the diet. Recent publications using data from food composition tables indicate a downward trend in the mineral content of foods and it has been suggested that intensive farming practices may result in soil depletion of minerals. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in the mineral concentration of wheat using a robust approach to establish whether trends are due to plant factors (e.g. cultivar, yield) or changes in soil nutrient concentration. The mineral concentration of archived wheat grain and soil samples from the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment (established in 1843 at Rothamsted, UK) was determined and trends over time examined in relation to cultivar, yield, and harvest index. The concentrations of zinc, iron, copper and magnesium remained stable between 1845 and the mid 1960s, but since then have decreased significantly, which coincided with the introduction of semi-dwarf, high-yielding cultivars. In comparison, the concentrations in soil have either increased or remained stable. Similarly decreasing trends were observed in different treatments receiving no fertilizers, inorganic fertilizers or organic manure. Multiple regression analysis showed that both increasing yield and harvest index were highly significant factors that explained the downward trend in grain mineral concentration.
Microencapsulated ferrous sulfate with soy lecithin (SFE-171) has been used as an iron source for the fortification of milk and dairy products. With the purpose to extend the use of this agent to other kind of foods or even to pharmaceutical preparations for oral administration, the SFE-171 was turned into a fluid powder (SFE-171-P) by means of vacuum drying. The iron bioavailability (BioFe) of SFE-171-P was evaluated in this work by means of the prophylactic-preventive method in rats, using ferrous sulfate as reference standard. Both iron sources were separately added to a basal diet of low iron content in a concentration of 10 mg iron/kg diet. Two groups of 10 weaned rats 25 days old received the fortified diets during 28 days, while a third group of the same size received the basal diet without iron additions. The weights and haemoglobin concentrations (HbC) of every animal were determined before and after the treatment, thus allowing the calculation of the mass of iron incorporated into haemoglobin (HbFe) during this period. The BioFe of the iron sources were obtained as the percentage ratio between the HbFe and the mass of iron consumed by each animal. The results were also given as Relative Biological Value (RBV), which relates the BioFe of the studied source with that of the reference standard. The liver iron concentration (LIC) of each animal was determined at the end of the experiment in order to evaLuate the influence of the studied iron sources on the liver iron stores. SFE-171-P presented BioFe, RBV and LIC values of (47 +/- 7)%, 109% and (46.6 +/- 3.4) mg/kg respectively, while the corresponding values for the reference standard were of (43 +/- 7)%, 100% and (45.0 +/- 4.7) mg/kg. These results show that the drying process used to produce the SFE-171-P does not affect its bioavailability, which is also adequate for the potential use of this product in food fortification or with pharmaceutical purposes.
By combining methods for trace element analysis, tracer techniques and various biochemical and electrophoretical procedures, information on the characteristics of an 18 kDa-selenoprotein was obtained. By labeling of rats in vivo with [75Se]-selenite and gel electrophoretic separation of the proteins in tissues and subcellular fractions, a larger number of selenium-containing proteins could be distinguished. In most of the tissues investigated a labeled 18 kDa-band was present. After co-electrophoresis of the 18 kDa-bands from kidney, liver and brain we found that they all migrated in the same way. Using ultracentrifugational fractionation the 18 kDa-band was localized in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that it consists of a single selenium-containing protein with an isoelectric point of about 4.9-5.0. By means of proteolytic cleavage of the 18 kDa-protein and separation of its peptides by tricine-SDS-PAGE six selenium-containing peptides with molecular masses of 17, 16, 14, 12, 10, and 8 kDa were detected. After electrophoretic separation of the mitochondrial and/or microsomal proteins and acid hydrolysis of the electroeluted protein its amino acid composition was analyzed by RP-HPLC. In this way it was shown that selenium is present in the 18 kDa-protein in form of selenocysteine which is a characteristic of a genetically encoded selenoprotein.
Royal jelly from Apis mellifera is a highly active natural biological substance and is probably one of the most interesting raw substances in natural product chemistry. Trace elements play a key role in the biomedical activities associated with royal jelly, as these elements have a multitude of known and unknown biological functions. For this reason concentrations of 28 trace (Al, Ba, Sr, Bi, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn, Te, Tl, W, Sb, Cr, Ni, Ti, V, Co, Mo) and mineral (P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) elements were systematically investigated in botanically and geologically defined royal jelly samples. In addition, concentrations of 14 trace elements were measured in the associated honey samples--honey being the precursor of royal jelly. Concentrations of K, Na, Mg, Ca, P, S, Cu, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Sr in royal jelly were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), while concentrations of Bi, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn, Te, Tl, W, Sb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Co and Mo in royal jelly were determined by double focusing magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). In the honey samples, trace and mineral element concentrations strongly depended on botanical and geological origin, and substantial variation was found. In contrast, the concentrations of trace and mineral elements were highly constant in the associated royal jelly samples. The most important results were the homeostatic adjustments of trace and mineral element concentrations in royal jelly. This effect was evidently produced in the endocrine glands of nurse bees, which are adapted for needs of bee larvae. In conclusion, this research yielded a surprising and completely new finding--that royal jelly, as a form of lactation on the insect level, shows the same homeostatic adjustment as mammalian and human breast milk.
