Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is one of the most frequently used plasma substitutes, and could modulate inflammatory response in sepsis. Our aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the effect of HES 130/0.4 by studying plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in peripheral monocytes during polymicrobial sepsis.
Rats with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) were treated with HES130/0.4 (7.5, 15, or 30 mL/kg, intravenously); then, rat plasma and monocytes were isolated from blood 5 h later. The plasma level of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and interleukin [IL]-6), NF-kappaB activity, and mRNA and protein levels of TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4) in peripheral blood monocytes were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting, respectively.
HES130/0.4 dose-dependently reduced the plasma level of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in rats with sepsis. HES130/0.4 also significantly inhibited NF-kappaB activation, and TLRs mRNA and protein levels in peripheral monocytes.
During sepsis, HES130/0.4 can down-regulate the inflammatory response, possibly through inhibition of the TLRs/NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and could be one more appropriate plasma substitute in sepsis.
Sepsis and resulting multiple system organ failure are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was a novel preparation, developed to improve the pharmacokinetics of current medium molecular weight HES solutions. This study was designed to explore the effects of HES 130/0.4 on pulmonary capillary permeability (PCP), production of cytokines, and activation of transcription factor in septic rats induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).
Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (six rats/group): saline controls (30 ml/kg); CLP plus saline (30 ml/kg); CLP plus HES (7.5, 15, or 30 ml/kg, respectively), and HES alone (30 ml/kg). Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during the experiment process. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, wet/dry weight ratio, PCP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) were investigated at 6 h.
We demonstrated that CLP could provoke significant injury in lung, characterized by increase in PCP, wet/dry weight ratio, MPO activity, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 level, and NF-kappaB activation. Without obvious influence on systemic macro-hemodynamics, HES 15 ml/kg and 30 ml/kg significantly reduced CLP-induced elevation of pulmonary capillary permeability, wet/dry weight ratio, and production of IL-6. Meanwhile, HES 15 ml/kg increased IL-10 level and HES 7.5, 15, and 30 ml/kg suppressed MPO activity, TNF-alpha level, and NF-kappaB activation.
HES 130/0.4 can inhibit CLP-induced PCP by attenuating pulmonary inflammation and NF-kappaB activation in vivo.
During perioperative management of patients with gastrointestinal cancer complicated by diabetes mellitus, adequate alimentation is required, but we often face difficulties associated with hyperglycemia and other accompanying complications. Recently, we investigated the effects of a novel palatinose based enteral formula (MHN-01) in suppressing post-prandial hyperglycemia and improving lipid metabolism in experimental animals and perioperative management of patients with esophageal cancer complicated by diabetes mellitus.
We gave normal rats and rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus a single oral dose of fluid diet, and analyzed comparatively the time course of blood glucose level in each group until 3 h after the dose. In both the normal rat group and the type 2 diabetes group, peak blood glucose level after the MHN-01 dose was significantly lower than after a dose of ordinary fluid diet and was comparable to the peak level after a dose of a fluid diet rich in MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acid). We allowed normal mice free access to fluid diet for 43 days, and measured their body fat levels. Fat accumulation was significantly lower in mice given MHN-01 than in mice given ordinary fluid diet. We also analyzed the respiratory quotient and resting energy expenditure of normal Sprague-Dawley rats fed by MHN-01 or an ordinary fluid diet. The respiratory quotient of the MHN-01 group was significantly lower than the ordinary fluid group, although the resting energy expenditure of both groups was almost the same level. The effect of MHN-01 was estimated to be based on improvement of lipid metabolism.
Between 2003 and 2005, among 164 patients who underwent radical thoracic esophagectomy and/or reconstruction for esophageal carcinoma at Okayama University Hospital, nine patients (5.5%) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in pre-operative screening and were treated with MHN-01. Clinical courses of two cases with severe status of diabetes mellitus were presented as successful case reports of MHN-01.
MHN-01 was very useful in perioperative management of patients complicated by diabetes mellitus, unable to ingest food p.o. such as esophageal cancer or other diseases.
The antimetastatic activity of a novel camptothecan conjugate, MEN4901/T-0128, in which 7-ethyl-10-aminopropyloxy-camptothecin (T-2513) is bound to a biodegradable carboxymethyldextran via a Gly-Gly-Gly linker, was observed in this study. High antimetastatic activity of MEN4901/T-0128 was demonstrated in a clinically-relevant orthotopic mouse model of human colon cancer. MEN4901/T-0128 and irinotecan were compared for anti-metastatic activity as well as efficacy against the primary tumor. An imageable, metastatic model was made by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HT-29 tumor in nude mice. MEN4901/T-0128 and irinotecan were administered intravenously at various doses and schedules. MEN4901/T-0128, with treatment beginning on d 49 after SOI, was highly effective on lymph node metastasis as well as against the primary tumor. Both GFP imaging and histology demonstrated a markedly lower metastatic incidence of lymph nodes in all MEN4901/T-0128 treated mice compared with irinotecan-treated and untreated mice. At the most efficacious dose of MEN4901/T-0128, only 1 of 12 animals had lymph node metastasis compared with 19 of 20 in the control group. The present study demonstrates the principle that when a camptothecan is conjugated to an appropriate polymer, the drug can become extremely effective with important clinical potential for antimetastatic therapy, a most urgent need.
Pneumoperitoneum may be responsible for ultra-structural alterations in the mesothelium during laparoscopy. To characterize the effect of pneumoperitoneum on the mesothelial cells with CO(2) and compressed air; and to compare to laparotomy and control group (anesthesia only).
Forty C-57 mice were divided in four groups of 10 animals each: CO(2), air, laparotomy, and control group. The animals were submitted to pneumoperitoneum at 8 mmHg during 30 min (CO(2) or compressed air). Five animals of each group were sacrificed 2 and 24 h after the procedure. Fragments of parietal peritoneum were collected and processed for scanning electron microscopy.
Control group revealed uninterrupted mesothelial cells, without any evidence of cellular limits; close contact between the cells; absence of intercellular clefts and presence of microvilli. In the laparotomy group, similar results to the control group, with decreased microvilli were noted. Air pneumoperitoneum was associated with alterations in the morphology of the mesothelial cells, clear cellular limits, and cells with spherical and fusiforme formats. CO(2) pneumoperitoneum showed mesothelial cells with clear cellular limits, predominantly spherical cellular format, and intercellular clefts that allowed the visualization of the exposed basal membrane. These alterations were more intense after 24 h. There was a statistical significance between CO(2) group (2 and 24 h) compared to the control group and laparotomy for cellular limits, intercellular clefts and microvilli, P < 0.0001.
Pneumoperitoneum causes damage in the mesothelial ultra-structure, which differs from the laparotomy group. CO(2) pneumoperitoneum is more harmful to the mesothelium than the air.
