The model derives an equation of the value of forests from a dynamic optimizing framework. This equation gives the marginal social opportunity cost (MSOC) value of the forests, with value added as the numeraire. However, the shadow price is subject to the restrictive complementary slackness condition, which yields a zero shadow price whenever a constraint in not fully binding. To overcome this problem, we assume that value-added is valued at par only when there is no externality. In this formulation the shadow price is a cardinal index of the relative scarcity of the forests.
The econometric estimates of the shadow price of the forests and the resulting MSOC value of forests per hectare are obtained by a time trend model (Model 2) and an ARIMA model (Model 3). We regard the ARIMA model estimates to more representative of current conditions, and the estimated shadow price of the forests (in 1990) is a premium of the order of 25 to 32 percent. The corresponding MSOC value of a hectare of forest is between $350 to $412 in 1986 constant dollars. Naturally the estimates are subject to the limitations of the data.
Forest management is a complex process of decision making. Patterns of growth and successional dynamics of plant and animal communities must be harmonized with cultural, economic and political objectives. Since most forests in the world are primarily owned by the state, policy-makers, forest economists and foresters have historically viewed forests primarily as a source of national revenue with timber as the dominant product. This view is undergoing a radical change. Awareness is now growing of the use of forests other than to generate revenue for the state; of forestry products other than timber - collectively referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFP); and of needs other than those of the industry - especially needs of communities dependent on forests for their survival. -Authors
Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taedaL.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in rectangular and multi-row configurations. Wider tree spacing or lower stand density of 7-year-old trees increased stem breakage, while closer spacing increased bending. There was substantial straightening of bent 7-year-old trees 8 months after the storm, and this recovery was determined more by degree of initial bend rather than height or diameter. Nine-year-old loblolly pine had 19% more top breakage and 59% more stem breakage than shortleaf pine (P. echinataMill.) (P < 0.001). Agroforestry design influenced ice damage in 7-year-old stands, but no design had catastrophic loss. Thinning from above caused an increased susceptibility of ice damage to a 17-year-old stand compared to a nonthinned stand. The case study supports the cultivation of loblolly pine in areas prone to ice damage.
The study was undertaken to develop agrotechniques for raising short-rotation, high-density (SRHD) energy plantations as a renewable energy source by using planting densities of 10,000 and 14,000 plants/ha. Under Species × Spacing × Fertilizers (N:P:K), the effect of fertilizers was more evident on plant height than on stem diameter. The species as Grevillea robusta, Bauhinia variegata, and Eucalyptus showed the most statistically significant vertical and radial growth in both of the spacings. The N:P:K::50:25:25 kg/ha produced statistically significant growth. The photosynthesis rate, as recorded, showed that Salix tetrasperma had high rates of CO2 assimilation but poor aerial growth.The photosynthetic rate under varying fertilizer treatments remained unchanged, but the biomass improved significantly. In G. robusta, excellent aerial growth was observed despite a low rate of photosynthesis (even at low water potential). The dry weight of Eucalyptus was recorded (60 and 233 t/ha; spacing 1 m × 1 m and 1 m × 0.71 m) after 3 yr. After 10 yr, the highest dry weight was recorded again in Eucalyptus at 1,471.44 t/ha. The lowest moisture content (36–38%) was recorded in Morus alba, while the highest moisture content was recorded in Eucalyptus (66–70%). In all tested species, G. robusta (26%) showed the maximum calorific value.
Subsistence landholders in southern Togo are interested in planting teak on their land for income generation. The purpose of this study was to determine how smallholder farmers could allocate land among maize, cassava, and teak plantings in order to optimize financial returns. A linear programming model was developed to calculate the optimal land allocation for maize, cassava, and teak. The model was solved for five farmer types using 15- and 30-yr teak rotations, with timber priced at alternative market and government market prices, and with discount (real interest) rates of 8, 11, and 15%. The analyses indicate that growing teak is profitable for most smallholders if grown on a 15-yr rotation and sold on the alternative market. For Land Rich-Labor Poor farmers, teak is profitable under all regimes.
Tropical America (TA) holds 8% of the world's population, 11% of the world's continental area, 23% and 22%, respectively, of the world's forest and water resources, and 13% of the world's pasture and agro-pastoral land, this representing 77% of TA's agricultural land. Recent interest in carbon sequestration and preliminary research suggest that well-managed pasture systems in TA could provide a good combination of economic production, poverty reduction, recovery of degraded areas and delivery of environmental services, particularly, carbon sequestration. This paper presents 3-year research results generated by the "Carbon Sequestration Project, The Netherlands Cooperation CO-01002" on soil carbon stocks (SCS) for a range of pasture and silvo-pastoral systems prevalent in agro-ecosystems of TA compared to native forest and degraded land. In the tropical Andean hillsides, Colombia (1350-1900 m.a.s.l., 1800 mm rainfall/yr, 14-18°C mean annual temperature, medium to high slopes, medium fertility soils), SCS from Brachiaria decumbens pastures were statistically lower than those from native forest, but higher than those from natural regeneration of a degraded pasture (fallow land), degraded pasture and mixed-forage bank. In contrast, in the humid tropical forest of the Atlantic Coast, Costa Rica (200 m.a.s.l., 28-35°C, 3500 mm/year, poor acid soils), pasture or silvo-pastoral systems with native or planted pasture species such as Ischaemum ciliare, Brachiaria brizantha + Arachis pintoi and Acacia mangium + Arachis pintoi showed statistically higher SCS than native forest. Similar rankings were found in the humid tropical forest of Amazonia, Colombia (800 m.a.s.l., 30-42°C, 4200 mm/yr, flat, very poor acid soils) where improved Brachiaria pastures (monoculture and legume-associated) showed statistically higher SCS than native forest. In the sub-humid tropical forest of the Pacific Coast, Costa Rica (200 m.a.s.l., 6-month dry season, 2200 mm/year, poor acid soils) no statistical differences in SCS were found between land-use systems. In tropical ecosystems, improved pasture and silvo-pastoral systems show comparable or even higher SCS than those from native forests, depending on climatic and environmental conditions (altitude, temperature, precipitation, topography and soil), and represent attractive alternatives as C-improved systems.
