Journal of Sustainable Tourism

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 0966-9582
This paper critically examines the intersection of several key factors influencing access to nature-based resources in New Zealand's public lands. Particular attention is directed to three major global influences on such access: international tourism, New Zealand's increased exposure to global market-driven philosophies, and the increasing prominence worldwide of indigenous land-rights movements. These influences embody important notions of property rights and rights of ownership in New Zealand. Out of a beginning which promised a wealth of public access to natural areas has grown a strong New Zealand outdoor tradition. Today, the terrain which fostered this tradition is passionately contested and the sustainability of access to public lands is threatened. In the last decade, free public access has been progressively eroded, and, among other developments, there has been a tendency for commodification and privatisation of public lands. These significant changes stem from a broader, ideologically driven social and economic revolution, which has taken place in New Zealand. In parallel with this economic and social revolution, the legitimate and historically marginalised claims of the indigenous Maori people for sovereignty over land and resources have begun to be addressed. In an environment characterized by rapid, radical, globally induced change, the sustainability of cultural traditions, such as access rights to the countryside, will continue to be a source of controversy.
International population estimates of people with disabilities (Darcy & Dickson, 2009, p. 36).
Dimensions of access by support needs.  
O'Carrollyns occupancy accommodation. 
Source of O'Carrollyns markets. 
Sources of O'Carrollyns markets.
This paper explores the concept of accessible tourism and its links with triple-bottom-line (TBL) sustainability. Accessible tourism is reviewed through some of its central features including dimensions of access, universal design and the nexus between ageing and disability. The TBL is then examined to better understand the financial, environmental and social considerations that arise from accessible tourism. The research design used in this explorative research incorporated a case study approach, where a business case study instrument was developed. Methods included a Delphi group, review of management information systems, in-depth interviews with key informants, observation and participant observation. The study results revealed that rather than accessible tourism being a single construct, it forms one critical dimension of a series of interrelated, overlapping and interdependent business arrangements that extend beyond the business entity through a series of social networks within the destination region. It is argued that to properly satisfy the accessible tourism market, a more sophisticated understanding of accessible destination experiences is needed by tourism operators. The case study illustrates the considerable size and multi-niche markets served by accessible tourism destinations, the good fit between accessible tourism and TBL sustainable tourism, and the need for further research.
This paper explores the extent to which the UK tourism industry has accepted the increased standards of performance under the new Disability Discrimination Act. The research utilises the mystery shopper technique to request basic information from two hundred and ten randomly selected companies from various sectors of the tourism industry. The request stated that the mystery shopper is visually impaired and would like to use the services provided by the company. Results show generally an extremely low ability of organisations to meet the simple requests made, although some sectors of the industry were more able to comply than others.
This article discusses the necessity for complementing linear sustainability assessment tools, which disregard the complex and dynamic nature of tourism, with complex adaptive systems (CASs) approaches. A methodological framework for the selection and evaluation of sustainability indicators for tourism destinations, the systemic indicator system (SIS), is proposed; this framework takes the interrelatedness of sociocultural, economic and environmental issues into account. The SIS methodology is tested using a case study of a holiday eco-village project near Lamington National Park in Queensland, Australia. The results show that tourism destinations need to be viewed and studied as CASs, and that sustainability indicator systems need to be applied in the context of an adaptive management approach. Special attention is given to the capability of the SIS methodology as a decision aid for resort developers and planners to improve the effectiveness of measures for pollution prevention and mitigation.
Contribution of theories to identifying partnership features.
Contribution of theories to identifying partnership outcomes.
Features receiving the highest mean importance rating (n = 100).
This paper reviews a range of theoretical approaches to partnerships working between protected area agencies and the tourism industry. While partnerships are a hallmark of contemporary thinking about protected area management, research to date leaves considerable scope for development, application and testing of theory. The paper draws eight theoretical approaches from the literature with potential application to a study of the contributors to partnership success. It progresses a postdisciplinary approach to partnership research. A 72-item questionnaire was derived from the theoretical perspectives and completed by 100 partners. Analysis identified features perceived as potentially contributing to a successful partnership as well as the key outcomes of a successful partnership. The findings indicate the prominence of institutional analysis and development, social capital, environmental dispute resolution and network theories in explaining partnership success. Given the centrality of partnerships in protected area tourism and ongoing societal interest in the sustainability of such areas, this paper provides vital insights to further multi-theoretical, postdisciplinary research, and to the successful management of partnerships.
Income from Tourism in relation to its direct costs for 1998
This paper analyses the premise that revenues from tourism can provide economic sustainability for the management of both the Dzanga-Sangha Special Dense Forest Reserve and the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, both in the Central African Republic. Second, the paper examines the impact of tourism on the local economy. The results demonstrate that the present form of tourism has so far been unable to become self-financing. In particular, if investments and depreciation are taken into account it becomes evident that private commercial financing of similar investments is unlikely to be viable. Tourism alone provides insufficient revenue to cover the operating costs of the Park and Reserve. The impact of tourism on the local economy, however, is substantial. Revenue from tourism contributed to the acceptance of the Dzanga-Sangha Project by the local population and has probably contributed to an increase in effectiveness of law enforcement. The Dzanga-Sangha Project tourism programme has at least been partially successful in providing an alternative economic option to more environmentally destructive activities, but it needs to raise additional revenue. The Project should also pursue alternative funding mechanisms, such as trust funds, and generate additional income through gorilla tourism, safari hunting and sustainable forestry.