This study was designed to investigate whether or not a novel nonselective endothelin A/B (ETA/ETB) receptor antagonist (TAK-044) provides hepatoprotection during porcine liver transplantation. The grafts were stored in chilled Euro-Collins solution and recirculated following reflush with lactated Ringer's with (TAK group) or without (control group) TAK-044 (10 mg/kg). Intracellular (cytoplasma, mitochondria, and nucleus) calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in the hepatic biopsy materials obtained serially at varying time point from donor laparotomy to recipient closure using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. Liver function tests also were determined. The cold and warm ischemia times of the grafts were comparable between the two groups. The peak endothelin-1 T-1) concentration after recirculation was significantly higher in the TAK group than in the control group (129 +/- 30 pg/ml vs 26 +/- 6.5 pg/ml). However, release of liver enzymes, increases in total bile acid, and deterioration of indocyanine green retention rate were significantly suppressed in the TAK group. In the control group, the intracellular Ca concentrations, especially in the mitochondrial fraction, were elevated markedly following recirculation of the hepatic arterial flow. In the TAK group, this effect was suppressed. Thus, the supplementary use of the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist TAK-044 via a rinse route may alleviate an early postreperfusion microcirculatory disturbance of the liver grafts without adverse effects by the increased ET-1 on the systemic circulation.
Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes significantly to posttransplant graft dysfunction. An emphasis, therefore, has been directed toward the identification of novel renoprotective agents. In this study, the renoprotective effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) alone, or in combination with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (OKY-046), was investigated in a 60-min warm ischemia, 72-h reperfusion, IRI rodent model. Unilateral nephrectomized rats were treated with the test vehicle alone, 1, 2, or 4 microgram/kg of TTX or 2 mg/kg of OKY-046 intravenously, either 15 min pre- or postischemia, or 2 microgram/kg TTX administered simultaneously with OKY-046 (2 mg/kg), following the ischemic interval. Baseline, 24, and 72 h mean plasma creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) were compared. Maximal renoprotection was demonstrated by significantly improved 72-h Cr and BUN levels with the 2 microgram/kg of TTX or with 2 mg/kg of OKY-046, each administered after ischemia (ischemic control Cr = 8. 01 +/- 1.07 mg/dl vs TTX = 3.84 +/- 0.80 mg/dl, P = 0.008; vs OKY-046 = 4.0 +/- 1.5, P + 0.008; ischemic control BUN = 241.3 mg/dl +/- 32.8 vs TTX = 85.7 mg/dl +/- 18.7, P < 0.008; vs OKY-046 = 52.6 +/- 22.5, P = 0.008). The combination therapy utilizing TTX with OKY-046 resulted in reduced animal survival, demonstrating no renoprotection as measured with the biochemical parameters. These results support the renoprotective effects of TTX in a severe, rodent IRI model. The exact mechanism of action, as well as the therapeutic potential of TTX in preservation/transplantation, warrants further study.
Previous reports from other investigators demonstrate prolongation of allogeneic heart graft survival and decrease in CTL responses in rats treated with a small synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 75-84 of the human HLA-B7-01 molecule (Allotrap 07R). We wished to determine the efficacy of these peptides in the highly immunogenic ACI > LEW and LEW > ACI small bowel transplant models. Animals were divided into treatment groups: I, none; II, Allotrap (20 mg/kg/day on Days 0-4); III, cyclosporine (CsA; 10 mg/kg/day on Days 0-4); IV, Allotrap + CsA (as in groups II and III); V, Allotrap (40 mg/kg/day every other day on Days -19 to 4); VI, Allotrap + CsA (as in groups III and V); VII, Allotrap + CsA (as in groups III and V, with Allotrap administered intragraft Days 0-4). The animals were sacrificed at the time of graft rejection (defined by dusky, necrotic stoma and increased stomal output). Peripheral blood, spleen, native bowel, and allograft intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were harvested and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reactivity against self, donor, and third-party splenocytes was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with Dunnett's t for multiple comparisons against a control as a post hoc test. We found a very slight, but significant prolongation of graft survival in with treatment protocol V for both strain combinations. In addition, MLC response of splenocytes to donor antigen was decreased with combined CsA and Allotrap, but not with Allotrap alone. We conclude that Allotrap decreases response to alloantigens, and slightly, but significantly prolongs graft survival in the hihgly immunogenic small bowel transplant model.
Fibroblast survival in a three-dimensional collagen matrix is dependent in part upon the rigid anchorage of the matrix to tissue culture plastic. We hypothesized that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (Akt) would be activated and that the p53 level would be low in the rigidly anchored (attached) collagen matrix; loss of anchorage (detachment) was hypothesized to have the opposite effects.
Materials and methods:
Human foreskin fibroblasts were cultured in attached bovine collagen matrices for 48 h before detachment as free-floating matrices. At various time points postrelease, matrix lysates were blotted for the proteins of interest, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end label assay was performed on both whole matrices and cytospin preparations. Irradiated monolayer fibroblasts were used as positive controls for the amount of p53 protein.
Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end label positivity in attached versus detached matrices (at 24 h post detachment) was 0.7 +/- 03 versus 5.3 +/- 1.7% (P < 0.05, unpaired t test). FAK and Akt were phosphorylated (activated) in the attached matrix; there was a near complete of loss of both activated forms within 4 h of matrix detachment. Irradiated monolayer fibroblasts had increased levels of p53, mdm2, and p21. In contrast, the p53, mdm2, and p21 levels were just at the level of detection in the attached matrix, but were induced 5- to 10-fold within 2-4 h after matrix detachment.
FAK and Akt are activated in the attached fibroblast-populated collagen matrix whereas the p53 level is relatively low; matrix detachment downregulates FAK and Akt activity and induces p53. The state of mechanical anchorage of the collagen matrix regulates the survival of embedded fibroblasts through a mechanism which may involve FAK.
D-myo-Inositol-1,2,6-triphosphate (IP3) has been shown to reduce edema and progressive ischemia following experimental skin burns. The mechanism(s) are not identified but could be related to antiinflammatory effects of the agent. In the present ex vivo study we compared the effects of IP3 with those of saline and indomethacin on eicosanoid formation by normal and burned rat skin. In burned skin IP 3 treatment reduced the release of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) (P < 0.01) and leukotriene B4 (LTB 4) (P < 0.05) but there was only a weak trend for less prostaglandin E (PGE) compared to burned control animals receiving saline. Indomethacin reduced the release of TXB2 (P < 0.01), and PGE (P < 0.001), but not LTB 4 from burned skin compared to skin from saline-treated burned animals. In non-burned skin IP 3 increased the release of PGE (P < 0.01) and LTB 4 (P < 0.01), but did not significantly influence TXB2 accumulation in the incubation fluid compared to the saline-treated group. Indomethacin reduced the release of TXB2 (P < 0.001) and PGE (P < 0.001), but increased LTB 4 (P < 0.001) in normal skin compared to the saline-treated group. In conclusion, IP 3 inhibited the release of TXB2 and LTB 4 from burned skin ex vivo, but increased PGE and LTB 4 release from normal skin. These results suggest that the mode of action of IP 3 differs from that of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The effects of IP 3 on the arachidonic acid cascade also seem to differ in burned versus normal skin.
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) plays an important role in regulating immune responses, in addition to its effects on bone metabolism. The cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) regulates diverse biological processes, including cellular proliferation and differentiation, immune modulation, and modulation of extracellular matrix deposition. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) interacts in vitro with Smad proteins, important regulators of TGF-beta signal transduction. We hypothesized that exogenous 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) would alter levels of TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(1) signaling proteins in renal tissue.
C57BL6 mice and Lewis rats were placed on diets with or without 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) for 14 days. Renal lysates were examined for TGF-beta(1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and Smad3 protein levels using a cell proliferation assay and Western blot analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to determine if any interaction between VDR and Smad3 proteins occurs in vivo. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for all of these molecules.