Selenium has been reported to reduce the risk for heart diseases and cancer. We examined the association of sex, age, geographical location, serum cotinine concentrations, a measure of smoking intensity, and alcohol consumption with serum selenium concentrations in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994. Study sample consisted of 14,619 apparently healthy individuals (male: 7,102; female: 7,517) aged 14 to >90 years. Sex, age, geographical location, serum cotinine concentrations, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced serum selenium concentrations (P < 0.05). The mean (+/- standard error) serum selenium concentration in men (124.5 +/- 0.20 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in women (122.0 +/- 0.20 ng/mL) (P < 0.0001). Men in the 31-50 y age group had the highest mean serum selenium concentration. In the same age group, women had the lowest mean serum selenium concentration. In both sexes, participants living in the Midwest and West had significantly higher serum selenium concentrations than those living in South and Northeast geographical locations. Serum cotinine was negatively associated with serum selenium concentrations in both men (beta = -0.0108; P < 0.0001 for trend) and women (beta = -0.0097; P < 0.0001 for trend). Alcohol consumption is positively associated with serum selenium in women (beta = 0.0462; P = 0.0044 for trend) but not in men (beta = 0.0015; P = 0.8496 for trend). Although, sex, age, geographical location, smoking, and alcohol intake influenced serum selenium concentrations, clinically low serum selenium concentrations are not common in the USA.
Critically ill burned patients are characterized by a strong oxidative stress, an intense inflammatory response, and months-long hypermetabolism, all of which are proportional to the severity of injury. Trace element (TE) deficiencies have repeatedly been described. The clinical course is complicated by organ failures, infections, and delayed wound healing, which can be partly attributed to TE deficiencies. Among critically ill patients, TE deficiencies are the most severe in major burns, who suffer a specific copper deficiency. Plasma TE concentrations are low during any critical illness, as a result of TE losses in biological fluids, low intakes, dilution by fluid resuscitation, and redistribution from plasma to tissues mediated by the inflammatory response. The large exudative losses cause negative TE balances. Intravenous supplementation trials show that early substitution improves recovery, reduces infectious complications (particularly nosocomial pneumonia), normalize thyroid function, normalize skin tissue levels, improve wound healing and shorten hospital stay. Nevertheless, prolonged high dose delivery may be deleterious, as TE have potential for toxicity. In major burns, supplements up to 4 mg of Cu/day, 500 mcg [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] Se/day and 40 mg Zn/day for 3 weeks have been found to be safe and effective. The intravenous route appears the only way to deliver the doses required to achieve antioxidant and clinical effects. Further research is required to determine the optimal combination and doses for different severities of injury.
Exposure to lead and cadmium is a public health problem due to the broad exposure to these toxic substances among the general population. The objective of this study is to determine blood lead and cadmium concentrations in a working population drawn from six university hospitals in Madrid, Getafe, Cartagena, Santiago de Compostela, Santander and Palma de Mallorca (Spain) and to identify associated factors.
951 individuals participated in the study and were administered the standardized PESA® questionnaire regarding exposure to lead and cadmium. The blood lead and cadmium concentrations were measured by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction in Perkin-Elmer spectrometers, guaranteeing the transferability of the results.
The median overall blood lead concentration was: 1.6 μg/dL (IQR: 0.9-2.7) and that of cadmium was: 0.21 μg/L (IQR: 0.10-0.50). There were significant differences in lead levels between men (2 μg/dL) and women (1.5 μg/dL), postmenopausal (2.6 μg/dL) and premenopausal women (1.1 μg/dL), and between participants who cooked in earthenware (2.1 μg/dL) and those who did not (1.5 μg/dL). The median of cadmium in women (0.24 μg/L) was higher than in men (0.11 μg/L) and was also higher in subjects who smoked (0.70 μg/L) than in non-smokers (0.13 μg/L).
A reduction in blood lead and cadmium levels was observed with respect to previous studies carried out in Spain. Nevertheless, the results suggest there are certain factors which increase risk such as age, gender, menopause, age of housing, cooking in lead-glazed earthenware and exposure to cigarette smoke.
This work evaluates the possible changes in 24 h variations of striatal aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine content after oral cadmium treatment. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure at two doses (25 and 50 mg/L of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2))) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control rats received cadmium-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. Differential effects of cadmium on 24 h amino acid fluctuations were observed. Metal exposure modified the daily pattern of the amino acids concentration found in control animals, except for GABA and taurine with the lowest dose used. Exposure to 25 mg/L of CdCl(2) decreased mean content of aspartate, as well as GABA concentration. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects 24 h changes of the studied amino acids concentration in the striatum, and those changes may be related to alterations in striatal function.
