Journal of Social Behavior and Personality

Online ISSN: 0886-1641
Publications
Article
This study was designed to determine the factors that affect nonmedical participants' judgments in constructing a ranked waiting list for kidney patients requiring dialysis. Participants (N=167) were given a questionnaire that provided minimal demographic data about 16 hypothetical patients. Participants were requested to rank patients in order of priority for treatment. Each participant's personal demographic details were also obtained. Patients differed on four dimensions: gender, income, alcohol consumption, and religious beliefs, yielding a 2x2x2x2 design. The participants favoured for treatment included females over males, "poor" over "rich," nondrinkers over drinkers, and Christians over atheists. Results are discussed in terms of establishing democratic criteria and informing medical personnel on explicit factors which may affect their decision making, thus guarding against biases in judgment.
 
Article
This paper aimed to determine the criteria participants use to make decisions about scarce medical resources (allocation to use a kidney machine). It varied information about patients on 4 factors (sex, smoking, employment status, community service). It also set out to see if decisions made in groups differed from aggregated decisions of those made alone. In the first study, participants completed a simple questionnaire requiring them to rank-order sixteen hypothetical patients. In the second study, a group discussion (in groups of three participants) preceded the group putting an agreed rating on the identical questionnaire. Participants favoured patients who were employed, non-smokers and participated in community service. This suggests that participants adopted a utilitarian moral ideology. Participants' smoking habits interacted with the hypothetical patients' smoking habits, indicating in-group favouritism. In the second study it was found that when the decision was made in a group of three it amplifies the decision made by an individual. In this sense there was clear evidence of group polarization.
 
Article
This study is an extension of the work of Furnham and Briggs (1993). It examined the choice strategies non-medical people employ when asked to rank-order a waiting list of patients suffering from kidney failure. Participants were given minimum demographic data about 16 hypothetical patients, and were asked to rank them in order of priority for treatment. Patients differed in sex, income, voting preference, and whether or not they smoked. Groups favoured for treatment included females more than males, non-smokers more than smokers, "poor" more that "rich," and left-wing more than right-wing patients. Participants' political party allegiance interacted with the voting pattern of the hypothetical patient showing in-group favouritism. That is, left-wing voters favoured left-wing patients and right-wing favoured right-wing. Implications of studies of this sort for socio-medical and ethical and moral issues were discussed.
 
Article
College students (N = 315) were asked to pretend that they were serving on a university research committee hearing a complaint against animal research being conducted by a member of the university faculty. Five different research scenarios were used: Testing cosmetics, basic theory testing, agricultural (meat production) research, veterinary research, and medical research. Participants were asked to rate how justified they thought the research was and to decide whether or not the research should be halted. An ethical inventory was used to measure participants' idealism and relativism. Idealism was negatively associated and relativism positively associated with support for animal research. Women were much less accepting of animal research than were men. Support for the cosmetic, theoretical, and agricultural research projects was significantly less than that for the medical research.
 
Article
This paper describes a preliminary study investigating the nature of publication and research ethics problems encountered by psychologists. Descriptions of 25 ethical dilemmas were written by 22 psychologists. Those dilemmas involved conflicts about authorship credit (13), plagiarism (9), unethical research (1), and other related problems (2). Stage of career did not determine the likelihood of their being confronted with an ethical dilemma. The most often cited causes of problems and sources of distress were unethical demands by more dominant individuals who were perceived to hold power over the respondents.