Vitamin D supplementation decreased VDR and Smad3 protein levels. Coimmunoprecipitation of VDR and Smad3 revealed a Smad3-VDR interaction in vivo. Vitamin D-treated rats had a significant (P = 0.001) reduction in bioactive renal TGF-beta(1). RT-PCR demonstrated no difference in mRNA expression for either VDR or TGF-beta(1).
Our results suggest that vitamin D has a significant effect in regulating levels of bioactive TGF-beta(1) and appears to affect aspects of the TGF-beta(1) signaling system. These effects, in combination with the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D, may alter the evolution of chronic rejection in renal transplants.
The expression of vitamin D receptors (VDR) and growth inhibition induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been noted in certain human malignant melanoma cell lines. In this study, widely disparate levels of VDR mRNA expression were demonstrated in a panel of eight human malignant melanoma cell lines. Quantitation of receptor level by ligand binding assay showed a similar pattern. Proliferation and growth curve analysis was performed in two cell lines: RPMI 7951 (high VDR) and SK-MEL-28 (low VDR). Significant growth inhibition was noted in RPMI 7951 cells at 10(-9) M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. SK-MEL-28 cells, which express much lower levels of VDR, did not show any growth inhibition except at extremely high concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, namely 10(-5) M. These findings suggest a receptor-mediated mechanism of growth inhibition for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and a role for this hormone in the growth of malignant melanoma cells.
Antibody-mediated rejection continues to be an obstacle for xenotransplantation despite development of α1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GTKO) pigs. Fibronectin (Fn) from GTKO pigs was identified as a xenoantigen in baboons. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), similar to galactose α1,3-galactose, is an antigenic carbohydrate found in pigs. We evaluated human antibody reactivity and performed initial antigenic epitope characterization of Fn from GTKO pigs.
Materials and methods:
GTKO pig aortic endothelial cells (AEC) were isolated and assessed for antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Human and GTKO pig Fn were purified and analyzed using immunoblots. GTKO pig and human AEC absorbed human sera were assessed for CDC and anti-GTKO pig Fn antibodies. GTKO pig proteins were assessed for Neu5Gc. Immunoaffinity-purified human IgG anti-GTKO pig (hIgG-GTKOp) Fn using a GTKO pig Fn column were evaluated for cross-reactivity with other proteins.
GTKO pig AEC had greater human antibody binding, complement deposition and CDC compared with allogeneic human AEC. Human sera absorbed with GTKO pig AEC resulted in diminished anti-GTKO pig Fn antibody. Neu5Gc was identified on GTKO pig Fn and other proteins. The hIgG-GTKOp Fn cross-reacted with multiple GTKO pig proteins and was enriched with anti-Neu5Gc antibody.
Removal of antigenic epitopes from GTKO pig AEC would improve xenograft compatibility. GTKO pig Fn has antigenic epitopes, one identified as Neu5Gc, which may be responsible for pathology and cross-reactivity of hIgG-GTKOp Fn. Genetic knockout of Neu5Gc appears necessary to address significance and identification of non-Neu5Gc GTKO pig Fn antigenic epitopes.
Quinoxaline-1,4-di-N-oxide administered in divided doses to a total of 200 mg./kg. prior to irradiation stimulated leukopoiesis in autografted dogs, thus making their bone marrow more susceptible to the damaging effects of x-irradiation. The end result was a decrease in both mean survival time and total survival as compared to control dogs receiving the autograft alone.
The authors wish to thank Manuel Sanchez for his assistance during the course of this investigation.
Recently, hepatic surgery has made remarkable progress, and it is important to use appropriate liver perfusion. We evaluated the effect of normothermic liver perfusion with the addition of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and oxygenation to maintain liver parenchymal, non-parenchymal, and Kupffer cell function.
The rats were divided into five groups according to the perfusate and continuous perfusion was performed: Control group = 4 degrees C lactate Ringer with 10% glucose (LRG) solution; normothermic group = 25 degrees C LRG solution; normothermic oxygenated group = 25 degrees C oxygenated LRG solution; normothermic FBP group = 25 degrees C LRG solution with addition of 10 mmol/L FBP; normothermic oxygenated FBP group = 25 degrees C oxygenated LRG solution with addition of 10 mmol/L FBP. Parameters under evaluation were oxygen consumption, liver energy level (adenosine triphosphate, total adenine nucleotide), glutathione, lipid peroxide, hyaluronic acid uptake ratio, apoptosis, and histomorphology. Moreover, we studied the effect of FBP and normothermia on Kupffer cells activation in vitro.
Liver energy level was lower in the normothermic group than the control group. But, it was improved by oxidation or addition of FBP, and it was satisfactorily maintained up to 120 min in the group with normothermic oxygenated FBP. Hyaluronic acid uptake was maintained highly at all times as measured in normothermic oxygenated FBP group. The uptake of lipopolysaccharide was significantly higher as a result of adding FBP, compared with that in the control group and the normothermic group. Moreover, the apoptotic index in the liver was decreased in normothermic FBP group compared to control group.
The normothermic liver perfusion under additional FBP and oxygenation protects both parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from reperfusion injury.
Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) is reported to have a salutary effect in endotoxin shock and sepsis. This investigation describes the effect of FDP on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, lung lymph protein clearance, and leukocyte count in sheep infused with Escherichia coli endotoxin.
Anesthetized sheep (n = 18), some of which underwent thoracotomy to cannulate lymphatic nodes, were used in this study. After stabilization, all sheep received E. coli endotoxin, 5 microg/kg i.v. infusion over 30 min. Concomitant with the endotoxin infusion, half of the animals were randomly selected to receive an i.v. bolus of FDP (10%), 50 mg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion of 5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) for 4 h; the rest were treated in the same manner with glucose (10%) in 0.9% NaCl.
Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and resistance in the glucose group increased from 20.8 +/- 1.6 to 36.7 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P < 0.007) and from 531 +/- 114 to 1137 +/- 80 dyn.s(-1).cm(-5), respectively (P < 0.005). Despite an increase during endotoxin infusion, these parameters in the FDP group returned to control values. There were no differences in left ventricular pressures, cardiac output, heart rate, and arterial oxygen tension between the groups. In the glucose group, lymph protein clearance was higher (P < 0.01) and blood leukocyte count was lower (P < 0.02). The wet/dry lung weight ratio (g/g) for the glucose group was 5.57 +/- 0.04 and for the FDP-treated group 4.76 +/- 0.06 (P < 0.0005).
FDP treatment attenuated significantly the characteristic pulmonary hypertension, lung lymph protein clearance, and pulmonary vascular leakage seen in sheep infused with endotoxin.
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) has been shown to attenuate tissue injury associated with ischemia and shock by enhancing the anaerobic carbohydrate utilization and by inhibiting oxygen-free-radical generation by the neutrophils. Previously, we have reported that FDP prevents ischemic renal failure if administered prior to the ischemic insult. The present study was designed to determine whether this agent could prevent renal damage when administered during the postischemic reperfusion period. Rats were subjected to 30 min of bilateral renal artery occlusion and infused with FDP (350 mg/kg body wt) beginning 10 min after release of the renal artery clamps. Control rats received an equal volume of glucose/saline solution. A third group of rats were sham operated. Twenty-four hours after injury, BUN, creatinine, and fractional sodium excretion values were less in FDP-treated rats than in control rats (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.005, and P less than 0.001, respectively) and not different from values observed in sham-operated rats. Inulin clearance was greater (P less than 0.001) in FDP-treated rats than in control rats (665 +/- 38 microliters/min/g kidney wt). Renal histology was also better preserved in the FDP-treated group. These data suggest that FDP infused after the initiation of an acute ischemic insult provides significant, but not complete, functional and histologic protection from renal damage.
