Journal of Sports and Physical Education Studies

Published by Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development

Online ISSN: 2788-788X


Theorizing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Special Needs Students and Teachers in Physical Education and Sports in Jamaica
  • Article
  • Full-text available

September 2021


131 Reads

Students with special needs are one of the most vulnerable groups in our society. Special needs students require distinct treatment and attention to function and make sense of the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the routine and the special attention that are normally available to these students when they are in face-to-face school. One of the most anticipated aspects of face-to-face school is participating in physical education (PE) and sports, which provides physical, social, and psychological benefits for special needs students. However, the pandemic has forced schools online and has changed the ascetics of PE and sports. Furthermore, like a third-world country, Jamaica does not have the technological resources needed to fully engage special needs students in PE. As a result, this study sought to investigate the challenges that are facing special needs students and teachers in PE while conducting classes online during the COVID-19 pandemic, from the teacher’s perspective. The research took the form of a qualitative approach while utilizing a multiple case study design that used a purposive sampling method in selecting the four (out of 11) most prominent public special education schools in Jamaica. The results revealed that student participation in PE was significantly impacted. In some cases, up to 80% of the students were unaccounted for in PE classes since the start of the pandemic. The challenges were seen as magnified twofold, ranging from physical, psychological, social, environmental, and societal issues. The results of this study raise serious concerns about the physical health of students with special needs, with Jamaica struggling to reduce physical inactivity rates and chronic lifestyle diseases. The risk of special needs students developing secondary disabilities because of sedentary lifestyles practices is very worrying. A lack of physical activity also means lower levels of socialization and increased psychological issues that could worsen with the strict COVID-19 lockdown measures, internet connectivity issues, and lack of devices.

The Demographic Breakdown of the Participants.
The level of fear pre and post assessment
Assessing University Students’ Abilities and Challenges While Learning to Swim

April 2023


114 Reads

Swimming as a modern exercise has several health benefits for both healthy and unhealthy people, including improved psychological health, improved life satisfaction and self-perception of health, physical health, reducing stress, anxiety, tension, and sadness when compared to other exercises. Despite the benefits, fear and anxiety prevent many university students from enjoying the many relaxing benefits of swimming. As a result, the purpose of the study was to assess university students’ abilities and challenges while learning to swim. The study took the form of a quantitative approach while utilizing a longitudinal cohort survey design. The sampling technique that was utilized is a census approach (complete enumeration) to select all 40 students that were enrolled in four occurrences of Learn to Swim during semester 2, 2022, at the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech. Ja.). The results of the study revealed that 72% of the participants had some level of fear in water or deep water, resulting from students' lack of knowledge and practical experience in swimming. Additionally, when comparing the pre-and post-practical assessments, there was a 36% overall improvement in terms of participants' ability to swim, with only 23% of the participants still fearing water or deep water. This led to 82% of the participants obtaining a passing grade for the course. Furthermore, the reduced level of fear and anxiety of participants was attributed to exposure to deep water, the lecturer's method of teaching, more knowledge of swimming, and improved practical skills. The results have great implications for the swimming abilities of university students in Jamaica. It shows that enough exposure to swimming can reduce fear and anxiety and improve swimming abilities.

Participant Demographics
Perceived Reasons for Yelling and Swearing
Perceived Solutions
Exploring Lived Experience of Abusive Behavior among Youth Hockey Coaches

August 2022


45 Reads

This study explores the causes and solutions to youth hockey coaches’ abusive behavior, particularly shouting, swearing, and punishing. It draws on extensive literature regarding youth sports, Positive Youth Development, coaching behaviors, emotional abuse, and the culture of hockey. The issue was approached from four perspectives: players, parents, referees, and coaches. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and written questionnaires, then transcribed and coded through numerous readings to determine common themes. Perceived reasons for abusive coaching predominantly included “they coach as they were coached,” the “culture of hockey,” and “pressure to win,” with “ego,” “poor communication skills,” “lack of maturity,” and “substance abuse at the low end of the scale. Proposed solutions focused overwhelmingly on emphasizing Positive Youth Development.

