Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management

Published by Emerald Publishing
Online ISSN: 2053-4620
Publications
Structural equation model
Measurement model
Purpose This study aims to explore individuals’ attitudes and intentions towards mask purchase in Pakistan at an initial outbreak of COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach The study is quantitatively based on the cross-sectional data. The data are collected through a survey questionnaire. Convenience sampling strategy is used to target the individuals of Pakistan. At the first, 650 questionnaires were distributed. In return, the authors received 321 raw samples with the response rate of 53.5%. Finally, 316 useful samples are proceeded to infer the final results. Findings The structural equation model’s results demonstrate a positive and significant effect of fear of complication of COVID-19, knowledge about COVID-19 and health consciousness on attitudes towards the mask. Further, attitudes towards mask are found to be the robust analyst of mask purchase intention. Research limitations/implications The study used cross-sectional data through a single source of data collection. The findings of the survey are on the sample size of 316. Practical implications The study would help policymakers to formulate the strategies to make aware individuals regarding their health and COVID-19 issues. The study would provide the guidelines to the government agents of Pakistan to combat with COVID-19 through the purchase of mask. The shopkeepers would be aware to observe the intentions and attitudes of consumers towards mask. Originality/value The outcomes of this study offer a shred of empirical evidence for attitudes and intentions regarding the purchase of mask, particularly for developing country settings.
 
Purpose The effects of the spread of COVID-19 across the world are devastating, both from a health and an economic perspective. However, we also see encouraging examples of collaborative and innovative initiatives, in society and in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to focus on initiatives related to digital business model innovation. The authors explore how organizational characteristics provide a variety of opportunities for digital responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and discuss the potential consequences for the speed of digital transformation in organizations and society. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the authors analyze how organizations attempt to mitigate the negative effects of fighting COVID-19 using digital business model responses. The authors draw on a qualitative study where they have collected data from the retail and service industries. They have analyzed the data in relation to theory to better understand this ongoing phenomenon. Findings The authors have identified four categories of organizations (crisispreneurs, accelerators, endurers and thrivers). Each category faces different challenges and shows a different intensity in their digital transformation. The authors propose that the rapid turn toward digital business models will have enduring effects, as organizations have gained transformational capabilities that will remain, and that the digital trajectory has, as a result, changed forever. Originality/value The findings in this paper point toward new challenges for leaders and policymakers in terms of how to support initiatives and meet the needs of different categories of organizations while simultaneously being conscious of the potential societal effects of this rapid digital shift. The authors hope that this paper can be of value for managing this shock and learning how to adapt for the future taking certain aspects of current business models as the departure point.
 
Purpose Integrating e-learning into higher education institutions (HEIs) is a complex process. Several universities had tried to impart learning online, especially amid the spread of COVID-19. However, they failed miserably due to the many barriers to online learning platforms’ delivery and acceptance. This study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators in adopting e-learning in HEIs of Pakistan by taking the perspective of key stakeholders involved in the management and administration of HEIs. Design/methodology/approach The authors recruited participants using purposive and snowball sampling. Interviews were conducted from a variety of participants, including academicians, administrators and information technology (IT) personnel. Data recorded was transcribed into verbatim and then analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings The analysis identified barriers and facilitators to the e-learning implementation. Barriers included lack of resources and training, lack of infrastructure, inadequate e-learning policies, absence of positive mindset among teachers and students and reservations and concerns about e-learning of parents and teachers. By contrast, facilitators included prior training and awareness (provided by HEIs regarding e-learning), the assistance of government and regulatory bodies (in terms of policy and training on e-learning), the role of IT (in development and implementation of online learning system) and good computer knowledge and skills of students and faculty. Moreover, respondents believed that teaching subjects online requires the availability of proper and complete gadgets, but these were hardly available due to high demand. Finally, the academicians and administrators believed that e-learning is indispensable in health emergencies such as COVID-19 and similar events ahead. Originality/value For the HEIs to sustain and grow, the adoption of e-learning is fundamental. Therefore, the government should provide the essential infrastructure for the HEIs to deploy e-learning modules, train faculty and ensure the availability of necessary equipment (e.g. network) and gadgets to faculty and students. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides a framework for similar future studies in other emerging markets, whereas practical implications of the study can assist the governments and HEIs of emerging markets in implementing the e-learning modes of education in times of health emergencies, such as COVID-19.
 
Purpose The world has been forced to implement movement restriction strategy because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and industries have to embrace online technologies and social media marketing activities (SMMAs) to continue their business operations. Considering the aftermath of COVID-19 on the business world, this study aims to explore the determining elements of SMMAs and analyse how these factors affect brand equity (BE), relationship equity (RE) and purchase intention (PI) among smartphone consumers in China. Five constructs of SMMAs, namely, entertainment (EN), interactivity (IN), trendiness (TR), customisation (CU) and electronic word-of-mouth (WM), were examined to examine the effects of SMMAs on BE and RE. Subsequently, the mediation effects of BE and RE on the relationships of all constructs of SMMAs with PI were analysed. Design/methodology/approach An online survey was conducted with the participation of 347 Chinese consumers who used social media platform managed by the smartphone brands as their marketing activities during COVID-19. The data were analysed via structural equation modelling using SmartPLS. Findings This study’s result showed the significant and positive influence of CU, TR and WM on BE and the strong and positive influence of CU, IN and TR on RE. Furthermore, BE was found to fully mediate the relationships of CU, TR and WM with PI, while RE was found to mediate the relationships of TR and CU with PI. The performance and impact factor analysis revealed RE as the most important factor for PI, followed by BE, CU and TR. Originality/value This study extended the authors’ knowledge and understanding about social media marketing, BE and smart phone PI during COVID-19. Findings of this study can assist smartphone brands in China to develop the most effective strategies for SMMAs, which can be tailored for consumers to maximise profits, even during any crisis when physical business activities are deemed difficult. Moreover, this study’s findings can benefit the government and policymakers in developing and regulating rules and regulations for e-commerce and social media commerce for all industries and areas.
 