Visitor arrivals, distances and resulting energy use and CO2 emission for the last network segment to New Zealand 
Tourism is a major global industry and air travel is an increasingly vital component of international tourism. This paper examines the neglected relationship between tourism and aviation with regard to global environmental impacts, including energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Based on visitor arrival data collected by Statistics New Zealand, it estimates a total energy use of 27.8 PJ resulting from international passenger air travel to New Zealand, which would increase national energy use by 6% if international air travel were included in national inventories. This energy use translates into additional carbon dioxide emissions of 1.9 million tonnes. These estimates are discussed in terms of a tourist's 'energy bill', national and international climate change policies, and with regard to the concept of sustainable tourism development.
Internal factors: knowledge, perception and awareness of climate change and how they relate to the tourists’ perception of responsibility (key factors are highlighted) 
Roles chosen by tourists across the five focus groups Role Count Tourist with high budget 4
Main aspects of the external environment relating to climate change policies for air travel as discussed by tourists (key factors are highlighted) 
in favour or against the three different policy scenarios discussed in the role play
Tourism's increasing contribution to climate change, especially through the use of air travel, is now acknowledged. This study seeks to explore tourists' knowledge and awareness of aviation's impact on the climate, their sense of personal responsibility and their reactions to specific climate change policies. A focus group approach – informed by interviews with international tourists leaving New Zealand – was chosen to involve tourists in discussing climate change and travel. In the focus groups, three policy options were discussed: voluntary initiatives, a global air travel charge and a per capita carbon budget. The global air travel tax emerged as a realistic compromise between restricting travel and achieving emissions reduction. When discussing individual responsibility for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tourists distinguished between their travel and their everyday life, where responsibility for mitigation was perceived to be greater. The value of freedom to travel is firmly established in the minds of many tourists and limiting travel is considered unacceptable by the (hyper) mobile tourists who participated in this research. Only major societal changes to bring about behavioural change seem likely to reduce air travel's contribution to climate change.
Many commentators have examined the airline industry’s impacts on the environment but not the internal management processes used to develop company environmental policies. This paper argues that environmental management tools need to take into consideration the complex, value-laden setting in which corporate environmental policy-making occurs if such tools are to be socially and politically legitimated. A case study of Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) examines an airline’s decision-motivations for environmental commitment. An in-depth analysis of the drivers identified by both Scandinavian Airlines and related industry officials shows that attitudes, values and beliefs generated both internally and externally have a critical impact on the airline’s environmental policy-making. Although there are numerous influences that drive SAS’s level of environmental commitment, three ‘motivators’ are found particularly noteworthy. Firstly, this research demonstrates that eco-efficiencies, in various forms, are a strong motive at SAS. Secondly, Scandinavian culture also plays an influential role in the value SAS puts on the environment at a strategic level. Thirdly, it was found that internal leadership, in the form of environmental champions in senior management positions, played a key role in the positive outcomes of the airline’s environmental performance. Given the current growth in benchmarking and eco-labelling activity across tourism, this research enhances understandings about what motivates airlines to develop environmental policy in this increasingly competitive and volatile sector.
Map of Northumberland  
Northumbria: Tourism volume and value 2002 (domestic and international) 
Alnwick Garden: The Grand Cascade  
Tourist Information Centre user numbers 
This paper proposes an alternative approach to rural tourism that returns to a more traditional model of development: large, flagship attractions that act as a ‘growth pole’ for the local economy and community. It questions some of the accepted beliefs about sustainable rural tourism development current in recent years. It is based on a case study of Alnwick Garden in Northumberland, England. It suggests that, under certain circumstances, flagship or mega-attractions can not only increase substantially the number of visitors to rural areas but also, through appropriate policies and processes, can underpin the longer-term, sustainable development of those areas.
This paper aims to contribute to knowledge about the farm stay experience by providing exploratory insights into the characteristics that are common to a hosted stay on a WWOOF farm and to investigate whether the experiences provided for visitors by WWOOF hosts are notably different from those offered by other farm hosts. The paper reports the findings of in-depth interviews conducted with 12 WWOOF hosts and 22 visitors staying at WWOOF farms located in the rural region of Canterbury in the south island of New Zealand. The findings of the study, while indicative, show that the hosted experience on an organic (WWOOF) farm may be notably different from that provided at a commercial farm stay, with four key dimensions: the rurality of the experience; the opportunity to learn about organics; the personal meaningfulness of the experience; and the element of sincerity in the experience.
Categorisation and coding of the interviews (based on Haase, 2008).
The design principles for robust common pool regimes (Ostrom, 2005, p. 259).
This paper analyses the main strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation in the Antarctic tourism sector. Ostrom's theory of collective action and especially the design principles for robust management of common pool resources provide the framework for this analysis. The paper notes the rapid growth and diversification of tourism in Antarctica over the past two decades. It examines why formal tourism legislation has been limited because of the complex governance structure in Antarctica. It describes the self-regulation of tourism management that occurs through the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). The success of IAATO is attributed to the high degree of organisation in the sector, largely because of the perceived benefits of membership. Continued incentives for self-organisation are needed but changing circumstances may lead tour operators to believe that IAATO membership is no longer advantageous. The paper shows that, under current conditions, the Antarctic tourism self-regulatory regime is a robust institution. However, with increasing numbers of tourists and operators the institutional structure may be weakened in the future.