The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercises Accompanied by Electrical Stimulation in the Rehabilitation of Paraplegic Patients in the Elderly
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  • Article
  • Full-text available

September 2023


15 Reads

Therapeutic exercise in combination with electrical stimulation has become an important method to help improve movement and raise functional efficiency in elderly paraplegics. Therefore, this research focused on designing a rehabilitation program with electrical stimulation to raise the functional efficiency of the elderly with paraplegia and to know its effect on the muscle tone of the muscles of the upper and lower extremities of the affected part. In this paper, the researcher used the experimental approach due to its suitability to the nature of the research, using the intentional method in selecting a sample of 8 patients with simple and medium degrees. The results showed the positive effect of rehabilitative exercises with electrical stimulation used in a sample in improving muscle tone and reducing the effects of spasms in it, as well as a positive effect of the rehabilitative exercise program with electrical stimulation in increasing and improving the range of motion, and an improvement was also found in the angles of the joints of the affected limbs as a result of continuous movement and continuation in the performance of the proposed rehabilitation exercises in a sample with the ability of the injured individuals to perform strength training and improve the movement level. In conclusion, the researcher recommends being guided by the therapeutic program in rehabilitation and paying attention to flexibility and orthotics together as two sides of the same coin to get rid of muscle spasm in particular and improve muscle tone in general, and to pay attention to the development of muscle strength, balance, flexibility and views of the affected muscles.

Awareness of teachers and students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports about the role of pedagogical training activities.
The current situation of the content of pedagogical training activities for students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, TNUE
Current status of pedagogical skills of students of the Faculty of Physical Education, TNUE
Rate of pedagogical internship results of students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports courses.
Actual Situation of Pedagogical Training Activities of Students of Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Thai Nguyen University of Education and Influencing Factors

July 2023


13 Reads

Pedagogical training is a professional activity in teacher training. Pedagogical training activities help students have enough baggage to become good teachers, need gold and confidence in the teaching process, and form good personalities and qualities. The purpose of the article is to assess the current status of students' pedagogical training activities and determine the factors affecting the practice as a basis for proposing measures to improve the quality of training. We used a variety of methodological approaches to address the research question. A questionnaire consisting of 8 questions was developed to interview 56 students and 18 lecturers about the actual situation of pedagogical training activities of students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Thai Nguyen University of Education and influencing factors. Interview results are analyzed using Microsoft Excel software to process the data. The results show that the current pedagogical training activities of students still exist and are limited. The study identified 8 factors affecting students' pedagogical training. The correct assessment of the situation will help the Faculty and the University to properly recognize the current reality. This result serves as a basis for proposing measures to improve the quality of training and meet the requirements of employers and society.

Identifying Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Barriers in the Physical Education Administration of Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education

June 2023


83 Reads

The main of this study was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, barriers and opportunities in the Physical Education Directorate of the Ministry of Education of Afghanistan. The applied research method is of descriptive type. The population of the study was the directors of the Physical Education Department and the faculty members of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences of Kabul Education University. Thirty-five individuals were the participants of the study. The research questionnaire consisted of four parts (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and barriers) which were used after determining the validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS 24 software. The results showed that the most important strengths were the existence of sports networks, paying attention to sports and physical education, the existence of participatory management space as well as setting for collective decision-making. The most noticeable weaknesses are the lack of a strategic plan in the General Directorate of Physical Education, lack of well-trained physical education instructors and its disproportion to the student population of the country. The opportunities available in this field were the young population and the existence of many talents in physical education in the country, increasing the level of education of physical education instructors; and the big threats were the influence and interference of other bodies and non-specialized officials in physical education administration, as well as lack of sufficient funds for sports education. Managers and staff members of the Physical Education General Directorate should better plan for the achievement of high efficiency and effectiveness by identifying strengths and weaknesses and taking advantage of environmental opportunities and barriers.

The Level of Time Management in the Administrative Bodies of the Club Participating in Volleyball: An Analytical Study

October 2022


11 Reads

Sports management has components and basics, the most important of which is time. One of the responsibilities of administrative work is to use the poles and the economy of effort in all facets of the work, and one of the unavoidable priorities has been time management. In the conventional sense, the significance of this research is examining the degree of time management exhibited by the club's administrative bodies that play volleyball. Among the most prominent of these problems is the weakness of time management, how to invest this energy, and scheduling administrative work according to a programmed curriculum. Among the goals of this study is to build and implement the time management form for the administrative bodies of clubs participating in volleyball and learn about the level of time management of the administrative bodies of the participating clubs in volleyball. The researchers used the descriptive approach in the surveying study method because it is closest to dealing with the research problem. The research community represents the first-class volleyball club players, which included (150) players. The sample was divided into two parts, which included the Building sample and the application sample. The construction sample number was (100) players, and the application sample number was (50) players. The findings exposed a serious flaw in the administrative structures of the volleyball league's participating teams. It is advised that the administrative staffs of the volleyball league's participating teams pay close attention to time management.