Russia is the largest nation in the world and it has vastly different climatic and geochemical conditions. The human selenium status is determined mainly by the selenium intake from foods, whose concentration is subject to geochemical, geological and temporal factors. The data on the selenium status of populations in Russia are scarce and sporadic. This review presents the most recent selenium data acquired using adequate quality assurance measures. Serum samples were obtained from 2462 healthy blood donors between 1990-1996 from 125 locations representing 27 different regions of Russia. Samples of wheat flour and dried milk were also analyzed from most regions. The mean serum selenium concentration per region varied from 0.80 mumol/l in the western regions (Pskov) to 1.84 mumol/l in the easternmost regions (Sakhalin). A low (0.76-1.00 mumol/l) serum selenium concentration was found in only 6% of the locations. In 88% of the locations the mean serum selenium concentrations were moderate (1.01-1.40 mumol/l) and the highest values, > 1.45 mumol/l were found in eight towns. Wheat flour selenium concentrations varied widely from 44 to 557 micrograms/kg depending on the origin. The low values were either domestic or European and the high values of American or Australian origin. A high correlation between serum selenium and wheat flour (r = 0.79) suggests that the selenium status in most instances is determined by high selenium in wheat. Overtly very low or high serum selenium levels were not found in the 27 regions studied in Russia.
Cadmium is very harmful to the environment and to human beings because of its long lifetime. The toxicity of cadmium as an industrial pollutant and a food contaminant, and as one of the major components in cigarette smoke is well known. Cadmium can cause a number of lesions in many organs, such as the kidney, the lung, the liver, the brain, the blood system. However, the mechanism of toxicity of cadmium is not yet clear. Also, it has been well known as human carcinogen which is indirectly caused inflammation-mediated hepatocarcinoma. In the present study it was demonstrated that glycoprotein (27 kDa) isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) protects BNL CL.2 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (10 μM). Intracellular ROS and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, activities of activator protein (AP)-1, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and arachidonic acid (AA) using immunoblot analysis or radioactivity were evaluated. The results obtained from this experiment indicated that GJE glycoprotein (100 μg/mL) inhibits the production of intracellular ROS, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Also, it significantly suppressed inflammatory factors [expression of AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), arachidonic acid, COX-2, and MMP-9]. Taken together, these findings suggest that GJE glycoprotein might be used for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion as one of natural compounds.
The superoxide dismutase-mimetic activity and the electrochemical behavior of the binuclear complex [Cu(TSA)2py]2 is reported. The complex exhibits a marked SOD activity in the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Its redox response is in agrement with two copper atoms partially coupled through the carboxylate moieties. The electrode reactions lie in the range of the superoxide/peroxide and oxygen/superoxide couples. This fact is indicative that this complex can act as catalyst for the SOD reaction.
Adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedures, using mercury film microelectrodes, were optimised and applied to quantify total iron, chromium and nickel in samples of osteoblast-like cells culture medium and mice organs (liver, kidney and spleen) obtained from, respectively, in vitro and in vivo 316L stainless steel corrosion products biocompatibility and toxicity studies. The methods were based on the pre-concentration of the iron-catechol complex by adsorption at the potential of -1.80 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), of the chromium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex at -1.00 V or -1.15 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and of the nickel-dimethylglyoxime complex at -0.70 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The detection limits achieved for each metal ion (i) in the culture medium were 1.93x10(-8) mol/L Fe, 2.80x10(-10) mol/L Cr and 7.70x10(-9) mol/L Ni for a collection time of 30 s, 40 s and 10 s, respectively, and (ii) in the mice organ solutions were 1.37x10(-8) mol/L Fe, 1.54x10(-8) mol/L Cr and 1.58x10(-9) mol/L Ni for an adsorption time of 25 s, 25 s and 15 s, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedures was verified by comparison of the results obtained by adsorptive stripping voltammetry with those attained by atomic absorption spectrometry for the same set of samples and good agreement was found. The in vitro study showed that stainless steel corrosion products affect the expression of the osteogenic phenotype. The in vivo mice model, used to investigate the systemic effects provoked by the corrosion products per se, indicated that Fe, Cr and Ni are partially accumulated in the organs studied and that Ni induced the more significant morphological alterations.
The trace elements Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Hg, In, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y and Zr were determined in 130 human blood samples from occupationally non-exposed volunteers living in the greater area of Bremen in northern Germany. The blood samples were collected in lithium heparin monovettes developed for trace metal determination and were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with an octopole-based collision/reaction cell. For sample introduction into the ICP, the blood samples were diluted 1/10 (V/V) with a 0.1% Triton-X-100 and 0.5% (V/V) ammonia solution. The method validation of our developed routine method is described for all 37 elements and results about internal and external quality assurance are discussed. Information on exposure conditions of all human subjects were collected by questionnaire-based interviews, including smoking habits, seafood consumption and the type of dental alloys in the teeth. Mean values, geometric mean values, ranges and selected percentiles of all elemental concentrations in human blood are presented, which helps toxicologists and clinical chemists planning research about exposition to metals and health effects caused by exposition to metals.
To understand the role of major, minor, and trace elements in the etiology of bone diseases including osteoporosis, it is necessary to determine the normal levels and age-related changes of bone chemical elements.
The effect of age and gender on 38 chemical element contents in intact iliac crest of 84 apparently healthy 15-55 years old women (n=38) and men (n=46) was investigated by neutron activation analysis.
