Journal of Sustainable Forestry

Published by Taylor & Francis
Online ISSN: 1540-756X
Publications
Article
The Massachusetts Woodlands Cooperative, LLC (MWC) is working to help members conduct sustainable forestry of the highest standards while increasing financial returns from harvest activities. The forests of Massachusetts, the 3rd most densely populated of the United States, are threatened. Decades of high grading and the threat of conversion to alternative use present challenges for maintaining a forested landscape. Despite being 60% forested Massachusetts imports approximately 98% of the wood fiber that its citizens consume. MWC is a forest management, processing and marketing cooperative organized by and on behalf of forest landowners in western Massachusetts. The cooperative was envisioned in 1999, incorporated in 2001, gained Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) land management certification in 2003 and is currently in the business-start-up and early growth stage. An umbrella group certification protocol was developed to provide cost-effective forestland management certification. Members benefit from cooperative management of harvest operations, above market stumpage payments, and value-added processing and production including marketing traditionally low value and small diameter material. The added revenue from developing these new markets is used to fund both timber and non-timber related management activities that landowners value. The cooperative partners with local wood processing businesses to spur community economic development.
 
Article
The model derives an equation of the value of forests from a dynamic optimizing framework. This equation gives the marginal social opportunity cost (MSOC) value of the forests, with value added as the numeraire. However, the shadow price is subject to the restrictive complementary slackness condition, which yields a zero shadow price whenever a constraint in not fully binding. To overcome this problem, we assume that value-added is valued at par only when there is no externality. In this formulation the shadow price is a cardinal index of the relative scarcity of the forests. The econometric estimates of the shadow price of the forests and the resulting MSOC value of forests per hectare are obtained by a time trend model (Model 2) and an ARIMA model (Model 3). We regard the ARIMA model estimates to more representative of current conditions, and the estimated shadow price of the forests (in 1990) is a premium of the order of 25 to 32 percent. The corresponding MSOC value of a hectare of forest is between $350 to $412 in 1986 constant dollars. Naturally the estimates are subject to the limitations of the data.
 
Article
Forest management is a complex process of decision making. Patterns of growth and successional dynamics of plant and animal communities must be harmonized with cultural, economic and political objectives. Since most forests in the world are primarily owned by the state, policy-makers, forest economists and foresters have historically viewed forests primarily as a source of national revenue with timber as the dominant product. This view is undergoing a radical change. Awareness is now growing of the use of forests other than to generate revenue for the state; of forestry products other than timber - collectively referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFP); and of needs other than those of the industry - especially needs of communities dependent on forests for their survival. -Authors
 
Article
Forest thinnings implemented through cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting followed by underburning were evaluated for their effects on long-term downed and dead fuels accumulations in pure, uneven-aged Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) accompanied by isolated California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana [Gord.] Lemm.). Based on an initial inventory consisting of dry weight and fuel bed depth measurements conducted posttreatment, accumulations in the cut-to-length treatment were elevated according to most measures. Burned stand portions exhibited smaller quantities of fuels initially in individual timelag categories and in total as well as reduced fuel bed depths compared to their unburned counterparts except for the 1,000-hr fuels in the whole-tree treatment where postburn mortality of small stems nullified this effect. A linkage between initial mortality resulting from prescribed fire and final 1,000-hr fuels, as measured 8 yr later, was established but was probably attributable to combined thinning and burning effects. Over the course of the study, either greater accruals or diminished reductions in loading were apparent within burned stand portions compared to unburned portions, most notably in the whole-tree treatment. Results presented here provide insight into potentially compromised fuels reduction outcomes when implemented in uneven-aged stands on dry forest sites.
 
Article
The government of Indonesia allocated state land to private companies to establish forest plantations. However, ownership of this land was contested by some Sumatran communities. The plantation company, endorsed by the government, quickly developed a partnership to resolve the conflict, but this was unclear and inequitable. Action research was carried out to facilitate communication among stakeholders. This communicative action changed some perceptions and shared values began to emerge. A forum was established, which contributed to equitability producing a better partnership. This research is a model for empowering local communities in climate change, bioenergy, and food security negotiations.
 
Article
Rural communities in the developing world contexts are heavily reliant on the environment for their livelihoods, often resulting in reduction in forest and woodland tree cover and species diversity. This article provides indicative data at two threatened tropical forest and woodland sites in northeastern South Africa. Woody individuals and species were quantified at 1-ha sample plots both close to and away from adjacent villages, and the data analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Surprisingly, for a developing world context, results suggest that the forests are in a good state of conservation. Management factors likely to be responsible are discussed.
 
Percentage of 7-Year-Old Loblolly Pine Trees in Various Ice Storm Damage Classes in Site 1 Rectangular Alley Configurations, West-Central Arkansas 
Graphic representation of loblolly pine stems (heavy lines) bent from the ice storm: 1st order (left), 2nd order (middle), and sigmoid (right) shapes. Angle of stem deflection was measured as indicated by dashed lines.  
Article
Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taedaL.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in rectangular and multi-row configurations. Wider tree spacing or lower stand density of 7-year-old trees increased stem breakage, while closer spacing increased bending. There was substantial straightening of bent 7-year-old trees 8 months after the storm, and this recovery was determined more by degree of initial bend rather than height or diameter. Nine-year-old loblolly pine had 19% more top breakage and 59% more stem breakage than shortleaf pine (P. echinataMill.) (P < 0.001). Agroforestry design influenced ice damage in 7-year-old stands, but no design had catastrophic loss. Thinning from above caused an increased susceptibility of ice damage to a 17-year-old stand compared to a nonthinned stand. The case study supports the cultivation of loblolly pine in areas prone to ice damage.
 