We hypothesized that the addition of fructose 1, 6-diphosphate (FDP) to a hypothermic heart preservation solution could improve metabolic recovery because it has several beneficial effects.
Twenty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used to study hypothermic heart preservation. The hearts were removed under general anesthesia and preserved at 4 degrees C in Euro-Collins solution (30 ml/kg) for 8 h. In the study group (N = 10), FDP (5 mM) was added to the Euro-Collins solution. In the control group (N = 10), no FDP was added. Heart function was studied after preservation using a working heart model. The ability of various concentrations of fructose 1,6-phosphate to passively diffuse through an egg phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicle (MLV) membrane bilayer was examined.
Cardiac output ranged from 17.0 +/- 1.9 to 24.9 +/- 1.6 ml/min in the study group vs 2.0 +/- 1.0-12.3 +/- 1.7 ml/min for controls, average aortic flow was 10. 8 +/- 1.4 ml/min in the study group vs -1.3 +/- 1.6 ml/min for controls, and maximum LV generated power was 22.8 +/- 1.7 J/min vs 10.1 +/- 1.6 J/min for controls. Coronary flow, left ventricular stroke volume and stroke work, and myocardial oxygen consumption were much higher in the study group than in the control group. Coronary vascular resistance was lower in the study group than in the control group. Electron microscopic study indicated that many myocytes displayed patches of swollen mitochondria in the control group, but was rarely observed in the study group. The addition of 50 mM FDP caused substantial changes in MLV permeability. No dose of sucrose buffers outside the vesicles resulted in a significant changes of MLV permeability.
Our results indicate that the addition of FDP to Euro-Collins solution significantly improves hypothermic rat heart preservation, and FDP appeared to cross the membrane bilayer.
Gram-negative sepsis ranks as the leading cause of death in intensive care units, and its incidence is increasing steadily and mortality rates has not changed much over recent decades.
We investigated the efficacy of the amphibian peptide, citropin 1.1 alone and in combination with tazobactam-piperacillin (TZP) in two experimental mice models of gram-negative sepsis. Animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of (1) 1 mg Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS, and (2) 2×10(10) CFU of E. coli ATCC 25922. For each model, all animals were randomized to receive intraperitoneally isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/Kg citropin 1.1 and 120 mg/Kg of TZP, and finally 1 mg/Kg citropin 1.1 plus 60 mg/Kg of TZP. Lethality, bacterial growth in blood and peritoneum, and oxidative stress indices in plasma were evaluated.
All compounds reduced the lethality compared with controls. Treatment with citropin 1.1 resulted in significant decrease in plasma endotoxin and cytokine levels, while TZP exerted opposed effect. The combination between citropin 1.1 and TZP proved to be the most effective treatment in reducing all variables measured.
Due to its multifunctional properties, citropin 1.1 may become an important future consideration to treat conditions in which oxidative organ failure may be present.
Rabbit and dog kidneys were perfused for 30 min at 37°C with 1.4 M [3H]Me2SO in a K+-Mg2+−rich perfusate. Subsequently the kidneys were perfused for 30 min with Me2SO-free perfusate. The rate of Me2SO uptake and washout as well as Me2SO distribution in the tissue were determined. It was found that equilibrium conditions were achieved within 30 min for both uptake and washout with ratios approaching 1.0. The amount of Me2SO in the cortex and medulla of rabbit kidneys was not significantly different. The same experiment was repeated with dog kidneys at 25 and 10°C. At these lower temperatures the rate of uptake and washout was significantly less, but the final concentration achieved within 30 min was the same as at 37°C. Dog kidneys flushed with a K+−Mg2+−rich solution, with or without 1.4 M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), were kept at 10°C, then reimplanted in the autologous host, and an immediate contralateral nephrectomy was performed. Of the dogs receiving kidneys treated with Me2SO-free solution, 86% survived; of the dogs receiving Me2SO-treated kidneys, 75% survived. Dog kidneys were perfused for 30 min with a K+−Mg2+−rich solution, with or without 1.4 M Me2SO, at 25 or 37°C. All kidneys were then perfused for 30 min with a Me2SO-free solution at the same temperature used for the first perfusion. All kidneys were then reimplanted in the autologous host and an immediate contralateral nephrectomy was performed. Of the dogs receiving kidneys perfused at 25°C with Me2SO-free solution, 43% survived; of the dogs receiving kidneys perfused with Me2SO, 42% survived. Dog kidneys were also treated at 37°C in a manner similar to those at 25°C. Of the dogs receiving kidneys perfused at 37°C with Me2SO-free solution, 80% survived; of the dogs receiving kidneys perfused with Me2SO, 67% survived. Other results indicate that perfusion with a closed circuit is superior to perfusion with an open circuit. Also, gradual administration and washout of Me2SO gives better renal survival than rapid changes in Me2SO concentration.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) alters intestinal microvascular control mechanisms causing significant vasoconstriction. Our prior work with intraperitoneal 2.5% dextrose solution demonstrated increased intestinal perfusion in experimentally induced NEC. In the current study, we examine whether a buffered solution with lower glucose and osmolar loads similarly increases intestinal blood flow. We hypothesized that buffered 1.5% dextrose solution would increase ileal blood flow compared with baseline in NEC.
We randomly assigned pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to control (n = 103) or NEC (n = 123) groups, by litter. We induced NEC by previously published methods. Control pups were vaginally delivered and dam-fed. We used laser Doppler flowmetry to evaluate perfusion in the terminal ileum at 12, 24, 48, 72, or 96 h after delivery at baseline and after application of topical 1.5% dextrose solution. We evaluated differences between groups and time points by analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test.
Baseline blood flow in the terminal ileum increased with gestational age in both groups (P < 0.05). Control groups had significantly greater baseline blood flow than NEC groups (P < 0.05), and topical application of buffered 1.5% dextrose solution increased blood flow compared with baseline in both groups at all time points (P < 0.05).
Topical 1.5% dextrose solution significantly enhanced blood flow in the terminal ileum to the same degree as 2.5% dextrose solution. Thus, the use of buffered 1.5% dextrose solution might be more beneficial in treating clinical NEC, because it places a lower glucose and osmotic load on NEC-injured intestine.