 
Article
Examined the relationships between moral approval of aggression, aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior. Ss were 780 14-yr-old adolescents, who completed questionnaires measuring social problem-solving strategies and moral approval or disapproval of aggression. Assessments of aggressive behavior were obtained by peer nominations. Dimensions reflecting moral approval or disapproval of aggression were relativism (the need to consider different aspects when judging aggression), legitimization (the approval of aggression as a way of coping with social problems because of existing "excuses"), absolutism (completely negative attitudes toward aggression), and everyday morality (aggression as an unacceptable way of coping with social conflict situations). Results showed that relativism was not associated with aggressive behavior, but that absolutism and everyday morality correlated negatively, and legitimization positively, with aggressive behavior. Together with aggressive problem-solving strategies, absolutism and legitimization were able to explain even more of the variance in aggressive behavior. Gender differences showed that boys scored higher on relativism and legitimization while girls scored higher on absolutism and everyday morality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that H. J. Eysenck (see record 1987-10247-001) compulsively repeats his criticism of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in spite of overwhelming evidence of its correspondence to a replicable (across age and cultures) personality structure. The deviants are readily explicable in terms of faulty factor-analytic techniques. Beyond the factoring confirmation, unequalled by any other tests, there is life criteria evidence of the factor independencies. Eysenck's resort to 3 factors is shown to be theoretically faulty and unable to equal the criterion predictions obtainable from the 16PF primaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined a random sample of 10 Bush and Dukakis TV spots from the 1988 presidential election campaign. The objective of the study was to identify significant differences in message appeals (MAs) used by the 2 campaigns in their TV advertising. Results indicate that the main MAs in the Bush ads concerned the candidate's positive traits (PTs) and positive record (PR). The main appeals in the Dukakis ads concerned the candidate's vision for a better nation, the negative traits of Bush, and the PTs of Dukakis. Significant differences among 14 MA categories were found only for PR, PT, and vision. Bush spots used more PR and PT appeals. Dukakis ads relied more on vision MAs. While MAs were found in 5 dimensions of ad production, candidate nonverbal and special effects dimensions were used most frequently for negative association appeals and fear appeals appeared most often in oral and special effects dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
During the 40 years since its inauguration, the management assessment center has spread widely and been subjected to continued research. The challenges it faced in its early years are significantly different from those that preoccupy researchers and practitioners at present. This paper reviews evidence relating to both old and new challenges to the assessment center method. Older issues, now mostly put to rest, concerned what the method is (and is not), criterion-related validity, generalizability, user reactions, and whether simpler methods, such as tests and interviews, can substitute. Newer challenges concern construct validity, the changing nature of managerial work, new applications, user-friendliness, and whether multirater assessments can substitute. The review concludes that assessment centers have much to offer organizations in the 21st century and makes projections and recommendations for future assessment center practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the factorial composition of the SCL-90—Revised (SCL-90-R) with 295 psychiatric inpatients and 177 industrially injured workers. Findings show that only 4 factors (Somatization, Phobic Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation, and Hostility) could be derived reliably to represent the original 9 dimensions of the SCL-90-R. It is suggested that caution should be exercised when clinical interpretations are made based on the 9 symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R, regardless of the population of interest. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Related 207 college students' attitudes toward abortion to their sex and attitudes toward women's rights and roles. 56% of the Ss were female, and 30% were psychology majors. Feminists (regardless of gender) were expected to be more favorable toward abortion than nonfeminists, and women who were feminists were expected to be the most approving. Ss completed the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and a scale assessing attitudes toward abortion. Neither hypothesis was supported. The failure to find significant effects for feminism may be due to a relatively high level of feminism among the male Ss. The scores on abortion attitudes were not different from those of physicians and were similar to those in another study of college students. Psychology majors were more accepting of abortion than students in other disciplines, an effect that may represent self-selection in psychology majors or disciplinary socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined factors that influence attitudes toward abused women and recommendations for responses to the abusive incident. 