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a compost of bovine ruminal residues to improve soil fertility and initial growth of eucalyptus cultivated in acid soil. Eucalyptus was cultivated in pots with a Hapludalf amended with 0 (Control 1), 5, 10, and 15 m3compost ha−1, and with only liming and mineral fertilization (Control 2). The compost enhanced all evaluated parameters of plant growth and soil and plant chemical analysis; overcoming, or at least equalizing to results from the Control 2. The compost can be used as alternative to liming and mineral fertilization in Eucalyptus urograndis plantations in acid soils of the Brazilian Pampa.
Immersed in natural resource policy approaches such as ecosystem management is the expectation that the best available science will be applied so that the best policy management decision will result. Citizens, like scientists and land managers, want natural resource management decisions based on good science rather than special interest group politics. Yet citizens also want to be involved in the decision process and are skeptical about the very science they claim must be the basis for policy actions. Herein lies an apparent paradox. Citizens' want the best science to guide natural resource management decisions, but not to the exclusion of their input. Similarly, there seems to be a paradox in the sentiments expressed by natural resource management agency administrators and specialists. Agency personnel know they need meaningful citizen involvement in their management decisions, but they also want citizens to trust their scientific expertise. This paper is about that paradox and innovative ways to work through it. We first discuss the nature of natural resource conflict, then address the paradox in some depth. A discussion of traditional public participation precedes innovative methods for working through the paradox.
An efficient micropropagation protocol has been developed for tasar oak. Nodal segments from In Vitro grown seedling were used for shoot multiplication. Best shoot multiplication response, in terms of number of shoots per explant as well as shoot length, was obtained in woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine and indole-3-acetic acid (8.88 μM BA + 1.43 μM IAA); but the establishment of cultures was difficult due to basal callus formation and necrosis in due course of time. Out of the two used growth adjuvants, casein hydrolysate (CH, 500 mg L−1) promoted shoot multiplication rate significantly in comparison to silver nitrate and also eliminated the basal callus formation problem and necrosis faced during the later stage of shoot proliferation. In Vitro rooting on WP medium supplemented with 100 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) when applied for 48 hr gave the best results in comparison to prolonged exposure. Well-acclimatized plantlets were transferred to the field with 80% survival rate. This protocol could be useful not only to propagate and conserve this oak but can also uplift the socioeconomic status of the Himalayan people as its leaves are used to feed the tasar silk worm during rearing period. This method will also be helpful for propagation of high value trees for a reforestation program.
This article identifies four models of park management that apply where indigenous people mix with migrant settlers in developing countries: (a) coercive conservation; (b) community-based conservation; (c) ancestral domain; and (d) European-style landscape park. Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park in Palawan Island, the Philippines, has evolved through all four types. While legal recognition of indigenous peoples' land rights has improved their relative position vis-agrave-vis their migrant neighbors, it has not equalized their lack of access to political and economic resources. This deficit prevents them from capturing full benefits from the forest, and consequently undermines their capacity and incentive to conserve forest resources. We argue that indigenous peoples' property rights and access to assets must be sufficiently secure for them to actively participate in park management and share in its benefits. This leads to the conclusion that the most effective and just form of park management is a blend of community-based conservation, ancestral domain, and landscape park.
Community forestry is expanding in developing countries but there is limited knowledge of, and contradictory findings about, its contribution to biodiversity conservation. This study aims at increasing the understanding of tree species diversity in community forests compared to National Parks. A forest inventory was carried out in four community forests and one National Park in the mid-hills of central Nepal. The study found that community forestry has contributed to high tree species diversity where forest management communities have interests in multiple species, but most community forests are moving toward promoting limited timber yielding species that have high economic value. Linking community forestry with economic incentives for conserving multiple tree species could therefore be a strategy to conserve biodiversity outside of protected areas.
Colonial governments asserted sovereignty and property rights gradually over the territory of Guyana, disregarding preexisting Indigenous Rights. Although a Forest Department modeled on the Indian Forest Service was established, there was no equivalent settlement process to determine the rights of forest peoples. State Forest area is declared by administrative fiat. These two elements have enabled State-endorsed forestland grabbing. Logging was scattered and selective until the early 1980s. A neoliberal economic program from the 1980s has allowed Asian companies to gain control over at least 80% of large-scale forestry concessions, equivalent to one-third of the 15.8 million hectares (Mha) of State-administered public forests. The relative success of the Asian companies can be understood in terms of available capital, willingness to invest, knowledge of markets, and willingness to corrupt. The relative failure of the preexisting Guyanese-owned businesses can be understood in terms of lack of capital, inability to save and unwillingness to invest, lack of knowledge of marketing, and lack of cooperation within the sector. Some conclusions from the Guyana story are relevant to other countries related to resource-hungry transnational enterprises.