An Analytical Study of Administrative Deviations (Functional and Field Guidance) For Volleyball Coaches in Iraq from the Players’ Point of View

August 2022


6 Reads

The study was concerned with functional deviation and field guidance, which does not use administrative and leadership positions correctly, and their decisions come unlike the public and private interest and come negatively at the level of the players. The study aimed to measure volleyball coaches' administrative and guiding administrative deviation and determine the standard levels of job administrative deviation and thereby the guidance for volleyball coaches. The research problem came with a weakness of the administrative cadres working in the sports sector and the administrator of the volleyball game and increased administrative deviations and field guidance among members of the Central Volleyball Federation. The researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method due to its suitability for the current nature of the study. The research sample community was chosen by volleyball players from the Premier League clubs (Elite), and the number (114) players by (8) teams, and the research sample was chosen in a random way. The overall sample was divided into two parts, the first was the building sample, with numbered (27) players, and the second section is to the application sample, which numbered (81) players. The conclusions were released, the most important of which was the presence of differences in the levels of functional deviation and field guidance.

Moderate Aerobic Exercise in College Students’ Memory Retention

December 2023


6 Reads

Rulthan Sumicad


Julie Pearl A. Vaño


Rosamaria P. Gob




Alben Kenth V. Ladera

This study was conducted to determine the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on memory retention of 1st-year Political Science students at the University of Cebu Main- Campus, Academic Year 2022-2023. It utilized the quantitative research method; thus, this study used a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design. The researchers used this design in conducting this study to evaluate if the intervention known as moderate aerobic exercise, precisely the brisk walk-in-place exercise, positively affects the students' memory retention. Moreover, this research design helps determine the effect of the treatment on the respondents before and after manipulation. Physical exercise has undeniably positive effects on both our bodies and minds. The scientific literature emphasizes its impact on our memory. The idea that something as simple as exercise, which anyone can do, has the potential to improve our memory is reason enough to investigate further. This will be especially beneficial for students, as having a good memory is a requirement for academic success. They chose them as the respondents in this study because their major requires much memorization, and they recently switched from online to face-to-face classes. This research aims to see if there is a difference in students' memory retention before and after moderate aerobic exercise. The research was motivated by the recognized positive influence of physical exercise on memory. It focused on its relevance to students who require strong memorization skills for academic success, especially considering the transition from online to in-person classes. The primary objective was to examine any variations in memory retention before and after moderate aerobic exercise. Individuals were given the challenge of memorizing 50 pairs of words within a ten-minute time frame. This task was repeated on the second, third, and fourth days, and a memory retention test was administered on the fifth day. While the overall results did not reveal a significant difference in memory recall, some participants showed modest improvements, suggesting potential benefits for certain students. The study recommends that future investigations consider factors such as IQ levels, learning preferences, diet, sleep duration, and life stressors, which could influence students' memory abilities.

Are Dietary Supplements, Harmful or Good for Athletes?

June 2022


76 Reads

Athletes are bombarded with nutritional/dietary supplements (NSs/DSs) that promise to improve health, function, and performance. Many of these claims, however, are based on little evidence, and the efficacy and safety of many products are debatable. A review of doping, risk factors, protective factors, performance enhancement, sports performance, dietary supplements, nutritional supplements (NSs), and health consequences was completed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until June 2021, which analyzed the content of nutritional/dietary substances and their influence on sports performance. Seventy-three review articles were included in this review. In summary, supplementation will always be a part of athletes’ careers due to its perception of ergogenic capabilities, and there is evidence of some dietary nutritional supplements DSs/NSs substances supporting performance enhancement and recovery. However, there is data that due to real harm and unethical manufacturing and marketing practices, some products may contain unwanted/illegal substances. Athletes should be aware of the risk of being tested positive due to contamination of NSs/DSs with a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-banned substance. Athletes and coaches should stick only to supplements that show strong research evidence supporting sports performance and safety use.