278 adults (aged 17–60 yrs) served as participants responding to a simulated crisis hotline call. 84 were male and female professionals who come into contact with battered women in their work. 194 were male and female college students who constituted a nonprofessional comparison group. Male students and male professionals differed more in their perceptions and recommendations in response to calls than did female students and female professionals. Although intervention was recommended more strongly by professionals than students, even professionals were reluctant to recommend that an abused woman leave her partner in response to a crisis call. Both professionals and students differed significantly in their recommendations for women in married and unmarried cohabiting relationships with equivalent circumstances. Implications of the findings for the training of crisis hotline workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Students ( n = 319) enrolled in associate degree programs at a small college completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as well as measures of academic procrastination (PCT), self-efficacy, and locus of control. Frequent PCT and reasons for PCT were, overall, not significantly related to the typologies nor locus of control, but were negatively related to general self-efficacy. Task aversiveness as a motive for PCT also was negatively related to general self-efficacy. Multiple regression analyses of self-reported scores indicated that only general self-efficacy was predictive of PCT frequency, PCT reasons, and task aversiveness. Results suggest that among traditional age, academically disadvantaged college students, the belief that one may not be effective at mastering general life events seems to be reflective of college students who engage in frequent procrastinatory behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationships among personality factors that have been found to correlate with academic achievement and the consumption of common alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine substance use in 161 undergraduates. Ss completed 3 questionnaires: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), the Academic Attributional Style Questionnaire, and a modified Substance Use Questionnaire. Significant positive relationships were obtained between grade point average (GPA) representing academic achievement and the NEO PI-R personality factors of neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. Significant negative correlations were found between GPA and the use of alcohol and nicotine. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and lack of nicotine use best predicted GPA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Two studies assessed self-consciousness and self-handicapping predictors of academic procrastination and the impact of this behavior on exam performance of undergraduates. In Exp 1, 411 high dispositional self-handicappers and procrastinators studied less, delayed more on exam preparation, and scored lower on course exams. In Exp 2, 169 high-dispositional self-handicapping and high self-esteem led to delays in exam preparation. The detrimental effects of procrastination varied as a function of lecture attendance and cognitive ability. In both studies, academic procrastination and self-handicapping were highly correlated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
We examined the relative impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward academic work, as well as personality variables such as fear of failure, perfectionism, and locus of control, on academic procrastination in college students ( N=96). In addition, we compared attribution styles of students who reported high levels of academic procrastination with those who do not. Results revealed that low extrinsic motivation, coupled with perfectionism (for women in particular) and both an external locus of control and attributional style, contributed to the tendency to delay school tasks. Low academic procrastinators were more motivated by both internal and external forces than were high academic procrastinators and found academic tasks to be less aversive in general. Moreover, high academic procrastinators made external attributions (to context and luck) for their successes, acknowledging that they do little to contribute toward their academic achievements when these do occur. These findings suggest that both salient motivators and stable personality factors contribute to academic procrastination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the effects of the social integration and academic structure/integration components of the reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) instructional strategies on academic performance and psychosocial adjustment of 85 students in an undergraduate psychology course. During the semester, Ss were assigned to 1 of 4 learning conditions designed to isolate the effective components of the RPT technique. The performance measure was a 50-item examination that included 25 comprehensive examination questions. Other instruments included the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the course. Component analysis showed that both a structured learning format and dyadic mutual exchange contribute to enhanced academic achievement, psychosocial adjustment, and ratings of course satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper examines the relationship between temporal orientation--the predominant tendency to focus attention on a particular region of temporal space--and the frequency of self-reported academic procrastination. Researchers hypothesized that 72 students classified as either high in present time orientation (PrTOs) or high in future time orientation (FuTOs) would differ in their likelihood of experiencing socially induced temporal myopia. Socially induced temporal myopia assessed the degree to which short-term social events would interfere with academic goal-setting. Researchers also hypothesized that PrTO Ss would value the social aspects of vignettes more than FuTO Ss. Key predictions were confirmed with these data. Implications of these findings in the framework of a nonprescriptive theory of temporal orientation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This study examined individual differences associated with measures of academic procrastination, perfectionism, control, and vigilant and avoidant coping using a sample of 157 undergraduates. Results indicated that a positive relationship exists between perfectionism and vigilant coping, and that procrastinators do not tend to exhibit avoidant coping. Interestingly, issues of control were positively associated with avoidant coping. Overall, the findings suggest that procrastination, perfectionism, and control play a significant role in the employment of these coping styles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