The failure of chronic wounds to heal remains a major medical problem. Recent studies have suggested an important role for growth factors in promoting wound healing. We investigated the mitogenic effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF), comparing their effects with those of media alone (MEM) in a human skin explant model. A stable organ culture system for maintaining the histologic structure of human epidermis for 10 days in vitro was developed. DNA synthesis was measured on Days 1, 3, and 7 of organ culture using [3H]thymidine ([3H]thy) uptake and expressed as cpm/mg dry weight (mean +/- SEM). FGF, IGF-1, and EGF were each capable of stimulating [3H]thy uptake on Day 1 of culture (2372 +/- 335 FGF, 2226 +/- 193 IGF-1, 4037 +/- 679 EGF vs 1108 +/- 70 MEM, P < 0.05). IGF-1 and EGF also stimulated [3H]thy uptake on Days 3 and 7 of culture. The organ culture system was further employed to observe epidermal outgrowth. Longest keratinocyte outgrowth from the explant periphery (simulating epithelial regeneration from the wound edge) was observed on Day 7. EGF resulted in maximum stimulation of epithelial outgrowth (440 +/- 80 microns), followed by FGF (330 +/- 56 microns), IGF-1 (294 +/- 48 microns), and MEM (189 +/- 50 microns). We postulate, therefore, that FGF, IGF-1, and EGF are important mitogens for wound healing and that EGF in particular is capable of stimulating epithelialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays a critical role in the detoxification of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, constituting a major cellular defense mechanism against agents that induce oxidative stress. A genetic polymorphism in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of this gene has been associated with increased cancer risk. This one base pair transition (-9 T>C) leads to a Val to Ala amino acid change in the mitochondrial targeting sequence. In addition, the MnSOD promoter contains an activator protein-2 (AP-2) binding site that modifies transcription of MnSOD. Mutations have been identified in the proximal region of the promoter in human tumor cell lines. One of these mutations (-102 C>T) has been shown to change the binding pattern of AP-2, leading to a reduction in transcriptional activity. The aim of our study was to investigate possible associations of the (-9 T>C) and (-102 C>T) polymorphisms with gastric cancer in a population-based case-control study conducted in Warsaw, Poland.
DNA was obtained from a population based case-control study of stomach cancer conducted in Warsaw, Poland, between 1994 and 1996. The MnSOD -9 T>C genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP assay. The MnSOD -102 C>T genotype was determined using a TaqMan allele discrimination assay.
The frequency of the -102 C>T polymorphism was 41% (38/91) in gastric cancer cases and 38% (50/130) in the controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-2.1). The frequency of the -9 T>C polymorphism was 44% (202/464) in cases and 56% (262/464) in controls (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.37). The lack of association was observed in both non-smokers (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.7-2.34) and smokers (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.7). Furthermore, the association was not significant when smokers were segregated by extent of smoking history.
The association of the manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphisms at -102 C>T and the -9 T>C were not found to be associated with gastric cancer in a Polish case-control study.
Concerns of malignant potential have impacted the utilization of ovarian salvage for treatment of ovarian masses in children.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was analyzed for all females < or =19 y diagnosed with an ovarian tumor between 1973 and 2005.
Overall, 1037 pediatric patients with ovarian tumors were identified. Approximately 61.7% of tumors occurred in patients 15 to 19 y old. The age-adjusted incidence of all malignant pediatric ovarian tumors in those < or =9 y was 0.102 versus 1.072 per 100,000 in those aged 10 to 19 y. The majority of cases (57.4%) present at an early localized stage. The predominant pathology was germ cell tumors in all age groups (77.4%). Overall 5- and 10-y survival rates are 91.7% and 91.4%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, advanced disease stage (HR 3.17, P<0.001), lack of surgery (HR 4.49, P =0.039), and poorly differentiated tumors (HR 3.40, P=0.011) were associated with worse outcomes.
Malignant ovarian tumors are rare, particularly in patients under 5 y of age. Furthermore, the most common histologies are of low metastatic potential and carry high cure rates. Thus, the surgeon should implement ovarian-sparing strategies on the affected ovary unless a malignancy is clearly suspected and conserve the contralateral ovary in all children.
The outcomes of pediatric intestinal foregut and small bowel solid tumors have never been studied on a population scale.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2005) was queried for all patients under 20 y of age.
A total of 105 cases of pediatric intestinal foregut and small bowel solid tumors were identified. Tumors occurred in the esophagus (8.6%), stomach (61%), and small bowel (30.5%). The most common histologies include sarcoma (43.8%), which consisted mostly of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), carcinoma (41.0%), which consisted mostly of adenocarcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) (10.5%). Most tumors were poorly differentiated and presented with advanced disease. The overall median survival time was 207 mo. Gastric solid tumors had significantly worse 5- and 10-y survival compared with their small bowel counterparts, though this difference disappeared in those who received surgical resection. Patients with carcinoma had significantly worse survival compared with those with sarcoma or NET, regardless of site and surgical intervention. Univariate analysis identified race, differentiation, stage, and surgery as significant predictors of survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that African American race, advanced stage of disease, carcinoma histology, and failure to undergo surgical extirpation were all independent predictors of worse outcome. In patients with carcinoma, failure to undergo radiotherapy was also a predictor of worse outcome.
Surgery is associated with a significantly improved survival for pediatric patients with solid tumors of the intestinal foregut and small bowel. Radiotherapy appears to be an important adjuvant therapy for patients with carcinoma.
Pulmonary tissue was acquired from lung biopsy specimens from 106 patients for extraction and determination of surface activity. Fifty-four of these patients contributed 64 normal lung biopsy specimens from which a range of normal maximal and minimal surface tension values was estimated for the methods used. These values were as follows: maximal surface tension mean 38 dyn/cm, 95% confidence limits 27–49 dyn/cm; minimal surface tension mean 7 dyn/cm, 95% confidence limits 0–14 dyn/cm; and stability index mean 1.38, 95% confidence limits 1.12–1.64. Lung biopsy specimens were secured from 52 patients with a variety of pulmonary diseases. These patients contributed 57 specimens for extraction and surface tension measurements. Alteration of pulmonary surfactant activity was observed infrequently in patients with both diffuse granulomatous diseases (4 of 17) and pneumonic processes that did not obliterate alveoli (5 of 13). Abnormal surface activity of lung extracts was noted in a majority of patients with emphysema and fibrosis (11 of 14). Alteration of surface activity was also observed in an extract prepared from a chronically apneumatic lung as compared with compressed atelectatic lungs. In addition the activity of an extract prepared from a lung harboring hemosiderosis was abnormal. In contrast pulmonary sequestration, uncomplicated by infection, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation did not adversely affect alveolar surface activity. This report summarizes the most comprehensive clinical survey of human lung extract surface characteristics made to date.
Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of death in Japan. We have previously reported, using biopsy specimens, the usefulness of the 1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy (RAS) system as a novel diagnostic modality for gastric cancer. However, our study might not have reflected in vivo use of RAS due to a lack of tissue other than the mucosal layer in the biopsy specimens. Here, we used RAS ex vivo for optical diagnosis of gastric cancer in surgically resected stomach.
A total of 213 Raman spectra were obtained from 12 cancer lesions and their corresponding non-neoplastic areas in 10 stomachs following resection for gastric cancer. To develop optical diagnostic systems for gastric cancer, principal component analysis (PCA) of all the Raman spectra was performed.
The averaged Raman spectra of the cancer lesions could be distinguished from those of the non-neoplastic regions. Discrimination analysis of cancer from non-neoplastic regions with 10 principal components revealed that sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of cancer diagnosis were 73%, 73%, and 72%, respectively. RAS discriminated between differentiated and undifferentiated cancers, early and advanced cancers, as well as T1a (M) and T1b (SM) cancers with high accuracy (98%, 93%, and 98%, respectively).
The 1064 nm near-infrared multichannel RAS system is useful not only for gastric cancer detection, but also for discrimination between differentiated and undifferentiated, as well as early and advanced cancers. RAS could help establish indications for endoscopic treatment by eliminating cancer lesions with an undifferentiated component or submucosal invasion.