Growth in crop production in many developing economies continues to require new land to be converted and brought into production. In addition, "marginal" land expansion appears to serve as an outlet for the rural poor. Evidence shows that the rural poor are increasingly concentrated in low productivity and fragile environments. Cross-country analysis of tropical agricultural land expansion supports these links between agricultural development and land conversion. In addition, corruption appears to be an important factor in affecting tropical land conversion, both directly and through interaction with the terms of trade. An increase in agricultural land expansion in the long run is also associated with a lower level of per capita income across developing economies. Those economies who have expanded agricultural land area have not achieved greater economy-wide gains compared to economies with little agricultural land expansion. Rent-seeking and corruption, reinforced by policies, contribute both to excessive land conversion and the concentration of the poor in low-productive, marginal lands. The result is the tendency for the gains from converting highly valuable land resources to benefit mainly wealthy elites, thus exacerbating problems of inequality and rural poverty while at the same time impeding economy-wide development.
A highly efficient, stable, and cost-effective micropropagation protocol for the conservation of a medicinal plant Turnera ulmifolia L. was established from nodal tissues via multiple axillary shoot proliferation on using Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) liquid nutrient medium. To begin with, nodal explants were placed on agar gelled medium amended with 2.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg L−1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) for shoot induction. Subsequently, elongation of regenerated shoots could be possible on liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L−1 BAP and Kin (kinetin) each along with 0.1 mg L−1 IAA where high frequency of regeneration in terms of number of shoots (47.2 shoots/explant) was achieved. Furthermore, long and healthy shoots (4−5 cm in length) were rooted on agar gelled half-strength of MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). Finally, in vitro regenerated plantlets were gradually acclimatized in the greenhouse and transferred to the field successfully.
During the past decade, NTFPs have begun to appear on mainstream scientific research agendas in a variety of disciplines. Development of a strong NTFP research capacity will require the construction of links between on-going and emerging NTFP research programs focused on U.S. NTFP issues, establishment of strong ties to international NTFP research programs, and the use of interdisciplinary and collaborative research approaches. Understanding forests as biophysical systems that also include humans will enhance the effectiveness and relevance of U.S.-oriented NTFP research efforts.
The non-timber forest products industry in the Pacific Northwest has been viable for nearly a century. Although it is a small part of the regional economy, the industry involves many people in the region and products are exported worldwide. Harvest of non-timber forest products has become more scrutinized as landowners, forest managers, and harvesters struggle to meet their sometimes conflicting needs and requirements, and deal with growing demand for many wild products. Much of the research on non-timber forest products has focused on biology and ecology, although there has been some research on the social and economic aspects of non-timber forest products over the past several decades. There are several social and economic studies of the industry that are underway or just being completed in the Pacific Northwest. Current research includes studies on product yield, market surveys, price analysis, product management and silviculture, recreational use, and policy analysis. Recommendations for future research are outlined. The non-timber forest product industry is a highly varied and frequently changing industry, with issues ranging from biological sustainability to equity. Social and economic research helps resolve questions surrounding management, harvesting, production and marketing of these highly demanded and often poorly understood products.
As people become more interested in personal health and family activities, demand for wild forest products has increased. This increased demand coupled with an increased concern for sustainable m anagement practices has focused attention on the variety of issues and products involved in the non-timber forest products industry. Forest management organizations have gradually increased funding for research and management of non-timber forest products over the past two decades. The broad categories of U.S. non-timber forest products include floral greens, Christmas greens, ornamentals and craft materials, wild edibles, medicinals, ceremonials/culturals, and native transplants. The increase in resource pressure has had many policy reactions, including restricted access, harvesting fees, and harvest limits. Opportunities for public input to policy decisions on federal, state and private land are often unclear or nonexistent. Researchers, managers, and policy makers are working to understand the multitude of issues surrounding non-timber forest products, including biology, management, public policy and equity issues.
Intraspecific variation in useful tree species is a requirement for any improvement program. Fruits of P. nitida were collected from seven different sources along its geographic range in Nigeria; metrical traits of seeds and resulting seedlings were assessed as well as the biomass. There were significant (p ≤ .05) differences in seed metrical traits of length, width, and weight. Seeds from J4 had the highest germination percentage of 95%, while Ore had the lowest percentage of 70. Highest mean values of 2.22 g, 3.11 cm, and 95 for weight, length, and number of seeds per pod, respectively, were obtained from Edo seeds. There were significant (p ≤ .05) differences in seedlings height, collar diameter, number of leaves, internodes, stem dry weight, root dry weight, leaf dry weight, total dry weight, and leaf area among the sources. The highest mean values of 4.33 cm (collar diameter), 2.31 cm (internodes length), were obtained from Edo collection. Other seedling traits and biomass indices were highest in J4 provenance. J4 seedlings had the highest average relative growth rate (RGR) values of 0.0450 gg−1 wk−1 while Etemi seedlings had the highest average net assimilation rate (NAR) value of 0.0063 g2 wk−1. J4 propagule had the best overall performance and is therefore recommended as a seed source for the improvement and conservation of Picralima nitida.
Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well water(control) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA. During Aug. 2006, we tested for differences in total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, and Pb concentration in preplanting and harvest soils; and in leaf, woody (stems + branches), and root tissue. Other than N, leachate did not increase the soil concentration of elements relative to preplanting levels. There was broad genotypic variation for tissue concentrations, with clone-specific uptake for most elements. Nitrogen, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, and Mn concentrations were greatest in leaves and least in woody tissue, while those of Fe, Cu, and Al were greatest in roots and least in leaves and woody tissue. Overall, successful uptake of nutrients without impacts to tree health validated the use of landfill leachate as an irrigation and fertilization source for Populus.