95 female and 94 male undergraduates read scenarios of low or high offense severity in the role of either the offender or the offended in jealousy predicaments, with the intent to maintain or terminate the relationship. They rated 22 remedial accounts for their acceptability to ameliorate the blameworthy transgressions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the accounts corroborated the constructs of apologies, excuses, and justifications. Apologies were the preferred accounts, irrespective of intent. Excuses were perceived as weak accounts. Justifications were appraised as the worst accounts when the intent was to maintain the relationship. However, they were preferred above excuses when the intent was to end the relationship. The offenders rated apologies and justifications higher than the offended partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Obtained handwriting samples from 108 university students who rated the extent to which Ss believed that graphology reveals personality. Five days later, 58 experimental Ss received their personality profile, rated the profile, and again stated their belief in graphology (BIGR). 50 controls rated their BIGR before and after receiving and rating their profile. Most Ss rated the profile as a good or very good description of themselves. Experimental Ss increased their rating of BIGR relative to the 50 controls. Results support B. R. Forer's (1949) claim that belief in the validity of a test can be influenced by generalized feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that the typical social psychological experiment often creates momentary between-condition individual differences by rendering certain constructs accessible, whereas personality psychologists often investigate the effects of naturally occurring individual differences in construct accessibility. Evidence is reviewed that is relevant to the thesis that momentary, artificially created individual differences are functionally similar to chronic, naturally occurring individual differences. This thesis is supported by illustrative examples from the areas of person perception, self-perception, perception of social groups, problem solving, creativity, moral reasoning, competitive and friendly behavior, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Increased awareness of the commonalities of personality and social psychology could lead to partial integration of the 2 areas and to the development of new theoretical insights in both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluated reactions to the recent ending of a close relationship among 25 female and 15 male undergraduates (aged 20–33 yrs) who had in the last 8 mo terminated an exclusive, close, heterosexual relationship that had been maintained for at least 6 mo. Ss completed a questionnaire regarding their relationship break-up, reactions to the loss, themselves, and the ended relationship. Women were more likely than were men to confide in good friends to recover. Men were more likely to quickly begin dating others as a means of recovery. To the extent that Ss felt the relationship was psychologically over they felt better about the relationship ending. The more complete the Ss' accounts about why the relationship ended, the more they felt that the relationships were over and that they had control over their recovery processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In 2 experiments, female undergraduates were randomly assigned to be either victims of, or bystanders to, a staged purse snatching. A male target interacted briefly with the Ss and then took the victim's purse. The bystander in Study 1 witnessed a calculator theft and in Study 2, the purse theft. Physiological data failed to reveal a significant difference in arousal between victims and bystanders, although both were significantly more aroused than control Ss. In a subsequent photographic lineup, no differences in identification accuracy were obtained, which replicates the findings of H. M. Hosch et al (see record 1984-23094-001). Victims did describe the target more accurately than did bystanders, and arousal was negatively correlated with confidence in identifications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
227 female university faculty and staff completed a clothing image measure (in which 5 costumes were rated on 15 attribute indicators) as well as measures of actual and ideal self-image, self- and ideal congruity, clothing behavior, and achievement motivation. Results support the hypothesis that achievement-motivated (AM) Ss are more likely to wear professional costumes than nonachievement-motivated (NM) Ss, because AM Ss are more likely to have higher professional actual (and ideal) self-images and therefore experience more self-congruity (and ideal congruity) with professional costumes than NM Ss. In contrast, NM Ss are more likely to wear other costume styles (e.g., feminine, collegiate, casual) than AM Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationship between (1) preferred and perceived ("actual") organizational climate perceptions and their self-calculated discrepancy measure congruency, and (2) workers' attitudes and behaviors at work (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work performance). 