Purpose The e-learning-based approach is critical in keeping the wheels of education turning in the face of the COVID-19 epidemic. In this scenario, analyzing the implementation of the e-learning system is required to properly grasp the needs. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between technical system quality, information quality, service quality, educational system quality, support system quality, learner quality, instructor quality, perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness, e-learning system use and benefits. Design/methodology/approach This study was carried out by giving online questionnaires to students attending private institutions in Indonesia. A total of 593 students participated in the study and provided responses. The structural equation model, which is supported by the program WarpPLS7.0, is used to analyze the data. Findings Maintaining the quality of the technological system, the information system, the learners and the educational system can help achieve the goal of increasing perceived utility. In the meanwhile, factors such as inadequate service quality, educational system quality, support system quality and teacher quality can all pose challenges to perceived levels of satisfaction. To get the most out of e-learning apps, users' expectations about how fun, useful and easy to use they are need to be met. Research limitations/implications This study was carried out in the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic with a restricted number of participants from Indonesian institutions of higher education. This research has the potential to be expanded into a variety of different types of higher education in the future. Practical implications The main thing that will determine whether an e-learning system model works is the quality of the learners. Originality/value The institution should think about changing the material offered in the e-learning system to make it easier for students to grasp by describing the current material and providing digital handouts of lecturers' explanations. This study expanded the e-learning system success model and applied it to the evaluation of e-learning deployment in Indonesian higher education. This study will improve student comprehension of the e-learning model and contribute to the body of knowledge about e-learning applications and technology.
 
Purpose At present, nearly the whole globe is facing a severe threat of COVID-19. This study aims to examine the COVID-19 complications and entrepreneurial intention among the entrepreneurs of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach The study used a deductive approach. An online survey is conducted to collect cross-sectional data from entrepreneurs of Pakistan. Convenience sampling is applied to target the respondents. In total, 278 usable answers proceed for final analysis. The structural equation model (SEM) is used to infer the results. Findings The findings of the study highlight a significant negative effect of fear of COVID-19 (FO19), perceived susceptibility (PSU) and perceived severity (PSE) on entrepreneurial intention (EI) among the entrepreneurs. Practical implications The study would provide the guidelines for policymakers and planners to combat the barriers of fear, PSU and PSE during a pandemic. The findings of the second wave of COVID-19 may provide a warning to the government to take preventive measures to face the severe effect of the pandemic. Finally, the outcomes of the study may enrich the depth of COVID-19 literature globally. Originality/value This study is the first study highlighting factors such as fear, PSU and PSE toward EI in COVID-19 second wave.
 