Article
The study was undertaken to develop agrotechniques for raising short-rotation, high-density (SRHD) energy plantations as a renewable energy source by using planting densities of 10,000 and 14,000 plants/ha. Under Species × Spacing × Fertilizers (N:P:K), the effect of fertilizers was more evident on plant height than on stem diameter. The species as Grevillea robusta, Bauhinia variegata, and Eucalyptus showed the most statistically significant vertical and radial growth in both of the spacings. The N:P:K::50:25:25 kg/ha produced statistically significant growth. The photosynthesis rate, as recorded, showed that Salix tetrasperma had high rates of CO2 assimilation but poor aerial growth.The photosynthetic rate under varying fertilizer treatments remained unchanged, but the biomass improved significantly. In G. robusta, excellent aerial growth was observed despite a low rate of photosynthesis (even at low water potential). The dry weight of Eucalyptus was recorded (60 and 233 t/ha; spacing 1 m × 1 m and 1 m × 0.71 m) after 3 yr. After 10 yr, the highest dry weight was recorded again in Eucalyptus at 1,471.44 t/ha. The lowest moisture content (36–38%) was recorded in Morus alba, while the highest moisture content was recorded in Eucalyptus (66–70%). In all tested species, G. robusta (26%) showed the maximum calorific value.
 
Article
Subsistence landholders in southern Togo are interested in planting teak on their land for income generation. The purpose of this study was to determine how smallholder farmers could allocate land among maize, cassava, and teak plantings in order to optimize financial returns. A linear programming model was developed to calculate the optimal land allocation for maize, cassava, and teak. The model was solved for five farmer types using 15- and 30-yr teak rotations, with timber priced at alternative market and government market prices, and with discount (real interest) rates of 8, 11, and 15%. The analyses indicate that growing teak is profitable for most smallholders if grown on a 15-yr rotation and sold on the alternative market. For Land Rich-Labor Poor farmers, teak is profitable under all regimes.
 
Land-Use Systems Evaluated per Ecosystem.
Land Use Change (last 50 years). Tropical Andean Hillsides.
Article
Tropical America (TA) holds 8% of the world's population, 11% of the world's continental area, 23% and 22%, respectively, of the world's forest and water resources, and 13% of the world's pasture and agro-pastoral land, this representing 77% of TA's agricultural land. Recent interest in carbon sequestration and preliminary research suggest that well-managed pasture systems in TA could provide a good combination of economic production, poverty reduction, recovery of degraded areas and delivery of environmental services, particularly, carbon sequestration. This paper presents 3-year research results generated by the "Carbon Sequestration Project, The Netherlands Cooperation CO-01002" on soil carbon stocks (SCS) for a range of pasture and silvo-pastoral systems prevalent in agro-ecosystems of TA compared to native forest and degraded land. In the tropical Andean hillsides, Colombia (1350-1900 m.a.s.l., 1800 mm rainfall/yr, 14-18°C mean annual temperature, medium to high slopes, medium fertility soils), SCS from Brachiaria decumbens pastures were statistically lower than those from native forest, but higher than those from natural regeneration of a degraded pasture (fallow land), degraded pasture and mixed-forage bank. In contrast, in the humid tropical forest of the Atlantic Coast, Costa Rica (200 m.a.s.l., 28-35°C, 3500 mm/year, poor acid soils), pasture or silvo-pastoral systems with native or planted pasture species such as Ischaemum ciliare, Brachiaria brizantha + Arachis pintoi and Acacia mangium + Arachis pintoi showed statistically higher SCS than native forest. Similar rankings were found in the humid tropical forest of Amazonia, Colombia (800 m.a.s.l., 30-42°C, 4200 mm/yr, flat, very poor acid soils) where improved Brachiaria pastures (monoculture and legume-associated) showed statistically higher SCS than native forest. In the sub-humid tropical forest of the Pacific Coast, Costa Rica (200 m.a.s.l., 6-month dry season, 2200 mm/year, poor acid soils) no statistical differences in SCS were found between land-use systems. In tropical ecosystems, improved pasture and silvo-pastoral systems show comparable or even higher SCS than those from native forests, depending on climatic and environmental conditions (altitude, temperature, precipitation, topography and soil), and represent attractive alternatives as C-improved systems.
 
Article
Forest thinnings implemented with cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting systems followed by underburning were evaluated for their effects on bark beetle prevalence in pure, uneven-aged Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) interspersed with isolated California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana [Gord.] Lemm.). Based on pitch tube counts in a stand with a moderate bark beetle population in its pine component, the Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins) generally preferred larger trees before treatment implementation, but after exhibiting mixed pretreatment tendencies concerning stand density demonstrated a posttreatment proclivity toward higher density. Cut-to-length thinning followed by underburning increased the pine beetle population while whole-tree thinning unaccompanied by burning reduced it. Tree mortality was induced by the bark beetle infestation but was not its sole cause. Pitch tube abundance on white fir far exceeded that on Jeffrey pine, and the greatest influence on the fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) population was the prevalence of its host tree. The responses presented herein to these thinning and burning practices, which are being increasingly utilized in forest restoration efforts in the western USA, provide natural resource managers insight into potential forest health outcomes when implemented in Jeffrey pine and similar dry site forest types.
 
Article
Forest thinnings implemented with cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting systems followed by prescribed underburning were evaluated for their effects on red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens LeConte) colonization in pure, uneven-aged Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.). Based on pitch tube abundance expressed as bole surface area-based counts, this beetle was significantly more prevalent where thinnings were implemented regardless of harvesting approach than in the unthinned treatment, but the population increases were confined to the burned stand portions. Substantial evidence indicated that fire-induced crown and bole damage culminating in compromised defense mechanisms elevated turpentine beetle colonization, and some evidence suggested a proclivity of this beetle to attack stems exhibiting general characteristics of low vigor, specifically smaller trees with weak crowns. Tree mortality was likely induced by the turpentine beetle infestation but was probably not its sole cause. The responses presented herein to these thinning and burning practices, which are being increasingly relied upon in forest restoration efforts in the western USA, provide natural resource managers insight into potentially compromised forest health outcomes over the intermediate term when implemented in Jeffrey pine and similar dry site forest types.
 