Published Abstract. Journal of Surgical Research. 2008 Feb;144(2):225.
Background: The modern paradigm for third-year surgery clerkships is a 6-12 week rotation period that places the general surgery service at its core, while providing limited exposure to subspecialty services. A novel surgery clerkship system in which students were assigned to either a general surgery or subspecialty rotation for the entire clerkship was recently trialed at a large U.S. medical school. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of the novel clerkship system with regard to student academic achievement and success in the surgical residency match.
Methods: Academic performance, as measured by the NBME Surgery Content Exam Score (SCE) and the Faculty Evaluation Score (FES), was analyzed for students who completed their third-year surgery clerkships. The control group (Group 1) consisted of all students in academic years 2002-2004 who underwent a traditional 6 week clerkship on a general surgery service. The experimental group (Group 2) included all students in academic years 2004-2006 who were assigned to a single clerkship rotation in either a general surgery (Group 2a) or subspecialty service (Group 2b). Differences in pre-clerkship academic preparation were controlled for using USMLE Step 1 Scores. The final analysis design is a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with experimental group as the independent variable, Surgery Content Exam and Faculty Evaluation Scores as the dependent variables, and USMLE Step 1 Scores as the covariate. Statistical differences in this omnibus test were followed up with univariate and multiple comparison post-hoc analyses.
Results: The mean scores for measures of academic performance (SCE and FES) are summarized in Table 1. The MANCOVA results showed a main effect for group on FES (F=28.03; p ≤ 0.001), but no main effect for group on SCE (F=2.32, ns). In summary, students who rotated solely on subspecialty surgical services scored significantly lower on the FES than students who rotated on general surgery, but no differences in performance were observed between groups on the SCE. The overall success rate in the surgery residency match was 16.8%, and there was no difference based on type of surgical clerkship rotation.
Conclusion: The objective academic performance of students on subspecialty surgical services was equivalent to the performance of students who rotated on general surgery services. The differences in the subjective FES scores may reflect the relative unfamiliarity of subspecialty faculty with assessing student performance on the clerkship, a situation which might improve as they adjust to an increased role in the clerkship program. Therefore, surgical educators should consider a more prominent role for subspecialty surgery rotations in the third-year surgical clerkships; however, subspecialty faculty development in student performance assessment is advised.
We previously reported the superiority of the continuous coronary perfusion method using apparatus developed in our department. However, myocardial edema was a serious problem following this method. The purpose of this study was to attempt a comparative study of 12-h continuous perfusion and 1-h perfusion following 11-h simple immersion to evaluate the suitable method for long-term heart preservation.
HBD dogs were used in this study. After measuring baseline hemodynamics, cardiac arrest was attained and the coronary vascular beds were washed out with 4 degrees C Celsior solution. The grafts were divided into the two groups. In the CP group (n = 6), the grafts were preserved by continuous perfusion with 4 degrees C Celsior solution, and in the SI + CP (n = 6) group, the grafts were preserved with 11 h of simple immersion followed by an additional 1 h of perfusion with the same solution. The hemodynamics after orthotopic transplantation were compared. We also performed a histopathologic examination.
Hemodynamics after reperfusion were maintained in both groups, and there were no significant differences in CO, Emax, or the rate pressure product between the two groups. In contrast, the percentage water content was significantly lower in the SI + CP group than in the CP group. Histopathologically, the myocytes were well preserved in both groups. However, ischemia-reperfusion changes were observed more frequently in the CP group than in the SI + CP group.
A short-term perfusion following the simple immersion method may provide satisfactory results compared to the continuous perfusion method in long-term heart preservation.
Suppression of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) can promote IL-10 expression in mouse macrophages RAW264.7 and induce immune tolerance. This study is to further investigate the role of HDAC11 in tolerance induction via Kupffer cells (KCs) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats.
KCs isolated from BALB/c mice were divided into pHDAC11, adHDAC11, and pCV group (treated with HADC11-shRNA, adenovirus encoding HDAC11, and control vector, respectively). IL-10 expression was determined after lipopolysaccharide treatment. The expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules on KCs surface was evaluated by flow cytometry. T cell proliferation was measured by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation after culturing with aforementioned three groups, treated KCs, respectively. OLT was performed in rats after Ad-HDAC11 and pHDAC11 treatment. Blood samples were collected for biochemical studies, and postoperative survival was examined.
IL-10 expression was inhibited and promoted by Ad-HDAC11 and HDAC11-shRNA in KCs, respectively. MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules on KCs surface as well as T cell proliferation were significantly inhibited and induced in pHDAC11 and Ad-HDAC11 compared with pCV, respectively. Serum IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels were significantly lower in pHDAC11 and higher in Ad-HDAC11 compared with pCV, respectively, while IL-4 and IL-10 were the reverse. Postoperative survival, liver function, and histology were different among the three groups.
Suppression of HDAC11 can promote IL-10 expression in KCs and induce tolerance following OLT in rats. Consequently, HDAC11 may be a key component of this immune regulation system and a promising target for development of novel drugs of gene therapy for inducing tolerance in clinical liver transplantation.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in 40% of human invasive breast cancers. Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a potent mediator of osteoclastogenesis, is involved in breast cancer metastasis to bone. Since breast cancers that overexpress COX-2 are associated with a higher rate of metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that COX-2 expression in tumor cells would induce IL-11.
We transfected MCF-7 (poorly metastatic) and MDA-231 (highly metastatic) human breast cancer cell lines with COX-2 expression vectors. COX-2 overexpression was confirmed by Western blot and PGE(2) immunoassay, and IL-11 production was measured by immunoassay. We also used a nude mouse model to study COX-2 and IL-11 production from breast cancer cells that metastasized to bone. The bone-seeking clones (BSC) were isolated and cultured from the long bone metastases.
COX-2 transfection caused an approximately 5- to 6-fold increase in IL-11 production in both MCF-7 and MDA-231 cells. MDA-435S-COX2-BSC (cells isolated from bone metastasis) produced elevated levels of IL-11 and PGE2 (an important mediator of COX-2) as compared to the parental MDA-435S-COX2 cells. Furthermore, a treatment with low 1- to 2-microm concentration NS-398 or Celecoxib significantly reduced the production of IL-11 in COX-2-transfected MDA-231 cells, thus confirming the involvement of COX-2 in IL-11 induction.
COX-2-mediated production of IL-11 in breast cancer cells may be vital to the development of osteolytic bone metastases in patients with breast cancer, and a COX-2 inhibitor may be useful in inhibiting this process.
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury results in enterocyte necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective effects of interleukin-11 (IL-11) pretreatment on intestinal mucosa following IR injury.
Sham (n = 7) and control animals (n = 7) received 48 h of intravenous saline while treatment animals (n = 7) received IL-11 (750 microg/kg/day). Sham animals then underwent laparotomy alone, while control and treatment animals underwent 35 min of mesenteric artery occlusion and 120 min of reperfusion. Midjejunum samples were obtained and serum was drawn. Fluorometric assays were performed for hexosaminidase A (HEX A) and beta-glucuronidase (GLUC), markers of enterocyte necrosis. Apoptosis was quantified by TUNEL and confirmed by DNA fragmentation. Transcription of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic regulator, was assessed by multiplex RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and expressed as means +/- SEM.