Purpose As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous businesses have migrated to an online delivery platform (ODP) to survive and reconnect with their customers. This study aims to focus on how the public perceives ODP. It examined the acceptance of digital platforms for delivering daily necessities, especially food, in Brunei Darussalam during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The online survey collected 350 valid samples, and the online questions were distributed using a snowball sampling method, with the questionnaire’s softcopy prepared in Qualtrics and sent via email and social media as hyperlinks. In 2021, we sent out the questionnaire link via email, WhatsApp and Facebook to people and organizations for about six months. Findings According to the findings of the study, product quality is a critical factor that consumers consider while making online purchases of different products. The COVID-19 condition positively affects customer acceptance, performance, effort and product quality. This research indicates that service quality, online habits and trust do not influence customer acceptance of an ODP. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to the body of knowledge regarding factors influencing the acceptance of ODPs. The factors that influence people’s acceptance of ODPs, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, are assessed as to whether the COVID-19 pandemic influences people’s acceptance and the identified factor that has the strongest influence on the acceptance of digital delivery platforms. Practical implications The study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about how customer behaviors triggered by the COVID-19 condition influence customer acceptance of ODP and how behavior influences customer acceptance of ODP. Originality/value This paper is useful to academics, practitioners and policymakers in public administration and policy management. The research provides some insights into massive adoption of ODPs that affects the disruption of conventional business practices.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the customer sentiment towards telemedicine apps and also to apply machine learning algorithms to analyse the sentiments in the adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Text mining that uses natural language processing to extract insights from unstructured text is used to find out the customer sentiment towards the telemedicine apps during the COVID-19 pandemic. Machine learning algorithms like support vector machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes classifier are used for classification, and their sensitivity and specificity are found using a confusion matrix. Findings The paper explores the customer sentiment towards telemedicine apps and their adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic. Text mining that uses natural language processing to extract insights from unstructured text is used to find out the customer sentiment towards the telemedicine apps during the COVID-19 pandemic. Machine learning algorithms like SVM and Naïve Bayes classifier are used for classification, and their sensitivity and specificity are found using a confusion matrix. The customers who used telemedicine apps have positive sentiment as well as negative sentiment towards the telemedicine apps. Some of the customers have concerns about the medicines delivered, their delivery time, the quality of service and other technical difficulties. Even a small percentage of doctors feel uncomfortable in online consultation through the application. Originality/value The primary value of this paper lies in providing an overview of the customers’ approach towards the telemedicine apps, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly around the world and Portugal is no exception. Positive and negative effects are extremely important in individual's life experiences and in particular in the context of the quarantine, in which it is important to maintain the balance between favorable and unfavorable situations. The purpose of this paper is to study in depth the intensity of the affect during the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal and to validate a scale of positive and negative affect in the context of quarantine and confinement. Design/methodology/approach The methodology used is of a quantitative nature, based on a questionnaire survey to measure the intensity of the affects and to analyze some sociodemographic variables. The sample consists of 726 individuals of age 18 years or older, who were in Portugal during the quarantine of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings The results show that respondents were concerned, anxious, well-disposed and impatient. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis applied to affects produced a latent structure with two factors: negative affect and positive affect. The affect scale has adequate convergent and discriminant validity and good internal consistency, with negative affect being experienced by individuals with greater intensity compared to positive affect. Originality/value It is hoped that this study contributes to an increase in the scientific knowledge in the field of the affects in the context of delicate situations such as the pandemic COVID-19 so that health professionals can intervene to improve individual’s well-being. This is an important way to provide better health policy that considers in more depth individual wellbeing and emotions during times of crisis. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also stated that highlight the importance of understanding emotional states of individuals during crisis events.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of artificial intelligence (AI) and other AI-enabled technologies and to describe how COVID-19 affects various industries such as health care, manufacturing, retail, food services, education, media and entertainment, banking and insurance, travel and tourism. Furthermore, the authors discuss the tactics in which information technology is used to implement business strategies to transform businesses and to incentivise the implementation of these technologies in current or future emergency situations. Design/methodology/approach The review provides the rapidly growing literature on the use of smart technology during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Findings The 127 empirical articles the authors have identified suggest that 39 forms of smart technologies have been used, ranging from artificial intelligence to computer vision technology. Eight different industries have been identified that are using these technologies, primarily food services and manufacturing. Further, the authors list 40 generalised types of activities that are involved including providing health services, data analysis and communication. To prevent the spread of illness, robots with artificial intelligence are being used to examine patients and give drugs to them. The online execution of teaching practices and simulators have replaced the classroom mode of teaching due to the epidemic. The AI-based Blue-dot algorithm aids in the detection of early warning indications. The AI model detects a patient in respiratory distress based on face detection, face recognition, facial action unit detection, expression recognition, posture, extremity movement analysis, visitation frequency detection, sound pressure detection and light level detection. The above and various other applications are listed throughout the paper. Research limitations/implications Research is largely delimited to the area of COVID-19-related studies. Also, bias of selective assessment may be present. In Indian context, advanced technology is yet to be harnessed to its full extent. Also, educational system is yet to be upgraded to add these technologies potential benefits on wider basis. Practical implications First, leveraging of insights across various industry sectors to battle the global threat, and smart technology is one of the key takeaways in this field. Second, an integrated framework is recommended for policy making in this area. Lastly, the authors recommend that an internet-based repository should be developed, keeping all the ideas, databases, best practices, dashboard and real-time statistical data. Originality/value As the COVID-19 is a relatively recent phenomenon, such a comprehensive review does not exist in the extant literature to the best of the authors’ knowledge. The review is rapidly emerging literature on smart technology use during the current COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide current state of knowledge on how the COVID-19 emergency situation necessitated the behaviour influencing use and acceptance of telehealth. This study interlinks the health belief model (HBM) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to highlight the challenges and opportunities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in the public health sector. Design/methodology/approach This study used three online databases (Emerald publishing, Science Direct and Taylor and Francis) that enabled the authors to access electronic journal articles. Search strategy was used to extract articles based on the relevance of this study. Findings The key findings from this study suggested that the COVID-19 emergency forced health-care workers and their patients to rapidly use and rely on telehealth to reduce the rate of COVID-19 transmissions. The key benefits of telehealth use highlighted an expansive cost effective and convenient access to health-care services irrespective of geographical local and levels of physical impairment. Moreover, telehealth inhibited in person human interaction, which was perceived as impersonal and not ideal for new patient consultations. The barriers outweighed the benefits; as a result, it is unlikely that there will be a wide use of telehealth beyond the COVID-19 emergency situation. Practical implications The research findings are limited to discussions drawn from available secondary data. The criteria within telehealth for policymakers to note the technology acceptance and use for both health-care and outpatient stakeholders and their health seeking behaviour. Health-care sectors (private and public) and government need to understand enablers of effective telehealth in policymaking to ease the barriers during an emergency situation like a pandemic. Originality/value This study contributes to the emerging literature on how COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted and accelerated telehealth by extending both the UTAUT and HBM theories. This study is expected to contribute and expand literature on telehealth during emergency situations, given the novice nature of COVID-19 and limited literature surrounding it.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the phenomenon of abrupt shift by both doctors and patients to telemedicine during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and associated economic lockdown in India. The study explored various drivers of telemedicine technology awareness, adoption and usage. These drives were studied from both the doctors and the patients’ perspectives using the Push–Pull–Mooring (PPM) theoretical model. Design/methodology/approach An exploratory qualitative research was carried out with 24 doctors and 32 patients. This research was conducted in major urban cities of India. It was carried out during the economic lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected based upon a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire using telephonic interviews. Once thematic saturation was achieved, thematic content analysis was conducted. Finally, the themes were classified and analyzed using the PPM theoretical model Findings The data analysis indicated that there was the presence of all three factors, namely, push, pull and mooring. For the doctors, pull and push factors were more substantive than mooring factors. Although for the patients push and mooring factors were more important and pressing than pull factors. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic lockdown in India. The interview respondents were located only in urban India. Future studies could be conducted to explore similarities and differences in telemedicine adoption patterns during non-crisis times vis-a-vis crisis times in urban and rural settings. Practical implications The insights from this study could be used by medical service providers to leverage telemedicine technology to improve the business model, service delivery, pricing strategy, value proposition and behavioral characteristics. Patients on the other hand could gather perspectives regarding how best to use telemedicine technological services. Originality/value The authors provided an integrated perspective regarding telemedicine technology awareness, adoption and usage in an emerging economy of India during the critical times of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the associated prolonged economic lockdown. This was one of the first studies that applied PPM theory for telemedicine adoption
 
Purpose The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) over the past decade has enabled heterogeneous economic sectors to be more integrated, leading to a significant effect on nation’s growth across OECD countries. The objective of this study is to estimate the short run and long run inter-linkages among ICT, innovation technology, globalization, and economic growth for the period 1996-2017 in OECD countries. Design/methodology/approach This research provides some sophisticated methodologies by using principal component analysis to construct ICT and innovation indices and follow up by employing the panel cointegration test, pooled mean group regression, fully modified ordinary least squares and dynamic ordinary least squares as sophisticated estimation techniques, panel Granger causality and forecast error variance decomposition to examine the robustness of the causal association in the findings. Findings The empirical results herein suggest that ICT, innovation and globalization positively contribute to economic growth, while the causality findings reveal strong endogenous relationships among both ICT mobile and internet use, innovation development, globalization and economic growth in both short and long run. The findings further imply that OECD countries have yet to promote economic growth from ICT infrastructure expansion, the enlargement of technology innovation and the spread of globalization. Practical implications The particular policy recommendation is to reinforce the investment and establishment of a reliable ICT infrastructure as well as innovation technology to create sustained economic growth in this progressively interconnected world. Originality/value This study is valuable from policy and decision-makers’ perspective, as it highlights the significance of ICT infrastructure development, innovation enlargement and globalization to elevate the economic growth in OECD countries.
 
