Focus group data was collected from 28 substance abuse treatment counselors employed in rural and urban areas to examine their perceptions of factors influencing treatment outcomes. The influence of the counselor characteristics (i.e., education, experience, and recovery status) on client outcomes and geographic differences are explored. Focus group data was analyzed by three raters using line-by-line coding, focused coding, and memoing. This analytic approach revealed geographic differences in the counselors' perceptions of the effect of counselor education, experience, and recovery status on client outcomes. Recommendations for treatment planning and future research are provided.
Substance abusing mothers and their children are more likely to experience a range of social, behavioral, and psychological difficulties. Despite the significant challenges faced by these families, little is known about their experiences in treatment. The current study analyzed 12 sessions of family therapy using thematic analysis to identify common themes that arose during substance abusing mothers and their children's discussion during family therapy. Mothers' ages ranged from 28 to 35 years and the children's ages ranged from 12 to 14 years. Four therapy sessions from three families were coded for a total of 12 therapy sessions. An ecological framework was used to classify themes, in which themes related to each level of the families' ecological systems were identified. Thematic analysis of the therapy sessions indicated that mothers and their children primarily discussed topics related to their relational and emotional needs. The findings indicated that substance use disordered mothers and their children have unique treatment needs that should be addressed when the mother seeks treatment. More research is needed to further clarify and confirm the observations in this study. In particular, future research should include a larger sample and quantitative methodology.
Child care programs (including Head Start, pre-Kindergarten [pre-K], and other center-based care) can differ, with patterns of use based on their location. Yet little research has examined how Head Start and pre-K programs affect children's academic school readiness, including vocabulary and reading skills at school entry, in the South as compared to other regions. To examine this further, secondary data (n = 2,803) collected in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study were examined. Overall findings suggest, regardless of region, that Head Start and pre-K participants had higher academic skills at school entry than their counterparts. In addition, when Head Start was compared to other center-based care and pre-K was compared to other care arrangements, both had larger effects on improving academic skills in the South than in other regions. These findings imply that Head Start and pre-K programs should target children who otherwise would receive non-parental non-center-based care. Future research should focus on why the effects of Head Start and pre-K vary between the South and other regions.
This study examines barriers to economic self-sufficiency among a panel of 219 former Supplemental Security Income (SSI) drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) recipients following elimination of DA&A as an eligibility category for SSI disability benefits. Study participants were comprehensively surveyed at six measurement points following the policy change. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine full-sample and gender-specific barriers to economic self-sufficiency. Results indicate that access to transportation, age, and time are the strongest predictors of achieving self-sufficiency for both men and women leaving the welfare system. Gender-specific barriers are also identified. Future research needs to assess the generalizability of these results to other public assistance recipients.
Adolescent fathers who drop out of school to enter the labor force jeopardize their educations, subsequent occupations, and their life-time earning potentials, as well as enter adult roles for which they may not be emotionally prepared. This life event during their adolescence puts them at high risk for economic problems and stress related to accelerated role development: Using a sample from a national study, it was hypothesized that men who fathered during adolescence (n = 227) would report greater fertility, more depression, and lower levels of parental satisfaction than men who first fathered during their 20s (n = 1032). Ordinary least squares regression was used to test the hypotheses. Men who fathered during adolescence were found to have significantly greater rates of fertility and depression, but higher levels of parental satisfaction, as compared to men who fathered as adults, when also controlling for SES, race, fertility, and age.
This article examines children and adolescent exposure to violence in various contexts. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the definitions and types of violence reported in studies on victimization using the ecological systems framework. Sources included research studies and/or reports from scholarly journals (n = 140), books (n = 9), conference/workshops (n = 5), and web sources, such as Uniform Crime Reports (n = 23). The findings indicated that research differed in terminologies, conceptual and operational definitions, sample sizes and age group classification for children and adolescents. Further, studies lacked focus on the co-occurrence and inter-relatedness of victimization, and how these factors might affect the outcomes. Many studies employed a cross-sectional design, which limits strong conclusions about the temporal order of victimization experiences and outcomes. Future research efforts need more consistency among researchers in conceptual and operational definitions and the use of more rigorous designs. Increased holistic assessments are critical for effective prevention and intervention strategies for at-risk children and adolescents.
