This study was designed to determine the factors that affect nonmedical participants' judgments in constructing a ranked waiting list for kidney patients requiring dialysis. Participants (N=167) were given a questionnaire that provided minimal demographic data about 16 hypothetical patients. Participants were requested to rank patients in order of priority for treatment. Each participant's personal demographic details were also obtained. Patients differed on four dimensions: gender, income, alcohol consumption, and religious beliefs, yielding a 2x2x2x2 design. The participants favoured for treatment included females over males, "poor" over "rich," nondrinkers over drinkers, and Christians over atheists. Results are discussed in terms of establishing democratic criteria and informing medical personnel on explicit factors which may affect their decision making, thus guarding against biases in judgment.
This study is an extension of the work of Furnham and Briggs (1993). It examined the choice strategies non-medical people employ when asked to rank-order a waiting list of patients suffering from kidney failure. Participants were given minimum demographic data about 16 hypothetical patients, and were asked to rank them in order of priority for treatment. Patients differed in sex, income, voting preference, and whether or not they smoked. Groups favoured for treatment included females more than males, non-smokers more than smokers, "poor" more that "rich," and left-wing more than right-wing patients. Participants' political party allegiance interacted with the voting pattern of the hypothetical patient showing in-group favouritism. That is, left-wing voters favoured left-wing patients and right-wing favoured right-wing. Implications of studies of this sort for socio-medical and ethical and moral issues were discussed.
This paper aimed to determine the criteria participants use to make decisions about scarce medical resources (allocation to use a kidney machine). It varied information about patients on 4 factors (sex, smoking, employment status, community service). It also set out to see if decisions made in groups differed from aggregated decisions of those made alone. In the first study, participants completed a simple questionnaire requiring them to rank-order sixteen hypothetical patients. In the second study, a group discussion (in groups of three participants) preceded the group putting an agreed rating on the identical questionnaire. Participants favoured patients who were employed, non-smokers and participated in community service. This suggests that participants adopted a utilitarian moral ideology. Participants' smoking habits interacted with the hypothetical patients' smoking habits, indicating in-group favouritism. In the second study it was found that when the decision was made in a group of three it amplifies the decision made by an individual. In this sense there was clear evidence of group polarization.
College students (N = 315) were asked to pretend that they were serving on a university research committee hearing a complaint against animal research being conducted by a member of the university faculty. Five different research scenarios were used: Testing cosmetics, basic theory testing, agricultural (meat production) research, veterinary research, and medical research. Participants were asked to rate how justified they thought the research was and to decide whether or not the research should be halted. An ethical inventory was used to measure participants' idealism and relativism. Idealism was negatively associated and relativism positively associated with support for animal research. Women were much less accepting of animal research than were men. Support for the cosmetic, theoretical, and agricultural research projects was significantly less than that for the medical research.
This paper describes a preliminary study investigating the nature of publication and research ethics problems encountered by psychologists. Descriptions of 25 ethical dilemmas were written by 22 psychologists. Those dilemmas involved conflicts about authorship credit (13), plagiarism (9), unethical research (1), and other related problems (2). Stage of career did not determine the likelihood of their being confronted with an ethical dilemma. The most often cited causes of problems and sources of distress were unethical demands by more dominant individuals who were perceived to hold power over the respondents.