Purpose The paper aims to take stock of China’s recent biopharmaceutical industry development by analyzing product innovation and changes in the firms’ product portfolios during the five-year period between 2012 and 2017. Design/methodology/approach The paper introduces a classification of biopharmaceutical products. By applying the classification to the product data of China’s drug regulator, the CFDA, it becomes possible to trace the developments within the sector by looking at changes in the number of firms within each subgroup and changes in the number of subgroups in which each firm is involved. The classification allows an evaluation of the latest product innovation achievements. Findings The paper demonstrates a mild shakeout of firms in the relatively long-existing domestic market segments, a trend toward more specialized product portfolios and an enduring prevalence of innovation strategies aimed at exploiting relatively unpopulated domestic market niches instead of pioneering entirely new products. Especially the capability of upgrading to second-generation protein therapeutics has become a key criterion for separating the wheat and the chaff in China’s domestic sector. The paper moreover points out the relevance of acquisitions as a corporate growth strategy. Research limitations/implications The research does not consider complementary indicators, product pipelines in particular. Future research should compare patterns across emerging economies. Originality/value The paper is unique in using the CFDA database for systematic academic research on (bio)pharmaceutical innovation and in introducing a biopharmaceutical product classification to trace innovative activities and changes in corporate product portfolios over time.
 
Purpose Although the adoption of 3D printing technology in many sectors such as medicine, aerospace, jewelry and the food industry is remarkable, the adoption of 3D printing technology by hobbyists remains unknown. The purpose of this paper is to map the attitude of individuals toward this new technology, define critical factors that have an impact on hobbyists’ behavior and, finally, explore the impact of 3D printing on social, economic and environmental changes, as 3D printing technology redesigns manufacturing, thereby impacting many sectors of day-to-day life. Design/methodology/approach A survey has been carried out on Greek hobbyists, and valuable conclusions have been drawn. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire survey performed on a sample of 344 Greek consumers in this sector. A questionnaire of 30 questions was distributed electronically. Findings This paper contributes to the determination of the percentage of individuals that know about 3D printing, the factors that have a significant contribution to adoption of the technology and, finally, identifies the profile of those that use 3D printing technology either in their work or for their hobby. Using a factor analysis, the authors classified users into five categories based on their attitudes towards 3D printing adoption: “innovators,” “informed,” “ecologists,” “engineers” and “re-users.” Research limitations/implications The authors believe that understanding the predictors of 3D printing technology adoption for personal use and its benefits will overcome a pertained research gap and establish an empirical nucleus for further studies in relevant contexts. This type of research is necessary to expand the survey to other European countries. Practical implications 3D printing is not new, but rather is an emerging technology. Individuals are willing to adopt this innovative technology. Based on the results of our survey, a desktop 3D printer will be necessary for every home and office in the near future. Social implications The impact of 3D printing technology on rural life and its social implications are open questions. In this paper, by identifying the groups of hobbyists, the authors determine their particular characteristics and their perspectives on this new technology. All of what is discussed above is valuable for mapping the characteristics of those who adopt this technology. Originality/value This study is attempting to determine the behavior of individuals towards 3D printing technology, their awareness and how familiar they are with this new technological innovation.
 
Purpose The study aims to develop an integrated model for three-dimensional (3D) printing adoption in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) context to form a baseline for more theoretical and empirical debate from emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach with a convenience sample is adopted since there is no formal body that has accurate data about the number of companies, governmental bodies, nongovernmental organizations, universities, labs, etc. that already have adopted 3D printing. Findings The results indicate that the technological usefulness of 3D printing and its ease-of-use factor were found to be lacking among community members and governmental officials. Yet, these factors were the most influential factor affecting the spread of 3D printing technology adoption in the GCC countries. Nevertheless, the adaptation of 3D printing is not yet at the level of its global markets, nor is it used within leading companies’ assembly lines. In addition, the 3D printing awareness and use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, the adaptation rate is still below expectations due to several challenges that face the growth of the 3D printing market in the GCC countries. The most vital challenge facing 3D printing growth is manifested in governmental policies and regulations. Practical implications Companies’ managers can benefit from the current study results by focusing on the factors that facilitate 3D adoption and avoiding bottle-neck factors that hinder the speed of the 3D adoption. 3D providers can also benefit by understanding the factors that affect 3D adoption and designing their machine and marketing strategy in a way that helps the intended companies to easily adopt 3D printing. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that explored 3D printing adoption on the GCC countries’ level. It also adds a new flavor to the literature by exploring 3D adoption during the COVID-19 crisis.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the key performance factors that can lead toward sustainability in the Industry 4.0 supply chains of manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach Questionnaire is used to collect the data from manufacturing sector to prioritize the factors, which integrates both Industry 4.0 and sustainability. For this, stepwise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) method is used to obtain the weights for criteria and sub-criteria to prioritize the factors. Findings The present study brings the findings about five key performance factors. Social factor needs much attention among all the criteria, followed by ecological, economic, information technology and dynamic capability theory. Further, change management, third-party audits and novel business models are key sub-factors to improve performance of sustainability in Industry 4.0 supply chains. Practical implications This study prioritized the performance factors of Industry 4.0 and sustainable supply chain in Indian manufacturing sector. These prioritized factors help to improve performance of organizations, which are practicing the Industry 4.0 and sustainability practices. Managers in manufacturing industries can use the SWARA for assessment of weights for the criteria and sub-criteria factors to take appropriate decisions to improve the organizations’ performance. Originality/value Managers in manufacturing industry can use these prioritized factors to improve the performance of their supply chains.
 
Purpose This paper aims to concentrate on classifying and analyzing the risks associated with the Industry 4.0 (I4.0) concept in manufacturing industries and developing strategies for managing risks. Design/methodology/approach In this research paper, risks categories and their sub-components associated with the I4.0 concept are identified by performing a systematic literature survey of peer-reviewed journal articles and taking inputs from industry experts and academicians. Then, the importance of the identified risks and causal relations among risks are analyzed by using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. Finally, the strategies are developed to mitigate the identified risks. Findings From the literature survey, 6 risk categories and their 19 sub-components associated with the I4.0 concept are identified. The DEMATEL method resulted in economic risks and technical risks as the top two risk categories in the I4.0 concept. Ecological risks and legal and political risks are relatively low-ranked risk categories. Research limitations/implications Causal relations and ranking among risk categories and their sub-components are obtained by analyzing responses received through questionnaires. There are other methods also available for risk analysis, which are beyond this study. Practical implications This research paper will help the industrialists to effectively manage the risks involved in adopting I4.0 concept in manufacturing industries by adopting strategies. Originality/value This research paper gives an idea about risks associated with the implementation of the I4.0 concept in manufacturing industries. Also, this paper uses the DEMATEL method for ranking the identified risk categories and their sub-components.
 
