Journal of Science and Technology of the Arts

Published by Universidade Catolica Portuguesa
Online ISSN: 1646-9798
Conference Paper
Interactive art has emerged as a distinctive genre in media art that relies on digital contents to express the artist's message. Situated within this field, this work presents an approach to multimedia storytelling that allows audience members to control separate but overlapping parts of the story chapters. We believe that the system engages its audience with a high level of immersion due to its combination of digital computation and tangibility; the tangible system supports a stronger connection to the storytelling than traditional screen-based systems, helping to bridge the gap between the physical world and cyberspace within the field of multimedia storytelling 1]. Consequently, it offers significant potential to share storytelling among a group based its immersive environment and support for embodied interaction paradigms.
| Black&White 2012 _Duo pour une pianist.  
This study aims to discuss the work Duet for one Pianist (1989) by the French composer Jean-Claude Risset (b. 13 March 1938) by analyzing the challenges of the music performance of this Computer-Aided Composition work Disklavier and implies Human-Computer Interaction performance. Extremely honored to perform the revised version of the 8 Sketches for One Pianist and Disklavier within a research project of CITAR and a new Sketch Reflections (2012) by Jean-Claude Risset dedicated to me in a World premiere in the closing ceremony of Black&White 2012 Film Festival promoted by the Catholic University of Portugal. Several issues on the performance of this work are analysed as a case-study, from the point of view of the performer, particularly the components of expressive performance in a real-time interaction between performer and computer. These components can work as analysis criteria of a piano interpretation, in here, of a pianist and Disklavier interpretation.
In the early 17th Century, the Spanish painter Francisco Pacheco railed against his apprentices, telling them that the image should stand out of the picture. The topic was the one most debated in the art of the Counter-Reformation, whose main directives, outlined in the Council of Trent, would be put in motion simultaneously with urban "Christianisation". They presupposed a social contract, established between producer and receiver, implying maximum clarity of the message, which involved an ambiguous grey area that would be reserved for the outside of the focus. In painting, which sacrificed everything that was incidental or extraneous to the story, showing the essential and neglecting the accessory, the binary radicalism of the concept became more explicit, through the Caravaggian illumination or in the case above, the Spanish tenebrism of Velásquez, to whom Pacheco's admonition was addressed. In our Doctoral Thesis presented at the School of Architecture in Barcelona2 , we sought to demonstrate that the Plastic Arts were not the only field for the application of Luminist principles. In this article we aim to summarise this thesis by exposing the important relationships between image, ritual and urban form in 16th Century Porto, after a time, therefore, the late Middle Ages, which Huizinga classified as deeply iconophile , in which image and ritual were put at the service of the reformulation of a State becoming increasingly centralised and interventionist, whose action extended to the sphere of the Church: with King João II, and especially King Manuel I, the Crown was an active sponsor of religious reform that was pursued with redoubled energy and systematisation, from the reign of "the Pious", then already within the political system of close bilateral cooperation that was designated the Confessional State. We therefore believe that this type of approach to anthropological and symbolic components, which seeks to take into account the increasing importance that is given in contemporary research on the city's history, can be very fruitful.
This article is about the Portuguese tilemaking of the former Monastery of Santa Marta de Jesus, currently Hospital of Santa Marta, still in situ. The main goal is the study of the patterned tiles from the 17th century, exploring the documentation as well as the ideas and solutions invented by the tile-layers that applied the tiles on the walls. Also, the authors aim to introduce the new information system for the Portuguese azulejos’ inventory, named Az Infinitum - Azulejo Indexation and Reference System, available online.
We present two examples of technology transfer from analogical to digital systems, in two works of live electroacoustic music by the Portuguese composer Jorge Peixinho (1940-1995), Harmónicos (1967) and Sax-Blue (1982). These works require the use of analogue technology that has become obsolete or difficult to access by the average performer. We think that migration from electronics to software, also referred as recast represents a necessary step to preserve live electroacoustic music. However, this process can pose multiple questions as it also relies on aesthetic considerations. In this case, we put on a considerable effort into understanding both the composer's intentions and the equipment operating mode and we think the solutions proposed are adequate to perform both works. Finally, we discuss some of the questions, solutions and limitations that arose with these recasts and how they can contribute to the sustainability problem concerning these works.