Phosphorus (P) is a limiting factor in Camelia oleifera production as P is easily fixed by iron and aluminium oxides in acidic red soils. To better understand sparingly soluble and organic P utilization by oil tea in these soils, the growth and physiological responses of C. oleifera seedlings and P contents in soil and plants were investigated under Al-P, Ca-P, Fe-P, and O-P treatments. Plant growth was increased significantly when Ca-P was added, followed by Al-P and Fe-P. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was increased for all P-treated seedlings, and P treatments except for Fe-P also increased SPAD values. Ca-P, Al-P, and Fe-P treatments increased Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', yield, and qP (photochemical quenching). Ca-P and Al-P increased available P the most, while Fe-P increased TP the most in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Available P level in rhizosphere soil was significantly higher than that in non-rhizosphere soil. P treatments significantly increased P content in all plant samples. These results demonstrated that Al-P and Ca-P can be effectively utilized by oil tea seedlings in acidic red soils, suggesting that sparingly soluble inorganic P is the main source of plant P in unfertilized soil.
Insects are ectotherms that cannot regulate their own temperature, and thus rely on and are at the disposal of the surrounding environment. In this study, long-term climatic data are used to stratify forested regions of Alaska into climatic zones based on temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation are shown to be important ecological drivers in determining the distribution of aspen leaf minor (Phyllocnistis populiella Chambers) and the aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) host in the state of Alaska. Climatic regions based on temperatures and precipitation accounted for 83 to 97% of the variability in the probability of observing aspen and the aspen leaf minor (ALM). The frequency of observing aspen was highest throughout the central region of the state, which represents a climate with low to moderate levels of precipitation and cold to mild temperatures. The highest probability of observing aspen was in the mild-very cold region of the state. The probability of observing ALM in a given climate zone followed a pattern similar to aspen. Differences were in the colder and drier climate zones where the probability of observing ALM decreased to near zero. The derived climatic models could be used to provide a basis for the analysis of climatic impacts on the distribution of forest insects throughout the state.
Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia, Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is aimed to classify soils under cacao agroforestry and further, to quantify carbon stocks in these soil profiles. Soil classification was performed, and the amount of C stored was estimated, based on the thickness of the soil horizons, their bulk density, and total organic carbon stored. In the sites studied under cacao, four general classes of soils were identified: Ultisols, Oxisols, Alfisols, and Inceptisols. Carbon stocks in these soil profiles showed wide variation, ranging from 719.24 to 2089.93 Mg ha−1. Carbon stocks in soil surface and subsurface layers in different agroforestry systems with cacao (cacao cabruca, cacao × rubber tree, and cacao × erythrina) were comparable; however, total storage of organic C in these soils was higher than expected, compared to values reported for the International Soil Reference and Information Center (ISRIC), based on the FAO-UNESCO database, and were also higher than estimated regional soil data.
The white-winged guan (Penelope albipennis, Cracidae), thought extinct until 1979, today numbers Cordia lutea (Boraginaceae) was the primary fruit consumed of the eight species of seeds collected from droppings. Collected seeds were sown in pots under nursery conditions and monitored for germination. Germination rates of passed seeds for Cordia lutea were compared to those that had been collected from a control group of trees. Germination was significantly different between fecal and control seeds, suggesting the plant germinated better after passing through the guans alimentary tract. The identification of flower structures, and digested seeds in feces show that guans can be effective fruit and flower predators. This study provides further information regarding the diet for conservation of the white-winged guan and suggests the bird may aid seed germination in some instances and may act as a predator in others.
The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of the eastern United States, alongside timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and significantly with hardwood forest area, hardwood growing stock volume, and timber removals. Also, it correlated with hardwood growing stock on public forestlands in the region. The annual wholesale value of American ginseng was estimated at approximately $26.9 million compared to annual stumpage value of harvested hardwood timber of just over $1.27 billion. The volume of ginseng root harvested from natural forests represents substantial extraction of biomass, and the associated value represents substantial income for people living in an economically marginalized region. Co-management of eastern hardwood forests for timber and non-timber forest products could improve local economies and better conserve the biodiversity of these forests.
Forest governance has received considerable attention in recent years because good governance in community forestry is deemed to be one way of harnessing its potentiality to contribute to poverty reduction. This study aims to examine forest governance by assessing whether the executive committees of Nepal's Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) are inclusive in terms of gender, caste, and wealth class. The study relies on primary data from 84 CFUGs in five different districts of Nepal, where structured questionnaires were used for collecting information. The findings suggest that the executive committees are more or less inclusive of gender and wealth class, and the project-supported CFUGs tend to have more executive members that are either female, or poor. Inclusive committees in a CFUG may not reflect good governance, as there is a chance that marginalized groups will be exploited in the name of inclusion. Therefore, there is a need to build capacity of marginalized groups before asking them to represent in the executive committees of CFUGs.
Medicinal plants are widely used in India for various livelihood and health benefits. However, there is a lack of awareness and research on their carbon sequestration and economical potential, which constrains their use in various ongoing carbon forestry schemes precluding farmers from potential carbon revenue opportunities. The present study seeks to fill this knowledge gap by assessing the carbon sequestration and economic potential of three extensively used medicinal tree species of Emblica officinalis (Amla), Terminalia belerica (Bahera), and Terminalia chebula (Harar) in the state of Sikkim with the help of the project-based comprehensive mitigation assessment process (PROCOMAP) model. The findings of this research suggest that the selected species of Amla, Bahera, and Harar have significant carbon sequestration rates of 1, 2.64, and 1.42 tC ha−1 yr−1, which could generate Indian National Rupees (INR) 844, 1,198, and 2,228 ha−1 yr−1, respectively from carbon revenues in a $5/tCO2 scenario through various ongoing carbon forestry schemes.