The Percentage of the maximum possible (POMP) scores (means and standard deviations) for various sources of sports confidence (n = 175)
Comparison of POMP scores on sources of sport confidence based on the type of sport (n=175)
Comparison of POMP mean scores (t-test) for the various sources of sport confidence for athletes who participated in the sport in primary school and those who did not (n=175).
Correlates of Sports Confidence among High School Athletes

April 2023


165 Reads

The purpose of this study was to establish the correlates of sports confidence among high school athletes. The study examined Vealey’s (1986) nine sources of sports confidence in relation to contextual factors of gender, age, playing experience and type of sport. A descriptive survey design was used, and data were collected using Vealey’s Sources of sports confidence questionnaire (SSCQ) from high school athletes (n=175). Results showed that coaches’ leadership was the highest source of sports confidence, followed by mastery and physical and mental preparation, while situational favourableness appeared to be the weakest source of confidence amongst the athletes. There were significant differences in physical self-presentation (t=-2.14, df = 173, p =0.034) in favour of male athletes. Athletes participating in individual sports had superior scores in mastery, while coaches’ leadership was the most important source of sports confidence for athletes in team sports. There were significant differences in coaches’ leadership (t=-3.118, df = 175, p = 0.002) and social support (t= -2.236, df = 175, p = 0.027) in favour of athletes in a team sport. Athletes who did not engage in their current sport while in a primary school rated coaches’ leadership highly, while mastery of the skill was scored highly by athletes who did participate in the sport while in primary school. It is concluded that coaches’ leadership skills, mastery of skill execution and physical or mental preparedness were the major sources of sports confidence. High schools should utilize coaches who can be emulated by the athletes.

Lower Extremity Injury Prevention in Taekwondo Poomsae Athletes: An Educational Intervention

March 2022


86 Reads

Poomsae is a non-contact form of taekwondo that involves physical exertion, technique, skills, and art. It combines kicks, blocks, stances, strikes, and punches demonstrated with an imaginary opponent. It is practice for self-defense, belt promotion, and action preparation for contact sparring. Chronic Overuse injuries are common in taekwondo Poomsae athletes as they participate in repetitive stress to attain mastery of forms used in competitions. The goal is to provide deep understanding and knowledge essential for training and optimal performance in sports to athletes and coaches. Educational intervention is deployed as a free webinar session consisting of 221 participants attended. The data are collected through a qualitative reflective feedback form consisting of questions targeting knowledge acquired and application of the information towards their practice as a coach and athlete. The result showed common reflective feedback towards the injury prevention strategy in Poomsae from the webinar: 1) Discovering strength and weakness, 2) Reason for strength and conditioning, 3) Prevention and management of injury.

Type of university and constraints Constraints Type of Institution Mean SD T-test Sig
Participation Constraints of University Student-athletes in Selected Sports in Kenya

August 2022


184 Reads

Participation in sports plays an important role in university students’ lives, such as the development of a healthy lifestyle and the promotion of education. However, there is low participation in sports in universities which may be due to various constraints experienced or perceived by university students. The purpose of this study was to examine constraints hindering university student-athletes participation in sports activities. The study used a cross-sectional survey design and questionnaires to collect data. Respondents were male (n=198) and female (n=191) student-athletes from public and private universities in Kenya, participating in six selected sports. T-tests and One-way analysis of variance were used to test hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that participation in sports was most affected by structural constraints and least affected by social-cultural constraints. There were significant differences between male and female student-athletes in regard to structural constraints, (t = -2.21, p=0.03) and interpersonal constraints t = 1.14, p = 0.02). There was a significant difference of private and public institutions with regard to structural (t = .39, p=0.01) and intrapersonal constraints (t = 0.69, p=0.03). Female students significantly experienced more constraints than male student-athletes. Student-athletes from public universities experienced more constraints than those from private universities. Universities should encourage students to use sports facilities by coming up with more facilities and a favorable environment. Secondly, Kenyan universities should put in place structured sports programs for student-athletes. University students’ perceptions about sports should be enhanced in order to reduce the constraints that hinder their participation in sports. A longitudinal study is recommended to investigate sports participation constraints of student-athletes throughout their campus life and thereafter.

Attention Focus and its Relationship to some Basic Skills of the Diyala University Soccer Team Player for Futsal

January 2023


12 Reads

The research aims to identify the relationship between attention focus and its relationship to some basic skills of the players of the Diyala University football team for futsal through attention focus as an indicator of the level of performance of basic skills. The researchers used the descriptive approach due to its suitability to the nature of this research. This research was conducted on a sample that was chosen by the intentional method and consisted of (20) players from the Diyala University futsal team, where the researchers used the attention focus test form (network test) to measure the quality of attention focus in the research sample. The researcher used the scoring and handling skills test, and after conducting the exploratory experiment on the university team players, who consisted of (5) players outside the research sample, and after processing the results, the research resulted in a positive correlation between the attention focus test and the handling and scoring skills. Attention focus (network test), using a training program to focus attention due to its great importance in some of the basic skills of futsal, conducted similar studies in games that require focus and accuracy to determine the players' ability.