A number of private societies and clubs flourished in Oporto in the 19th Century, whose aim was to encourage in their members "benevolence relationships and good society" offering them "an honest and civilized leisure times". Clearly elitist, these nineteenth century recreational clubs had strict membership admission policies, which generally belonged to the higher echelons of society, more specifically the bourgeois, since the titled aristocracy was scarce in Oporto. It is worth mentioning here in parenthesis that Oporto was an essentially bourgeois, commercial city, unlike the capital, Lisbon, where the court "drags with it the whole official and unofficial world which conceitedly flutters around it". Each association organised musical concerts, balls and soirées musicales – weekly, twice a week or once a month – which also offered members other amusements, like conversation, reading, playing cards or dancing. Events of a musical character were normally performed by the club members, usually amateurs – referred to as dilettanti – who would be joined by prestigious Portuguese or foreign professionals. The purpose of this article is to describe the musical activity of the five main venues for private socialising in Oporto in the 1800s, and their contribution to the development of the musical taste of the city's society, taking into account both amateur and professional practice and particularly the repertoire performed.
This article explores the relationship between emotions and themes in the stories presented in El Secreto de sus Ojos (Campanella, 2009) and its remake Secret in Their Eyes (Jackson & Johnson, 2015). The approach draws from Paul Ricoeur’s method for the interpretation of texts, which stems from the analytic study of their discourse. This makes it possible to infer an interpretation of the theme (what the story aims at) starting from an itemized study of the plot (characters in action within a dramatic structure). The article looks into the way in which some emotions are presented in each story, the characters involved, why, where, and when they show up, their effects, etc. It examines the inciting moment of the plots, the relationship between plots and subplots, the emotions revealed in the midpoint and the resolutions. At the end, and following Ricoeur and García-Noblejas, I propose that the different articulation of the emotions in the two films explains the difference in their understanding of the theme they are exploring: the meaning of justice.
| attributed to Charles Allan Gilbert, n.d.
| chihuahua or muffin meme
| Mosaic Virus, Anna Ridler, 2019.
The incorporation of algorithmic procedures into the automation of image production has been gradual, but has reached critical mass over the past century, especially with the advent of photography, the introduction of digital computers and the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). Due to the increasingly significant influence algorithmic processes have on visual media, there has been an expansion of the possibilities as to how images may behave, and a consequent struggle to define them. This algorithmic turnhighlights inner tensions within existing notions of the image, namely raising questions regarding the autonomy of machines, author- and viewer- ship, and the veracity of representations. In this sense, algorithmic images hover uncertainly between human and machine as producers and interpreters of visual information, between representational and non-representational, and between visible surface and the processes behind it. This paper gives an introduction to fundamental internal discrepancies which arise within algorithmically produced images, examined through a selection of relevant artistic examples. Focusing on the theme of uncertainty, this investigation considers how algorithmic images contain aspects which conflict with the certitude of computation, and how this contributes to a difficulty in defining images.
Warning Regarding the films under analysis, only words by their authors are used as references. There is, therefore, a deliberate 'disinterest' in other people's opinions. Authors do not always tell everything, sometimes they distort the order of things and facts themselves (not always to their own advantage), but even their 'lies' offer us clues, if not to the final significance, at least for their intentions and wishes - for the project. I think that one's own work and words are (almost) always the best point of departure for personal reflection, even if it results in already explored or proposed paths. This warning is justified because there are countless analyses, particularly of Eisenstein's Potemkin, openly ignored here. This is, evidently, a contradiction in terms, given that I know some of these analyses and it would be impossible to forget them completely. I believe, however, that this exercise of purification, of return to the initial object, of trying to experience a first glance at these films is necessary. I did everything I could not to value these reflections and I myself hope to be ignored.
| Prehistoric Poltergeist, Tom Pounder, still image from animation.
| Alien Fanfare, Jonathan Monaghan, still image from animation.
This paper investigates the creative engagement with digital 3D models of museum artefacts and gives insight into new uses of museum collections enabled by digital scanning, editing and 3D printing technologies. Digital 3D models of museum artefacts are malleable and increasingly easy to use. Additionally, freely available 3D software has made 3D scanning, editing and manufacturing possible for non-specialists. These technologies allow users to create new artworks through the creation and transformation of digital replicas of museum artefacts. Examples of creative works, taken from two case studies that involve the creative use of digital reproductions of museum artefacts are presented in this paper. These projects are illustrative of a larger trend: the digital ‘poaching’ of heritage artefacts. This paper examines how digital 3D technologies can foster creative forms of museum engagement, democratise access to museum collections and engage users with personal forms of museum experience.
| Schema of how scanned characters were translated into acoustic tones in Fournier D'Albe's optophone.
| Simplified schema of a light-to-sound translation using pixel based image sensor: Peter Meijers' optophone patented by Philips in the Netherlands.
| Set up of the installation I/VOID/O by Sandro Canavezzi de Abreu.