Mean values (M+/-SEM) for mass fraction (on dry weight basis) of Ca, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sr, and Zn for both female and male taken together were Ca - 169+/-3g/kg, Cl - 1490+/-43 mg/kg, Co - 0.0073+/-0.0024 mg/kg, Fe - 177+/-24 mg/kg, K - 1820+/-79 mg/kg, Mg - 1840+/-48 mg/kg, Mn - 0.316+/-0.013 mg/kg, Na - 4970+/-87 mg/kg, P - 79.7+/-1.5 g/kg, Rb - 1.89+/-0.22 mg/kg, Sr - 312+/-15 mg/kg, and Zn - 65.9+/-3.4 mg/kg, respectively. The upper limit of mean contents of Cs, Eu, Hg, Sb, Sc, and Se were Cs < or = 0.09 mg/kg, Eu < or = 0.005 mg/kg, Hg < or = 0.005 mg/kg, Sb < or = 0.004 mg/kg, Sc < or = 0.001 mg/kg, and Se < or = 0.1mg/kg, respectively. In all bone samples the contents of Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cd, Ce, Cr, Gd, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zr were under detection limits.
The Ca, Mg, and P contents decrease with age, regardless of gender. Higher Ca, Mg, P, and Sr mass fractions as well as lower Fe content are typical of female iliac crest as compared to those in male bone.
The infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and are briefly discussed on the basis of its structural characteristics. Its thermal behaviour was investigated by means of TG and DTA measurements. Several dissolution tests were also performed. The results support the potential usefulness of this double carbonate as a useful compound for Zn(II) supplementation.
Recent studies have demonstrated that electrical uncoupling at gap junctions during ischemia is associated with cardiac Connexin-43 (Cx43) dephosphorylation. Whether oxidative stress is involved in this phenomenon still remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the influence of selenium intake on reperfusion-induced Cx43 dephosphorylation. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing either 0.05 mg/kg (Low-Se, n = 13) or 1.5 mg/kg (High-Se, n = 11) selenium for 8 weeks. At the end of this diet, hearts were isolated and subjected to 10 min regional ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion. The level of dephosphorylated Cx43 was determined in tissue samples from ischemic/reperfused and non-ischemic regions of the hearts. At the end of the experiemental diet, the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was increased in high-Se hearts compared with low-Se hearts (+ 13%; p < 0.05). After ischemia/reperfusion, in low-Se hearts, Cx43 dephosphorylation appeared significantly increased in the left ventricle compared to the non-ischemic right ventricle (+ 149%; p < 0.05). The high-Se diet significantly reduced Cx43 dephosphorylation in the left ventricle (p < 0.05 vs. low-Se diet). In conclusion, our results suggest that oxidative stress may be involved in Cx43 dephosphorylation during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, thereby contributing to arrhythmogenesis.
To investigate the effect of subsequently absorbed metal chelators on recently absorbed 59Fe, duodenal segments from iron-deficient and iron-adequate rats were perfused ex vivo until the 59Fe tissue load had reached a steady state. Subsequently, the segments were perfused with 3 model chelators and their iron complexes: nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate. Of these, NTA and EDTA bind iron much tighter than citrate, and Fe–NTA complexes exchange iron within seconds while Fe-EDTA complexes need 48 h to reach equilibrium.
The development of zinc deficiency in adults was studied in a metabolism experiment involving 31 adult, female rats labeled homogenously with 65Zn. The animals were fed restricted amounts (8 g/day) of a semisynthetic diet containing either 58 microgram Zn/g (control, n = 7) or 2 microgram Zn/g (Zn deficiency, n = 24). Control animals were sacrificed at day 0 (n = 3) and day 29 (n = 4). Zinc deficient animals were sacrificed at day 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, and 29 (3 animals per group). The development of zinc deficiency comprised 4 phases: (I) Fecal Zn excretion needed several days to adjust to the low level of Zn intake. The high initial Zn loss via feces was counterbalanced mainly by Zn mobilization from the skeleton. (II) During the 2nd week of deficiency Zn mobilization from tissue storage changed transiently to soft tissues (mainly muscle and fat tissue). (III) After the 2nd week the skeleton resumed to mobilize Zn. (IV) At the end of the study the skeleton Zn storage was exhausted and alkaline phosphatase activity indicated severe Zn deficiency. Urinary Zn excretion was too small to contribute quantitatively to changes in Zn metabolism during any phase of Zn deficiency. In conclusion, adults may compensate a deficient Zn supply by mobilizing tissue Zn for several weeks: The skeleton revealed to be the major short-term as well as long-term source of whole body tissue Zn that can be mobilized.
The metabolic handling of 74As-arsenate (As(V)) was studied in rabbits injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with increasing doses of As(V) (0.00 to 1.00 mg As(V)/kg/day) over a period of 10 days. Plasma, packed cells, urine from the bladder and several tissues were analyzed for their 74As content and presence of 74As-As(V) metabolites 4 h after administration of 74As-As(V). 74As showed strong increases with increasing As(V) dose in nails and bone whereas in fat, thyroid and kidneys it decreased. Also with increasing As(V) dose, arsenate was less efficiently methylated to dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) and became more bound to insoluble tissue constituents. As a result 74As-DMA levels in tissues were systematically lower in the groups of rabbits receiving the higher doses, be it with a wide variation from one type of tissue to the other. The behaviour of 74As-monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was different. The levels did not decrease significantly, occasionally even increased compared to the control group, indicating that especially the second methylation step is sensitive towards increasing doses of As(V). 74As-arsenite (As(III)), formed by in vivo reduction of As(V), reached maximal levels in the 0.25 mg As(V)/kg/day group as a result of the inhibited methylation. At doses > 0.25 mg As(V)/kg/day the amount of 74As-As(V) increased especially in plasma, packed cells and the urine in the bladder, indicative for a less efficient reduction of As(V).