Purpose Industrial Revolution 4.0 is still evolving. The purpose of this paper is to assess the progress of Indonesia in achieving an initiative for Industry 4.0. As the largest country in Southeast Asia, Indonesia plays a critical role in implementing Industry 4.0. In addition, this study proposes an open innovation strategies for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in facing Industry 4.0, especially in the Indonesian setting. Open innovation is viewed as a long-term innovation model that relies on cross-border commerce between businesses and countries. Design/methodology/approach This study undertakes a comprehensive literature review to capture the necessary insights for establishing an early grasp of solution design. A total of 32 sample papers were qualified using a set of selection criteria designed to find the most relevant existing studies in the Industry 4.0 and Indonesia domains. The meta-details as significant discoveries were processed using a content analysis approach. In addition, the research deployed sentiment analysis from text mining to inter-operate and classify (positive, negative and neutral) in-text data using text analysis techniques to identify public sentiment toward Industry 4.0 in Indonesia. Findings The key finding is that there is a favorable relationship between digital ecosystem readiness and open innovation adoption for SMEs. While, knowledge management is a critical factor in guiding a country’s successful implementation of the open innovation paradigm. Furthermore, some of the major findings revealed that many initiatives for Industry 4.0 are carried out by the private sectors. In regards to the procedure, the role of government is the protection of market regulations. This could be due to preserving fair competition between corporations and SMEs. Local businesses and SMEs should be protected to ensure their survival. In addition, the major cause of the slow adoption of Industry 4.0 in Indonesia is the lack of digital equipment. This is because of the shortage of digital equipment that can create a digital divide between large and small businesses and between industries in the urban and rural areas. Research limitations/implications This study discussed some of the most essential issues of SMEs in adopting open innovation that is required for Industrial Revolution 4.0. It focuses on how digital ecosystem’s readiness influences open innovation adoption for SMEs in Indonesia. By understanding its current state of readiness, it contributes to the policymakers in deciding how and where to adopt open innovation and develop digital ecosystem and identify which ones might best meet their needs for any developing countries. Originality/value This paper is useful to academics, practitioners and policymakers in the fields of technology and public policy. The research provides some initial insights into Indonesia and any developing countries on Industry Revolution 4.0 and the needs for SMEs in adopting open innovation.
 
Purpose The fourth industrial revolution and digital transformation have caused paradigm changes in the procedures of goods production and services through disruptive technologies, and they have formed new methods for business models. Health and medicine fields have been under the effect of these technology advancements. The concept of smart hospital is formed according to these technological transformations. The aim of this research, other than explanation of smart hospital components, is to present a model for evaluating a hospital readiness for becoming a smart hospital. Design/methodology/approach This research is an applied one, and has been carried out in three phases and according to design science research. Based on the previous studies, in the first phase, the components and technologies effecting a smart hospital are recognized. In the second phase, the extracted components are prioritized using type-2 fuzzy analytic hierarchical process based on the opinion of experts; later, the readiness model is designed. In the third phase, the presented model would be tested in a hospital. Findings The research results showed that the technologies of internet of things, robotics, artificial intelligence, radio-frequency identification as well as augmented and virtual reality had the most prominence in a smart hospital. Originality/value The innovation and originality of the forthcoming research is to explain the concept of smart hospital, to rank its components and to provide a model for evaluating the readiness of smart hospital. Contribution of this research in terms of theory explains the concept of smart hospital and in terms of application presents a model for assessing the readiness of smart hospitals.
 
Purpose This study aims to deliberate and illustrate the overall peer-to-peer (P2P) business process, user requirements and design considerations under Industry 4.0 based on enterprise information system for P2P lending. Design/methodology/approach Exploratory approach with a systematic literature review and content analysis method. Findings P2P lending uses different credit audition methods and relies on information available in the system and the decision model. So IT techniques, for example, big data analysis and data mining, on credit audition are key points in P2P lending but the application of Industry 4.0 to the P2P lending landscape can yield several new benefits with a well-designed EIS, which is critical to service various stakeholders. Research limitations/implications This study is exploratory in nature and may need more testing on an empirical basis before drawing generalizations. Implications of research included in this area are that it poses good challenges to researchers from different disciplines such as economics, business management and information, communication and technology. Originality/value Deliberations of business process for P2P lending via enterprise information system under Industry 4.0 in the African context is of value as these emerging economies adopt new systems and processes to meet the requirements of Industry 4.0.
 
Content-driven review steps
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats offered by the I4.0 innovation ecosystem
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop an industry 4.0 (I4.0) innovation ecosystem framework by exploring the essential components of the same to ensure the collaborative efforts of different stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach In this research work, important perspectives and their sub-components for the I4.0 innovation ecosystem framework are identified by performing a systematic literature survey of peer-reviewed journal articles. Then, I4.0 challenges among higher education (HE) institutions students and industries in India are explored by adopting the questionnaire-based research approach. Finally, the importance of the identified perspectives and their sub-components and causal relations among components are analyzed by using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method. Findings From the literature survey, three perspectives and their 45 sub-components are identified for the I4.0 innovation ecosystem framework. The outcomes show that the industry has a direct impact on HE institutions and the government. While HE institutions are most influenced by the industry and government. Research limitations/implications I4.0 innovation ecosystem framework is developed by analyzing responses received through questionnaires. There are other methods also available for ecosystem framework development, which are beyond this study. Practical implications This research work will facilitate policy formulation by the government. It will also help the managers to develop strategies for the adoption of I4.0 enabling technologies in their business. Originality/value This research study gives an idea about the innovation ecosystem framework for the successful adoption of I4.0 enabling technologies in Indian Manufacturing Industries.
 