Within the material-immaterial dichotomy structuring the creation of media artworks and its inherent informational aesthetic, one may observe fractures or continuities. Considering media artworks through the notion of translation of materialities, the aim of this paper is to analyse some of the multiple roles that absence play within and surround this sort of aesthetic experimentation. The discussion is unfolded through the articulation of Vilém Flusser’s media theory – namely considering the zero-dimensionality of electronic and digital media and the concept of Mediumsprünge. These concepts are exemplified through historical and contemporary media devices and artworks technically based on light-to-sound translations. The discussed examples were partially selected from references and methodological tools used in a cross-disciplinary practice-based PhD research on photosensitivity in relation to media history and media art history conducted between 2014 and 2018. The methodology combines a historical and analytical approach, through new materialism, media archaeology, cultural techniques and second-order cybernetics. The significance of the discussion is exposing both the artistic freedom (or emancipation) and the arbitrariness (and responsibility) implied in bridging the gaps involved in media artworks.
| 1. A still from the film 'Film Ist Rhythm: Rhythmus 21' (1921). Hans Richter.  
| A still from the Webdriver Torso Youtube Channel. Accessed on November 10th, 2016.  
What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.
How do we define, discuss or assess aesthetics within a contemporary philosophical framework? The indefiniteness that accompanies attempts to formalize a definition of the aesthetic is a primary focus of this paper. This lack of a definition has occupied philosophers for hundreds of years in attempts to delineate the boundaries of an elusively formless concept. This formlessness speaks to the incredibly evasive character of such a pervasive feature recognized in both natural and artificial systems, agents and artefacts. With the rapid growth of artificially intelligent systems and an astounding diversity in computational creativity, in what ways may we approach aesthetics? How is the aesthetic recognized, determined and produced? This paper seeks to critically engage issues of non-human agency, inter-object relations, and aesthetic theory in relation to computational entities and autonomous systems. The ability of these systems to operate outside of human cognitive limitations including thought patterns and constructions which may preclude alternative aesthetic outcomes, afford them in some ways limitless potential in relation to aesthetics. The designation of the accidental or provisional is utilized as an alternative approach to the production and assessment of aesthetic occurrences of the non-human.
| Actor's I/O structure.
| Overview of the seven dimensions featuring all the variables.
| Actor's I/O states.  
| I/O methods.  
This article summarises our Ph.D. thesis – an analytical view on the player-game relationship through the lens of an action-oriented framework, centred on fundamental entities defined as actors, entities through which action is enacted in the game and of which the player and the game system are a part of. With this in mind, the grounding principles of this framework are seeded in a transition of action into experience, based on communicational systems that structure the dynamic formation of networks of actors from which distinct behaviours emerge, which, in turn, promote the enactment of diverse sequences of events establishing narrative, which is a source of experience of the player. Chronology, responsiveness, thinking and actuation, transcoding, focus, depth, and traversal are the 7 dimensions we unveiled through the lens of this action-oriented framework. This work proposes that video games can be regarded as action-based artefacts and a call to awareness for game designers that when designing for action they are working with the foundations on which video games are built upon.
| RAPID-MIX UCD framework with selected UCD actions. 
| a) The JUCE Machine Learning Hackathon and b) the winning 'hack' "Harmeggiator". 
| a) and b) Participants working on their projects and c) presenting a final project. 
Machine learning offers great potential to developers and end users in the creative industries. For example, it can support new sensor-based interactions, procedural content generation and end-user product customisation. However, designing machine learning toolkits for adoption by creative developers is still a nascent effort. This work focuses on the application of user-centred design with creative end-user developers for informing the design of an interactive machine learning toolkit. We introduce a framework for user-centred design actions that we developed within the context of an European Union innovation project, RAPID-MIX. We illustrate the application of the framework with two actions for lightweight formative evaluation of our toolkit—the JUCE Machine Learning Hackathon and the RAPID-MIX API workshop at eNTERFACE’17. We describe how we used these actions to uncover conceptual and technical limitations. We also discuss how these actions provided us with a better understanding of users, helped us to refine the scope of the design space, and informed improvements to the toolkit. We conclude with a reflection about the knowledge we obtained from applying user-centred design to creative technology, in the context of an innovation project in the creative industries.
| Affinity matrix and moving actor.
| 2D plot of the speech sound database used in the musical component of the system.  