In pretreated animals, HEX A and GLUC activities after IR were reduced from 570 +/- 54 to 426 +/- 47 nmol/ml/h (P < 0.05) and from 183 +/- 29 to 125 +/- 7 nmol/ml/h (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreated animals had a reduced number of apoptotic cells per 10 crypts (79 +/- 11) compared with untreated rats (255 +/- 17) after IR injury (P < 0.01). Mucosal DNA from pretreated rats qualitatively showed less fragmentation on electrophoresis. Relative Bcl-2 band intensity was higher in pretreated animals (1.04 +/- 0.09) compared with controls (0.78 +/- 0.07) (P < 0.05).
IL-11 pretreatment reduced crypt cell apoptosis after IR injury, possibly by upregulating Bcl-2. Treated animals also demonstrated attenuation in the release of certain lysosomal enzymes. These data indicate that following IR injury, IL-11 improves enterocyte survival by reducing necrosis and apoptosis.
Visualization of abscesses by scintigraphic techniques following intravenous injection of radioisotopes or radioisotope-tagged leukocytes has been used to confirm the presence and location of experimental abscesses as well as identifying occult abscesses in patients. Although several radioisotopes have been evaluated for this purpose, gallium-67 (â¶â·Ga) citrate has found greatest clinical applicability. However, as some investigators have recently emphasized, even â¶â·Ga has not proven satisfactory in all clinical situations. This led to our recent evaluation of Indium-111 (Â¹Â¹Â¹In) chloride, a radioisotope of potential value for identification of abscesses and inflammatory masses. Â¹Â¹Â¹In has been used for tumor visualization, both experimentally and clinically. Prepared as a sterile solution for intravenous administration, Â¹Â¹Â¹In has a high degree of chemical and radionuclidic purity. When injected intravenously, ionic In is bound by plasma proteins. Earlier reports on radioactive iodinated serum albumin for radioisotopic imagery of abscesses suggested that plasma proteins contribute in the early formation of inflammatory processes. Coupled with the ideal physical characteristics of Â¹Â¹Â¹In as well as its ability to label autologous leukocytes, we were prompted to investigate use of this radiopharmaceutic for the identification of experimental abscesses in the rabbit.
Hemorrhagic shock activates cellular stress signals and can lead to systemic inflammatory response, organ injury, and death. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) acts as a sensor of tissue injury in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lipoxins are endogenous lipid mediators with potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. We hypothesized that BML-111 (a lipoxin A4-receptor agonist) attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced acute lung injury (ALI) through inhibiting activation of the MAPK pathway.
We randomized Sprague-Dawley rats into four groups: sham, hemorrhagic shock-resuscitation (HS), HS plus BML-111 (BML-111), and HS plus BML-111 and BOC-2 (BOC-2). Two hours after resuscitation, we collected samples of lung. We obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for neutrophil count. We performed optical microscopy to examine pathologic changes in lungs. Wet/dry ratios, myeloperoxidase expression, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in lung were measured. We evaluated MAPK activation and the DNA binding activity of activator protein-1 in lung.
Treatment with BML-111 reduced the lung damage and wet/dry ratio, neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, expression of myeloperoxidase, and production of IL-1β and IL-6 in lung. Phosphorylation of MAPK was also decreased by BML-111 in lung. Furthermore, the DNA binding activity of activator protein-1 was blocked by BML-111. An antagonist of the lipoxin A4-receptor, BOC-2, reversed the protective effect of BML-111 on ALI induced by hemorrhagic shock.
This study indicates that BML-111 attenuated hemorrhagic shock-induced ALI via the MAPK/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, BML-111 may have therapeutic potential for hemorrhagic shock-induced ALI.
This report provides data on platelet survival times obtained from 47 dogs over a period of 18 months. Platelets were labeled with indium-111 oxine using isotonic saline as the labeling medium. Results obtained from four different mathematical models are summarized. The mean platelet survival time for 47 animals using the multihit model for calculations was 78.8 ± 2.0 (SEM) hr. Basic statistics are provided on sufficient animals to allow evaluation of the reproducibility of the technique when used on a routine basis.
A labeling method utilizing modified carbohydrate moieties in antibody heavy chains as radionucleotide binding sites was evaluated. Murine anti-sarcoma monoclonal antibody (MAb 19-24) was labeled with Indium-111 (111In) using this technique and subcutaneous human sarcoma xenografts were successfully localized in nude mice. A nonspecific monoclonal antibody BL-3 was used as a negative control. Tumor-to-blood ratios of radioactivity in the mice injected with 111In-labeled MAb 19-24 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those obtained with nonspecific MAb BL-3. Calculations of percentage injected dose of radioactivity per gram tissue showed relatively high specific uptake of MAb 19-24 in sarcoma xenografts. Radioactivity cleared from the blood rapidly and hepatic uptake of 111In-labeled antibodies was found to be relatively low. Biodistribution studies in normal mice with 111In-labeled antibodies showed only blood pool activity with no significant concentration of activity into organs. Therefore, immunoreactivity of the antibodies was retained after 111In-labeling utilizing this new technique, allowing specific binding of radiolabeled MAb to tumor xenografts with relatively low hepatic uptake.
An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary 125I-fibrinogen and 111In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. 125I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). 125I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.
To further clarify the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of ARDS, we studied the localization and kinetics of leukocyte migration using 111In-labeled autologous white cell scans (111In wbc scans) in four primates made acutely septic with infusions of Escherichia coli. Whole body images were obtained with a gamma camera and were acquired on computer every 15 min beginning immediately after the E. coli infusion. Simultaneous measurements of C5a and peripheral blood leukocyte count were also obtained. Within 5 min of initiating sepsis, three major events occurred: complement activation as measured by the production of C5a, a profound fall in peripheral leukocyte count, and a significant increase in the sequestration of leukocytes in the lungs. The pulmonary sequestration reached a peak at 15 min with a mean of 152% of baseline activity. This sequestration consisted of a population that was predominantly neutrophils. Damage to the pulmonary capillary endothelium was demonstrated by an increase in extravascular lung water. The results support a role for neutrophils and complement as mediators in the pathogenesis of ARDS.
We recently demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasive detection of cardiac allograft rejection after administration of indium-111-labeled lymphocytes. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique, as well as its value for delineating the severity of rejection, we studied 16 dogs with heterotopic thoracic cardiac allografts. Five animals were evaluated while exposed to immunosuppressive agents. Animals were scanned sequentially after administration of 100-400 microCi of indium-111-labeled autologous lymphocytes. Myocardial lymphocyte infiltration was expressed as the indium excess (IE), defined as the ratio of indium activity of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood. Scintigraphic results were compared with characteristics of simultaneously obtained endomyocardial biopsies. Among 17 biopsy documented episodes of rejection, 16 were detected scintigraphically. Among 18 biopsies with no evidence of rejection, scintigraphy was uniformly negative. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy were 94 and 100%, respectively. Biopsies graded as showing no rejection were associated with an IE of 0.3 +/- 0.5 (+/- SD); those graded as mild, 2.8 +/- 1.7; those as moderate, 10.7 +/- 7.2; and those graded as indicative of severe rejection, 14.2 +/- 4.5. Thus, scintigraphy with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes sensitively and specifically detects cardiac allograft rejection and delineates the intensity of the rejection process. It should be useful clinically for assessing potential allograft rejection noninvasively.
Expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst 2) in angiogenic tumor vessels appears to be homogeneous, while tumor cell expression of this receptor is often heterogeneous. We have developed a novel in vitro three-dimensional tumor angiogenesis model to study the antitumor and the antiangiogenic effects of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. We hypothesized that targeted in situ radiation with an Auger electron-emitting radiolabeled somatostatin analog would produce receptor-specific cytotoxicity in sst 2-expressing cells. MATERIALS and
IMR-32 human neuroblastoma (sst 2-positive) and MDA MB-231 human breast cancer (sst 2-negative) xenografts were created in nude mice from monolayer cell cultures. Fragments of these tumors were embedded in three-dimensional fibrin gels supplemented with endothelial growth media and incubated for a period of 14 days. Tumor fragments were treated with 50 microCi/ml of (111)In-JIC 2DL, a sst 2-preferring somatostatin analog, or medium on Day 1. Initial angiogenic activity was determined at 48 h and the mean angiogenic score and tumoricidal responses were assessed on Day 14. RESULTS and
Tumoricidal effects of (111)In-JIC 2DL were seen only in sst 2-positive IMR-32 tumors. However, the angiogenic response was inhibited in both IMR-32 and MDA MB-231 tumors independent of the tumor cells' sst 2 status. Somatostatin receptor-mediated in situ radiation therapy has profound cytotoxic effects on angiogenic blood vessels and sst 2-expressing tumor cells.
Arterial diameter changes in response to flow. Chronic flow-mediated arterial enlargement may be mediated through metalloproteinase activity in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall. We examined flow-mediated enlargement in the setting of increasing competitive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition and with respect to gelatinase A and B expression and activity.
Left common femoral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) were created in dose-response (52) and time course (34) cohorts of rats. Dose-response rats received either vehicle alone or 12.5, 25, or 37. 5 mg/kg b.i.d. RS 113,456, a competitive MMP inhibitor. Heart rate, blood pressure, and weight were measured at intervals following AVF construction. Aortic and common iliac diameters were measured on postoperative day (POD) 21. Untreated time course rats were sacrificed on PODs 0 (no AVF), 3, 7, 14, and 21. Aortic diameter was measured and the vessels were harvested for tissue analysis. Equal amounts of aortic RNA underwent reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction with primers for MMP-2, MMP-9, and GAPDH. Zymography was performed on iliac artery tissue to measure gelatinolytic activity.
A significant, stepwise reduction in flow-mediated aortic and left common iliac enlargement following left femoral AVF creation was noted with progressively higher doses of RS 113,456 without apparent hemodynamic or toxic effects. Right common iliac diameter was unchanged. Over 21 days following AVF creation, there was an upward trend in expression and activity for MMP-2 not evident for MMP-9.
Flow-mediated arterial enlargement is limited by competitive MMP inhibition in a dose-dependent fashion. MMP-dependent flow-mediated enlargement may involve differential expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
The effect of an anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR (MHC class II) humanized monoclonal antibody, IMMU-114, against the human to bovine cellular response was investigated.
Human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cocultured with inactivated self-PBMCs (Self), bovine PBMCs with control antibody (Xeno), or bovine PBMCs with IMMU-114 (IMMU-114). Cellular responses were investigated by thymidine incorporation assay, CFSE (carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester)-mixed lymphocyte reaction, and cytokine production in culture medium.
Thymidine incorporation rates at a 1:1 responder to stimulator ratio for Xeno + control antibody, Xeno + IMMU-114, Self + control antibody, and Self + IMMU-114 were 14201.3 ± 1968.4, 513.0 ± 49.5, 952.7 ± 128.7, and 423.3 ± 138.8 cpm, respectively (P = 0.032). Those at a 1:2 ratio were 6518.0 ± 690.1, 896.6 ± 92.9, 1051.0 ± 123.6, and 736.0 ± 35.6 cpm, respectively (P = 0.036). CFSE-mixed lymphocyte reaction demonstrated that the frequencies of CFSE-low, CD4(+), and CD25(+) activating T cells in Self, Xeno, and IMMU-114 were 0.27 ± 0.04%, 3.65 ± 0.53%, and 1.23 ± 0.15%, respectively (P = 0.027). Cytokine production in culture medium indicated that IMMU-114 decreased Th1-type cytokines, including interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α.
IMMU-114 effectively suppresses human to bovine cellular responses. The mechanism involves direct inhibition of the interaction between class II human leukocyte antigen-DR-positive cells and CD4(+) T cells, and indirect suppression of Th1 cytokine production.
It was previously reported that monocytes/macrophages play an important role in mediating T cell dysfunction in tumor-bearing hosts, in which monocytes/macrophages were found to induce the loss of T cell functions concomitantly with induction of defects in T cell signaling molecules. These observations encouraged us to investigate monocytes status in cancer-bearing hosts.
We characterized peripheral blood monocytes in gastric cancer patients with advanced disease (n = 14), in those with early disease (n = 17), and in healthy individuals (n = 14), based on surface marker, oxygen-burst capacity, and intracellular cytokine status (IL-10 and IL-12).
Intracellular IL-10 and IL-12 status on monocytes in advanced disease was significantly increased in comparison with those in early disease or healthy individuals, while there were no differences in the surface marker or oxygen-burst capacity of monocytes. To clarify which mediators induced the characteristic differences of monocytes in cancer-bearing hosts, healthy donor-derived monocytes were coincubated with the patient's plasma. The plasma from the patients with advanced disease could induce healthy monocytes to increased intracellular IL-10 and IL-12 status. The phenomenon was significantly inhibited with neutralizing mAbs specific for VEGF. Furthermore, the contents of VEGF in the patient's plasma correlated with their capacity to induce healthy monocytes to increased intracellular IL-10. In addition, the treatment of healthy monocytes with exogenous VEGF resulted in increased intracellular IL-10.
Monocytes in gastric cancer patients with advanced disease showed different characteristics in comparison with those with early disease or healthy individuals, which might be potentially induced by circulating VEGF in the patients.
In renal tubular cells, cytochrome P4503A enzyme and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter activities result in intracellular drug or metabolite exposure variability, depending on genetic polymorphisms. Our aim was to establish whether long-term renal function is affected by genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters of the donor after kidney transplantation.
Materials and methods:
The study was conducted in a selected cohort of 97 kidney recipients. Genotyping of donors was performed on renal biopsy samples obtained before transplantation. Serum creatinine levels and Cockcroft-Gault estimated glomerular filtration rate were considered 1 y after transplantation and at the last follow-up.
Long-term function was significantly better in recipients of an organ from donors carrying the ABCB1 1199A mutated allele (median and range creatinine values were 1.1 mg/dL [0.8-1.5mg/dL] in case of at least one ABCB1 1199A allele versus 1.5 mg/dL [0.7-3.7 mg/dL] for homozygous carriers of wild-type allele, P < 0.01). ABCB1 1199G>A polymorphism and donor age had an independent impact on both serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Unlike donor age, the mutated ABCB1 1199A allele was found to have a protective effect on renal function.
Donor age and ABCB1 1199G>A polymorphism affect long-term renal function after transplantation. Analysis of genetic factors offers a promising approach to calcineurin inhibitor toxicity risk assessment.