Purpose – Mexico is an OECD member country that historically has allocated less than half a per cent of its gross domestic product to spend on research and experimental development. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the country’s science and technology policy through its main program, the National System of Researchers (SNI), an attempt made for the first time. The results obtained make it possible to see whether the SNI has succeeded in improving research in Mexico. The authors also look at whether the program provides ways of improving and strengthening the science policy model adopted by Mexico and whether it could be extended and/or introduced into other nearby countries with levels of development or characteristics similar to those of Mexico. Design/methodology/approach – After that, the authors will analyze the scientific productivity of SNI members in comparison to Mexican researchers as a whole so as to assess both whether the SNI selects the best researchers and whether these researchers carry out more research and of a higher quality. Finally, the authors will check whether the selection criteria of the assessment committees are internally consistent. To do this, the authors will carry out a bibliometric analysis of Mexican scientific production (overall and specifically of SNI members) and an analysis of the groups of researchers belonging to the SNI. Findings – The aim of this paper is to discover the impact and importance of the best program in Mexico as regards research policy, known as the SNI. Analyzing it will, in short, enable the authors to detect whether the program has been of use in improving the investigation potential and capacity for science and technology transfer of the research elite in Mexico; check whether the levels assigned to these researchers within the SNI are justified, based on research indicators (inputs and outputs); and assess the pros and cons of the SNI program with an eye to reviewing it in Mexico. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of using cross-sectional data is that information is not the same in each period analyzed. However, the SNI of Mexico has used the same information in all its evaluations. Therefore, the authors believe that using longitudinal data allows us to compare the evolution of SNI for various periods. This certainly is helpful for making decisions and, above all, provides first-hand information to the authorities who, in turn, should strengthen and make more efficient remedial measures regarding public policies on science and technology in Mexico. Practical implications – SNI assessment program will know the science and technology of Mexico and whether it is advisable to implement this program of science policy in similar economies or the same level of development as Mexico. Social implications – The contributions of this study are relevant to the extent that the evaluation system of researchers from Mexico is the basis for allocating research resources, making proposals to help improve the system for evaluating researchers and contributing to efficiency in the allocation of resources for research. Originality/value – This paper has also applied different techniques that have made it possible to look more thoroughly into the classification of all the researchers who were assessed positively by the SNI for period 1996-2003. These techniques have enabled us to obtain alternative classifications based on statistical algorithms and to gauge the level of internal consistency of the classifications made by the SNI, based strictly on the quantitative information supplied.
 
Purpose This study aims to extend literature on academic entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial networking by examining how academics, in their role of entrepreneurial educators, network for the creation and execution of novel teaching practices in cooperation with external actors. Design/methodology/approach The empirical investigation is based on qualitative inquiry, using a case study approach. Specifically, eight cases originating at three universities in Germany, The Netherlands and Mexico were examined. The cases which constituted innovative teaching practices were selected following a replication logic. Each involved extensive participation of societal actors in course development or delivery and aimed to stimulate students to work on real life challenges and disseminate novel knowledge back to the world of practice. All courses were either introduced or taught by educators who possessed different levels and types of academic and industrial or entrepreneurial experience. Findings Based on eight cases the authors found that the networking behaviour of entrepreneurial educators is crucial for the generation of proximity with external actors and for the acquisition of key resources, such as an external actor to participate in teaching practice and for the generation of legitimacy for their innovations in teaching. The entrepreneurial and industrial experience of entrepreneurial educators emerges as an affordance to network with external actors, helping them to achieve a common understanding of the opportunity and to generate trust among them. Practical implications This study equips managers of higher education institutions with critical insights into innovating the teaching mission of the university and developing closer and stronger relationships with external actors of the university. Originality/value This study seeks to advance the literature on academic entrepreneurship by shifting the attention away from academic entrepreneurs as merely founders of spin-offs and collaborators with business on research and development towards entrepreneurial educators who see opportunities in establishing collaborations with external actors as part of their teaching activities. Further, it introduces the “social networking perspective” to this field. Vissa (2012) and Stam (2015) introduced this perspective as a logical extension to the study of the generation of social capital to reach entrepreneurial goals.
 
Purpose Blockchain technology has fascinated researchers and industry professionals. Since its birth, the attention for blockchain has been exponentially increasing, however, most of the industries are still skeptical in adoption for value creation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the actual level of implementation and diffusion of blockchain technology within the logistics and transportation industry by comparing and using the collective intelligence of academic literature and industry practices of implementation of blockchain in this domain. Design/methodology/approach This study uses the methodology of systematic literature review along with inductive reasoning. The systematic literature review of academic and industry frontiers together has brought a bigger and real picture into consideration. Findings The results highlight that, within the transportation sector, currently there is a very low diffusion of blockchain, although applications show immense promises for the future. The various application where blockchain technology can make a significant impact are also identified. Research limitations/implications Due to the early stage of experimentation with blockchain technology, high-quality data which is relevant to the optimized usage of this technology in the logistics and transportation industry is not available. Practical implications The study will help the practitioners in identifying additional avenues in which they could implement blockchain for the effectiveness, efficiency and growth of the logistics and transportation industry. Originality/value The analysis of mixed sources of information for undertaking systematic literature review by assessing academic and trade publications is a novelty of this study.
 
Purpose Protection of intellectual property (IP) is important to leverage its commercial potential. This study aims to examine and comprehend the level of understanding of intellectual property rights (IPR) among Indian academics. The study covers three main aspects – awareness level of IP among Indian academics, comprehending if the current state of knowledge about IP is useful for commercialization and whether the current knowledge of IP activities among Indian academics is sufficient to support their professional career and generate revenues from their inventions. Design/methodology/approach A structured methodology was contemplated and applied. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling method was adopted. The duration of the study was six months from March to August 2021. A total of 500 Indian academics were approached, of which 116 responded with a response rate of 23.4%. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to understand their level of knowledge about IP. Furthermore, the data analysis was performed based on descriptive analysis. Findings The study findings revealed that the awareness among the participants about IP was minimal. The underlying reasons could be academics did not focus on generating IP through novel research, awareness of basic knowledge about IP was considerably low and inadequate to support their professional career, primary focus was on which publications are considered as one of the important criteria for performance management, national policies do not encourage collaborative research between university and industry that may lead to potential IP generation and the Indian academic set-up expects multitasking by its faculty members. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is an original contribution, based on the study carried out by the authors to understand the awareness of IP activities among Indian academics.
 