In multi-agent systems, local interactions among system components following relatively simple rules often result in complex overall systemic behavior. Complex behavioral and morphological patterns have been used to generate and organize audiovisual systems with artistic purposes. In this work, we propose to use the Actor model of social interactions to drive a concatenative synthesis engine called earGram in real time. The Actor model was originally developed to explore the emergence of complex visual patterns. In turn, earGram was originally developed to facilitate the creative exploration of concatenative sound synthesis. The integrated audiovisual system allows a human performer to interact with the system dynamics while receiving visual and auditory feedback. The interaction happens indirectly by disturbing the rules governing the social relationships amongst the actors, which results in a wide range of dynamic spatiotemporal patterns. A user-performer thus improvises within the behavioural scope of the system while evaluating the apparent connections between parameter values and actual complexity of the system output.
Computational technologies have significantly expanded the horizons of aesthetic creation; nonetheless, their wider ontological status as tools remains poorly understood. This limitation hinders our ability to assess their true impact on aesthetic practices and limits our means to establish the relationship between computer generated artefacts and previous forms of ‘media’. This paper argues that understanding and categorising the things computational technologies are able to do as aesthetic tools also requires understanding what type of tools they are. Following recent insights from philosophy of information and post-phenomenology, this paper begins by showing computational technologies are no ordinary mediators, but truly ‘multi-stable’ appliances which are leading us to reformulate our very notions of reality and self-understanding. While delivering a fully-fledged ontological model falls outside of its scope, this paper nonetheless suggests that within aesthetic contexts, computational devices may be initially described as information modelling appliances. This characterisation offers an alternative to their increasingly less adequate portrayal as ‘media’.
This paper addresses the study of digital computational systems as aesthetic artifacts seeking to provide instruments for their analysis and critical understanding. What this aim implies is the need to articulate complementary perspectives for considering not only their specificity as digital computational (software-driven) systems, but also the different aesthetic intents that drive the creation of these artifacts, as well as the kinds of experience they propose. This approach entails articulating the viewpoint of their creation or poetics with the viewpoint of their experience or aesthetics, while tackling into their enacted processes. Accordingly, this paper discusses concepts, models and frameworks that not only argue on the distinctive processual nature of these systems, but also stress the interdependency of views on their principles, mechanics and experience.
Transhumanist speculations have been present in intellectual circles since the 1960s. The term "transhumanism" was coined in 1957 by biologist Julian Huxley, who defined it as "man remaining man, but transcending himself by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature". Will the boundaries of aesthetics remain untouched in face of new achievements, both in medicine and those coming from the need to explore space? In 2017, NASA published the results of the Human Research Program. The aim was to find out more about the impact of long stays in space on the hu-man body, like manned trips to Mars. The human body will have to face new physical conditions on the Red Planet, such as lower temperatures, a less dense atmosphere, significantly higher radiation and many more. The impact of such conditions is visible and highly variable also in other organisms, including mammals that have the best sense of smell. 3D printing technology is developing continuously and already today we are able to print an ear that can be used for transplants. If this is the case, does it have to look the same? Based on the research regarding the impact of climatic conditions on the shape of noses as well as state of the art regarding such areas as mountaineering, biomimetics, plastic surgery and taking into account mental factors, the article presents original nose designs, aesthetic speculations and interpreting the above visual and formal data.
Attempts to describe aesthetic artefacts through informational models have existed at least since the late 1950s; but they have not been as successful as their proponents expected nor are they popular among art scholars because of their (mostly) quantitative nature. However, given how information technology has deeply shifted every aspect of our world, it is fair to ask whether aesthetic value continues to be immune to informational interpretations. This paper discusses the ideas of the late Russian biophysicist, Mikhail Volkenstein concerning art and aesthetic value. It contrasts them with Max Bense’s ‘information aesthetics’, and with contemporary philosophical understandings of information. Overall, this paper shows that an informational but not necessarily quantitative approach serves not only as an effective means to describe our interaction with artworks, but also contributes to explain why purely quantitative models struggle to formalise aesthetic value. Finally, it makes the case that adopting an informational outlook helps overcome the ‘analogue vs digital’ dichotomy by arguing the distinction is epistemological rather than ontological, and therefore the two notions need not be incompatible.
| Paul Sermon, Telematic Dreaming (1992). DATDigital Art & Technology. Exhibition view. Ars Electronica Exhibition at the Singapore Science Centre 2007. Image: Ars Electronica. Courtesy of the artist and Ars Electronica. 
| Mark Beasley, Peer to Peer Sunset (2013). Courtesy of the artist. 
| Cory Arcangel, Working On My Novel (2012-2015) Twitter feed. 
| Cory Arcangel, Working On My Novel (2014), paperback, 144 pages, published by Penguin Books Ltd. 
| Constant Dullaart, Jennifer in Paradise (2013-ongoing). View of the exhibition; Stringendo, Vanishing Mediators. Carroll/Fletcher Gallery, London, 2014. 