This manuscript reports the results of a study that pilot tested a home-delivered, multi-dimensional problem-solving intervention aimed at helping aging parental caregivers of adult children with schizophrenia. The results indicate that the participants (N=5) who received the 10-session intervention showed increased life satisfaction and emotional well being, and reduced feelings of burden, compared to those participants in the control group (N=10). If a planned larger scale evaluation of the intervention provides evidence of its effectiveness, practitioners could have a valuable new treatment tool to provide assistance to this caregiver population.
The recent increase in the number of girls involved in the juvenile justice system has resulted in increased academic and public attention. Thus far, this attention has focused on entry into the juvenile justice system rather than longer-term consequences. This research helps fill this gap by examining a sample of 700 maltreated and/or impoverished juvenile court-involved females. Competing risks models were used to control for time from juvenile-court entry to adult outcomes: criminal justice system involvement, use of public mental health or substance use services, and income maintenance use. Results indicate that there are distinct predictors associated with the different outcomes, although learning disability and adolescent parenthood were associated with higher risk of both mental health/substance use services and income maintenance. Individualized services for juvenile court-involved girls are suggested. Prospective, longitudinal research is needed to investigate intrapsychic and behavioral dynamics associated with females' young adult outcomes.
The present study investigated the prevalence of gambling behaviors among 71 individuals recovering from substance-dependent disorders and living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Residents were given the South Oaks Gambling Screen to assess gambling behaviors and pathological gambling, and 19.7% of the sample was identified as having probable pathological gambling. These residents reported proportionately more involvement in a variety of gambling behaviors than other residents. Engagement in various gambling activities was consistent with previous investigations and suggested that self-run recovery homes such as Oxford Houses might be suitable referral sources for recovering persons who have comorbid gambling problems.
Promotores are community lay health workers, who provide outreach and services to Latinos. Little research on the promotores programs exists and the focus of this article is to identify the challenges faced by community-based nonprofits when implementing promotores programs. To explore this type of program telephone interviews were conducted with ten promotores academic experts and nonprofit executives. The results suggest that implementation challenges fall into three major categories: the lack of standardized information on promotores programs, labor issues, and organizational costs. Future recommendations are made which highlight promotores recruitment and retention strategies, and the development of a clearinghouse of programmatic implementation information for community-based nonprofits.
The overall purpose of this study is to investigate workers' openness towards implementing a new empirically supported treatment (EST) and whether the workers' openness scores relate to their workplace culture and climate scores. Participants in this study (N=1273) worked in a total of 55 different programs in a large child and family services organization and completed a survey measuring their attitudes toward ESTs. Results indicate that work groups that measure themselves as being more open to using ESTs rated their organizational cultures as being significantly more proficient and significantly less resistant to change. With ESTs becoming the gold standard for professional social work practices, it is important to have accessible pathways to EST implementation.
Factors associated with discontinuation from an island-wide natural family planning program in Mauritius were examined in 2 stratified random samples of 300 (1976) and 350 (1980) acceptors. The data were gathered through records, educator observations, and field interviews with the 1980 sample. Comparison between those served by the Action Familiale program and characteristics of the Mauritius population as a whole suggests that the natural family planning program serves a somewhat better educated group of couples who have more employment security and smaller families than the general population. Acceptors selected the natural family planning method for reasons such as a desire to have a child according to a plan or to space children (29%), avoidance of the side effects of artificial contraception (21%), or as a result of a recommendation by a friend, relative, or professional (25%). 74% of acceptors in the 1980 sample expressed satisfaction with the method and indicated that their spouse shared this satisfaction. After 3.5-4.5 years of follow-up, 57% of acceptors in the 1976 sample had discontinued use of natural family planning. 9 variables in 4 categories--Administrative, Psychological-Motivational, Educator-Acceptor Relationship, and Family--were predictive of discontinuation. The major factors differentiating discontinuers from continuers were: 1) discontinuers had previously registered at Action Familiale and dropped out; 2) discontinuers placed more emphasis on spacing than on preventing pregnancies; 3) discontinuers discussed fewer topics with their educators; 4) discontinuers and their husbands seemed less interested in the natural method; 5) discontinuers had less family support for natural family planning; 6) educators experienced greater difficulty in teaching discontinuers; 7) discontinuers demonstrated less understanding of the symptothermal method; and 8) educators made fewer preregistration visits to the homes of discontinuers.