The metabolic management of carrier-free 74As-arsenate (As(V)) by uremic rabbits of the strain Flemish Giant was studied. Renal insufficiency was induced by nephrectomy of respectively 1 kidney (3/6 nephrectomy) and 1 kidney + 2/3 remaining kidney (5/6 nephrectomy). Marginal renal insufficiency developed in the 3/6 nephrectomized group, while animals of the 5/6 group became severely uremic. Renal excretion of 74As was reduced by 90% in 5/6 nephrectomized animals 4 h after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of the animals. The associated uremic syndrome caused a strong decrease in methylation capacity of inorganic arsenic (Asi). The second methylation step from monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was more strongly affected than the first one, from arsenite (As(III)) to MMA. The increased availability of Asi led to more extensive binding to insoluble tissue constituents after 5/6 nephrectomy. The decreased renal reduction of As(V) led to a decrease in As(III) and an increase of As(V) and the associated As(V)-transferrin binding in plasma. Uptake of 74As-transferrin by the bone marrow might contribute to uremic anemia.
6-Mercapto purinylazo resin has been used as solid phase extractor. Based on solid phase extraction, the present work describes the preconcentration and determination of copper, zinc and cadmium in certified biological samples after microwave-assisted digestion. The exchange capacity of the resin, the sorption and desorption of metal ions, and the effect of diverse ions have also been determined. The results show that the resin is highly selective for determination of these biologically significant metals. The method is simple, rapid and free from interferences and can be used routinely.
Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) formation plays a significant role in the progression of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Potentially, as ILT thickness increases the availability of trace elements in the aneurysm wall could decrease thereby leading to oxidative stress and intensifying pro-inflammatory cytokine generation.
To determine if thrombus thickness is related to the concentration of trace elements in the wall of infrarenal AAA.
The concentrations of trace elements in the wall of the aneurysm sack and ILT obtained from 19 consecutive patients during surgery for infrarenal AAA were determined using emission spectrometry.
The concentrations of magnesium, zinc, manganese, and lead in the wall of AAA were significantly greater than in the ILT. Only the concentration of copper was lower in the AAA wall compared with the thrombus. The concentration of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, lead, copper, and magnesium increased with ILT thickness. The concentrations of no other trace elements in the wall of AAA were found to be related to the ILT thickness.
Intraluminal thrombus thickness is not associated with a lower concentration of trace elements in the wall of the infrarenal AAA. Thus, the intraluminal thrombus participates in the progression of AAA by mechanisms independent of trace element supply to the wall of the aneurysm sack.
The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of supplementation with ascorbic acid (Vit C) and α-tocopherol (Vit E) or with Mg and Zn upon lindane-induced damages in liver and brain. Under our experimental conditions, lindane poisoning (5mg/kg body weight per day for 3 days) resulted in (1) an increased level of plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, (2) an increased activity of LDH, ALP, AST, ALT, (3) an oxidative stress in liver and brain as revealed by an increased level of lipids peroxidation (TBARS) and a decrease of glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in liver and brain. In conclusion, both Vit C+E or Mg+Zn treatments display beneficial effects upon oxidative stress induced by lindane treatment in liver and brain.
During iron deficiency rat and human erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities (Total ATPase and Ouabainsensitive Na+.K+ ATPase) showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease. The influence of iron deficiency on erythrocyte Na+ and K+ was also studied in rats and humans. The former parameter showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase while the latter showed a downward trend. Plasma Fe and Total Iron Binding capacity (TIBC) in iron deficiency varied significantly (P < 0.05) from normal values. These results suggest a defect in erythrocyte membrane function and a possible potentiating effect of intracellular Na+, plasma Fe and TIBC on ATPase activity in iron deficiency. Values obtained for rats and humans showed differences in the activities of membrane ATPase in iron deficiency anaemia.
ISO 15189 standard establishes a requirement to periodically revalidate analytical methods for the determination of trace elements like Pb in blood, as conditions change and technical advances are made. The aim of this study was to revalidate an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method for determination of Pb in blood over the microrange 25-35 microg/dL, on the basis of historical results of interlaboratory comparison programmes. Precision and inaccuracy were estimated by analysis of records of an external quality control programme for Pb (PICC-PbS). The precision and inaccuracy values obtained were both less than 5%, highly satisfactory in view of the validation requirement that precision and inaccuracy be less than 10%. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this new validation methodology, which does not require any disruption of the laboratory's routine activity, and which can be used even if the method in question has not been validated previously at that laboratory.