Purpose – This paper aims to cross-culturally compare how consumers in China and Australia adopt cloud computing services. Cloud computing is one of the major innovation advances in information technology. In order for more consumers to adopt cloud computing as a technological innovation, there needs to be a better understanding of the issues involved in consumer adoption processes for online retailers. While there is an increasing amount of interest in cloud computing as a technological innovation, there is an important need to examine the reasons why consumers purchase cloud computing services for online retailers. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, the technology acceptance model and social cognitive theory are identified as the theoretical frameworks to understand the consumer purchase intention of cloud computing services. A set of research hypotheses are stated from both theoretical frameworks to test their relationship with a consumer’s intention to adopt cloud computing as a technological innovation. These hypotheses focus on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, online behavioural advertising knowledge, social networks and online privacy concerns, which will help online retailers understand how cloud computing can be utilized by consumers to store and access online retail information. Findings – The findings of the study outline the different areas of technological innovation research that are needed to advance the information technology industry in the future. The findings suggest that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and online privacy concerns can determine a consumer’s intention to adopt cloud computing, but online behavioural advertising knowledge and social networks differ among consumers in different countries. Originality/value – The key issues influencing consumer adoption of cloud computing are outlined, which due to the emerging nature of this technological innovation will influence the regulation and marketing of cloud computing services by firms and governments in the technology sector.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the enabling factors and the customers’ acceptance of ride-hailing in Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopt some constructs from the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) 2 as the framework for the study to derive factors that influence the acceptance of ride-hailing in Indonesia. Samples through a convenience sampling method were collected from an online survey and were transformed into data through coding and subsequently processed using SPSS for descriptive analysis, reliability test, correlation and multiple regression analysis for hypothesis testing. Findings Ride-hailing started in 2015 in Indonesia. Five enabling factors make digital ride-hailing possible, the internet, smartphone, broadband wireless network, digital map and global positioning system. The authors found that performance expectancy, social influence and habit positively influence customers to accept ride-hailing in Indonesia. Research limitations/implications Although this research has a small sample, it is still relevant to understand people’s acceptance to the ride-hailing platform. As a ride-hailing platform is now transformed to a multisided markets platform, adoption studies or other studies on each market to cover the whole picture of the platform influence to the society, and its contribution to the national economy will be very interesting. The authors’ future research will cover various services covered by ride-hailing companies. Originality/value This study proposes and argues that four main enabling factors make digital ride-hailing a viable business. The study contributes to three significant factors that influence the acceptance of ride-hailing in Indonesia.
 
Purpose This study aims to investigate the factors influencing the adoption of cloud accounting (CA) in Oman’s small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The research model is developed based on relationships between technology, organisational and environmental contexts. Design/methodology/approach This study used a questionnaire to collect data from a sample of SMEs in Oman’s information and communication sector. In total, 300 enterprises were selected, and the questionnaire was distributed to the executives. The questionnaires valid for analysis were 159. The collected data were analysed using structural equation modelling through analysis of a moment structures software. Findings This study tested seven factors, namely, support from top management, firm size, infrastructure (technology readiness), security and privacy, compatibility, competitive pressure and relative advantage. The results revealed that compatibility has a significant impact on the adoption of CA. Practical implications This study suggests the mangers in SMEs should play a more decisive role in identification of technological, organisational and environmental factors that affect the success of implementing CA in a comprehensive model. Originality/value This study constitutes a management strategy that helps the enterprises in light of limited economic resources and concerns about the use of cloud services to make the appropriate decision in adopting CA.
 
Purpose Joint research is pointed out by the literature as a potentially virtuous cooperation scheme to generate learning in the public sphere and beneficial effects in society. The purpose of this study, based on the Argentine experience in the COVID-19 pandemic, is to analyze the network of capacities, relationships and effects generated, over time, by a series of projects financed by the State in 2010, to clarify the link between learning effects and social effects. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative methodology focused on the multiple case study method was used. Each case covers joint R&D projects financed 10 years ago by the state that subsequently led to different solutions for COVID-19. Findings The work identifies a public learning process that integrates both industry’s contributions and the intellectual dimension of economic benefits and their translation into specific capabilities; conceptualizes the capacities accumulation process as a multiplier of social effects (direct and indirect) that emerge as knowledge is reused; identifies the articulation between different schemes as a condition for learning effects and social effects to manifest over time. Originality/value An aspect not studied in the literature is addressed, the relationship between the learning process induced by joint research, in terms of capabilities, and the social effects specifically generated over time. This is taking place in a context, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, where calls from the scientific and academic community to promote science–industry cooperation are multiplying.
 
2018 Emerald Literati Awards for Excellence: Highly Commended Award Winning Paper Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the best course of action for policymakers in China when dealing with the implementation of best practices for the internet of things (IoT). The recently introduced Internet Plus strategy is an attempt by Chinese policymakers to boost the Chinese economy by diminishing its reliance on manufacturing and export in favor of a knowledge-based economy driven by services and the tech sector. The IoT is arguably one of the key drivers behind this transformation. Design/methodology/approach: This paper conducts an analysis of existing literature on the IoT and uses two complimentary theories, resource-based view and dynamic capabilities theory, to determine a set of policy recommendations. Findings: A cooperative relationship between policymakers, start-up firms and academia is essential to the success of the IoT. The artificial intelligence industry also plays a key role in the development of the IoT and requires strategic funding and favorable policy. Finally, established and cost-effective standards and practices are much more likely to be effective than new and costly alternatives. Originality/value: This paper examines the newly established field of the IoT and sets out a number of policy recommendations needed for its success. To achieve this, the author uses two complimentary theories unique to the business management field but increasingly compatible with the Chinese public policy sector.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to estimate and extract various significant technology push (TP) strategies influencing sustainable development in Indian manufacturing industries. The study critically examines the effectiveness of TP strategies in manufacturing enterprises. Design/methodology/approach An extensive survey of 92 companies has been executed to identify improvements made by TP strategies to achieve sustainable development in manufacturing industries. The companies in the survey include medium− and large−scale manufacturing enterprises. The correlations between various TP strategies and sustainable development indicators are evaluated and validated using various numerical methods and tools. Findings The focus of the paper is on the distinguishable contributions made by TP strategies such as innovative capability; research and development; corporate strategy; and export orientation toward achieving sustainable development. The inter−relationships between different TP practices with sustainable development indicators have been evaluated to efficiently manage the objectives of growth and sustainability. The research concludes that two TP strategies, namely, corporate strategy and innovative capability, are found to be substantial in the present context. These strategies have emerged as a foundation for several development initiatives and actively support manufacturing industries in accomplishing sustainable development. however, enterprises need to work more actively on improving less significant issues of TP. Research limitations/implications In the present investigation, contributions made by TP practices have been evaluated to accomplish sustainable development in Indian manufacturing industries. Hence, the results obtained may need some modifications before applying to other countries. Moreover, issue−wise independent modeling can also be performed to assess the importance of TP strategies under specific orientations. Practical implications The research gives priority to enhancement in the planning among various TP practices and sustainable development indicators in the industries to impart TP as an important practice to meet various challenges of competent markets worldwide. Social implications It has been exhibited from the observations that adequate TP strategies can efficiently contribute toward recognition of sustainable development to compete in the highly progressive global market. The results of various inter−relationships among TP practices and sustainable development indicators represent the effectiveness of TP practices for accomplishment of social and organizational objectives. Originality/value It has been investigated in the present study that TP practices are significant initiatives taken by the manufacturing industries for performance improvement and sustainable development. The paper elaborates the study to find out TP issues that need to be assessed significantly to avail the advantages of sustainable development and to meet the challenges posed by global market. The inter−relationships among TP strategies and sustainable development indicators have been analyzed using various statistical tools and techniques, such as inter−item covariance test; Pearson’s correlation analysis; multiple regression analysis; analytic hierarchy process and canonical correlation analysis.
 