To address fragmentation, social workers are encouraged to "coordinate." This pilot study explores the meaning of, and factors that facilitate or prevent "coordination" and is intended as a first step toward future conceptual refinement, theory development, and system interventions. Using data from treatment guidelines archived by the National Guideline Clearinghouse (n=9) and semi-structured interviews with social workers (n=4), themes related to the definition, indicators, and perceptions of coordination were explored using a grounded theory approach. Data suggest the need for coordination is driven by complex client needs, but the quality of providers' personal relationships influence coordination. Future research might examine the impact of standardization of roles, referral procedures, and treatment philosophies.
Few interventions have been developed for substance-abusing homeless mothers. Among those interventions, high dropout rates (up to 85%) are consistently reported. Understanding homeless mothers' experiences with service providers may be an important first step to understanding ways to increase treatment engagement. Therefore, the current study used qualitative methods to gain a better understanding of homeless mothers' perceptions of service providers. A total of 28 mothers who were currently residing at a homeless shelter in a Midwestern city participated in three focus groups. Overall, mothers held negative perceptions of service providers related to understanding, support, and fear. Based upon this study's findings, recommendations are offered to improve service delivery and guide future research.
This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.
Traditionally, prospective resource parents must attend all preservice training in person. While live sessions are necessary for activities such as screening applicants, instructional portions of training could be enhanced by web-based sessions. This pilot study compares the effectiveness of online and classroom versions of one session from a widely used preservice training program. Ninety-two individuals who volunteered to complete the program in two states were randomly assigned to a treatment group that viewed an online version of the class on child abuse and neglect or a comparison group that took the same class in person. Written questionnaires were completed before and after the class. Significant group differences on knowledge of child maltreatment and empathy toward birth parents, plus high user satisfaction, were hypothesized. ANCOVA results showed the online training was more effective than the live training at increasing knowledge. MANCOVA findings on empathy were not significant but trended toward greater empathy for the online group. Feedback indicated high satisfaction with the online course. If supported by future research, the finding that online instruction is more effective than live has positive implications for practice, because web-based training offers advantages like standardizing instruction, cutting agency and trainee costs, and providing greater flexibility.
Although the importance of social supports for single mothers in times of crisis is widely recognized, little is known about the stability of such "private safety nets" over time, as children age and maternal and household characteristics change. This study uses multilevel models and 4 waves of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to describe trajectories of social support perceptions for 3,065 unmarried mothers. Results suggest that, following a birth, most unmarried mothers perceive the availability of support, but these support perceptions disintegrated somewhat in subsequent years. Mothers who appeared to have the greatest need for support-those without stable employment or a stable partner-experienced more rapid deterioration of their perceived safety nets than more advantaged mothers. Future research should examine network composition and conditions for support provision among the most vulnerable single mothers and consider how safety net stability influences maternal and child health and well-being.
Cancer disproportionately affects the underserved. United Way 2-1-1 is an information and referral system that links underserved populations to community services. This study explores the feasibility of integrating proactive screening and referral to health services into 2-1-1. A cancer risk assessment was administered to callers (n=297), measuring their need for six cancer control services. A subset of respondents was randomized to receive generic or tailored referrals to needed services. Nearly all participants (85%) needed at least one of the services. Those who received tailored referrals were more likely to make appointments. Future research will explore approaches to address and eliminate health disparities through 2-1-1.
Concern is growing that large segments of low-income Americans are slipping through, or are not adequately served by, the public food assistance safety net. Many of these individuals are turning to the private network of food pantries and soup kitchens for their nourishment. In particular, a significant percentage of individuals seeking private food assistance are the working poor. In this paper, we look at the characteristics of a sample of employed Virginia households who depend on soup kitchens or food pantries to help them make ends meet. Our data indicate that these individuals have demographic characteristics that do not bode well for their being able to earn high enough wages to all allow them to meet basic family needs without some type of additional supports.