Height and diameter of white spruce clones were measured over two growing seasons in a forest nursery and for 4 more yr at two field sites. Clonal heritability (Hc2) was moderate and stable in the nursery, but decreased with age, reaching 0.26 and 0.11 for height and 0.14 and 0.04 for diameter, respectively, at the two field sites. Height exhibited weak to moderate Hc2 and strong genotypic correlations with the different growth characteristics. The strong age-age genotypic correlations (≥0.809) and nursery-plantation correlations (≥0.347) for height indicate that selection for height can be conducted at a young age thus reducing the costs of clonal tests.
In the past three decades, new trends have been influencing the field of forest economics. For example, the optimal rotation literature has focused increasingly on risk and uncertainty analysis and there has been a steady increase in the number of economic studies regarding tropical deforestation. In this article, it is investigated whether the emergence of these topics is reflected in relevant textbooks of the discipline. Moreover, some structural textbook attributes are analyzed and compared, namely the use of illustrative elements and pedagogical aids. Our results show that one can clearly recognize a steady development in the texts.
Process in community-based ecosystem management (CBEM) involves a fundamental reframing of human relationships with each other and with other ecosystem components. Inherent to this re-framing is a respect for diversity and for different ways of knowing, a willingness to meet others on their own terms, and a willingness to respect others' knowledge even while openly sharing one's own. CBEM process is characterized by an embracing of diverse cultural and social groups within a community, equal access to and open exchange of information, mutual learning, flexibility, and collective vision. CBEM process also is impeded by long-standing power imbalances inherent in our culture and in our governance systems. Overcoming these power imbalances will not be easy, and CBEM faces a number of process challenges. These include: lack of incentives for some parties to participate, traditionally disempowered groups, administrative bureaucracy, and legitimacy. To be sustainable, CBEM process ultimately will have to integrate the key dimensions of inclusiveness, accessibility, transparency, mutual learning, adaptability, and collective vision within existing social and governance processes.
Recall of natural environments evokes human psychophysiological response, there is a lack of systematic, comprehensive analysis in existing research. Moreover, the limited experimental conditions lead to various laboratory research, and more field studies are needed. Employing the field research design and relative environmental psychology methods, this research investigates physical and psychological indexes changes of 60 Chinese university students aged 19–25, which include positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), heart rate (HR), heart-rate variability (HRV), concentration (Pa), and relaxation (Pm), and regards the Zhangjiajie National Forest Park in China as the experimental site. This study evaluates the psychophysiological effects of the natural forest environment on participates and explores the overall psychophysiological changes, and verifies the positive effect of the natural forest environment on university students. The main findings indicated that the natural forest environment was beneficial for increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect, affecting HR, and increasing HRV, Pa and Pm. This study adds some basic evidence to a growing theoretical literature emphasizing the role of natural forest environment in psychophysiological restoration.
China has undergone forest transition at the national level during the past decades. Previous studies, which have used econometric models with restrictive assumptions of slope homogeneity across provinces, might present statistically biased results on provincial forest cover change. This paper aims to examine whether provincial forest cover changes follow the same path in China by using an up-to-date panel data on forest cover rates for 29 provincial regions from 1978 to 2013 and an econometric model allowing for slope heterogeneity across provinces. Empirical results suggest that forest cover changed along U-shaped curves in most provinces, but there is no “one size fit all” curve for these provinces, whose forest cover rates at the forest transition point ranged from less than 1% to more than 40% and per capita GDPs varied from 2,114 CNY to 28,403 CNY (in 2013 CNY). In future study, both similarities and differences in forest cover change across provinces should be taken into account, main provincial contributors of national forest cover change needs to be identified, and an extended model that incorporates more explanatory variables affecting deforestation, reforestation or afforestation should be adopted to comprehensively investigate the mechanism underlying forest cover change in China.
Information on land use and cover changes (LUCC) is important for planning of conservation and development and thus ensure forest sustainability. The current paper assesses LUCC for the whole of the mainland Tanzania. The analyses were done using land use and cover maps covering the whole of mainland Tanzania for 1995 and 2010. For 1995, forest, bushland, grassland, cultivation and other land use and cover (built up areas, bare land, etc.) covered 43.5%, 19.8%, 23.5%, 11.2%, and 2.0% of the study area, respectively. For 2010, the same land use and cover classes covered 38.0%, 14.5%, 6.9%, 36.5%, and 4.1% of the study area, respectively. The annual rate of deforestation was 320,067 ha, which is equivalent to 0.9%. Bushland and grassland were lost at 313,745 and 969,982 ha/year, respectively. Most forest was converted to cultivation and least to other land use and cover. In conclusion, the net changes were deforestation and loss of bushland and grassland primarily due to expansion of cultivation. Further research on how to reduce or halt expansion of cultivation may shed light on improving sustainability of forest, bushland, and grassland in mainland Tanzania.