Ranking of sustainability Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica aspects per dimension Value' Texel, The Netherlands Value' Ecological aspects Pollution of environment, water and air 
This paper examines tourist perceptions of sustainability in Manuel Antonio/Quepos, Costa Rica and Texel, The Netherlands. It also reviews tourist opinions of site-specific sustainability aspects and assesses differences between tourist types and their perceptions of sustainability. The ecological dimension of sustainability was perceived the most important, followed by social-cultural and economic dimensions.Amongtourists to Manuel Antonio/Quepos there was no distinctive difference between the last two dimensions while the economic dimension was far less important among Texel tourists. Loss of local lifestyles and processes of urbanisation were the most serious problems perceived in Manuel Antonio/Quepos. For Texel, a fewrespondents indicated problems such as increase of prices, urbanisation and loss of local lifestyles. Results demonstrate tourist awareness of sustainability issues and that in the long run this awareness might lead to changes in tourist preferences.
Materials commonly used for the deliberate creation of artificial reefs (Adapted from Seaman Jr. and Sprague (1991) and approximately ordered in terms of site complexity) 
Conceptual model of an artificial reef scuba dive experience (This model has been developed from a review of available literature and with reference to the models of Leiper [1995] and Hall [1998].) 
Key results from reviewed research
Typology of artificial reefs as recreational resources (TARRR)
This paper reports on the increasing practice of developing and promoting artificial reefs as sites for scuba diving tourism and recreation. A comprehensive definition of artificial reefs is presented that encapsulates the diversity of structures used by marine recreationists, particularly scuba divers, followed by a review of existing literature that specifically examines artificial reefs as a resource for the conduct of recreational scuba diving. Three main thematic areas were identified in the existing literature: social dimensions, socioeconomic impacts and environmental engineering. A typology of artificial reefs is offered to better describe and categorise artificial reef structures according to unit characteristics that may influence recreational use such as material used, appearance, complexity and cost. The paper presents a conceptual model that identifies the components of an artificial reef scuba diving experience and discusses the potential of artificial reefs to act as tourism resources and management tools to redistribute scuba diver numbers away from natural reefs. Directions for future research are suggested, emphasising collection of data on aspects of the artificial reef scuba diving experience to better inform marine resource management.
In the marine environment ecotourism, like any human activity, has effects. Identifying such effects is essential otherwise they cannot be minimised through management. This paper reports on the development and application of the Ecotourism Sorensen Network to identify potential effects of ecotourism activities in two marine environments of northwestern Australia- Ningaloo Reef and surrounds of Legendre Island, part of the Dampier Archipelago. Most of the effects identified could potentially occur in both study areas. More of these potential effects were negative than positive, with most of the latter being sociocultural and economic and the former predominantly biophysical. Those most likely to occur and to be the most significant were negative biophysical effects, especially damage to marine biota,and negative Aboriginal effects. For Ningaloo, overcrowding was also a significant negative effect while at Legendre possible future conflict with the planned industrial port was significant. The Ecotourism Sorensen Network provided a useful mechanism for describing the potential effects of ecotourism activities on marine environments. It also allowed analysis of the similarities and differences in effects between study areas, the likelihood of effects occurring and their significance. This analytic approach could be readily and usefully applied to marine-based ecotourism elsewhere in the world.
Average amount of change for biophysical parameters on campsites in Warren National Park 
Location map of Warren National Park and key features: the Warren River, formal campsites, informal campsites and picnic sites 
Biophysical and social factors or conditions influencing the quality of the visitor experience in Warren National Park 
Survey respondents' attitudes towards potential management actions for Warren National Park 
The social and ecological impacts of camping were examined in Warren National Park, Western Australia. The main objective was to apply an integrated approach to assessing campsite degradation and feed this information into a management and monitoring strategy for campsites in the park. Biophysical data were used to establish a campsite profile, providing baseline information that enabled comparison of heavy-use formal campsites with low-use informal campsites. High-use formal campsites were more severely impacted than the low-use, informal campsites. Formal sites were also larger, had experienced more tree damage and erosion, had greater soil compaction, less vegetation cover and tree seedlings, less coarse woody debris, higher riverbank degradation and more walk trails radiating from the campsite. Additionally, the low-use, informal sites had also been degraded by recreation use. Potential indicators were identified, using a social survey that enabled identification of the standards of social and resource conditions in the Warren National Park. Desired conditions were then compared to existing conditions at the campsites and relevant managerial preferences acceptable to visitors were identified in the social survey. Most of the management preferences were considered very or extremely important influences on the quality of the visitor experience.