400 employees from a large industrial company were sampled using a cluster sampling method. Results demonstrate that perceived and preferred achievement climates (both alone and together) made the major contributions to the prediction of the workers' attitudes and behavior at work. Their congruency, as operationalized via a self-calculated discrepancy measure, also adds unique value to the relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined 276 male students (aged 12–17 yrs) from 2 secondary schools in Australia to determine if a relationship exists between academic esteem, anxiety (test-trait, study-state, and trait) and academic achievement. Test and trait anxiety were measured using C. Spielberger's (1972) test scales. Self-esteem was assessed using H. Marsh's (1990) Self-Description Questionnaire. Results indicate that academic esteem (math and verbal esteem) is positively related to academic achievement in mathematics and English. However, study-state anxiety is negatively related to academic achievement. Academic esteem correlated significantly with all aspects of anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
It has been suggested that the discrepancy between positive self-assessments and other raters' more negative assessments may reflect not a self-leniency bias, but rather the fact that the raters do not know the ratees well enough. The present study examined this possibility in natural organizational settings. 87 supervisors assessed 105 salespeople (aged 22–62 yrs) on 3 dimensions. In addition, self-assessments on the same dimensions and salespeople's productivity scores were obtained. The results showed, as expected, that the self-assessments were more positive than the supervisors' assessments in the low acquaintance group but not in the high acquaintance group. Correlational analyses also showed that, in comparison to the low acquaintance setting, the supervisors were able to make more accurate assessments when they knew the ratee better. However, mean comparisons showed that unfamiliar supervisors underestimated, and the familiar supervisors overestimated, the ratees' productivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined how 60 male and 95 female university students perceived both parties involved in a sexual harassment (SH) incident. In Exp 1, Ss read a vignette describing an incident of sexual harassment with no indication as to the response of the harassee. In Exp 2, the harassee acquiesced to the sexual demands of the harasser. Ss agreed that males are more apt to engage in SH in the work environment. Ss did not make differential perceptions of the harasser or the harassee based on gender in either experiment and were in agreement in their evaluations and recommendations for punishment. SH was perceived as inappropriate by males and females, regardless of the gender of the harasser and harassee. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Measured loneliness at 3 points in time (with the UCLA Loneliness Scale) over a period of 14 wks in 160 college students. Ss also completed a trait measure of interpersonal competence and engaged in a dyadic get-acquainted conversation in which they rated their own interpersonal skills and were rated by their conversational partners and by 3rd-party observers. Results indicate that 34–42% of the variance in loneliness can be explained by competence and skills constructs. Observer-rated skills were unrelated to loneliness. Implications for attributional, self-fulfilling prophecy, and skill-deficit models of loneliness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted a critical evaluation of both laboratory and field studies that have employed commitment procedures to change behavior. An analysis of the methodological and historical background of research is presented, including the major differences between the behavioral and attitudinal approaches to the study of commitment. This is followed by a review of current research applications in several areas, including behavioral contracting, prosocial behavior, energy conservation, bus ridership, and recycling. The evidence indicates that commitment can change behaviors, especially in the case of resource conservation. Commitment is also effective in maintaining such behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Descriptive Statistics for Target and Circumstance Attributions Within Recall Perspective and Measurement Procedure Type of Attribution 
Article
Investigated whether stable individual differences in attribution complexity moderate people's likelihood of displaying actor-observer bias. Psychological perspective was altered in 342 undergraduates by having them recall naturalistic interactions about unfulfilled obligations in which they had been involved as either the message source (observer) or the target (actor). Following this, participants in the "close-ended rating" condition rated the importance of 4 specific causes for why the obligation had not been fulfilled, whereas those in the "open-ended description" condition provided written explanations for why the obligation had not yet been fulfilled. Participants in both conditions finished by completing the attribution complexity scale. Results indicate that differences in attribution complexity did moderate people's susceptibility to actor-observer bias. Attributionally complex but not simple participants varied the degree to which they attributed unfulfilled obligations primarily to the message target (actor) and discounted external circumstances depending on the perspectives from which they recalled the obligation situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Using a measure of body image consisting of schematic figures of males and females differing only in chest/breast (CB) size, 73 female and 57 male undergraduates estimated their own CB size, selected their ideal conception of CB, and rated the