Focusing on the paradox of embodiment/ disembodiment in virtual space, and on the recent history of Net Art, this article proposes to go back to Roy Ascott’s metaphor of the ‘telematic embrace’ in order to examine different artistic and theoretical approaches to online affectivity. While the first generation of artists who founded the movement was openly fascinated by the novelty of cyberspace as a medium, currently artists are adopting online tools to produce also offline works, revealing the presence of Internet culture in contemporary society instead of focusing on the nature of the medium in itself. In this scenario, marked by the current Post-Internet discourse, real and virtual worlds overlap, and hybrid artistic forms emerge. But are Net artists still reinterpreting the idea of virtual embrace? Or have they moved away from a romantic stance, highlighting the perils of the digital revolution in the so-called Post-Digital age? Adopting a phenomenological perspective, this essay aims to address these questions, exploring the paradox of affectivity in contemporary networked cultures through the analysis of emblematic artworks.
| Timeline showing sonogram arrangement of sounds in Leere Null. Time passes horizontally and concurrent sounds are vertically distributed.  
| Section from a path unwinding in Grenzwerte. Each data point is visualised by the corresponding UGen graph, the colour gradient describes the temporal succession.  
Although the concept of algorithms has been established a long time ago, their current topicality indicates a shift in the discourse. Classical definitions based on logic seem to be inadequate to describe their aesthetic capabilities. New approaches stress their involvement in material practices as well as their incompleteness. Algorithmic aesthetics can no longer be tied to the static analysis of programs, but must take into account the dynamic and experimental nature of coding practices. It is suggested that the aesthetic objects thus produced articulate something that could be called algorithmicity or the space of algorithmic agency. This is the space or the medium – following Luhmann’s form/medium distinction – where human and machine undergo mutual incursions. In the resulting coupled “extimate” writing process, human initiative and algorithmic speculation cannot be clearly divided out any longer. An observation is attempted of defining aspects of such a medium by drawing a trajectory across a number of sound pieces. The operation of exchange between form and medium I call reconfiguration and it is indicated by this trajectory.
In the last years, there has been a surge in AI-powered products. Often marketed as "free", these services operate as hooks to lure unsuspecting users into voluntarily giving up data about every aspect of their life. Their data is the primary fuel of surveillance capitalism, a new economic system that exclusively benefits so-called Big Tech organisations at the expense of personal privacy and freedom of choice. This paper argues the ways these AI-powered products are being imagined and designed is further generalising a kind of, "enframing" that encourages a bureaucratic relationship with the world disguised as (a false sense of) augmented agency. This paper shows that technologically informed philosophical reflections can contribute to getting ourselves back into the feedback loop of technological mediation by helping us recognise our "becoming" with technologies as a design process.
| The eight levels of the model in this paper.
| Threat to agency in FO2.
| Due to 'insurance' Current Gamestate is not skipped.
This paper presents a novel descriptive model for agency in videogames as communication. Literature pertaining to interactive works including videogames has identified the need to overcome dyadic perspectives of communication in such works. Research specifically to do with agency has called for agency to no longer be confused with freedom of action, for an integrated perspective of the player and the system, and for that relationship to be viewed as a conversation. The transactional model in this paper achieves this by proposing a nested hierarchy of levels of communication that operate as an implicit contract, negotiated between the system and the player, where the object of the transaction is bio-costs, effected through the signalling of the attainability of understandings. The paper describes research antecedents, a research agenda, the basis for the model, the model itself, examples of how the model can be used to describe videogame designs, and future research.
In this work, we established the foundations of a framework with the goal to build an end-to-end naturalistic expressive listening agent. The project was split into modules for recognition of the user’s paralinguistic and nonverbal expressions, prediction of the agent’s reactions, synthesis of the agent’s expressions and data recordings of nonverbal conversation expressions. First, a multimodal multitask deep learning-based emotion classification system was built along with a rule-based visual expression detection system. Then several sequence prediction systems for nonverbal expressions were implemented and compared. Also, an audiovisual concatenation-based synthesis system was implemented. Finally, a naturalistic, dyadic emotional conversation database was collected. We report here the work made for each of these modules and our planned future improvements.