The VICE (Visitor, Industry, Community, Environment) grid approach to identify key tourism stakeholders for the semi-structured interviews and stakeholder
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified Australia as among the developed nations most at risk from climate change effects. Key tourism icon destinations and the tourism sector generally have been identified as being particularly at risk. This paper reports on an interdisciplinary, multi-case study approach to assess tourism stakeholders' knowledge of, and approaches to, climate change adaptation and to explore the potential for building a self-assessment toolkit that can be exported to other tourism destinations. This study examined existing knowledge on anticipated biophysical changes and, through primary research (stakeholder interviews and social learning workshops), gauged the expected adaptive approaches of destination communities and the tourism sector to these changes for 2020, 2050 and 2070. The facilitated workshops generated a common set of adaptation strategies across a diverse set of tourist destinations. A key finding from the workshops is that the tourism sector is not yet ready to invest in climate change adaptation because of the perceived uncertainties. Ongoing leadership for such measures were seen to rest with the public sector, especially local authorities. Whether such assessments can be self-generated or require specialist facilitation remains open to debate. Yes Yes
This review examines what outcomes ecotourism has achieved in regard to environmental issues. It proposes an analytic framework distinguishing four types of mechanism: those which can generate positive effects; those which can reduce negative effects; those which can increase negative effects; and contested issues, including scale and mainstreaming. It then discusses the barriers to evaluating ecotourism's environmental record. These include: problems of definition; the use of eco-labels; and the range of inclusion within any analysis. Finally, it outlines a series of future research priorities including: product and enterprise analysis; the value and importance of codes, interpretation and marketing, the potential significance of new community and political mechanisms; and post-trip lifestyle change. Yes Yes
Tools as feedback control for sustainability concepts 
Concepts for achieving sustainable tourism destinations
Matrix of assessment tools and concepts for sustainability implementation
Types of sustainability indicators for tourism destinations
This paper reviews a wide range of tools for comprehensive sustainability assessments at whole tourism destinations, covering socio-cultural, economic and environmental issues. It considers their strengths, weaknesses and site specific applicability. It is intended to facilitate their selection (and combination where necessary). Tools covered include Sustainability Indicators, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Audits, Ecological Footprints, Multi-Criteria Analysis and Adaptive Environmental Assessment. Guidelines for evaluating their suitability for specific sites and situations are given as well as examples of their use.
This paper examines the environmental goals of rural, family owned/operated tourism business with a view to evaluating their conservation ethic and commitment to sustainable tourism. From a survey of 198 family businesses in Western Australia, it was determined that about half of them had implemented a range of sustainable management practices. Future research needs are identified, and management ideas are suggested which could encourage the adoption of sustainable tourism practices in rural family businesses.
Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing tourism sectors worldwide. Across the world the number of tourists seeking close interaction with wildlife in their natural environment is growing. Understanding the interface between visitors (social) and wildlife (environmental) can make a critical contribution to the sustainability of this industry. This study examined wildlife tours in Australia. Questionnaires were posted to wildlife tour operators in Tasmania, Western Australia and Northern Territory, seeking information on the characteristics of tours, and the place of science and monitoring in their business. The results illustrate several similarities between wildlife and ecotourism, suggesting the benefits of increasing education and interpretation, both central features of ecotourism, to enhancing the sustainability of wildlife tourism. For tour operators, interactive activities included feeding, swimming with and touching wildlife, and the level of interaction was identified as high, making it imperative to better define interaction and develop species or group-specific protocols for sustainably managing these interactions. Lastly, this study showed a low level of engagement of scientists in protecting the wildlife of interest to tours. Given the centrality of science to sustainability, mechanisms for increasing this involvement particularly in impact research, through partnerships and other means, are critical for the long term sustainability of this industry.
Although the economic impacts of climate change have been analysed in Australia at the national level, impacts of climate change via tourism activities have been overlooked. It is likely that the induced economic impact through tourism activities is much more than realised, particularly at the regional/destination level. This paper examines the economic flow-on effects of climate change on five selected Australian tourism destinations. While the flow-on effect of impacts on these five destinations is relatively insignificant at the national level, at the regional level the impacts can be very considerable, and those impacts vary widely between regions. In addition to general direct climate change impacts on the economies of these regions, the larger their tourism share, the severer the flow-on economic impacts involved. The paper raises concerns for policymakers that measuring economic impacts of climate change without considering its flow-on effect through tourism activities will significantly underestimate the total impact of climate change for destination regions. Further, when all tourism destinations are taken into account, the flow-on economic impact of climate change could be significant for the Australian economy as a whole. Analyses such as those reported here could form a basis for scenario examination for policy development. 2010 Taylor & Francis
This paper examines and finds synergies between indigenous tourism and ecotourism in Australia. Both were recognised in the 2003 Tourism White Paper as drawcards for international tourists; Tourism Australia markets both as two of the country's seven key visitor experiences. Despite this, and the proven need to assist indigenous peoples' socio-economic position, the indigenous tourism sector remains relatively immature. The paper, using a mixed-methods approach, including in-depth discussions with 26 indigenous tourism businesses, examines this problem and suggests ways forward. The results indicate that between 50% and 70% of indigenous tourism businesses are located in remote or very remote areas and utilise the environment to a substantial degree. Communities, couples and families dominate ownership patterns. Only 25% operate on a full-time basis. However, indigenous operators do not necessarily see themselves as being “ecotourism” businesses, despite their concern for and care of country. Very few are accredited: the ecotourism accreditation process is complex and expensive with guidelines based upon Westernised views of nature. Major changes in accreditation practice are suggested along with education and support for indigenous tourism businesses to ensure a stronger relationship between indigenous tourism and ecotourism and to improve Aboriginals' socio-economic status.