size they thought reflected the average male's and female's preference for CB. Ss also made ratings based on the size that they thought best characterized descriptors of the figures. Overall, findings reflected a bias for large CB sizes. Both S groups rated their own CB size as significantly smaller than all other ratings. Men's conception of an ideal breast was larger than women's conception. Both genders said that the average male prefers a larger chest and breast than does the average female. Positive descriptors were consistently associated with larger size ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews C. R. Rogers's (e.g., 1963) concept of the actualizing tendency as an operational premise in client-centered therapy. The function of the actualizing concept in therapy is demonstrated by reviewing segments of a therapy session. The client-centered therapist implements the actualizing tendency by creating a specific interpersonal climate during the therapy session. This climate is created by means of the therapist experiencing and communicating certain attitudes, including congruency, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding. Rather than intervening and thereby assuming therapeutic expertise about the client, the client-centered therapist trusts the client to move forward in a constructive direction. The constructive forward movement of the client is propelled by the actualizing tendency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a life-span model of development based on the Vedic psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. This model proposes that systematic transcendence, as cultivated through the transcendental meditation (TM) program, will promote self-actualization (SA). Statistical meta-analysis is presented of 42 studies on the effects of TM and other forms of meditation and relaxation on SA. The effect size of TM on overall SA was approximately 3 times as large as that of other forms of meditation and relaxation. Factor analysis of the 12 scales of the Personal Orientation Inventory revealed 3 independent factors: Affective Maturity, Integrative Perspective on Self and World, and Resilient Sense of Self. On these 3 factors, the effect of TM was 3 times as large. The magnitude of these consistent differential effects suggests that systematic transcendence is the key factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews articles by C. R. McLeod and S. J. Vodanovich, G. L. Flett et al, M. A. Runco et al, Flett et al, and R. L. Richard and S. M. Jex (see PA, Vol 78:24239, 24209, 24259, 23195, and 24257, respectively) on the Short Index of Self-Actualization developed by A. Jones and R. Crandall (see record 1987-12318-001). The data are overwhelmingly supportive of its construct validity. Issues in the measurement of self-actualization are discussed, as are subscales and factors, internal reliability, and construct validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationship between measures of self-actualization and boredom proneness with 154 undergraduates who completed the Short Index of Self-Actualization (A. Jones and R. Crandall; see record 1987-12318-001) and the Boredom Proneness scale (R. Farmer and N. D. Sundberg; see record 1986-23428-001). Total scores were significantly negatively related, supporting the contention that individuals with high levels of self-actualization possess lower levels of boredom proneness. Implications for psychological counseling, work performance, and education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The Short Index of Self-Actualization (SISA) was used in a known-group methodology to test the relationship between basic needs deficiency and self-actualization. Scores of mission and "street" homeless men ( N = 169) were compared to the spread of mean scores on the SISA in the literature. The highest mean scores were reported by C. R. McLeod and S. J. Vodanovich (see record 1991-24239-001) from intact college classes (54 males and 128 females). A t-test comparing homeless men and college students was not significant. However, discriminant analysis of the SISA items suggests that mean differences obscure item pattern differences. Whereas A. Maslow's (1954) hierarchical model was the foundation for establishing known-groups, evidence supporting this notion was not justified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that there are a number of different and independent ways in which an individual can excel psychologically and that reliance should not be placed on a unitary portrait. Recent concepts of self-actualization reflect contemporary American values rooted in ancient Western traditions. Research analysis of ideal-person concepts and a survey of Western and Eastern thought indicate that at least 5 major modes of fulfillment must be recognized as mutually independent. These are efficiency, creativity, inner harmony, relatedness, and transcendence. Instead of embracing 1 view of the ideal, psychologists should seek greater understanding of the many ways in which people can realize various potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Hypothesized that self-actualizing Ss would be more optimistic, less anxious about death, less anxious in general, and possessive of higher self-esteem than other persons. 