Artificial intelligence is quietly shaping social structures and private lives. Although it promises parity and efficiency, its computational processes mirror biases of existing power even as often-proprietary data practices and cultural perceptions of computational magic obscure those influences. However, intersectionality—which foregrounds an analysis of institutional power and incorporates queer, feminist, and critical race theories—can help to rethink artificial intelligence. An intersectional framework can be used to analyze the biases and problems built into existing artificial intelligence, as well as to uncover alternative ethics from its counter-histories. This paper calls for the application of intersectional strategies to artificial intelligence at every level, from data to design to implementation, from technologist to user. Drawing on intersectional theories, the research argues these strategies are polyvocal, multimodal, and experimental—suggesting that community-focused and artistic practices can help imagine AI’s intersectional possibilities and help begin to address its biases.
| Manfred Mohr, P-154-C1, 1973, Courtesy of the artist.
| Manfred Mohr, P-707-E, 2000, Courtesy of the artist.  
This paper aims to discuss algorithmic art (also known as computer-generated or generative art) in a comparative perspective with artistic practices generated by means of non-computer-based methods. More precisely, it seeks to trace arthistorical relationships between algorithmic art and certain examples from modern art movements. The artist whose works are chosen as the starting point for this investigation is the German artist Manfred Mohr. The investigation will firstly attempt to identify key features of algorithmic art based on its formal visual properties as well as production techniques involved. In the second step, it will discuss these observed characteristics in a comparative perspective with historical precedents and contemporary practices from non-computer art. By comparing aesthetic principles and techniques used by selected artists, the paper seeks to contribute towards a growing awareness that it is necessary to consider algorithmic art within the broader historical context of its relationships with non-digital art forms.
| Left: Code base of Writing Machine. Right: Code base of Wr_t_ng M_ch_n_. 
Departing from the discourse on whether a specific (social, ethical) responsibility is attached to the creation and manipulation of algorithms, this article questions the prerequisite of having an identity of algorithms to which that responsibility could be attached. After showing that such identity is partly fictional due to the fact that algorithms are connected to other algorithms and their identity is always a selective reading of a series of transitions through which algorithms come into existence, the perspective is shifted to the algorithmic as the medium of algorithms and as the actual agential domain. This shift translates responsibility into the ability to respond to otherness and non-identity through sensitive forms of alignment. Comparing the algorithmic with the desiring-machines of Deleuze and Guattari, this article proposes that its dynamics of flows and interruptions could be artistically reflected as halting operations that controvert the superficial evaluation of algorithms, for example under the classical decision problem or halting problem. A possible strategy for making the inner dynamics perceivable is proposed through a balancing act between the credible and the incredible, the plausible and the implausible.
| A. Michael Noll: Gaussian Quadratic. 1963/1965. Credit: A.M. Noll [3]. 
Frieder Nake: Abteiberg Walk through Raster, 2005. 
Casey Reas: Process 14 (Software 3) 2012. Credit: C. Reas. 
Manfred Mohr: A formal language (P-49), 1970. Credit: V&A Museum London. 
Students analyzing Mohr's "A formal language". University of Bremen 2012. 
In conceptual art, the idea is not only starting point and motivation for the material work, it is often considered the work itself. In algorithmic art, thinking the process of generating the image as one instance of an entire class of images becomes the decisive kernel of the creative work. This is so because the generative algorithm is the innovative component of the artist's work. We demonstrate this by critically looking at attempts to re-construct works of early computer art by the re-coding movement. Thinking images is not the same as thinking of images. For thinking images is the act of preparing precise descriptions that control the machinic materialization of images. This kind of activity is a case of algorithmic thinking which, in turn, has become an important general aspect of current society. Art education may play an important role in establishing concrete connections between open artistic and more confined technological ways of thinking when thinking progresses algorithmically.
| Book Covers of Art Platforms and Cultural Production on the Internet by Olga Goriunova and of Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek.
| Cosmos Carl_Wet Unboxing_2018_Alex Frost
| Cassini, The Algorithm of Engagement
| Web Crawler Free Icon. Available from Online Web Fonts.