Height (A), stem diameter (B) and dry mass (c) of shoot of Eucalyptus urograndis after three months of cultivation in a Hapludalf soil. Vertical bars indicates the standard deviation (n=6). Each point represents a mean value for the two soil bulk densities.  
Values of pH-H 2 O (A) and exchangeable Al (B) in a Hapludalf soil after amendment with fertilizers and cultivated with Eucalyptus urograndis for three months. Vertical bars indicates the standard deviation (n=6).  
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a compost of bovine ruminal residues to improve soil fertility and initial growth of eucalyptus cultivated in acid soil. Eucalyptus was cultivated in pots with a Hapludalf amended with 0 (Control 1), 5, 10, and 15 m3compost ha−1, and with only liming and mineral fertilization (Control 2). The compost enhanced all evaluated parameters of plant growth and soil and plant chemical analysis; overcoming, or at least equalizing to results from the Control 2. The compost can be used as alternative to liming and mineral fertilization in Eucalyptus urograndis plantations in acid soils of the Brazilian Pampa.
 
Article
Immersed in natural resource policy approaches such as ecosystem management is the expectation that the best available science will be applied so that the best policy management decision will result. Citizens, like scientists and land managers, want natural resource management decisions based on good science rather than special interest group politics. Yet citizens also want to be involved in the decision process and are skeptical about the very science they claim must be the basis for policy actions. Herein lies an apparent paradox. Citizens' want the best science to guide natural resource management decisions, but not to the exclusion of their input. Similarly, there seems to be a paradox in the sentiments expressed by natural resource management agency administrators and specialists. Agency personnel know they need meaningful citizen involvement in their management decisions, but they also want citizens to trust their scientific expertise. This paper is about that paradox and innovative ways to work through it. We first discuss the nature of natural resource conflict, then address the paradox in some depth. A discussion of traditional public participation precedes innovative methods for working through the paradox.
 
In vitro rooting response in Q. serrata microshoots through two-step rooting method: (a) exposure of auxins for short period of time (24, 48, or 72 hr), cultures were placed in dark; (b) in vitro rooting response 30 days after transfer in to 0.5-strength WP basal medium without basal callus formation; (c) in vitro derived plant after transfer to thermocol cups (kept inside culture room covered with transparent polybags to maintain humidity); and (d) well-developed in vitro grown plant of Q. serrata facing direct sunlight . 
Shoot multiplication response in Q. serrata through nodal explants derived from in vitro grown seedlings: (a) seed germination in WP basal medium (6 weeks old); (b) influence of TDZ supplemented medium on shoot multiplication; (c) effect of 2-ip on shoot multiplication; (d) shoot proliferation in WP medium supplemented with BA (4.44 μ M); (e) shoot multiplication response in WP medium fortified with BA + IAA (8.88 + 1.43 μ M); and (f) shoot multiplication response in WP medium + BA + IAA (8.88 + 1.43 μ M) along with CH (500 mg L − 1 ). Bars represent 1-cm scale. 
Synergistic effect of growth adjuvants on shoot multiplication. Vertical bars represent mean values ± standard error of three replicates with 12 explants per treatment-BA + IAA: shoot multiplication medium without any growth adjuvant; BA + IAA + CH: shoot multiplication medium containing casein hydrolysate (CH: 500 mg L −1 ); and BA + IAA + SN: shoot multiplication medium containing silver nitrate (SN: 5 mg L −1 ).
Article
An efficient micropropagation protocol has been developed for tasar oak. Nodal segments from In Vitro grown seedling were used for shoot multiplication. Best shoot multiplication response, in terms of number of shoots per explant as well as shoot length, was obtained in woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine and indole-3-acetic acid (8.88 μM BA + 1.43 μM IAA); but the establishment of cultures was difficult due to basal callus formation and necrosis in due course of time. Out of the two used growth adjuvants, casein hydrolysate (CH, 500 mg L−1) promoted shoot multiplication rate significantly in comparison to silver nitrate and also eliminated the basal callus formation problem and necrosis faced during the later stage of shoot proliferation. In Vitro rooting on WP medium supplemented with 100 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) when applied for 48 hr gave the best results in comparison to prolonged exposure. Well-acclimatized plantlets were transferred to the field with 80% survival rate. This protocol could be useful not only to propagate and conserve this oak but can also uplift the socioeconomic status of the Himalayan people as its leaves are used to feed the tasar silk worm during rearing period. This method will also be helpful for propagation of high value trees for a reforestation program.
 
Article
This article identifies four models of park management that apply where indigenous people mix with migrant settlers in developing countries: (a) coercive conservation; (b) community-based conservation; (c) ancestral domain; and (d) European-style landscape park. Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park in Palawan Island, the Philippines, has evolved through all four types. While legal recognition of indigenous peoples' land rights has improved their relative position vis-agrave-vis their migrant neighbors, it has not equalized their lack of access to political and economic resources. This deficit prevents them from capturing full benefits from the forest, and consequently undermines their capacity and incentive to conserve forest resources. We argue that indigenous peoples' property rights and access to assets must be sufficiently secure for them to actively participate in park management and share in its benefits. This leads to the conclusion that the most effective and just form of park management is a blend of community-based conservation, ancestral domain, and landscape park.
 