Sites and summary statistics 
Visitor origins, Kakadu WHA 
A time series of historical visitor data was used to test whether World Heritage Area (WHA) listing affected the total number or origins of visitors to Australian national parks. Only six of Australia's 14 WHAs have sufficient data to attempt such tests, and these data have significant shortcomings. Whilst visitor numbers at Australian WHA's are commonly up to an order of magnitude higher than at comparable control sites, this cannot necessarily be ascribed specifically to WH branding, but may be associated more with political controversy over listing. It does, however, appear that WH designation yields significant increases in proportions of international visitors to individual sites. Yes Yes
Many public protected areas worldwide charge fees for entrance, overnight camping, and commercial tour permits. These visitor or user fees raise revenue and may also influence visitor behaviour. Many protected areas are forced to charge fees because government funding is inadequate for conservation and visitor management in the face of rapidly rising visitor numbers and demands. Acceptance and effects of fees, however, depend on the historical, political, legal, economic and social context. Two issues are particularly significant: (a) equity between various social groups; and (b) control and use of funds raised. Yes Yes
This paper reviews the development of Australia's policies for indigenous tourism and analyses those policies for their sustainable tourism content. It notes that in Australia, tourism is increasingly seen as an instrument for sustaining indigenous communities, many of whom look to tourism for a better future. Growing intervention from Australian federal and, more recently, State/Territory governments has sought to create tourism policies to facilitate market growth and product development in the indigenous sector. Yet the effectiveness and appropriateness of these policies, particularly in terms of a sustainable approach to development, has been questioned. A qualitative study of Australian State/Territory governments' policy for indigenous tourism examines the extent to which sustainable development principles are addressed. The results revealed that 32 of the 35 analysed policies demonstrated sustainability rhetoric that lacked the rigour and depth to realise any legitimate moves towards achieving sustainable tourism development for indigenous peoples. Based on the study's findings, this paper recommends that there cannot be a one size fits all framework for indigenous tourism development to suit all circumstances. Policies need to draw upon indigenous diversity and, in a consistent, collaborative, coordinated and integrated manner, provide the mechanisms and capacity-building to facilitate long-term sustainable indigenous tourism.
Country of origin distributions compared (% of the respective segments)  
Occupational category distributions compared (% of the respective segments)  
Regional distribution of sustainable summer tourists in Austria (in percentof the respective segments)  
Guest satisfaction compared (in percent of the respective segments)  
An excellent market-driven way to successfully implement sustainable tourism in a destination is to find a segment of tourists or potential tourists interested in the unique natural beauty of the destination, willing to preserve it and who are also highly attractive in terms of high expenditures, long stays, high return rate, high recommendation rate etc. The first step in seeking these visitors is thorough investigation of sustainable market segments. So far, only a few studies have systematically searched for “eco-segments” or sustainable tourist groups and described them. This paper reviews the usefulness of such approaches, examines past studies investigating potential target segments and describes the group of summer tourists in Austria who care about maintaining the natural environment. The results suggest that this group of visitors has some highly attractive characteristics and is very large, thus offering a sound basis for additional sustainable niche segment creation.
Contraction and convergence profiles for EU25 compared with aviation carbon emissions. Explanatory note : The upper line shows the contracting carbon emissions total for the EU as a whole, for a 550 ppmv scenario; the middle line shows the contracting carbon emissions total for the EU as a whole, for a 450 ppmv scenario; the rising dashed line shows EU aircraft carbon emissions (not including a RFI), under a ‘business as usual’ scenario that accounts for anticipated efficiencies and the moderation of air traffic growth rates from 2015 onwards. Source: Bows et al. (2005) 
Number of organisations commencing voluntary carbon offset sales from 1991 to 2006
Comparison of prices ( € per ton CO 2 -e) and RFI 
Carbon accumulation through afforestation over time. Source: G ¨ ossling (2000)
Tourism is becoming increasingly dependent on air transport. Recent scientific work has pointed out the significant and growing contribution of air transport to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Obligations to reduce GHG emissions under the Kyoto Protocol and post-Kyoto instruments might make transport more expensive or even restricted in the future. This paper examines these questions and the issues raised by the increasing number of organisations offering voluntary carbon offsetting schemes as a means of compensating for emissions of GHGs, mostly from transport, which could help to stabilise or reduce emissions. There are substantial differences between the approaches chosen by these organisations in terms of their calculation of emissions, compensation measures, price levels, company structures and evaluation processes. The paper discusses these differences and their consequences for the efficiency and credibility of voluntary carbon offsetting schemes. Within this increasingly contested area, there is general agreement that increased clarity and regulation is required.
Ecotourism potentially provides a sustainable approach to development in Malaysia. However, to realise this potential the adverse effects of visitor activity and associated infrastructure on the natural environment and the tourism experience must be identified to guide management actions and thus to sustain the resources on which ecotourism ultimately depends. This study, conducted in Bako National Park on the island of Borneo, reports one of the first efforts to identify the impacts of ecotourism in Malaysia from the perspective of visitors. Environmental conditions of greatest influence on visitors' experiences included litter and biophysical conditions such as soil erosion and vegetation damage. These conditions were of greater concern to visitors than social conditions, such as the number of people. These results suggest that management efforts can be directed towards indicators of greatest concern such as litter, soil erosion and vegetation damage. The broad support given by those surveyed for a range of management actions provides managers with a choice of strategies to sustain ecotourism in Bako National Park. This study, with its sociopolitical approach, contributes to a greater understanding of the implications of the ecotourist experience for ecotourism management in Malaysia.
Theory of planned behaviour. Adapted from: Ham and Krumpe (1996).