Under conditions of so-called “Platform Capitalism”, software and algorithms undertake the important task of designing the interaction amongst online users and establishing criteria of relevance for content. As such, they operate as curatorial agents of platforms’ content, establishing what is there to see, know and consume. This state of affairs calls for a revision of the traditional role of the (human) curator who is confronted with an online environment characterised by the unprecedented collision of commercial, aesthetic, cultural and political interests. The question of what kind of relationship the curator shall create with the algorithm then becomes crucial: is this a relationship of antagonism, resistance or alliance? How do these two curatorial agents influence each other? In this article, I analyse a cluster of hybrid artistic and curatorial experiments (including my own curatorial work) that foregrounds online platforms as discrete modes of socio-technical assemblages that curate particular forms of connectivity amongst networks of users, data layers and technical infrastructures. By doing so, I argue for the forging of strategic alliances between human and machinic curators as a strategy to channel new forms of creativity and cooperation under conditions of “Platform Capitalism” and to operationalise human-algorithmic curation as a political and aesthetic practice within the networked culture.
| Georg Nees, Gewölle. Experiment in texture. 1965.
| Georg Nees (1926-2016).
| Jackson Pollock (1912-1956.
| Pollock in action, painting from a distance.
| K.O. Götz, Trefang, 1963.
In many ways, humans in modern societies seem to be occupied to a considerable amount by a longing to establish whatever they do as if it were the first time any human has ever done it. The arts are full of this myth of originality and firstness. However, at closer inspection, there often appear events or activities by someone else that were at least foreshadowing what later appeared as totally new and the first time. The article takes up a few cases of this kind related to digital art.
Since the 1990s, the growing expansion of a vast array of medical technologies for the visualization of the inner body seems to have revamped, in an improved version, the tradition of the anatomical theatre, fuelling not only the question of the relation between inner and outer body, public and private space, visible and invisible objects, but also the problem of the relation between art, science and knowledge. The objective of this article is to shed some light on how contemporary artists engage with the very notion of “knowledge of the inner body” proper of the anatomical tradition. To this aim I briefly summarize some fundamental aspects of such tradition and subsequently examine the work of two artists, Laura Ferguson and Annie Cattrell, as examples of very different approaches to the meaning of the visualization and representation of the inner body in contemporary art.
This text is dedicated to the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the death of the composer, pianist and teacher Luiz Costa (S. Pedro do Monte de Fralães, 1879 – Porto, 1960). The preface begins by clarifying the meaning of commemoration as a ritual. The text is divided into two parts. The first, anthropologic in nature, undertakes the problems involved in the construction of the identity of Luiz Costa as a person and as an artist within the more general question of this construction emerging from the anthropological themes of birth, suffering, love and death. The second, musicological part demonstrates that events and circumstances in the life of an artist can leave their marks on his works. Some characteristic compositions of Luiz Costa are analysed with the intention to gain information about the mind and character of the man and the artist that he was.
To polarize and, coincidently, intersect two different concepts, in terms of a distinction/analogy between “piano interpretation schools” and “critical models” is the aim of this paper. The former, with its prior connotations of both empiricism and dogmatism and not directly shaped by aesthetic criteria or interpretational ideals, depends mainly on the aural and oral tradition as well the teacher-student legacy; the latter employs ideally the generic criteria of interpretativeness, which can be measured in accordance to an aesthetic formula and can include features such as non-obviousness, inferentially, lack of consensus, concern with meaning or significance, concern with structure or design, etc. The relative autonomy of the former is a challenge to the latter, which embraces the range of perspectives available in the horizon of the history of ideas about music and interpretation. The effort of recognizing models of criticism within musical interpretation creates the vehicle for new understandings of the nature and the historical development of Western classical piano performance, promoting also the production of quality critical argument and the communication of key performance tendencies and styles.
The article studies tendencies in contemporary museum exhibitions and art display trends. While analysing current status quo of art in the museum context, it discusses the limitations of curatorial impact on the audience perception of the displayed objects. The paper presents a case study of a permanent museum exhibition with an added performance element. As argued in the article, such approach allows a stratified narrative and provokes a dialogue between the audience, performers, and curators, fully reflecting postmodern polyphonic tendency. The aim of the article is to comment on postmodern trends in museology, the status of the displayed art (object), and contemporary exhibition identity.