Article
Community forestry is expanding in developing countries but there is limited knowledge of, and contradictory findings about, its contribution to biodiversity conservation. This study aims at increasing the understanding of tree species diversity in community forests compared to National Parks. A forest inventory was carried out in four community forests and one National Park in the mid-hills of central Nepal. The study found that community forestry has contributed to high tree species diversity where forest management communities have interests in multiple species, but most community forests are moving toward promoting limited timber yielding species that have high economic value. Linking community forestry with economic incentives for conserving multiple tree species could therefore be a strategy to conserve biodiversity outside of protected areas.
 
(Continued) 
Article
Colonial governments asserted sovereignty and property rights gradually over the territory of Guyana, disregarding preexisting Indigenous Rights. Although a Forest Department modeled on the Indian Forest Service was established, there was no equivalent settlement process to determine the rights of forest peoples. State Forest area is declared by administrative fiat. These two elements have enabled State-endorsed forestland grabbing. Logging was scattered and selective until the early 1980s. A neoliberal economic program from the 1980s has allowed Asian companies to gain control over at least 80% of large-scale forestry concessions, equivalent to one-third of the 15.8 million hectares (Mha) of State-administered public forests. The relative success of the Asian companies can be understood in terms of available capital, willingness to invest, knowledge of markets, and willingness to corrupt. The relative failure of the preexisting Guyanese-owned businesses can be understood in terms of lack of capital, inability to save and unwillingness to invest, lack of knowledge of marketing, and lack of cooperation within the sector. Some conclusions from the Guyana story are relevant to other countries related to resource-hungry transnational enterprises.
 
Article
An investigation of wildfire effects on mineral nutrition of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) along with species comparisons of the nutrition of unburned specimens of this pine to those of unburned California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana [Gord.] Lemm.) were conducted in an eastern Sierran mixed conifer stand. Foliar Fe and Mn concentrations were frequently higher and Al was consistently so in burned than in the unburned pine as assessed in six sampling periods distributed over more than two postfire growing seasons while base cation/metallic element molar ratios consisting of Ca/Al, K/Al, K/Mn, Ca/Fe, Mg/Fe, K/Fe, and Ca/Zn were often lower in the former. Foliar N, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were frequently higher in unburned pine than unburned fir while the reverse proved true concerning K, Ca, Mn, B, and Al; and likewise several molar ratios involving Al and Mn were higher in the former while several involving Fe, Zn, and Cu were higher in the latter. At midstudy, mineral soil in the burned stand portion had lower K but higher S, Mn, and Zn than that in the unburned portion, and the former had several molar ratios that were lower as well.
 
Article
Growth in crop production in many developing economies continues to require new land to be converted and brought into production. In addition, "marginal" land expansion appears to serve as an outlet for the rural poor. Evidence shows that the rural poor are increasingly concentrated in low productivity and fragile environments. Cross-country analysis of tropical agricultural land expansion supports these links between agricultural development and land conversion. In addition, corruption appears to be an important factor in affecting tropical land conversion, both directly and through interaction with the terms of trade. An increase in agricultural land expansion in the long run is also associated with a lower level of per capita income across developing economies. Those economies who have expanded agricultural land area have not achieved greater economy-wide gains compared to economies with little agricultural land expansion. Rent-seeking and corruption, reinforced by policies, contribute both to excessive land conversion and the concentration of the poor in low-productive, marginal lands. The result is the tendency for the gains from converting highly valuable land resources to benefit mainly wealthy elites, thus exacerbating problems of inequality and rural poverty while at the same time impeding economy-wide development.
 
(a) Culture showing bud-breaking responses after 7 days of culture initiation; (b) culture exhibits induction of multiple shoot after 4 weeks; (c) multiplication of shoots after 2 weeks in liquid medium showing profuse regeneration; (d) further growth of the regenerated multiple shoots after 4 weeks of culture initiation; (e) rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots in 3 week-old cultures; (f–h) acclimatization and hardening processes of in vitro regenerated plantlets. 
Article
A highly efficient, stable, and cost-effective micropropagation protocol for the conservation of a medicinal plant Turnera ulmifolia L. was established from nodal tissues via multiple axillary shoot proliferation on using Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) liquid nutrient medium. To begin with, nodal explants were placed on agar gelled medium amended with 2.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg L−1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) for shoot induction. Subsequently, elongation of regenerated shoots could be possible on liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L−1 BAP and Kin (kinetin) each along with 0.1 mg L−1 IAA where high frequency of regeneration in terms of number of shoots (47.2 shoots/explant) was achieved. Furthermore, long and healthy shoots (4−5 cm in length) were rooted on agar gelled half-strength of MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). Finally, in vitro regenerated plantlets were gradually acclimatized in the greenhouse and transferred to the field successfully.
 
Article
During the past decade, NTFPs have begun to appear on mainstream scientific research agendas in a variety of disciplines. Development of a strong NTFP research capacity will require the construction of links between on-going and emerging NTFP research programs focused on U.S. NTFP issues, establishment of strong ties to international NTFP research programs, and the use of interdisciplinary and collaborative research approaches. Understanding forests as biophysical systems that also include humans will enhance the effectiveness and relevance of U.S.-oriented NTFP research efforts.
 
Article
The non-timber forest products industry in the Pacific Northwest has been viable for nearly a century. Although it is a small part of the regional economy, the industry involves many people in the region and products are exported worldwide. Harvest of non-timber forest products has become more scrutinized as landowners, forest managers, and harvesters struggle to meet their sometimes conflicting needs and requirements, and deal with growing demand for many wild products. Much of the research on non-timber forest products has focused on biology and ecology, although there has been some research on the social and economic aspects of non-timber forest products over the past several decades. There are several social and economic studies of the industry that are underway or just being completed in the Pacific Northwest. Current research includes studies on product yield, market surveys, price analysis, product management and silviculture, recreational use, and policy analysis. Recommendations for future research are outlined. The non-timber forest product industry is a highly varied and frequently changing industry, with issues ranging from biological sustainability to equity. Social and economic research helps resolve questions surrounding management, harvesting, production and marketing of these highly demanded and often poorly understood products.
 