Illegal logging is a significant problem in Indonesia, which is one of the few countries with a large forest area. In this paper, we study factors that affect harvesting and supply of illegal timber from Indonesia to China and Japan. We also look at factors that lead to demand of Indonesian illegal timber from China and Japan. A simultaneous-equation econometric model of illegally logged timber demand and supply is developed and tested using annual data over the period 1996–2010. We find that corruption and decentralization in Indonesia have significant and positive impact on illegally logged timber supply while excess demand in Japanese construction and furniture industries as well as Japan’s housing starts are significant factors affecting illegal logging in Indonesia. Law enforcement or policies aimed at reducing illegal harvesting in Indonesia are found to be more effective than policies targeting the import of illegal logged timber into Japan and China.
Forests are seen as climate mitigation mechanisms by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In addition, their importance in the sustainable development paradigm has been confirmed through their inclusion in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs are designed to provide a global orientation towards inclusive and sustainable development, yet their implementation presents new challenges for forestry practitioners. This paper uses an ethnographic case study to examine a forestry based carbon-offsetting project in Mato Grosso, Brazil, and uses several SDGs to analyse the level of project success. The project was created to offset the emissions from the construction of the new football stadium built for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Mato Grosso and therefore attracted international attention. The project provides analytical points for a discussion on how forestry based carbon-offsetting fits within the wider discussion on sustainable development and how the success of project outcomes can be influenced in several key areas.
Boreal mixed forests of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white spruce (Picea glauca) can provide higher outputs of many ecosystem goods and services, combined with resilience for changing environmental conditions. In this study, we examine the growth of white spruce and aspen over a range of stand compositions created by spot and broadcast treatments of broadleaves using manual and chemical means, aspen spacing, and untreated control. Twenty-two growing seasons postharvest, treatment responses created a range of broadleaf densities and spatial arrangements, reflected in significant differences in heights and diameters of the spruce mixedwood component. At this early seral stage, treatments have generated diversity in both tree species composition and stand structure. Modeling of the stand structures created by the different treatments provided outcomes ranging from pure conifer to broadleaf dominated when assessed by merchantable volumes. Broadleaf manipulations changed the relative proportion of spruce and broadleaf species in a mixture, achieving a variety of potential landscape and stand-level goals. Treatment differences were often not statistically significant until at least 16 years after stand initiation. Monitoring the achievement of mixedwood management goals will require longer time periods than currently employed for broadleaf or conifer monocultures.
The R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32-ha pine-hardwood forest in southeastern Arkansas, U.S.A., that originated from diameter-limit cutting of the virgin forest before 1915. In 1935, these 32 ha were reserved from timber management. Between 1937 and 1993, eight inventories were taken of all living trees > 9-cm DBH, using 2.5-cm DBH classes within three species groups: Pins spp., Quercus spp., and other hardwoods. In 1994, all standing dead snags of pines and hardwoods > 9-cm DBH were inventoried by 2.5-cm DBH classes. During 56 years, the overstory pine-hardwood ratio remained stable in terms of relative basal area, but pine density decreased with a commensurate increase in hardwood density. In 1993, pines represented 63% of basal area but only 23% of stem density. Just before the 1993 inventory, a pine bark-beetle infestation developed on the area, and within one year the pines lost about 2.5 m2/ha in basal area and had 180% more snags than were contributed by hardwoods. The overstory pine component is decreasing in density as a result of natural senescence and the allogenic effects of bark beetles. Hardwood species are expected to eventually dominate the forest because shade-intolerant pine regeneration will not develop to maturity beneath the closed hardwood canopy which can be altered only by catastrophic natural disturbances or anthropogenic intervention.
Oaks (Quercus sp.) account for nearly one-third of the sawtimber harvest in Wisconsin. As trees age, their ability to respond to thinning is reduced; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether thinning previously unthinned oak stands of advanced age (≥60 yr) would achieve biological, financial, and operational objectives. During 2014, we conducted an inventory of 25 oak stands in northern Wisconsin. Fifteen received their first thinning 8–14 years ago at ages 60–78 years and ten had never been thinned. Stand-level volume growth, logging costs, and net present values were estimated for each site. The age and site index of the thinned and unthinned sites were not significantly different (p > 0.10). Thinned and unthinned sites grew comparable net volumes per ha (5.09 and 5.90 m3, respectively); however, because this growth was concentrated on fewer trees, the trees on the thinned sites responded vigorously to thinning. As age at first thinning increased, growth response was reduced (p = 0.067); however, thinning still increased the growth of residual trees. Thinned sites had higher net present values compared to unthinned sites (p < 0.01) and logging costs were 10.6% lower (p = 0.06). Overall, for stands between 60 and 78 years-old, thinning was beneficial financially, operationally and biologically.
Trade barriers of forest products are often advocated in the name of protecting forest resources. Whether the promoting of trade of forest products will increase or decrease the global forest resources is still a matter of debate. We offer an assessment of how forest product trade helps shape observed forest change, by relating wood consumption change to trade of forest products based on cross-section data from 61 countries in 2010. The result shows that wood outputs have positive effects on wood consumption. Compared to domestic production, the result suggests that imports of forest products can help reduce wood consumption. This may indicate that trade liberalization can promote the allocation efficiency of timber resources across the global, which can improve the utilization efficiency and reduce the wood consumption in the world to protect the global forest resources. It is suggested that the high-efficient harvest and wood-processing technological transfer should be advocated in the international community to contribute to global forest conservation.