103 Ss (aged 17–54 yrs) completed A. Jones and R. Crandall's Short Index of Self-Actualization (see record 1987-12318-001), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Death Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Personality Inventory. As predicted, Ss identified as self-actualized by the Short Index reported low levels of trait anxiety and high levels of optimism and self-esteem. No relationship was observed between self-actualization (SA) and death anxiety. Partialing the effects of self-esteem reduced the relation between SA and trait anxiety and eliminated the relation between SA and optimism. A factor analysis of SA and self-esteem items showed some distinction between the 2 variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Analyses of 3 measures of self-actualization (SA), the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Personal Orientation Dimensions, and A. Jones and R. Crandall's (see record 1987-12318-001) Short Index of SA, indicate that their validities have not been satisfactorily demonstrated. In particular, the mean scores of validation S groups were used instead of their score ranges. Direct testing of SA-nominated Ss produced ambiguous results. For the POI, evidence indicates that the POI itself may not be measuring SA, but possibly some correlate(s) of it. The statistical power of significance tests used in the POI validation is shown to be considerably below recommended standards. Validation procedures and corrections for current measures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Outlines social-psychological factors influencing the process of self-actualization (SA) and attempts to understand the value placed on SA in contemporary society, based on long-term involvement as a participant/observer of a spiritual community devoted to fostering personal growth through yoga. SA is viewed as a process of becoming selfless. It is argued that practitioners of yoga and similar disciplines learn to do this by attending to somatic-kinesthetic processes. While many people are drawn to yoga to have peak experiences that serve as escapes, such experiences may then encourage these people to go through personal growth, and self-actualizing may begin. The current interest in A. Maslow's (1968) theories and self-actualizing enterprises can be understood as appropriate responses considering the nature of contemporary society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the hypothesis that perfectionism is associated with decreased levels of self-actualization (SA). 461 college students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (P. L. Hewitt and G. L. Flett, in press) and the Short Index of Self-Actualization (A. Jones and R. Crandall; see record 1987-12318-001). In addition, 297 of the Ss completed the Beck Depression Inventory. All 3 perfectionism dimensions (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed) were associated with lower total SA scores. Results indicate that this negative relation was due primarily to the close association between perfectionism and the SA component assessing tolerance of failure. Socially prescribed perfectionism and low SA interacted to predict higher levels of dysphoria. Overall, findings demonstrate a pervasive negative association between dimensions of perfectionism and SA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents and attempts to resolve representative criticisms and polemics surrounding self-actualization, which are organized around the issues of nature of the self, actualization neurosis, nature of the ideal self, political hazards, social-class and cultural bias, and sociohistorical and ideological bias. The polemics surrounding the self-actualization construct have been valuable in at least 2 ways: (1) They have been heuristic, and (2) they have demonstrated the vitality of self-actualization as a major psychological construct with significant implications for the dimensions of psychology, the conception of humankind, and the functions and organization of society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Some 45 years after its original formulation by Rogers and Maslow, the self-actualization (SA) concept still needs further clarification. This study attempts to define this construct more precisely by assessing its essential attributes through a content validation procedure using the Delphi method. The results reveal the existence of a strong consensus among 26 international experts (francophone and anglophone; American, Canadian, French and Belgian) on 36 SA indicators. These characteristics help to better understand what the concept really means and were used as a basis for building a more valid SA measure instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated whether preexisting self-efficacy would influence both perceived success and causal attributions, which, in turn, would have implications for the subsequent affective reactions of middle-aged adults (40 women and 37 men) engaging in exercise testing. Self-efficacy had a significant influence on perceptions of success and causal dimensions (personal control and stability), which, in turn, influenced affective reactions generated as a result of the exercise bout. Additionally, sex and age of Ss influenced both behavioral and cognitive factors associated with exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Begins with a catalogue of the fundamental research questions that need to be answered to construct a theoretical model describing the process of psychosocial adaptation to disability. To illustrate the difficulty of answering these questions, research literature from the last 15 yrs is reviewed on the psychosocial adaptation to 3 neuromuscular disorders: 2 congenital or early onset disorders (cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy) and 1 progressive or adult onset disorder (Parkinson's disease). Each disorder review presents a brief description of the disorder, reviews the research on psychosocial adaptation, and summarizes findings on the more enduring attributes associated with adaptation. A framework for a conceptual model of psychosocial adaptation to neuromuscular disorders is offered, and research problems, such as design, data gathering, measurement, and analysis, are listed together with recommendations for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Joseph R Ferrari
  • DePaul University
Madeline Heilman
  • New York University
Clarry H Lay
  • York University
Ronald J Burke
  • York University
Adrian Furnham
  • University of London