Article
As people become more interested in personal health and family activities, demand for wild forest products has increased. This increased demand coupled with an increased concern for sustainable m anagement practices has focused attention on the variety of issues and products involved in the non-timber forest products industry. Forest management organizations have gradually increased funding for research and management of non-timber forest products over the past two decades. The broad categories of U.S. non-timber forest products include floral greens, Christmas greens, ornamentals and craft materials, wild edibles, medicinals, ceremonials/culturals, and native transplants. The increase in resource pressure has had many policy reactions, including restricted access, harvesting fees, and harvest limits. Opportunities for public input to policy decisions on federal, state and private land are often unclear or nonexistent. Researchers, managers, and policy makers are working to understand the multitude of issues surrounding non-timber forest products, including biology, management, public policy and equity issues.
 
Article
Intraspecific variation in useful tree species is a requirement for any improvement program. Fruits of P. nitida were collected from seven different sources along its geographic range in Nigeria; metrical traits of seeds and resulting seedlings were assessed as well as the biomass. There were significant (p ≤ .05) differences in seed metrical traits of length, width, and weight. Seeds from J4 had the highest germination percentage of 95%, while Ore had the lowest percentage of 70. Highest mean values of 2.22 g, 3.11 cm, and 95 for weight, length, and number of seeds per pod, respectively, were obtained from Edo seeds. There were significant (p ≤ .05) differences in seedlings height, collar diameter, number of leaves, internodes, stem dry weight, root dry weight, leaf dry weight, total dry weight, and leaf area among the sources. The highest mean values of 4.33 cm (collar diameter), 2.31 cm (internodes length), were obtained from Edo collection. Other seedling traits and biomass indices were highest in J4 provenance. J4 seedlings had the highest average relative growth rate (RGR) values of 0.0450 gg−1 wk−1 while Etemi seedlings had the highest average net assimilation rate (NAR) value of 0.0063 g2 wk−1. J4 propagule had the best overall performance and is therefore recommended as a seed source for the improvement and conservation of Picralima nitida.
 
Article
Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well water(control) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA. During Aug. 2006, we tested for differences in total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, and Pb concentration in preplanting and harvest soils; and in leaf, woody (stems + branches), and root tissue. Other than N, leachate did not increase the soil concentration of elements relative to preplanting levels. There was broad genotypic variation for tissue concentrations, with clone-specific uptake for most elements. Nitrogen, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, and Mn concentrations were greatest in leaves and least in woody tissue, while those of Fe, Cu, and Al were greatest in roots and least in leaves and woody tissue. Overall, successful uptake of nutrients without impacts to tree health validated the use of landfill leachate as an irrigation and fertilization source for Populus.
 
Effects of phosphates on net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of oil tea seedlings. Error bars indicate the standard deviations. Different letters above or below standard error bars indicate significant difference at p < .05.
Effects of phosphates on Fv/Fm (a), Fv'/Fm' (b), yield (c), and qP (d) in oil tea seedling leaves. Data are the means of six replicates. Error bars indicate the standard deviations. Different letters above or below standard error bars indicate significant difference at p < .05. 
Article
Phosphorus (P) is a limiting factor in Camelia oleifera production as P is easily fixed by iron and aluminium oxides in acidic red soils. To better understand sparingly soluble and organic P utilization by oil tea in these soils, the growth and physiological responses of C. oleifera seedlings and P contents in soil and plants were investigated under Al-P, Ca-P, Fe-P, and O-P treatments. Plant growth was increased significantly when Ca-P was added, followed by Al-P and Fe-P. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was increased for all P-treated seedlings, and P treatments except for Fe-P also increased SPAD values. Ca-P, Al-P, and Fe-P treatments increased Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', yield, and qP (photochemical quenching). Ca-P and Al-P increased available P the most, while Fe-P increased TP the most in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Available P level in rhizosphere soil was significantly higher than that in non-rhizosphere soil. P treatments significantly increased P content in all plant samples. These results demonstrated that Al-P and Ca-P can be effectively utilized by oil tea seedlings in acidic red soils, suggesting that sparingly soluble inorganic P is the main source of plant P in unfertilized soil.
 
Article
Insects are ectotherms that cannot regulate their own temperature, and thus rely on and are at the disposal of the surrounding environment. In this study, long-term climatic data are used to stratify forested regions of Alaska into climatic zones based on temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation are shown to be important ecological drivers in determining the distribution of aspen leaf minor (Phyllocnistis populiella Chambers) and the aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) host in the state of Alaska. Climatic regions based on temperatures and precipitation accounted for 83 to 97% of the variability in the probability of observing aspen and the aspen leaf minor (ALM). The frequency of observing aspen was highest throughout the central region of the state, which represents a climate with low to moderate levels of precipitation and cold to mild temperatures. The highest probability of observing aspen was in the mild-very cold region of the state. The probability of observing ALM in a given climate zone followed a pattern similar to aspen. Differences were in the colder and drier climate zones where the probability of observing ALM decreased to near zero. The derived climatic models could be used to provide a basis for the analysis of climatic impacts on the distribution of forest insects throughout the state.
 
Soil Classification by the Brazilian System (SBCS-Brazilian Society of Soil Science), Regional Denomination (Unit), and by the Soil Taxonomy 
Soil Carbon Sequestration in the 14 Studied Sites in Southeast Bahia, Brazil, by Group of Soil Classes 
Article
Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia, Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is aimed to classify soils under cacao agroforestry and further, to quantify carbon stocks in these soil profiles. Soil classification was performed, and the amount of C stored was estimated, based on the thickness of the soil horizons, their bulk density, and total organic carbon stored. In the sites studied under cacao, four general classes of soils were identified: Ultisols, Oxisols, Alfisols, and Inceptisols. Carbon stocks in these soil profiles showed wide variation, ranging from 719.24 to 2089.93 Mg ha−1. Carbon stocks in soil surface and subsurface layers in different agroforestry systems with cacao (cacao cabruca, cacao × rubber tree, and cacao × erythrina) were comparable; however, total storage of organic C in these soils was higher than expected, compared to values reported for the International Soil Reference and Information Center (ISRIC), based on the FAO-UNESCO database, and were also higher than estimated regional soil data.
 