Tourism to protected areas worldwide has increased rapidly, prompting management agencies to seek enhanced visitor management including communication aimed at influencing tourists' behaviour to reduce impacts and strengthen conservation viability. Research has shown that the greatest success in influencing visitors' actions comes from understanding what they think about a particular behaviour. This notion was investigated in this study in Mt Field National Park, Tasmania, using the theory of planned behaviour and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion in a three-stage research process to design specific persuasive messages that were then evaluated for their impact on visitors' beliefs, attitude and behaviour. Of four salient beliefs found through survey, one offered much promise. Two experimental treatments based on that belief resulted in a 15%–20% increase in litter pickup compared with a control condition, and were also found to positively affect targeted beliefs and attitudes relating to this pro-environmental behaviour. Potential benefits include cost savings on litter collection for the park, fewer detrimental impacts on wildlife and less aesthetic degradation. Conclusions are drawn about the efficacy of a theory-based approach to influencing problem visitor behaviours in protected areas and the nature of the cognitive process which might be involved. Yes Yes
Botswana, like many African nations, has a patriarchal history in which women have not been socially or economically empowered. In an attempt to accrue benefits to disadvantaged groups such as women, the nation has recently embarked on a new tourism policy that shifts the emphasis away from five-star safaris toward village-based cultural tourism. Utilizing empowerment and freedom frameworks of poverty alleviation, this paper examines the extent and ways in which people living and working in three villages in southern Botswana feel that the new tourism policy has facilitated female empowerment. In total, approximately fifteen semi-structured interviews will be conducted with women and men living and working in villages of southern Botswana. The bulk of these (approximately 75%) will be conducted with women. The remainder will incorporate men who are in a position to have an impact on women’s empowerment. To date, the study has covered three communities with eleven women and three men from six ethnicities to determine their perceived level of empowerment resulting from cultural tourism developments in their villages. Preliminary findings have identified several ways in which the new policies might be contributing to female empowerment and poverty alleviation as well as some barriers to fulfillment of equality and opportunity. Also, the study uncovers the meaning of empowerment as revealed by women in Botswana. The study will therefore point to ways in which the goals of the policy might best be achieved.
This paper examines perceptions and attitudes towards the use of cable cars with specific reference to Wulingyuan World Heritage Site in China. A total of 45 respondents were interviewed using open-ended questioning and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis suggests six motives for the use of the lift: (1) tight schedules generated by travel agents and tour operators, (2) lack of physical strength to walk to the summit, (3) group membership influences, (4) the saving of time, (5) lack of information about alternative approaches and (6) novelty of the lift. However, when questioned about sources of satisfaction, respondents tended to refer to other aspects of their visit. This raises questions of managerial significance, as in the past the construction of such lifts and cableways has been based on a premise of enhancing visitors' satisfaction with their visit, and this perceived advantage has been seen as outweighing possible adverse environmental impacts
Recreational capacity is a function of the natural and social environment, the activity concerned, and the management regime. Indo-Pacific surf destinations with cheap and open access and no capacity management have experienced crowding, crime, pollution and price collapses. Many island surf breaks can handle only a few surfers at once because of the shape of the reefs. A crowding factor may be conceptualised as the proportion of rideable waves each surfer is forced to cede to another boardrider. Quota management systems using operator permits need to incorporate the complexity of the environment and the industry, but be equitable enough to gain general acceptance, and simple enough to enforce without dispute. Siberut Island in the Mentawai chain near West Sumatra, Indonesia, is covered by dense tropical rainforest which supports a number of endangered species and has been proposed as a Biosphere Reserve. It is also home to indigenous village communities with traditional social and religious practices. This island is subject to commercial logging and plantation agriculture, and tourism seems to be the only politically realistic economic alternative at present. To provide infrastructure for long-term growth in nature and cultural tourism, an immediate source of tourism revenue is needed. The most immediate option seems to be surf lodges on some of the smaller Mentawai Islands, which have already been largely cleared and are already visited by boat-based surf tour operators. Operators will only invest in lodges if they can acquire preferential rights to particular surf breaks. Hence the recreational capacity of the islands for surf tourism must be determined, and allocated between operators through a management system. Relevant data and one management option are presented here. Yes Yes
Many governments have encouraged integrated resort development in an attempt to improve the well-being of the local population by generating jobs and increasing income, and because of the easier control of tourism activities within their boundaries. However, most research reports various adverse environmental and social impacts. Because of the difficulty of assessing the impacts that may result from the construction of integrated resorts, the majority of research has been conducted after their construction. This study is an impact assessment carried out prior to a large-scale development that examines whether an integrated resort proposed for development at Cavo Sidero, Crete, will result in positive impacts for the destination and the local community, and it investigates whether any conflicting interests have arisen within stakeholder groups. Through primary research examining various stakeholder groups it is revealed that economic impacts are perceived as mostly positive, while social and environmental impacts, in many cases, are viewed as negative, and that conflicting interests have arisen between different stakeholder groups.