Music performance anxiety is an acknowledged condition amongst musicians from early learning stages to professional levels. Anxiety experienced in uncontrolled levels translates into the development of physiological and psychological symptoms that impair performance skills and may, ultimately, lead to post-traumatic stress disorders and drop-out of music-related activities. This paper focuses on teachers’ voices to justify the need for inclusion of anxiety management training in music schools’ curricula as means of promoting well-being, coping with stress-inducing situations, and boosting growing musicians’ performative experiences through positive pedagogies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to four instrument teachers of a Portuguese institution of specialized artistic education to collect data about previous experiences, conceptions, and ways of teaching MPA managing. The importance of integrating coping strategies in pedagogical practices, its obstacles and benefits, alongside suggestions for conceiving viable intervention projects in schools were discussed by the interviewed and hereby critically presented with respect to existing literature.
Contemporary art, particularly that which is produced by computer technologies capable of receiving data input via interactive devices (sensors and controllers), constitutes an emerging expressive medium of interdisciplinary nature, which implies the need for a critical look at its constitution and artistic functions. To consider interactive art as a form of artistic expression that files under the present categorization, implies the acceptance of the participation of the spectator in the production of the work of art, supposedly at the time of its origin / or during its creation. When we examine the significance of the formal status of interactivity, assuming as a theoretical starting point the referred premises and reducing it to a phenomenological point of view of artistic creation, we quickly fall into difficulties of conceptual definitions and structural apories [1]. The fundamental aim of this research is to formally define the status of interactive art, by perpetrating a phenomenological examination on the creative process of this specific art, establishing crucial distinctions in order to develop a hermeneutics in favor of creation of new perspectives and aesthetic frameworks. What is interactive creation? Is interactivity, from the computing artistic creativity point of view, the exponentiation of the concept of the open work of art (ECO 2009)? Does interactive art correspond to an a priori projective and unachievable meta-art? What is the status of the artist and of the spectator in relation to an interactive work of art? What ontic and factical conditions are postulated as necessary in order to determine an artistic product as co-created? What apories do we find along the progres- sive process of reaching to a clarifying conceptual definition?This brief investigation will seek to contribute to the study of this issue, intending ultimately, and above all, to expose pertinent lines of inquiry rather than to provide definite scientific and aesthetic answers.
This article presents a series of works called Machinic Trajectories, consisting of domestic devices appropriated as mechanical drawing machines. These are contextualized within the post-digital discourse, which integrates messy analog conditions into the digital realm. The role of eliciting and examining glitches for investigating a technology is pointed out. Glitches are defined as short-lived, unpremeditated aesthetic results of a failure; they are mostly known as digital phenomena, but I argue that the concept is equally applicable to the output of mechanical machines. Three drawing machines will be presented: The Opener, The Mixer and The Ventilator. In analyzing their drawings, emergent patterns consisting of unpremeditated visual artifacts will be identified and connected to irregularities of the specific technologies. Several other artists who work with mechanical and robotic drawing machines are introduced, to situate the presented works and reflections in a larger context of practice and to investigate how glitch concepts are applicable to such mechanical systems.
The aim of this article is to analyze musical form in german composer Robert Schumann’s works (8 June 1810 – 29 July 1856), particularly that of piano solo piece Carnaval, op. 9, trying to understand what is revealed by the way he uses it in relation to his personality, not only in artistic terms (taking into account the context of German Romanticism) but also on a deeper psychological level. To come to an understanding of Schumann’s use of form, this paper begins with a brief description of the evolution of musical form since Viennese Classicism, with additional references to the baroque system of ‘affects’. Form in Schumann is compared with that of other significant composers of the romantic period and various points of intersection between music and other arts are analyzed, especially literature, in certain key works of this period. Parting from these reflections, we explore the question of the expressive intention behind his handling of form in Carnaval, op. 9. The aim of the investigation of this aspect is to understand how far the innovatory use of this parameter in Schumann, reflects a unique vision of the art of music.
At the border between information and entertainment, memes and newsgames aresome of the news formats that, made viral in social networks, complement the informational experience and compete with the traditional news media in constructing alternative readings of the real. If in the light of Bakhtine (apud Ponte, 2004) journalism can be understood as a secondary discursive genre that feeds on primary genres, how to understand the circulation of these discourses produced from journalistic events in social networks? On the other hand, how are these narratives appropriated by the media? What functions do they play in media discourse? In this article we present some examples of products created from events of political impact for than register, by the analysis of a set of news stories, how the digital press, in the Iberian context, make use of them. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the reflection on how the information media relate to these new narratives.
Top-cited authors
António Araújo
  • Universidade Aberta
Maria Luce Lupetti
  • Delft University of Technology
Arne Eigenfeldt
  • Simon Fraser University
Pedro Cardoso
  • University of Aveiro