In order to identify essential elements of quality case management in the child abuse field and determine the relationships between case management and treatment outcome, 354 child abuse cases were studied using audit techniques developed in the medical field. It was found that the variables identified as contributing to quality case management do not necessarily directly affect treatment outcome; however, the variables identified serve as important guidelines for future studies in this area. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Contends that research on the prevention of substance abuse among American Indian and Alaska Native youth offers challenges and demands careful methods. Such challenges are described in terms of philosophical, political, and cultural issues surrounding substance abuse prevention research with American Indian and Alaska Native people. Suggestions are made showing how social work researchers can address these issues through strategies of community collaboration, goal setting, and cultural sensitivity. The limits, implications, and future applications of the described strategies for research on the prevention of alcohol and drug abuse among American Indian and Alaska Native youth are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted 3 studies to evaluate a large counseling treatment program for men who battered their female partners. The intervention consisted of orientation, self-help, and structured group therapy sessions. Six-month follow-up data on violence and threats of violence as reported by female partners were given for 158 men who completed the treatment program and 68 men who received varying amounts of treatment but did not complete the program. Overall, approximately two-thirds of the men who completed the program were nonviolent at follow-up. However, a large number of men continued to use threats of violence after ending their use of violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated changes in state mental health spending under the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health (ADAMHA) block grant. Budgetary data for 1977–1983 indicate that the block grant had a stimulative effect on state mental health spending, particularly on community care. Community mental health centers faced major cutbacks as states shifted their resources to other community agencies more attuned to the needs of the chronically mentally ill. These effects were also associated with the states' fiscal capacities, degree of decentralization, presence of extensive mental health services, and policies for targeting the chronically psychotic. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Data from a sample of 963, 10- to 12-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to evaluate the parenting practices and environmental influences that explain the relation between poverty and antisocial behavior two years later. Results indicate that deviant peer pressure and neighborhood problems partially mediate the relation between poverty and young adolescent antisocial behavior. The parenting practices and environmental influences that predict antisocial behavior do not vary by the child's gender or race/ethnicity, and vary little by the child's age. Findings suggest that when environmental risk is high, authoritarian parenting strategies result in lower levels of antisocial behavior. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: 〈[email protected]
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This paper reports on secondary analysis of data collected as part of an effort by social work providers and a major parochial school system to assess longer term impact and possible Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents in 17 schools heavily affected by flooding. The assessment protocol, implemented by classroom teachers, measured self-reported amount of damage from a major flood along with two standardized measures of PTSD. Discussed are findings regarding factors that predict PTSD including amount of harm and ability of family to recover, whether loss of residence was related to recovery and PTSD and other variables from this field screening of 3876 children and adolescents in the Midwest who lived in areas impacted by an extensive flooding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the relationship between the occurrence of daily difficulties, cognitive and social support buffers, and personal distress or strain in 52 pregnant and parenting women, aged 14–19 yrs. 24 of the Ss were White, 22 were Black; 22 were from semi-rural schools, 20 were from suburban schools. Few Ss (
n = 4) lived alone; most lived with parents (
n = 25), male partners (
n = 10), both partners and parents (
n = 5), or in other situations (
n = 8). 44% were unmarried. Ss were administered the Beck Depression Inventory; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; a difficult situations questionnaire; and social support, coping, and self-efficacy scales. Results indicate that pregnant Ss experienced more exposure to difficult situations and more trouble handling those situations than parenting Ss experienced. Urban, suburban, and rural parents differed on the type of problems and amount of strain encountered. Social supports and cognitive coping strategies were found to moderate the effects of environmental stressors and to reduce depression and anxiety. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Developed and tested a unilateral family therapy for alcohol abuse. 25 Ss were recruited from newspaper advertisements in which spouses of partners who had a drinking problem and refused to enter treatment were solicited to receive free professional assistance. Treatment embraced treatment orientation, clinical assessment, spouse role induction, abuser-directed interventions, spouse-directed interventions, and maintenance. Results indicate that the unilateral treatment program can be implemented, the spouses of uncooperative alcohol abusers can be assisted to function as a positive rehabilitative influence with their alcoholic mates, and that important positive gains for the abusers and spouses can be achieved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Tested a causal model of alienation among Vietnamese refugees, using data from a survey of 180 adult Vietnamese refugees. Path analysis was used to test the causal model. Findings indicate that marital status, social support, social interaction anxiety, self-identity, and length of time in the US directly predicted feelings of alienation. The social support variable was the most important predictor. Background variables (e.g., English language ability) for the most part had no notable direct effects on alienation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