The experimental model presented below enables quantitation of the uptake of zinc (Zn++) into gastrointestinal mucosal cells in vivo using gamma-counting of 65Zn. Experiments were performed in mice fed their normal diet under natural physiological conditions. The in vivo site(s) of significant zinc absorption may thereby be identified. Absorption of zinc was extensive during the first hour after administration of a single oral dose of ZnCl2. Apparently, absorption continued during at least eight hours postdosage, and probably continued for 48 hours. The intestinal mucosal labelling profile for zinc did not depend on dose size or the mode of administration (single oral doses or in drinking water). The duodenum and ileum were important sites for rapid zinc absorption. A continuous, slower absorption of zinc may take place in the jejunum. The stomach, caecum and colon appeared to be insignificant sites of zinc absorption. The transit time for zinc was very short as large quantities of zinc passed through the small intestine within one hour. In contrast to other studies, the intestinal labelling profile or the extent of zinc absorption were not changed in mice that received Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TTD) in their food.
Stable isotope tracers are safe and nutritionally relevant tools for the investigation of mineral metabolism in man. Increased research into the functional role of selenium has resulted in a need for well-characterised, isotopically enriched solutions of the element in order to determine the nutritional relevance of selenium fortification of foods. A simple method for the conversion of isotopically enriched elemental selenium (2.5-10 mg) into selenite and selenate, and their accurate characterisation and quantification is described. Analysis of selenite and selenate tracers using continuous-flow hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry technique was based on the specificity of the selenium hydride reaction and allowed their precise (RSD<2.5%) and accurate determination in aqueous solutions. The detection and determination limits were at 0.13 and 0.36 microg Se/l, respectively. Isotopically enriched elemental selenium was converted into selenite and selenate by a nitric acid and a combined nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide oxidation, respectively. The conversion was quantitative (>95%) and specific for both inorganic selenocompounds. Selenite and selenate labels were stable in 0.1 mol/l nitric acid for at least 18 months, i.e. making them ideally suitable for use in long-term metabolic studies. An overview of data relating to the absorption and retention of selenium by humans obtained using the two, well-characterised, tracers is presented and indicates that selenite and selenate are equally well retained in adult men and infants, despite differences in their absorption and urinary excretion characteristics.
A method is described for the direct determination of selenium in serum or plasma by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium-arc background correction. Samples are diluted (1 + 2) with a modifier containing palladium nitrate and Triton X-100. Samples are atomised from a L'vov platform in a pyrolytically-coated electrographite tube and peak area signals are measured. Direct determination is possible by using selenium standards matched to the physiological concentrations of sodium chloride, calcium and phosphate. The detection limit is 6 micrograms/L in the original sample. Precision at a selenium concentration of 97 micrograms/L was 2.2% RSD within batch and 3.0% RSD between batch. Accuracy is shown by (i) analysis of a Seronorm reference serum (value obtained 97 +/- 3 micrograms/L; recommended value 96 micrograms/L); (ii) recovery of added selenium (93.3 +/- 6.7% and 98.2 +/- 3.3% at additions of 30 and 60 micrograms/L, respectively) and (iii) comparison of results with mean of all laboratories in an external quality assessment scheme.
Aluminium concentration in samples of total parenteral nutrition solutions and samples of their individual components were analysed to know the exposure to this element. The median aluminium content obtained for the total parenteral nutrition solutions was 105.7 microg/L; for their individual components, 10% calcium gluconate and 1M monopotasic phosphate were the most contaminated, as well as the 1M sodium bicarbonate. The great variability found in the aluminium content of solutions suggests that contamination occurs during the manufacturing process.
The relationships between chronic liver diseases and trace heavy metal contents in blood are debatable and have not been understood clearly. The present study is undertaken to determine Co, Fe, and Ni concentrations in sera from viral hepatitis patients. In all eighty patients with chronic hepatitis (B, C) and 29 healthy individuals were chosen for this study. Donors were selected from different environmental areas, including Aswan, Kom Ombo, and Edfu as polluted areas, and Daraw as an unpolluted area. Co, Fe, and Ni concentrations in patient and healthy blood serum were measured by two different analytical techniques: differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPA(d)SV) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results reveal that Fe is present in higher level in the blood serum of hepatitis patients than in the healthy control, whereas Co and Ni showed the opposite trend. Hepatitis patients from Edfu area exhibited higher Fe level in their serum than those from the other areas, while hepatitis patients and healthy control from Daraw area (free from pollution) exhibited the lowest metal values. Patients with hepatitis C show lower levels of Co, Ni, and Fe in their serum than those with hepatitis B. A comparative study was carried out between the results using DPA(d)SV and AAS techniques, which are in very good agreements.