Our study investigates the effect of near-naturalization of plantations on soil physicochemical and bacterial features and the difference between soil layers in Baxianshan National Nature Reserve. Four stands were involved, including two forest types: near-naturalized and natural secondary forests, with the former classified into three stages. Soil physicochemical and bacterial properties were determined and analyzed. TC, TN contents and C/N ratio of the surface soil were higher than the corresponding lower layer. TC, TN contents decreased first and then increased with near-naturalization, lower than the natural secondary forests, while the C/N ratio was the opposite; total and endemic OTUs quantity was more in the surface layer than the lower and both increased with near-naturalization; the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and verrucomicrobia, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria increased with near-naturalization while that of other dominant phyla decreased; the α-diversity increased on the whole during near-naturalization and was lower than the natural secondary forests except for Simpson and Shannon index; environmental factors significantly explained the bacterial α-diversity and community structure of natural secondary forests but not near-naturalized forests. This study helps fully understand the change characteristics and response mechanisms of soil bacterial community structure to the restoration of the plantation.
Conservation and restoration measures which consider the participation of the local community are necessary to save the baobab trees from being vanished. This study was conducted to assess communities’ average willingness to pay and identify factors that determines households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation and restoration of baobab tree. The study used primary data obtained from a survey conducted on 192 randomly selected households. Double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) elicitation format of contingent valuation method was employed. The data were analyzed using a bivariate probit model. The response of households’ for the scenario indicated that the mean WTP for the conservation and restoration of baobab tree was found to be 105 birr per year per household. The results of the model revealed that household’s age, annual income of household head, marital status of household head, distance and awareness of household have positive and significant effect on WTP. On the other hand, bid values of have a significant negative effect on WTP indicating that Households that are provided with lower initial bid value are more likely to be willing to contribute for conservation. Improving the livelihood of households, creation of awareness and setting fair contribution need to be considered to enhance community’s participation in baobab tree conservation.
Nursery growth substrate and ectomycorrhizal symbiosis are important circumstances influencing seedling development. In this study, the effect of pre-sowing inoculation of pure peat and peat+perlite mixtures (2:1 and 1:1, v:v) with an ectomycorrhizal mycelium-bead inoculum prepared in the laboratory and commercial inoculum Ectovit on ectomycorrhiza formation, growth, and foliar nutrients concentration of 1-year-old bare-root Norway spruce seedlings was estimated. Seedlings grown in the substrates inoculated with bead inoculum had significantly larger shoot dry weight and slightly higher other growth parameters than those grown in non-inoculated and Ectovit-inoculated substrates. However, the use of inocula formed neither treatment-specific ectomycorrhizal morphotypes nor higher mycorrhization of roots compared to control. Ectomycorrhizae were most probably formed by naturally occurring fungi; nevertheless, based on the abundance of the morphotypes, any participation of the applied fungi in ectomycorrhiza formation and/or their non-nutritional effects is not excluded. Seedlings grown in peat+perlite (2:1) mixture were slightly higher-developed than those in the two other substrates, but significant effect of the substrates neither on seedling growth nor on ectomycorrhiza formation was detected. In all treatments, sufficient macroelements concentration in needles was found. The results suggest difficulties to reach a complex positive effect of ectomycorrhizal inoculation in operational conditions and its dependence on various circumstances.
Global efforts to combat climate change has led to the establishment of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program (REDD+). This study concerns the implementation of REDD+ among local landscapes and communities in Vietnam. How do affected forest-dependent households perceive their roles in sustainable forest management and REDD+ and how do these perceptions and attitudes influence the (potential) socio-ecological performance of REDD+? Two communes consisting of forest-dependent and indigenous communities in Central Vietnam were selected for this study–the former involved in the UN-REDD program and the latter involved in a REDD+ program of Fauna and Flora International (FFI). Here, we differentiated between a ‘do no harm’ and pro-carbon (UN-REDD), and pro-poor (FFI-REDD+) approach to REDD+. Employing an applied socio-ecological systems framework, we conducted household surveys (n = 102) and we adopted qualitative research methods. This study identified the importance of traditional ecological knowledge systems in sustainable forest management. While pro-poor REDD+ was more inclusive, both REDD+ programs in our study were implemented in a top down manner. Lastly, households’ attitudes and perceptions towards rulemaking, sanctioning, monitoring, cultural capital (beliefs and worldviews) and forest protection technology were identified as (potential) local drivers for successful REDD+ implementation in both communes.
Aboriginal peoples in northwestern North America have traditionally used hundreds of different forest plants for food, materials and medicines. Plant products have also been economically important as trading goods. Today there are excellent prospects for aboriginal people to participate in the harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products, but there are serious issues of access to and control of resources, respect of intellectual property rights, and concerns for conservation of plants and ecosystems that must be addressed. We provide an overview of past, current and potential use of NTFPs by aboriginal peoples in British Columbia and neighboring areas, and discuss the relevant issues and concerns, with recommendations about how these can be accommodated.