A Cross-Sectional Study Rating the Perceived Impact and Reach of the Ministry of Health and Wellness Initiatives to Curb Physical Inactivity in Jamaica: Physical Activity Strategies in Jamaica

October 2021


51 Reads

Like other countries, Jamaica in the last 2 decades has seen an increase in physical inactivity, which has significantly increased the number of people living with chronic lifestyle diseases on the island. It can be argued that increased industrialization has resulted in several ecological concerns, such as violence that may deter people from engaging in physical exercise, pollution and polluted air, lack of parks, walkways, and sports/recreational amenities. Despite the causes of physical inactivity, there is a global mobilization by the World Health Organization (WHO) and individual countries to reduce physical inactivity levels by at least 15% by 2030. The COVID-19 pandemic has surely put a dent in the physical activity (PA) targets. Many countries initiated restrictive measures (lockdowns, curfews, and social distancing) to try and contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus. For countries such as Jamaica, combating physical inactivity seems to require strategies, interventions, motivation, and the promotion of physical activity (PA) culture from all stakeholders (integrated approach) to meet the WHO’s goals and standards by 2030. The purpose of this research was to assess the perceived impact and reach of Jamaica’s Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) initiatives to promote PA, impact weight loss, and lifestyle while trying to reduce sedentary behaviors in Jamaica. A standardized questionnaire was used in a single cross-sectional design that surveyed 843 Jamaicans using Google Forms. Participants ages 12-71 years old were surveyed using a hybrid sample strategy that used convenience and snowballs sampling techniques. The results of the study indicated that there was a 35% participation rate in the MOHW initiatives, with only 14.3% of the participants believed that the initiatives were impacting their weight loss and lifestyle. Additionally, 51.6% of the participants did not believe the initiatives caused them to participate more in PA; on average, the initiatives by the MOHW were rated at 50% effective. The initiatives are not very effective in reaching most of the population, which is not achieving the goal of enhancing healthy lifestyle practices and reducing physical inactivity. These implications may potentially see an increase in Jamaica’s physical inactivity levels and chronic lifestyle diseases if these initiatives are not intensified to reach the majority of the population.

Women and Sports: View from Stereotyping and Gender Differentials Perspectives

February 2021


55 Reads

Sports are viewed as manly demesne, and this generalization brings about men seeing more noteworthy capacity and appending more prominent significance to the sport than women. Society foresees that men and women ought to get, have confidence in, and satisfy explicit gender differentials and stereotyping that have been set up. At the point when sexual orientation standards are disregarded, it is basic for names to be offered, inquiries to be posed, and individuals to be mocked. While "customary" gender stereotyping has remained genuinely consistent in the course of recent hundreds of years, they have likewise been tested and defied by numerous women and women's activists. One explicit region in which customary gender differentials have been assessed and dissected is sports and proactive tasks. In any creating field, for instance, the one that began as "women in sport," key advancements can be followed through the development of the language utilized and the ideas created to communicate new understandings. The current investigation has been attempted to target evaluating the contribution of women in sports in various fields. From the quantity of variables that impact women in sports, gender differentials and stereotyping have been chosen for this investigation. This investigation has uncovered that when correlations were made with their male partners, women athletes have been similarly solid and were discovered to be similarly skilled, inventive, creative and capable.