One facet of the growing interest in spirituality and religion has been the tendency to conceptualize spirituality and religion as distinct, but overlapping, constructs. While this recent distinction has lead to the creation of new spirituality measures, many of these instruments can be faulted on two grounds: they use terms (e.g., God) that limit their validity with non-theistic populations, and they fail to build upon pre-existing scientific work. To address these two concerns, this paper modifies the most prominent instrument in the field of the psychology of religion, Allport and Ross' (1967) measure of intrinsic religion, to tap spirituality. A convenience sample of university students (N = 172; aged 17-25 yrs) was employed from a medium sized, Baptist affiliated university. To obtain the intrinsic spirituality scale, a series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted with LISREL. The modified six-item intrinsic spirituality scale assesses the degree to which spirituality functions as an individual's master motive, for both theistic and non-theistic populations, both within and outside of religious frameworks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses a common statistical error that frequently appears in efforts to assess the importance of experimental outcomes in the social work practice and research literature: failure to provide proportions of explained variance in a manner that permits judgments as to their substantive importance or clinical significance. A partial remedy is described, and practical statistical formulas are presented that research consumers can use to calculate proportions of explained variance when published reports fail to provide this information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the association between burnout and social work practitioners' impressions of their clients, using mail survey responses from 139 female social workers (46.3% response rate). Data suggest that burnout adversely affects social work practice; emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (Maslach Burnout Inventory) were significantly correlated with negative impressions of clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the pros and cons of using qualitative (nonmathematical) descriptors of strength of association and effect size in data interpretation. Proposed is an extension of J. Cohen's (1988) classification scheme through the addition of a "very large" descriptive category. Discussed are the advantages of the odds ratio for the analysis of categorical data, as well as the development of qualitative descriptors of effect size for the odds ratio. Where treated as flexible guidelines rather than rigid rules and where sensitive to context and substantive area, qualitative description facilitates data interpretation and communication, particularly for the nonstatistical audience: beginning students, administrators and practitioners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assessed the influence natural family involvement has on the adjustment of 80 foster children (average age 10.8 yrs). Ss had been in care 2 or more years, and placement goals included continued foster care. The effect kin visiting had was examined in terms of reaction to separation, time in care, foster family attachment, frequency of kin visiting, natural family attachment, and loyalty conflict. About half of the Ss were visited fairly regularly, almost one-third had strong psychological attachments to their families of origin, and about one-quarter had severe loyalty conflicts. The strongest predictor of loyalty conflict was natural family attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined self-esteem, attitudes toward parents, and locus of control in latency-age and adolescent children of divorced and nondivorced families. 62 9–14 yr old children from divorced families were compared to 60 children of the same age from intact families. Significant differences were noted between the 2 groups. Ss from divorced families showed lower social, academic, and parental self-esteem; more negative attitudes toward both of their parents; and an external locus of control orientation. Males from both groups had poorer academic self-esteem than females, while females had more negative relationship to the father than males. Findings are discussed in relation to other studies on the impact of divorce on children. Implications of the findings for social work practice and research are also considered. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses 3 categories of barriers affecting utilization of research in social work: characteristics of the knowledge to be utilized; factors related to the practice situation and setting; and factors related to the characteristics of the practitioner. Strategies for alleviating these barriers focus on the practitioner as the object of change and the educational process as the primary means for its accomplishment. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder and notes its negative impact on daily functioning. The outcome of the application of various forms of behavioral treatment, including systematic desensitization, imaginal exposure, aversion treatment, and thought-stopping is discussed with reference to theoretical formulations of the function of obsessions and compulsions vis-à-vis anxiety. It is suggested that behavioral treatment (BT) via a combination of exposure to feared situations and response prevention or blocking of ritualistic behavior has proven to be the treatment of choice for this disorder. BT is described in some detail, and suggestions regarding clinical issues in conducting this treatment are given. Factors identified as possible predictors of outcome include depression, anxious mood state, patients' beliefs in the probability of feared consequences, social functioning, motivation level, and therapist characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the literature on behavioral parent training in social work published between 1975 and 1985 in 13 prominent social work journals. The review, which yielded 83 articles, showed that social workers deliver an impressive array of services to a broad variety of parents and their children. The review also revealed that the articles generally lacked operational descriptions on interventions, empirical rigor, and reliably demonstrated results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the effect of stimulus cues and social reinforcement on urinary incontinence of 3 wheel-chair bound, nursing home residents using a multiple-baseline across Ss. Ss were 3 seriously impaired elderly females who were offered the opportunity to use the toilet hourly and taken to the toilet on a 2-hr schedule. Praise and cookies were provided as a consequence for appropriate urination in the toilet. Following the intervention, opportunities for toileting increased, and there was a decrease in urinary incontinence and an increase in appropriate urinary toileting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed 236 staff members of 31 voluntary family service agencies on fee policies, procedures, and practices in their programs. Results show that Ss believed that (1) practitioners' involvement in the fee process is of therapeutic value, and (2) the payment of fees by clients positively influences the treatment relationship, clients' and workers' use of time, and treatment progress. The principle of clients' fees based upon ability to pay may allow social workers to reconcile beliefs about fees with the profession's commitment to service based on clients' needs. It is concluded that the response rate (85.5%) testifies to the willingness of social workers to participate in research that addresses aspects of their practice that are of serious concern to them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Social workers and other human service professionals who practice in the energy-development "boomtowns' of the western United States report dramatic increases in the abuse and neglect of children. The comparative research to-date however has given little attention to the ecological processes that precede these increases. This study uses a pooled cross-sectional time-series design to estimate the effects of various aspects of energy development on changes in the rate of severe maltreatment of children in Utah, a state with traditional social institutions expressing strong values of family, church and community cohesion. The findings show immediate, substantial effects of energy development in this setting. Implications for intervention strategies are discussed.
Presents a new Guttman scale for measuring career-development volunteerism, developed from a survey of 1,349 Red Cross volunteers. Two types of variables involved in the larger study of career development volunteering included social and demographic characteristics of volunteers and their attitudes and goals as volunteers. With a reproducibility coefficient of .93, it displays a high level of reliability. Conforming to the requirements of a scaling model, it has a scalability coefficient of .72. Overall, the scale suggests a model for the way volunteers experience career development and is an index of the benefits they gain through volunteering. This Guttman scale could help tie volunteerism into broader theories of behavior and aid in design and evaluation of programs which more effectively attract volunteers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the impact of task-centered training on the practice of public agency social workers using a paper-and-pencil analog test of task-centered problem solving and 2 interview schedules. 41 Ss received task-centered training, and 10 Ss served as no-training controls; not all Ss participated in every phase of the study, and 10 Ss dropped out. Results show that trained Ss scored significantly higher at posttest than controls on the analog test, and their clients reported more use of the approach in their counseling than did clients of controls. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the role of work stress and control in 192 child welfare direct practitioners' assessments of their own service effectiveness. Ss completed questionnaires, including the Maslach Burnout Inventory and an adapted version of the Pearlin and Schooler Mastery scale assessing perception of control. After hierarchical and simultaneous regression analyses, results indicate a significant relationship between worker control and workers' professional effectiveness assessments, as well as an important link between worker control and selected forms of work stress. After accounting for worker control variance, perceived work stresses were not significantly associated with professional effectiveness assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Proposes an outcome standard and measure for use in assessing the effectiveness of official interventions in child protection proceedings concerned with child abuse and neglect. Using an inductive multivariate model and data from 210 cases, determinants of rapid services reunion were identified that were related to the court's processing of the case and to characteristics of the child, parent, and family. These determinants are discussed in the context of the needs of child protection policy. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses methodological problems in D. Gil's (1970) study on violence against children and J. R. Seaberg's (1974; see also PA, Vol 63:12159) reanalysis of Gil's child abuse data. Reanalysis of Gil's data indicated a strong role for child-related variables in predicting abuse severity. Of particular importance was the child's age, with younger children experiencing more severe abuse. Other variables predicting abuse severity were physical problems (such as infirmity or disability), rejection by the perpetrator, or misbehavior immediately preceding the abuse. The data suggest that the abuse of adolescents may be caused by different factors than those affecting the abuse of young children. This analysis may be of use to practitioners in helping them to identify children who are at risk for physical injury. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This exploratory study of 600 Vietnam era military veterans was designed to test a hypothesized theoretical model of comorbidity among domiciled and homeless persons. The model tested represented an integration of stress process and social support models found in the literatures on substance abuse and on depression. Caregiver attachment and early abuse also were used to elaborate on the integrated stress-social support theoretical model. Using structural equation modeling, all relationships in the hypothesized model were supported by data from domiciled veterans, except attachments to caregivers were not related to peer associations with substance users, and these associations were not related to depression. In contrast, all 24 relationships hypothesized in the model tested were supported among homeless veterans. Conceptual and practice implications of the findings were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In spite of growing interest in spirituality and religion, and the prominent position given to religion in social work's educational policies and ethical standards, no studies have explored the profession's level of spiritual sensitivity. Accordingly, we examined the visibility of faith groups and their characterizations in 71 influential social work textbooks. This study found that faith groups, in contrast to a number of comparison groups, were essentially invisible as populations worthy of students' direct attention. Further, when faith groups were discussed, they tended to be characterized in a biased, spiritually insensitive manner. To move toward spiritual competency, social work must increase the amount of material devoted to faith groups and ensure that they are depicted in a manner that is consistent with their worldviews. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated a group intervention for 90 single mothers (average age 32 yrs) living on government assistance, using a single-group pretest/posttest design with a 1-yr follow-up. Ss represented 75% of the women who completed the 14-wk group program. Questionnaires were used to assess Ss' locus of control (self-esteem), sociodemographic and background data, life conditions, mental and physical health, and social supports at pre- and posttest; in the follow-up assessment, these measures were repeated, in addition to questionnaires on successful achievement of plans during the previous year and on perceived life changes. Data reveal that Ss made substantial gains in individual competencies immediately following the program and 1 yr later. Ss also showed reduced life-conditions stress and improved mental health at follow-up. However, the linkage between short- and long-term goals was not supported. Results are discussed in terms of the hypothesized relationship between poverty and mental health. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study proposes and tests the Volunteer Satisfaction Index (VSI), a multi-faceted measure of job satisfaction specifically applicable to organizations which rely predominantly upon volunteer workers. Working within a framework differentiating paid from unpaid work environments, relevant literature was reviewed in order to develop the VSI. Using intent to remain as the dependent variable, the validity of the VSI was tested using a population of 327 volunteers. Factor analysis yielded four dimensions of volunteer job satisfaction: organizational support, participation efficacy, empowerment, and group integration. Regression results indicated that participation efficacy and group integration were significantly correlated with volunteer satisfaction and are predictors of intent to remain. Reliability and validity of the VSI were supported. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: 〈[email protected]
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Forty families of patients 60 years old and younger who had suffered from their first heart attack, drawn from five hospitals in a metropolitan area, were studied during the hospitalization, a month after discharge from hospital, and two months later. This paper explores the impact of heart disease on family functioning and examines the process of family adjustment to the crisis over a period of about four months. The impacts varied in different areas of family functioning as well as at different points in time. Family social integration was found to be the most useful resource for coping, cohesion to be of some help, and adaptability to be of little relevance. The study highlights the need for identifying, strengthening and mobilizing family social networks as part of the intervention in such crises.