Above- and below-ground responses of juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) to tropospheric ozone (0.0, 0.06, and 0.12 μL L-1 O3), acid precipitation (pH 4.8, 4.2, and 3.6), and induced ectomycorrhizal colonization (Pisolithus tinctorius [Pers.] Coker and Couch vs. natural mycobiont), alone and in combination, were examined. After 30 weeks, the filtered air treatment (ozone 0.0) reduced foliar injury but also produced smaller stem diameters, lower total foliage and total shoot dry weights, decreased needle density, and shorter root systems in inoculated pine, growth responses not found in uninoculated pine. Height growth of inoculated oak was increased by the filtered air treatment while leaf density was reduced by 0.12 μL L-1 O3, results also not found in uninoculated oak. Ectomycorrhizal colonization percentages in pine decreased with increasing O3 concentration regardless of mycorrhizal treatment, and the filtered air treatment produced the highest infection percentages in inoculated oak as well. Rains of pH 4.2 stimulated height growth in inoculated pine while diameter decreased in inoculated oak but increased in uninoculated oak with declining pH. Also, pH 4.2 rainfall increased root weight in inoculated oak while that of pH 4.8 reduced foliar injury but also shoot weight in oak regardless of mycorrhizal treatment. Generally, the mycorrhization response to increasing rainfall acidity was reduced colonization. Independent of the other treatments, inoculation produced a substantial increase in above- and below-ground growth of both pine and oak, and also increased foliage density but reduced specific root length in each species. Overall, these results indicate that the growth responses to O3 and acid deposition of loblolly pine and white oak are strongly influenced by mycorrhization, but that the magnitude of these responses is exceeded by those to mycorrhization alone. However, the propensity revealed here for both O3 and acid precipitation to suppress mycorrhizal colonization in these two species may indicate the potential for a gradual reduction in long-term forest productivity in the southeastern United States. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: Website: <http://www.HaworthPress.com
The use of diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement in allometric equations for estimation of biomass (AGB) requires that measurements be taken precisely at 130cm from the ground level. However, obtaining this measurement is not always possible. This study aimed to i) investigate the relationship between the DBH and diameters measured at different heights below 130 cm on tree stems, ii) develop an equation for converting diameters measured below 130cm to DBH, and iii) evaluate the accuracy of using converted DBH values to estimate the AGB. We measured the diameters of 376 trees at various stem heights at intervals of 25 cm up to the DBH, in a protected area of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Three theoretical models were applied and tested, and the best equation was selected. The relationships between DBH and diameters at 50, 75, and 100 cm did not differ, which allowed the use of one general equation for converting these diameters to DBH. Measurements taken below 50 cm may lead to biased estimations; thus, we propose two additional equations for estimating DBH from these heights. The DBH converted from diameters measured at other heights can be accurately used to estimate the tree AGB and carbon stocks.
The relationship between stand attributes and biomass accumulation pattern in a mangrove forest has been intensively studied in this study. We assessed above (AGM) and belowground mass (BGM) and examined the relationship between forest attributes and aboveground mass in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. The study was conducted with 18 plots having total area of 1.08 ha. The mean AGM and BGM of the study sites were 234.08 and 132.85 Mg ha⁻¹ respectively. H. fomes contributed the highest amount (82.9% of total AGM and 80.53% of total BGM) of above (193.56 Mg ha⁻¹) and belowground mass (107.09 Mg ha⁻¹) at the study site. Our study revealed structural attributes (tree diameter, height, and basal area) positively correlated with AGM. In contrast, species richness and species diversity negatively correlated with AGM. Our study indicated that lack of positive relationship between species diversity and AGM which may be attributable to high AGM of the dominant species (H. fomes) and may have a considerable consequence in AGM of the study area. Thus, maintaining large trees (DBH and height) rather than species diversity in the Sundarbans mangrove forest might be an effective approach for increasing aboveground mass.
This study aims to establish allometric models and estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) of mangroves Rhizophoraceae in the Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Allometric models of the AGB of mangroves Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, and Ceriops tagal were established using independent variables consisting stem diameter at 30 cm from the ground (D30), diameter at breast height (DBH), D30²H and DBH²H. The AGB of mangroves was estimated by applying allometric model and tree census. The results showed that the best fitting allometric models of AGB for R. apiculata is based on variable DBH, while DBH²H is the best variable for R. mucronata trees. Conversely, the D30 is the best variable for estimating AGB of C. tagal trees. Thus, there is some variation of independent variables on allometric models for the estimation of AGB for Rhizophoraceae mangroves. The AGB (ton ha⁻¹) of R. apiculata, R. mucronata, and C. tagal was estimated respective 651.60, 232.11 and 154.56 in the protected area, and respective 137.59, 189.35 and 39.06 ton ha⁻¹ in the unprotected area. Higher AGB of mangroves growing in the protected area indicated the suitable condition and undisturbed by human activities. The conservation of mangroves is necessary for the sustainability of mangroves and coastal ecosystems in the Coral Triangle ecoregion.
Forest ecosystems can modify the atmospheric CO2 through biomass accumulation mostly in tree stems with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm. Aboveground biomass increment (ΔAGB), and changes in stand AGB, no. stems and basal area (BA) were calculated from mortality, recruitment, and growth data of tree stems in tropical evergreen broadleaved forest, Central Highland Vietnam. Data were derived from ten 1-ha permanent plots established in 2004, where all stems with DBH ≥ 10 cm were tagged, identified to species, and measured for DBH in 2004 and 2012. In an 8-year duration, the increment was 53 ± 10 stems ha⁻¹, 7.8 ± 0.3 m² ha⁻¹ for BA and 86.0 ± 4.6 Mg ha⁻¹ for AGB. The stem mortality rate was 0.9% year⁻¹ and the stem recruitment rate was 2.2% year⁻¹. Annual ΔAGB was 10.8 Mg ha⁻¹ year⁻¹, equaling to 5.4 Mg C ha⁻¹ year⁻¹. Of which, tree stems of 35–80 cm DBH classes accounted for 65%. The results indicated that the forest is in stage of carbon sequestration. Any disturbances causing death of 35–80 cm DBH tree stems will much reduce carbon sequestration capacity and it will take a long time for AGB to return to pre-disturbance stage.