Students’ Learning Styles in Relation to Service Physical Education Performance

March 2021


46 Reads

This study aimed to determine the students’ learning styles, whether visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learning style, in relation to their Service Physical Education performance in terms of written and practical exam results. The moderating variables of age, gender, academic status, religion, and course were also considered. This was conducted among Service P.E. students of the Mindanao State University, Marawi City, officially enrolled during the 2nd semester, A.Y. 2015 – 2016. This descriptive-correlation study was conducted among 925 respondents (227 male and 588 female respondents). The VARK Learning Styles Questionnaire developed by Victoria Chislett was used to assess their learning styles. The Service P.E. performance was taken from their partial written and practical exams. The majority of the respondents were15-18 years old; most of the respondents were female; most of the respondents were Tuition Privilege status; most of the respondents were Islam believers while others were non-Muslim, and almost all of the respondents were Bachelor of Science (BS) degree pursuers. In terms of learning styles, it was found out that most of the respondents were visual learners. With regard to the Service P.E. performance, most of the respondents received grades of 1.0-1.25 or excellent in their written exams while most of them were rated 1.50-1.75 or very good in their practical exams. The relationship between the variables found out that there were no significant relationships between the moderating variables of age, religion, and course with their respective p-values of 0.272, 0.188, and 0.355 to the independent variable of learning styles. However, there were significant relationships between the moderating variables of gender, academic status and the independent variable of learning styles. Furthermore, age (p = 0.184), academic status (p = 0.385), religion (p = 0.784), and course (p = 0.869) were not significantly related to written exam performance while gender was significantly related to written exam performance. Practical exam performance showed no relationship with the different moderating variables. For the relationship between learning styles and Service P.E. performance, it was revealed that learning styles had a significant relationship between written exam performance, while no relationship existed between learning styles and practical exam performance. Good performance in the written exams matters most in how the students prepare for it. On the other hand, ability, preparation, and constant correct practice will matter the most in preparation for practical exams. Thus, it is recommended that Physical Education administrators formulate plans to further improve the competencies of Physical Education teachers, especially in identifying the different learning styles of their respective students, to provide appropriate teaching approaches that facilitate effective learning experiences among their students. Physical Education teachers should provide enough time for skills practice so that most of their students will have greater chances of obtaining higher ratings in their practical exams. A similar study should be conducted in the future using other variables or using an equal number of respondents in gender and religion.

Golf and Science

November 2023


19 Reads

Golf is often seen as a leisurely sport and is considered to be the most popular outdoor sport. Most importantly, Golf is a remarkable fusion of art and science. This research explores the profound scientific understandings that govern the dynamics of golf, from the physics of ball flight to the biomechanics of the swing. It delves into the intricacies of golf equipment design, the influence of weather conditions, and the impact of golf on physical and mental well-being. Through a comprehensive analysis of existing literature and empirical studies, this research signifies the fusion of golf and science, offering a holistic understanding of this age-old game's modern facets. The paper concludes by shedding light on the potential of golf as a platform for understanding the dynamics behind the sport and its contributions to the wider domain of sports science.

Study on Influence of Macro-trauma Injuries on the Psychology of a Sportsman

February 2021


3 Reads

This study presents the influence of macro trauma also known as a large-scale injury on the psychology of a sportsman, which may have been happening over some time going before the certified affirmation that injury is obvious. By macro trauma sports injury, individual, and social qualities, may compellingly affect the harmed sportsmen. Wounds, while ideally rare, are regularly an unavoidable piece of game support. While most macro-trauma injury wounds can be dealt with practically zero disturbance in-game support and different exercises of everyday living, some force a significant physical and mental weight. An idiopathic etiology where the purpose behind brokenness is dark may extend vibes of disappointment, shock, and distress, especially if the hurt contender cannot promptly the point of convergence of recuperation, besides, set conspicuous destinations. For the study of the cases, convenience sampling is applied for selecting focus-group participants and for interviews 40 were approached and asked for their participation according to their availability. The findings of the study stated that, for the sportspersons, the mental reaction to a macro trauma injury could trigger or expose genuine psychological wellness issues like melancholy, uneasiness, confused eating, and substance use or misuse. At the point when a sportsman is harmed, a typical passionate response incorporates preparing the clinical data about the injury given by the clinical group, just as adapting sincerely to the macro trauma injury.

Effect of Static and Dynamic Stretching Warm-Up Methods on Agility, Speed and Leg Power Performance in School Level Netball Players

May 2021


85 Reads

A warm-up helps the individuals to prepare themselves for strenuous workouts. The warm-up is generally executed before participation in any physical activity or sports. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of sequencing lower-body static and dynamic stretching combinations on agility, speed, and leg power of school-level female Netball players. Three different stretching protocols were performed: (a) Static Stretching combined with Dynamic Stretching (SS+DS), (b) Dynamic Stretching combined with Static Stretching (DS+SS), and (c) Dynamic Stretching combined with Dynamic Stretching (DS+DS). A control warm-up condition without stretching was implemented with a prior aerobic warm-up followed by dynamic activities. Dependent variables included a 30-m Sprint, Agility run, and jump tests to measure speed, agility, and leg power performance. The level of significance was set at 5% for statistical analysis. The method used for statistical analysis was two-way ANOVA. There was no significant impact of stretching protocols on agility (p=0.257), speed (p=0.106), and leg power (p=0.902) of school-level female netball athletes. The results of the analysis allow the authors to retain the hypothesis that a sequence of static and dynamic stretching combinations does not significantly affect the agility, speed, and leg power of school-level female netball athletes.

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