Examined the relationships between moral approval of aggression, aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior. Ss were 780 14-yr-old adolescents, who completed questionnaires measuring social problem-solving strategies and moral approval or disapproval of aggression. Assessments of aggressive behavior were obtained by peer nominations. Dimensions reflecting moral approval or disapproval of aggression were relativism (the need to consider different aspects when judging aggression), legitimization (the approval of aggression as a way of coping with social problems because of existing "excuses"), absolutism (completely negative attitudes toward aggression), and everyday morality (aggression as an unacceptable way of coping with social conflict situations). Results showed that relativism was not associated with aggressive behavior, but that absolutism and everyday morality correlated negatively, and legitimization positively, with aggressive behavior. Together with aggressive problem-solving strategies, absolutism and legitimization were able to explain even more of the variance in aggressive behavior. Gender differences showed that boys scored higher on relativism and legitimization while girls scored higher on absolutism and everyday morality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Argues that H. J. Eysenck (see record
1987-10247-001) compulsively repeats his criticism of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in spite of overwhelming evidence of its correspondence to a replicable (across age and cultures) personality structure. The deviants are readily explicable in terms of faulty factor-analytic techniques. Beyond the factoring confirmation, unequalled by any other tests, there is life criteria evidence of the factor independencies. Eysenck's resort to 3 factors is shown to be theoretically faulty and unable to equal the criterion predictions obtainable from the 16PF primaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined a random sample of 10 Bush and Dukakis TV spots from the 1988 presidential election campaign. The objective of the study was to identify significant differences in message appeals (MAs) used by the 2 campaigns in their TV advertising. Results indicate that the main MAs in the Bush ads concerned the candidate's positive traits (PTs) and positive record (PR). The main appeals in the Dukakis ads concerned the candidate's vision for a better nation, the negative traits of Bush, and the PTs of Dukakis. Significant differences among 14 MA categories were found only for PR, PT, and vision. Bush spots used more PR and PT appeals. Dukakis ads relied more on vision MAs. While MAs were found in 5 dimensions of ad production, candidate nonverbal and special effects dimensions were used most frequently for negative association appeals and fear appeals appeared most often in oral and special effects dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
During the 40 years since its inauguration, the management assessment center has spread widely and been subjected to continued research. The challenges it faced in its early years are significantly different from those that preoccupy researchers and practitioners at present. This paper reviews evidence relating to both old and new challenges to the assessment center method. Older issues, now mostly put to rest, concerned what the method is (and is not), criterion-related validity, generalizability, user reactions, and whether simpler methods, such as tests and interviews, can substitute. Newer challenges concern construct validity, the changing nature of managerial work, new applications, user-friendliness, and whether multirater assessments can substitute. The review concludes that assessment centers have much to offer organizations in the 21st century and makes projections and recommendations for future assessment center practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the factorial composition of the SCL-90—Revised (SCL-90-R) with 295 psychiatric inpatients and 177 industrially injured workers. Findings show that only 4 factors (Somatization, Phobic Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation, and Hostility) could be derived reliably to represent the original 9 dimensions of the SCL-90-R. It is suggested that caution should be exercised when clinical interpretations are made based on the 9 symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R, regardless of the population of interest. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Related 207 college students' attitudes toward abortion to their sex and attitudes toward women's rights and roles. 56% of the Ss were female, and 30% were psychology majors. Feminists (regardless of gender) were expected to be more favorable toward abortion than nonfeminists, and women who were feminists were expected to be the most approving. Ss completed the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and a scale assessing attitudes toward abortion. Neither hypothesis was supported. The failure to find significant effects for feminism may be due to a relatively high level of feminism among the male Ss. The scores on abortion attitudes were not different from those of physicians and were similar to those in another study of college students. Psychology majors were more accepting of abortion than students in other disciplines, an effect that may represent self-selection in psychology majors or disciplinary socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined factors that influence attitudes toward abused women and recommendations for responses to the abusive incident. 278 adults (aged 17–60 yrs) served as participants responding to a simulated crisis hotline call. 84 were male and female professionals who come into contact with battered women in their work. 194 were male and female college students who constituted a nonprofessional comparison group. Male students and male professionals differed more in their perceptions and recommendations in response to calls than did female students and female professionals. Although intervention was recommended more strongly by professionals than students, even professionals were reluctant to recommend that an abused woman leave her partner in response to a crisis call. Both professionals and students differed significantly in their recommendations for women in married and unmarried cohabiting relationships with equivalent circumstances. Implications of the findings for the training of crisis hotline workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study examined individual differences associated with measures of academic procrastination, perfectionism, control, and vigilant and avoidant coping using a sample of 157 undergraduates. Results indicated that a positive relationship exists between perfectionism and vigilant coping, and that procrastinators do not tend to exhibit avoidant coping. Interestingly, issues of control were positively associated with avoidant coping. Overall, the findings suggest that procrastination, perfectionism, and control play a significant role in the employment of these coping styles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Two studies assessed self-consciousness and self-handicapping predictors of academic procrastination and the impact of this behavior on exam performance of undergraduates. In Exp 1, 411 high dispositional self-handicappers and procrastinators studied less, delayed more on exam preparation, and scored lower on course exams. In Exp 2, 169 high-dispositional self-handicapping and high self-esteem led to delays in exam preparation. The detrimental effects of procrastination varied as a function of lecture attendance and cognitive ability. In both studies, academic procrastination and self-handicapping were highly correlated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