Article
The white-winged guan (Penelope albipennis, Cracidae), thought extinct until 1979, today numbers Cordia lutea (Boraginaceae) was the primary fruit consumed of the eight species of seeds collected from droppings. Collected seeds were sown in pots under nursery conditions and monitored for germination. Germination rates of passed seeds for Cordia lutea were compared to those that had been collected from a control group of trees. Germination was significantly different between fecal and control seeds, suggesting the plant germinated better after passing through the guans alimentary tract. The identification of flower structures, and digested seeds in feces show that guans can be effective fruit and flower predators. This study provides further information regarding the diet for conservation of the white-winged guan and suggests the bird may aid seed germination in some instances and may act as a predator in others.
 
Article
The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of the eastern United States, alongside timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and significantly with hardwood forest area, hardwood growing stock volume, and timber removals. Also, it correlated with hardwood growing stock on public forestlands in the region. The annual wholesale value of American ginseng was estimated at approximately $26.9 million compared to annual stumpage value of harvested hardwood timber of just over $1.27 billion. The volume of ginseng root harvested from natural forests represents substantial extraction of biomass, and the associated value represents substantial income for people living in an economically marginalized region. Co-management of eastern hardwood forests for timber and non-timber forest products could improve local economies and better conserve the biodiversity of these forests.
 
Article
Forest governance has received considerable attention in recent years because good governance in community forestry is deemed to be one way of harnessing its potentiality to contribute to poverty reduction. This study aims to examine forest governance by assessing whether the executive committees of Nepal's Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) are inclusive in terms of gender, caste, and wealth class. The study relies on primary data from 84 CFUGs in five different districts of Nepal, where structured questionnaires were used for collecting information. The findings suggest that the executive committees are more or less inclusive of gender and wealth class, and the project-supported CFUGs tend to have more executive members that are either female, or poor. Inclusive committees in a CFUG may not reflect good governance, as there is a chance that marginalized groups will be exploited in the name of inclusion. Therefore, there is a need to build capacity of marginalized groups before asking them to represent in the executive committees of CFUGs.
 
Article
Medicinal plants are widely used in India for various livelihood and health benefits. However, there is a lack of awareness and research on their carbon sequestration and economical potential, which constrains their use in various ongoing carbon forestry schemes precluding farmers from potential carbon revenue opportunities. The present study seeks to fill this knowledge gap by assessing the carbon sequestration and economic potential of three extensively used medicinal tree species of Emblica officinalis (Amla), Terminalia belerica (Bahera), and Terminalia chebula (Harar) in the state of Sikkim with the help of the project-based comprehensive mitigation assessment process (PROCOMAP) model. The findings of this research suggest that the selected species of Amla, Bahera, and Harar have significant carbon sequestration rates of 1, 2.64, and 1.42 tC ha−1 yr−1, which could generate Indian National Rupees (INR) 844, 1,198, and 2,228 ha−1 yr−1, respectively from carbon revenues in a $5/tCO2 scenario through various ongoing carbon forestry schemes.
 
Estimates of variance (clonal and residual) and clonal heritability (H c 2 ) of height 
Estimates of variance (clonal and residual) and clonal heritability (H c 2 ) of annual 
Genotypic correlation between root collar diameter of white spruce somatic clones during the two growing stages in the nursery (1 + 0, 2 + 0) and diameter 4 yr after outplanting at Grandes-Piles and Saint-Modeste. 
Nursery-Plantation Genotypic Correlation for the Height of White Spruce Clones Produced by Somatic Embryogenesis. The Values in Parentheses Represent the Standard Errors of the Genotypic Correlations
Article
Height and diameter of white spruce clones were measured over two growing seasons in a forest nursery and for 4 more yr at two field sites. Clonal heritability (Hc2) was moderate and stable in the nursery, but decreased with age, reaching 0.26 and 0.11 for height and 0.14 and 0.04 for diameter, respectively, at the two field sites. Height exhibited weak to moderate Hc2 and strong genotypic correlations with the different growth characteristics. The strong age-age genotypic correlations (≥0.809) and nursery-plantation correlations (≥0.347) for height indicate that selection for height can be conducted at a young age thus reducing the costs of clonal tests.
 
Article
This research explores the activities of community institutions in achieving sustainable forest management (SFM) and sustained forest cover. Three institutions representing the administrative, economic, and social/traditional institutions were identified. The institutions had 30 forest management activities and satisfied about 66% of SFM Criteria and Indicators. A loss of 122 ha of forest cover was estimated over the last 30 yr, attributed to conversion of forests to built-up areas. Cooperative culture and economic incentives, among others, influenced institutions’ effectiveness and collective behavior toward achieving SFM. Coordinated strategies that can increase wood demand will motivate forest owners toward SFM.
 
Article
In the past three decades, new trends have been influencing the field of forest economics. For example, the optimal rotation literature has focused increasingly on risk and uncertainty analysis and there has been a steady increase in the number of economic studies regarding tropical deforestation. In this article, it is investigated whether the emergence of these topics is reflected in relevant textbooks of the discipline. Moreover, some structural textbook attributes are analyzed and compared, namely the use of illustrative elements and pedagogical aids. Our results show that one can clearly recognize a steady development in the texts.
 