The paper seeks to address two specific questions. First, does the existence of polluted waters impact on the levels of satisfaction experienced by visitors to Chinese lakes? Second, does the local tourism industry (represented by a sample of hotel managers) correctly assess the importance of place attributes as assessed by visitors? The data presented are obtained from a sample of 913 visitors to four polluted lakes that are holiday or day visit locations and from 121 managers of hotels in those same areas. The evidence suggests that polluted areas can still function successfully as tourist locations because visitors in these instances view the lakescapes as part of a wider attraction that includes a built environment but that the hotel industry over-emphasises the importance of that built structure as a contributor to tourist place experience. Limitations to the research include the role played by an aesthetic gaze, which may have more importance within a Chinese culture than among Western counterparts because, particularly for the older Chinese, concepts of harmonization with nature are directed through the visual senses and references to classical literature rather than physical participation in water-based sports.
Human-mediated seed dispersal is recognised as an important, but under-researched, issue. To assess the potential for tourists to act as unintentional seed dispersal agents, we reviewed published and unpublished data on seed dispersal via clothing, vehicles (cars) and in/on horses and donkeys, all of which can be used by tourists. Seeds from 754 species of terrestrial plants have been collected from these vectors, 15% of which are internationally recognised environmental weeds. Seeds were collected from personal clothing and equipment (228 species), the fur of donkeys and horses (42 species), horse dung (216 species) and vehicles (505 species). Most were herbs (429 species) or graminoids (237 species) and native to Europe. Annual Poa, White Clover, Kentucky Bluegrass and Yorkshire Fog were the most frequent species. There have been eight studies specifically on tourists, which identified 12 species on clothing, 26 on vehicles and 133 from horse dung. Methods that minimise the risk of tourists as human-mediated dispersal agents may therefore be appropriate for some tourism activities/destinations: suggestions are made. Further sampling using standardised experimental techniques is required to assess the relative risk associated with specific tourist activities and locations and determine which, and how much, seed is transported. Yes Yes
Embedded in the ecotourism concept is 'marine ecotourism': ecotourism that takes place in marine and coastal environments. Much marine ecotourism activity occurs in parts of the world that would be considered 'peripheral' in spatial, temporal and economic terms; yet to date no one has attempted to draw together the concepts of marine ecotourism and peripherality. In particular, why might marine ecotourism be considered an especially appropriate strategy for coastal peripheral areas? This paper introduces the concept of ecotourism in the marine and coastal context. It then examines what is meant by the term 'peripherality' and outlines some of the challenges and opportunities it can bring to coastal locations. A particular focus is on the EU's main policy responses to the peripherality dimension of its regional 'problem'. The paper then discusses the potentials and pitfalls of marine ecotourism as a sustainable development option for coastal peripheral areas. A case study of West Clare, Ireland, is drawn upon to give context to some of the opportunities and challenges of ecotourism in peripheral areas. A conclusion is that marine ecotourism can potentially form part - but, realistically, only a part - of an appropriate strategy for addressing the problems faced by coastal peripheral areas. EU Interreg IIc project 'Marine Ecotourism for the Atlantic Area (META-)'
Issue networks and policy communities Adapted from Pal (1997)  
Issue networks and collaborative policy spaces
This paper develops critical understandings of the theoretical and practical implications of local tourism policy networks on collaborative planning. Application of the network concept in tourism has increased in recent years but has largely been focused on the competitive advantages of network organisation for small and medium size tourism enterprises. Critical discussion and development of the theoretical and operational dimensions of networks as a management approach beyond economic development has been limited. It is argued that network theory provides a useful lens for understanding the structures and social interrelations between government, tourism producers and civil society and, as such, has the potential to inform collaborative destination management policy and practice. This paper examines the contributions that networks can make in understanding collaborative planning, and how this knowledge may be able to improve collaborative planning practice.
The meaning and elements of sustainable wine tourism from the community perspective are explored. A case study method involving multi-stakeholder input was employed to identify issues specific to the Town of Oliver, British Columbia, which is the self-proclaimed ‘Wine Capital of Canada’. The case illustrates challenges facing a town that is aggressively pursuing wine tourism development, but it must deal with serious implications for agriculture, the natural environment, and the community. Recommendations made for Oliver, both strategies and implementation methods, provide a useful starting point for other communities engaged in wine tourism development. More general implications are drawn on the application of the life cycle concept to wine tourism, and specific research recommendations are made. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A framework for analysing the social impacts of tourism
Factors affecting resident reactions to tourism
This paper describes a framework which has been designed for a comparative study of the social impacts of tourism in destination communities along the eastern seaboard of Australia. As this part of Australia is experiencing the most rapid population growth and at the same time encompasses the focus of tourist activity in the country, it is expected that the tension between tourism and urban development demands will become more pronounced in the future.Theframework is tested through an application to a case study involving one of Australia s most well known seaside resorts, the Gold Coast. While the Gold Coast survey of resident reactions revealed some relationships between variations in perceptions of tourism s impacts and background characteristics such as involvement in tourism, residential proximity to tourist activity and period of residence, the most notable feature of resident reactions in this case is the generally positive view of tourism s role in the region. It is therefore concluded that the altruistic surplus phenomenon observed in urban planning research may apply to tourism. In the tourism context, the altruistic surplus concept suggests that individuals tolerate any downside effects of tourism they might experience personally because they recognise the broader community wide benefits of this activity. The Gold Coast study also suggests that, contrary to the Doxey scenario, residents in large scale mature tourist destinations do not become more antagonistic towards tourism.