We examined the relative impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward academic work, as well as personality variables such as fear of failure, perfectionism, and locus of control, on academic procrastination in college students (
N=96). In addition, we compared attribution styles of students who reported high levels of academic procrastination with those who do not. Results revealed that low extrinsic motivation, coupled with perfectionism (for women in particular) and both an external locus of control and attributional style, contributed to the tendency to delay school tasks. Low academic procrastinators were more motivated by both internal and external forces than were high academic procrastinators and found academic tasks to be less aversive in general. Moreover, high academic procrastinators made external attributions (to context and luck) for their successes, acknowledging that they do little to contribute toward their academic achievements when these do occur. These findings suggest that both salient motivators and stable personality factors contribute to academic procrastination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
n = 319) enrolled in associate degree programs at a small college completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as well as measures of academic procrastination (PCT), self-efficacy, and locus of control. Frequent PCT and reasons for PCT were, overall, not significantly related to the typologies nor locus of control, but were negatively related to general self-efficacy. Task aversiveness as a motive for PCT also was negatively related to general self-efficacy. Multiple regression analyses of self-reported scores indicated that only general self-efficacy was predictive of PCT frequency, PCT reasons, and task aversiveness. Results suggest that among traditional age, academically disadvantaged college students, the belief that one may not be effective at mastering general life events seems to be reflective of college students who engage in frequent procrastinatory behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the relationships among personality factors that have been found to correlate with academic achievement and the consumption of common alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine substance use in 161 undergraduates. Ss completed 3 questionnaires: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), the Academic Attributional Style Questionnaire, and a modified Substance Use Questionnaire. Significant positive relationships were obtained between grade point average (GPA) representing academic achievement and the NEO PI-R personality factors of neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. Significant negative correlations were found between GPA and the use of alcohol and nicotine. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and lack of nicotine use best predicted GPA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This paper examines the relationship between temporal orientation--the predominant tendency to focus attention on a particular region of temporal space--and the frequency of self-reported academic procrastination. Researchers hypothesized that 72 students classified as either high in present time orientation (PrTOs) or high in future time orientation (FuTOs) would differ in their likelihood of experiencing socially induced temporal myopia. Socially induced temporal myopia assessed the degree to which short-term social events would interfere with academic goal-setting. Researchers also hypothesized that PrTO Ss would value the social aspects of vignettes more than FuTO Ss. Key predictions were confirmed with these data. Implications of these findings in the framework of a nonprescriptive theory of temporal orientation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the effects of the social integration and academic structure/integration components of the reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) instructional strategies on academic performance and psychosocial adjustment of 85 students in an undergraduate psychology course. During the semester, Ss were assigned to 1 of 4 learning conditions designed to isolate the effective components of the RPT technique. The performance measure was a 50-item examination that included 25 comprehensive examination questions. Other instruments included the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the course. Component analysis showed that both a structured learning format and dyadic mutual exchange contribute to enhanced academic achievement, psychosocial adjustment, and ratings of course satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
95 female and 94 male undergraduates read scenarios of low or high offense severity in the role of either the offender or the offended in jealousy predicaments, with the intent to maintain or terminate the relationship. They rated 22 remedial accounts for their acceptability to ameliorate the blameworthy transgressions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the accounts corroborated the constructs of apologies, excuses, and justifications. Apologies were the preferred accounts, irrespective of intent. Excuses were perceived as weak accounts. Justifications were appraised as the worst accounts when the intent was to maintain the relationship. However, they were preferred above excuses when the intent was to end the relationship. The offenders rated apologies and justifications higher than the offended partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Obtained handwriting samples from 108 university students who rated the extent to which Ss believed that graphology reveals personality. Five days later, 58 experimental Ss received their personality profile, rated the profile, and again stated their belief in graphology (BIGR). 50 controls rated their BIGR before and after receiving and rating their profile. Most Ss rated the profile as a good or very good description of themselves. Experimental Ss increased their rating of BIGR relative to the 50 controls. Results support B. R. Forer's (1949) claim that belief in the validity of a test can be influenced by generalized feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Argues that the typical social psychological experiment often creates momentary between-condition individual differences by rendering certain constructs accessible, whereas personality psychologists often investigate the effects of naturally occurring individual differences in construct accessibility. Evidence is reviewed that is relevant to the thesis that momentary, artificially created individual differences are functionally similar to chronic, naturally occurring individual differences. This thesis is supported by illustrative examples from the areas of person perception, self-perception, perception of social groups, problem solving, creativity, moral reasoning, competitive and friendly behavior, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Increased awareness of the commonalities of personality and social psychology could lead to partial integration of the 2 areas and to the development of new theoretical insights in both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)