Article
Process in community-based ecosystem management (CBEM) involves a fundamental reframing of human relationships with each other and with other ecosystem components. Inherent to this re-framing is a respect for diversity and for different ways of knowing, a willingness to meet others on their own terms, and a willingness to respect others' knowledge even while openly sharing one's own. CBEM process is characterized by an embracing of diverse cultural and social groups within a community, equal access to and open exchange of information, mutual learning, flexibility, and collective vision. CBEM process also is impeded by long-standing power imbalances inherent in our culture and in our governance systems. Overcoming these power imbalances will not be easy, and CBEM faces a number of process challenges. These include: lack of incentives for some parties to participate, traditionally disempowered groups, administrative bureaucracy, and legitimacy. To be sustainable, CBEM process ultimately will have to integrate the key dimensions of inclusiveness, accessibility, transparency, mutual learning, adaptability, and collective vision within existing social and governance processes.
 
National forest cover change in China from 1976 to 2013
Regression results for forest cover change at the provincial level during 1978-2013
Article
China has undergone forest transition at the national level during the past decades. Previous studies, which have used econometric models with restrictive assumptions of slope homogeneity across provinces, might present statistically biased results on provincial forest cover change. This paper aims to examine whether provincial forest cover changes follow the same path in China by using an up-to-date panel data on forest cover rates for 29 provincial regions from 1978 to 2013 and an econometric model allowing for slope heterogeneity across provinces. Empirical results suggest that forest cover changed along U-shaped curves in most provinces, but there is no “one size fit all” curve for these provinces, whose forest cover rates at the forest transition point ranged from less than 1% to more than 40% and per capita GDPs varied from 2,114 CNY to 28,403 CNY (in 2013 CNY). In future study, both similarities and differences in forest cover change across provinces should be taken into account, main provincial contributors of national forest cover change needs to be identified, and an extended model that incorporates more explanatory variables affecting deforestation, reforestation or afforestation should be adopted to comprehensively investigate the mechanism underlying forest cover change in China.
 
Article
Information on land use and cover changes (LUCC) is important for planning of conservation and development and thus ensure forest sustainability. The current paper assesses LUCC for the whole of the mainland Tanzania. The analyses were done using land use and cover maps covering the whole of mainland Tanzania for 1995 and 2010. For 1995, forest, bushland, grassland, cultivation and other land use and cover (built up areas, bare land, etc.) covered 43.5%, 19.8%, 23.5%, 11.2%, and 2.0% of the study area, respectively. For 2010, the same land use and cover classes covered 38.0%, 14.5%, 6.9%, 36.5%, and 4.1% of the study area, respectively. The annual rate of deforestation was 320,067 ha, which is equivalent to 0.9%. Bushland and grassland were lost at 313,745 and 969,982 ha/year, respectively. Most forest was converted to cultivation and least to other land use and cover. In conclusion, the net changes were deforestation and loss of bushland and grassland primarily due to expansion of cultivation. Further research on how to reduce or halt expansion of cultivation may shed light on improving sustainability of forest, bushland, and grassland in mainland Tanzania.
 
Article
Illegal logging is a significant problem in Indonesia, which is one of the few countries with a large forest area. In this paper, we study factors that affect harvesting and supply of illegal timber from Indonesia to China and Japan. We also look at factors that lead to demand of Indonesian illegal timber from China and Japan. A simultaneous-equation econometric model of illegally logged timber demand and supply is developed and tested using annual data over the period 1996–2010. We find that corruption and decentralization in Indonesia have significant and positive impact on illegally logged timber supply while excess demand in Japanese construction and furniture industries as well as Japan’s housing starts are significant factors affecting illegal logging in Indonesia. Law enforcement or policies aimed at reducing illegal harvesting in Indonesia are found to be more effective than policies targeting the import of illegal logged timber into Japan and China.
 
Article
Forests are seen as climate mitigation mechanisms by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In addition, their importance in the sustainable development paradigm has been confirmed through their inclusion in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs are designed to provide a global orientation towards inclusive and sustainable development, yet their implementation presents new challenges for forestry practitioners. This paper uses an ethnographic case study to examine a forestry based carbon-offsetting project in Mato Grosso, Brazil, and uses several SDGs to analyse the level of project success. The project was created to offset the emissions from the construction of the new football stadium built for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Mato Grosso and therefore attracted international attention. The project provides analytical points for a discussion on how forestry based carbon-offsetting fits within the wider discussion on sustainable development and how the success of project outcomes can be influenced in several key areas.
 
Article
The R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32-ha pine-hardwood forest in southeastern Arkansas, U.S.A., that originated from diameter-limit cutting of the virgin forest before 1915. In 1935, these 32 ha were reserved from timber management. Between 1937 and 1993, eight inventories were taken of all living trees > 9-cm DBH, using 2.5-cm DBH classes within three species groups: Pins spp., Quercus spp., and other hardwoods. In 1994, all standing dead snags of pines and hardwoods > 9-cm DBH were inventoried by 2.5-cm DBH classes. During 56 years, the overstory pine-hardwood ratio remained stable in terms of relative basal area, but pine density decreased with a commensurate increase in hardwood density. In 1993, pines represented 63% of basal area but only 23% of stem density. Just before the 1993 inventory, a pine bark-beetle infestation developed on the area, and within one year the pines lost about 2.5 m2/ha in basal area and had 180% more snags than were contributed by hardwoods. The overstory pine component is decreasing in density as a result of natural senescence and the allogenic effects of bark beetles. Hardwood species are expected to eventually dominate the forest because shade-intolerant pine regeneration will not develop to maturity beneath the closed hardwood canopy which can be altered only by catastrophic natural disturbances or anthropogenic intervention.
 