The credibility of contemporary ecotourism is threatened by the global dominance of a model that minimally fulfils the three core criteria – nature-based attractions, learning opportunities, ecological and sociocultural sustainability – that characterise this sector. A more rigorous 'comprehensive' model is better capable of fulfilling ecotourism's potential to achieve sustainable outcomes, but only if this model embraces both the hard and soft dimensions of the sector. Based on the latter premise and informed by the principles of complexity, knowledge sharing and interdisciplinarity, we propose the development of an international network of protected areas 'ecotouriums' that is designed to stimulate positive socioeconomic change within local communities and maintain and improve the ecological health of protected areas. Cornerstone themes that enable the ecotourium concept are research and education, ecological health, community participation and development, and partnerships. Yes Yes
The conceptual and operational context within which sustainable tourism developed
Reference to sustainable tourism is now made in most strategic tourism planning documents. Yet, despite its common use, definitional arguments exist over its meaning and subsequent operationalisation. In addition to this, literature on sustainable tourism rarely discusses its development prior to the publication of Our Common Future (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 1987) and its relevance to current conceptualisations of tourism. This paper analyses the context within which sustainable tourism was developed and has recently been conceptualised. It does this by assessing the development of sustainable tourism (with an Australian focus) and proposing a model which incorporates the development of sustainable tourism into tourism. The paper argues that sustainable tourism has traditionally given more focus to aspects related to the environment and economic development and that more focus should be given to community involvement.
This paper reviews how the principles of sustainable tourism have special relevance to the development of rural tourism, and examines how those principles can be translated into practice by the writing and implementing of regional sustainable tourism strategies. It considers the advantages of this approach, and offers guide-lines for future practitioners. A case study is given of the development of a strategy for an area in northern England, Berwick-upon-Tweed.
A survey of 11 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect three years' energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically acceptable factor in explaining the gas consumption in new hotels. Based on past consumption data and some established pollutant emission factors, the amount of sulphur dioxides, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulate created by the Hong Kong hotel industry's gas usage during a 10-year period from 1989–1998 was estimated. The study predicts the increase in these amounts in 1999–2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotels. The findings indicate that emissions will riseby nearly 40% in the next few years, requiring urgent discussions. The study also finds that a heat pump running on coal-fired electricity and with a coefficient of performance (COP) greater than 3 could produce lower level emissions than a gas-fired boiler. It is further suggested that an effective method to reduce the emissions is to substitute naptha with natural gas as the fuel for generating town gas and electricity. We believe the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce gas usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals.
Environmental performance reporting is being increasingly demanded of many sectors of society, including those responsible for managing natural area tourism. Recent approaches include corporate reporting, state-of-the-environment reporting, and environmental management systems. This paper evaluates the usefulness of visitor impact management frameworks and associated resource and social indicators, both of which have a rich history of application to wilderness and backcountry management, for performance reporting on natural area tourism management. The evaluation draws on a recently developed evaluation framework for protected area management, plus detailed criteria, to address today's environmental performance reporting needs. Against these criteria, the visitor impact management frameworks rated well, with the Limits of Acceptable Change rating the highest. Resource and social indicators also showed great potential for performance reporting provided they are meaningful to senior managers, politicians and other stakeholders. Integrating these frameworks and their resource and social indicators into today's performance reporting, especially into state-of-the-environment reporting and environmental management systems, could significantly advance meaningful performance reporting for natural area tourism management.
While dive tourism enjoys continued growth worldwide, concern exists that it is contributing to the degradation of coral communities, biologically and aesthetically. This study examined the effect of SCUBA diver contacts with coral and other substrates. Ninety-three percent of divers made contact with substrata during a 10-minute observation period with an average of 97 contacts per hour of diving. Two-thirds of the divers caused some coral damage by breaking fragments from fragile coral forms with an average of 19 breakages per hour of diving. Fin damage was the major type of damage. Underwater photographers caused less damage per contact than non-photographers; as did male divers, compared with females. Diver-induced damage decreases with increasing number of logged dives and attendance at pre-dive briefings. Park managers can help reduce impact by identifying and directing use to sites that are resistant to damage, matching diver competence and site preferences, and alerting operators to dive conditions. Minimising impact requires dive operators to be proactive in promoting minimal impact diving behaviour. This includes selecting sites that match diver expectations and experience, and providing pre-dive briefings in the context of diver activities and physical capacity, and site susceptibility to impact and current strength.
The damage to tourism caused by a crisis or disaster may not only have serious implications for a national economy but also threaten the livelihoods of many in the destination. The monitoring of crisis indicators could allow intervention to minimise the crisis and offers a chance of protecting tourism for the benefit of all stakeholders. This paper evaluates the role of crisis indicators in sustainable tourism development, and shows why this is closely connected to issues in sustainable tourism. The author challenges the conventional classification of crises and suggests that grouping them according to their triggers is more useful in predicting and managing a potential crisis. Empirical data gathered during interviews with senior Malaysian public and private sector representatives highlight some of the practical issues associated with the identification and monitoring of appropriate indicators. The paper concludes that the new classification allows crisis management to be more cost-effective and may also be a key to indicator development for other aspects of sustainable tourism. The travel trade may hold the key to indicators of market trends, but there would be issues in obtaining the necessary information for reasons of confidentiality.
Top-cited authors
Colin Michael Hall
  • University of Canterbury
Daniel Scott
  • University of Waterloo
Bill Bramwell
  • Sheffield Hallam University
Susanne Becken
  • Griffith University
Paul Peeters
  • Breda University of Applied Sciences