Many investigators have reported changes in mineral status with age but conflicting observations were done concerning mineral absorption. This study was conducted to clarify the effect of aging on intestinal absorption and status of minerals, using a stable isotope approach. To do so, 40 rats of different ages: 9, 22, 44, and 88 weeks were fed with a semi-purified diet for a total of 30 days. At the beginning of the 4th week, the rats received a stable isotope solution containing (44)Ca, (25)Mg, (67)Zn, and (65)Cu. Individual feces and urine were then collected during 4 consecutive days in order to measure stable isotopes by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) and blood and tissues were sampled for mineral status determination. Intestinal absorption of (44)Ca and (67)Zn considerably decreased with age, whereas intestinal (25)Mg absorption decreased only moderately and intestinal (65)Cu absorption was unaffected. Plasma and bone calcium (Ca) were not modified with age whereas urinary Ca excretion considerably increased. Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium (Mg) levels were unaffected with age whereas urinary Mg excretion and Mg bone level decreased. Plasma zinc (Zn) level decreased and bone Zn level increased with age whereas red blood cell and liver Zn level and urinary Zn excretion remained unchanged. Plasma Cu level increased with age whereas liver and bone Cu levels and urinary Cu excretion remained unchanged. These results show that the effect of aging on the intestinal mineral absorption and status differ largely according to the mineral considered. Further studies are required under different nutritional conditions to explore the underlying mechanisms during aging and to adjust a better nutrition of the elderly.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of selenium in shrimps, a possible good source of selenium, by measurements of the absorption and retention of selenium and the effects on plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Twelve healthy young subjects (9F and 3M) received 100 g of shrimps each day for six weeks in addition to their habitual diet. In the third week of the study a balance period was inserted in which the subjects received all food from the department and collected faeces and urine over 5 days. Blood samples were collected at commencement of the study, after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The selenium intake increased from 39.4 +/- 15.3 microg/d to 127 +/- 5.5 microg/d with the addition of shrimps. The apparent absorption of selenium from shrimps was 83 +/- 4%. Faecal and urinary selenium excretion was 32.5 +/- 17.0 microg/d and 21.2 +/- 9.0 microg/d, respectively and the total retention of selenium was 3.1 +/- 1.1 mg. Plasma selenium concentrations were 95.2 +/- 9.7 microg/L and 101.5 +/- 9.7 microg/L before and after six weeks of shrimp intake, respectively (p<0.05). Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities were not influenced by shrimp intake. Thus, despite the high absorption and retention, plasma selenium concentrations were only moderately affected by an increase in selenium intake of about 100 microg/d in the chemical forms found in shrimp. Whether the accumulation of selenium from shrimps in tissues may represent a potential hazard is to be further investigated.
Chromium (Cr) supplements are available as picolinate, nicotinate or chloride (the latter primarily in multivitamin-mineral supplements). The picolinate form has been reported to be the best absorbed and most efficacious, but some reports question which form has superior absorption. The present study examined acute Cr absorption, based on 24h urinary Cr values, for picolinate, two types of nicotinate, and chloride in young adult, non-overweight females. College-aged women were given 200 microg of Cr as each of the four supplement types in random order accompanied by a small standardized meal, separated by at least a week washout. Cr picolinate produced significantly higher 24h urinary Cr than either of two nicotinate supplements or Cr chloride given in a multivitamin-mineral supplement. This difference was seen for absolute values of the urinary Cr and for percent increases. In conclusion, based on an indirect measure of acute absorption, Cr picolinate was superior to three other Cr complexes commonly sold as supplements.
This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood Lead Testing System (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 micrograms/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 micrograms/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field.
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Animal studies suggest that casein phosphopeptides (CPP), formed by proteolytic digestion of casein, have a positive effect on Ca availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of CPP to improve Zn and Ca absorption from phytate-containing bread meals. Secondly, it was tested whether the Ca content of the meal influenced the effect of CPP on Zn absorption from a high-phytate meal. Zn and Ca absorption from single model meals was determined by extrinsic labeling with 65Zn and 47Ca and measurement of whole-body retention. Thirty-one healthy adults (19-30 y) divided into three groups received one of three meal types based on white-wheat rolls with different phytate and Ca content: A: low-phytate/high-Ca (n = 10), B: high-phytate/high-Ca (n = 10) and C: high-phytate/low-Ca (n = 11). Each individual received the same meal type at three different occasions with 0, 250 and 1000 mg CPP added. CPP had no effect on Zn absorption: A: 14.3 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SD) (0 mg CPP), 16.7 +/- 6.6% (250 mg CPP) and 16.0 +/- 8.8% (1000 mg CPP); B: 7.0 +/- 1.6%, 7.7 +/- 3.0% and 8.0 +/- 2.6%; C: 7.7 +/- 2.5%, 7.0 +/- 2.3% and 6.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Addition of 1000 mg CPP reduced fractional Ca absorption from meal A: 33.8 +/- 7.1%, 30.5 +/- 6.3% and 25.9 +/- 8.7% (p < 0.05), whereas CPP had no effect in meal B: 29.3 +/- 8.3%, 27.0 +/- 7.4% and 27.6 +/- 11.0%. However, the absolute quantity of Ca absorbed was unaffected. In conclusion, Zn and Ca absorption from these meals were not significantly influenced by the addition of CPP, Ca addition could not explain the failure of CPP to improve Zn absorption.