Article
Oaks (Quercus sp.) account for nearly one-third of the sawtimber harvest in Wisconsin. As trees age, their ability to respond to thinning is reduced; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether thinning previously unthinned oak stands of advanced age (≥60 yr) would achieve biological, financial, and operational objectives. During 2014, we conducted an inventory of 25 oak stands in northern Wisconsin. Fifteen received their first thinning 8–14 years ago at ages 60–78 years and ten had never been thinned. Stand-level volume growth, logging costs, and net present values were estimated for each site. The age and site index of the thinned and unthinned sites were not significantly different (p > 0.10). Thinned and unthinned sites grew comparable net volumes per ha (5.09 and 5.90 m3, respectively); however, because this growth was concentrated on fewer trees, the trees on the thinned sites responded vigorously to thinning. As age at first thinning increased, growth response was reduced (p = 0.067); however, thinning still increased the growth of residual trees. Thinned sites had higher net present values compared to unthinned sites (p < 0.01) and logging costs were 10.6% lower (p = 0.06). Overall, for stands between 60 and 78 years-old, thinning was beneficial financially, operationally and biologically.
 
Conversion coefficients to raw wood volume equivalent in wood consumption and trade volume calculation.
Variable explanations.
Initial regression result.
Final regression result.
Article
Trade barriers of forest products are often advocated in the name of protecting forest resources. Whether the promoting of trade of forest products will increase or decrease the global forest resources is still a matter of debate. We offer an assessment of how forest product trade helps shape observed forest change, by relating wood consumption change to trade of forest products based on cross-section data from 61 countries in 2010. The result shows that wood outputs have positive effects on wood consumption. Compared to domestic production, the result suggests that imports of forest products can help reduce wood consumption. This may indicate that trade liberalization can promote the allocation efficiency of timber resources across the global, which can improve the utilization efficiency and reduce the wood consumption in the world to protect the global forest resources. It is suggested that the high-efficient harvest and wood-processing technological transfer should be advocated in the international community to contribute to global forest conservation.
 
Article
Conservation and restoration measures which consider the participation of the local community are necessary to save the baobab trees from being vanished. This study was conducted to assess communities’ average willingness to pay and identify factors that determines households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation and restoration of baobab tree. The study used primary data obtained from a survey conducted on 192 randomly selected households. Double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) elicitation format of contingent valuation method was employed. The data were analyzed using a bivariate probit model. The response of households’ for the scenario indicated that the mean WTP for the conservation and restoration of baobab tree was found to be 105 birr per year per household. The results of the model revealed that household’s age, annual income of household head, marital status of household head, distance and awareness of household have positive and significant effect on WTP. On the other hand, bid values of have a significant negative effect on WTP indicating that Households that are provided with lower initial bid value are more likely to be willing to contribute for conservation. Improving the livelihood of households, creation of awareness and setting fair contribution need to be considered to enhance community’s participation in baobab tree conservation.
 
Analysis of variance (F-and p-values) of the effects of substrate and ectomycorrhizal inoculation on the growth parameters, relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, and total ectomycorrhizal colonization of 1-year-old bare-root Norway spruce seedlings.
Article
Nursery growth substrate and ectomycorrhizal symbiosis are important circumstances influencing seedling development. In this study, the effect of pre-sowing inoculation of pure peat and peat+perlite mixtures (2:1 and 1:1, v:v) with an ectomycorrhizal mycelium-bead inoculum prepared in the laboratory and commercial inoculum Ectovit on ectomycorrhiza formation, growth, and foliar nutrients concentration of 1-year-old bare-root Norway spruce seedlings was estimated. Seedlings grown in the substrates inoculated with bead inoculum had significantly larger shoot dry weight and slightly higher other growth parameters than those grown in non-inoculated and Ectovit-inoculated substrates. However, the use of inocula formed neither treatment-specific ectomycorrhizal morphotypes nor higher mycorrhization of roots compared to control. Ectomycorrhizae were most probably formed by naturally occurring fungi; nevertheless, based on the abundance of the morphotypes, any participation of the applied fungi in ectomycorrhiza formation and/or their non-nutritional effects is not excluded. Seedlings grown in peat+perlite (2:1) mixture were slightly higher-developed than those in the two other substrates, but significant effect of the substrates neither on seedling growth nor on ectomycorrhiza formation was detected. In all treatments, sufficient macroelements concentration in needles was found. The results suggest difficulties to reach a complex positive effect of ectomycorrhizal inoculation in operational conditions and its dependence on various circumstances. Full-text: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/q9ARCeM7n737VuWa3QFB/full
 
Article
Global efforts to combat climate change has led to the establishment of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program (REDD+). This study concerns the implementation of REDD+ among local landscapes and communities in Vietnam. How do affected forest-dependent households perceive their roles in sustainable forest management and REDD+ and how do these perceptions and attitudes influence the (potential) socio-ecological performance of REDD+? Two communes consisting of forest-dependent and indigenous communities in Central Vietnam were selected for this study–the former involved in the UN-REDD program and the latter involved in a REDD+ program of Fauna and Flora International (FFI). Here, we differentiated between a ‘do no harm’ and pro-carbon (UN-REDD), and pro-poor (FFI-REDD+) approach to REDD+. Employing an applied socio-ecological systems framework, we conducted household surveys (n = 102) and we adopted qualitative research methods. This study identified the importance of traditional ecological knowledge systems in sustainable forest management. While pro-poor REDD+ was more inclusive, both REDD+ programs in our study were implemented in a top down manner. Lastly, households’ attitudes and perceptions towards rulemaking, sanctioning, monitoring, cultural capital (beliefs and worldviews) and forest protection technology were identified as (potential) local drivers for successful REDD+ implementation in both communes.
 
Top-cited authors
Richard Everett
  • Washington State University
Bruce R Lippke
  • University of Washington Seattle
Allan Auclair
  • USDA APHIS ARS
Chadwick Oliver
  • Yale University
William Covington
  • Northern Arizona University