An on-line flow injection pre-concentration-flame atomic absorption spectrometry method was developed to determine trace zinc in water (tap, dam, and well water), biological (hair and nail), and liver samples. As a solid phase extractant, a synthesized new chelating resin, poly(2-thiozylmethacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) was used. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and surface area by nitrogen sorption. A pre-concentration factor of 40-fold for a sample volume of 12.6mL was obtained by using the time-based technique. The detection limit for the pre-concentration method was found to be 2.2μgL(-1). The precision (as RSD,%) for 10 replicate determinations at the 0.04μgmL(-1) Zn concentration was 1.2%. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system for zinc was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 in the concentration range from 0.005 to 0.05μgmL(-1). The applicability and accuracy of the developed method were estimated by the analysis spiked water, biological, liver samples (83-105%), and also certified reference material TMDA-70 (fortified lake water) and SPS-WW1 Batch 111-Wastewater. The results were in agreement with the certified values.
The responses of animals to intake of a trace element could vary if it is ingested with a single test meal or due to chronic intake. The metabolic relationships between zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) were assessed in the young animal by comparing their digestive absorption studied at the beginning of the study with their tissue storage after two months of being fed on experimental diet. Diets supplied adequate intakes of Fe (45 and 300mg/kg diet) and Zn (14 and 45 mg/kg). A significant effect of Fe supply (p < 0.0001) but not of Zn was displayed on Fe absorption; both Fe and Zn diet concentrations influenced Zn absorption (p < 0.01, p < 0.0001). Fe and Zn organ contents significantly correlated with the amount absorbed during the metabolic balance (p < 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between liver, bone, and muscle Fe and Fe absorption (mg/d)(p < 0.0001), and Fe absorption and bone and muscle Zn (p < 0.04) and a negative one with liver Zn (p < 0.0001); a positive correlation was displayed between Zn absorption (mg/d) and Zn organ content (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between Zn absorption and Fe tissue content (p > 0.05). This study suggests that interactions occur at every step of Fe and Zn metabolism; Fe is more efficient in altering Zn storage than the reverse. The organism seems to be unable to diminish the consequences of an unbalanced diet and digestive absorption. Care must be taken to give the young growing balanced diets.
The prevalence of osteoporosis in developing countries is low compared to most industrialised countries despite an apparent low Ca intake. It is possible, however, that food surveys have overlooked important Ca sources in developing countries. Small fish eaten with the bones can be a rich source of Ca, even though Ca from bone may be considered unavailable for absorption. In the present study, absorption of Ca from indigenous Bengali small fish was compared with the Ca absorption from milk. Ca absorption from single meals was determined in 19 healthy men and women (21-28 y). Each subject received two meal types on two separate occasions. Both meals consisted of white wheat bread, butter and ultra pure water with the main Ca source being either small Bengali fish (397 mg Ca in total) or skimmed milk (377 mg Ca in total). The meals were extrinsically labelled with 47Ca, and whole-body retention was measured on day 8, 12, 15 and 19 after intake of each meal. The labelling procedure was evaluated by an in vitro method. The calculated absorption of Ca as measured with 47Ca whole-body retention was 23.8 +/- 5.6% from the fish meal and 21.8 +/- 6.1% from the milk meal (mean +/- SD), which was not significantly different (p = 0.52). Even after correction for an incomplete isotope exchange, as indicated by the in vitro study, Ca absorption was similar from the two meal types. It was concluded that Ca absorption from small Bengali fish was comparable that from skimmed milk, and that these fish may represent a good source of Ca.
A sequential on-line preconcentration and separation system for Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species determination was developed in this work. For this purpose, a microcolumn filled with nanostructured alpha-alumina was used for on-line retention of Cr species in a flow-injection system. The method involves the selective elution of Cr(VI) with concentrated ammonia and Cr(III) with 1mol L(-1) nitric acid for sequential injection into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Analytical parameters including pH, eluent type, flow rates of sample and eluent, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The preconcentration factors for Cr(VI) and Cr(III) were 41 and 18, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.9 ng L(-1) for Cr(VI) and 6.1 ng L(-1) for Cr(III). The calibration graph was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 8.6% for Cr(VI) and 6.1% for Cr(III) (c = 10 microg L(-1), n=10, sample volume = 25 mL). Verification of the accuracy was carried out by analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e "Trace elements in natural water") with a reported Cr content of 20.40+/-0.24 microg L(-1). Using the proposed methodology the total Cr content, computed as sum of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), in this SRM was 20.26+/-0.96 microg L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species in parenteral solutions. Concentration of Cr(III) species was found to be in the range of 0.29-3.62 microg L(-1), while Cr(VI) species was not detected in the samples under study.
Microwave digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was applied to the determination of selenium in biological tissues by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). Validation of this method is presented in terms of adequate recovery of selenium from standard reference materials and the method is applied to carcinogen human colon tissue. Ultramicrofiltration was used to study selenium protein binding and its fractionation and speciation in blood serum. These studies showed that 95% of the total selenium in serum seems to be bonded to high-molecular-weight proteins. Experiments with renal failure patients showed lower selenium levels than in the health population (0.57 +/- 0.23 mM versus 0.81 +/- 0.11 mM). A wider distribution pattern of total serum selenium concentration (from 0.1 to 1 mM) was clearly observed in renal failure patients. However, the ultramicrofiltrable selenium fraction was always constant, even in the presence of desferrioxamine (DFO).