Purpose Agility is an important characteristic that every organisation requires in today’s competitive digital era. Telecommunications companies in Indonesia face various types of competition, both from the same industry and new models. This study aims to identify the agility level of telecommunications companies in Indonesia. It also examines the effect of leadership style directly and indirectly through the mediation of employee readiness, innovation culture, technology capability and organisational structure. Design/methodology/approach This study used a non-probability sampling technique. The macroprocess was used to identify and measure the direct and indirect effects. The results are based on survey data collected from a telecommunications company in Indonesia with a total of 1,073 employees. Findings The results of this study showed that an adaptive leadership style has a direct and significant positive effect on the organisational agility level. Employee readiness, innovation culture, technological capability and organisational structure function as mediators between adaptive leadership style and agility. Practical implications This study could contribute to the development of programs to ignite and boost organisational agility. Organisations are recommended to conduct periodic evaluations to measure agility levels and amend their programs accordingly. Originality/value Adaptive leadership style was used, which expresses the leader’s deep concern for employee needs and organisational achievement. This leader will most likely positively impact employees and favourably influence the organisation (technology, structure, innovation and agility).
 
Purpose This paper aims to examine whether foreign technology acquisition is complementary to internal technology development in the context of a developing country. Design/methodology/approach The selection model developed by Heckman (1979) was applied with the balanced panel data of manufacturing enterprises from the Annual Enterprise and Technology Surveys from 2012 to 2016 conducted by the Vietnamese General Statistics Organization. Findings The results indicate that foreign technology acquisition and internal technology development are complementary innovation options. Particularly, the number of patents granted for manufacturing enterprises positively affects the probability that enterprises acquire foreign technologies. This effect is stronger in cases of high-tech industries than in cases of low-tech industries. Research limitations/implications Regarding the relationship between internal technology development and foreign technology acquisition, the findings suggest that adoption of foreign technology acquisition and priority in budget allocation for foreign technology acquisition are different in nature and that budget allocation is a more complex issue and may depend on other factors. Practical implications For developing countries, governments should adopt policies supporting domestic enterprises in acquiring technologies from advanced countries that could complement the locally developed technologies. These supports should focus on the high-tech or high-innovation rate industries. Originality/value In the context of a developing economy, the complementary effect of internal technology development and foreign technology acquisition is stronger in cases of the high-tech industries than in cases of the low-tech industries.
 
Data analysis process
Emerging ICT adoption process
Purpose While traditional theories of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption have been deployed to study ICT adoption in the past, these theories considers ICT adoption as static and rely on conceptualising factors as variables and predicting their levels of outcome at a single decision stage. Although much has been credited to these theories, they have continuously ignored the fact that as decisions to adopt are made and challenged along the adoption process, such decision can be influenced by the same, different or combination of factors at different stages of the adoption process. This paper aims to examine ICT adoption from a dynamic process perspective and to explore the key determinants and how these differ from one stage of the adoption process to another. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative method was adopted in this study. Both unstructured and semi-structured interviews were conducted in two separate stages using purposeful random sampling. Hybrid approach of thematic analysis was adopted in analysing the data. Findings This study develops a framework informed by actor network theory (ANT) concepts and finds that using ANT to examine the process of adoption helps to unveil the recursive nature of the process. The study reveals that the 14 determinants identified in this study influenced adoption at different stages. Factors such as ease of use, managerial time, customer focus and adoption influenced adoption at all the stages. This reveals that factors influencing ICT adoption are not static at one particular stage rather it may influence ICT adoption at different stages. Research limitations/implications Qualitative research is often subjective and interpretive in nature, and one of the limitations is the sample used in this research. Considering the small number of interviews carried out in this study, the generalisation of finding and the framework remains to be established across a wider population. Therefore, the factors presented could be limited considering that a number of practitioners that are involved in establishing emerging ICT are numerous. Therefore, other factors are prevailing to other industries or sectors that may provide scholars another way of examining these factors. Also, the framework demonstrates that it is a valuable analytical tool for researchers to examine how and why different actors including small and medium enterprise (SME) managers act around emerging ICT. Originality/value This study develops a framework that revealed the interactive and recursive nature of ICT adoption and the determinants influencing the process of ICT adoption at different stages thereby advancing ICT adoption research. The study challenges researchers to always consider ICT adoption as dynamic and unpredictable instead of one-off action as factors influencing its adoption are not static rather; they vary from one stage to another.
 
Purpose This paper aims to know the interest of leading small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of Y generation in Surabaya City using mobile commerce, identify the effort that has been done by the leading SMEs actors of Y generation in Surabaya City to expand its business network by using mobile commerce, and analyze the success rate of the use of mobile commerce to expand the business network of leading SMEs of Y generation in Surabaya City. Design/methodology/approach This research is designed using qualitative method. The research is directed more toward a research with phenomenological approach because the research also gives the description related to the phenomena in the field to the actor of SMEs and Disperdagin of Surabaya City. The researcher picks Surabaya City as the location by considering the following: the number of SMEs in the Surabaya city is greater than any other cities in East Java considering that Surabaya is the capital of East Java. The number of SMEs is 37,906 units; it means that Surabaya is a city with high economic activity and this place is also the largest trading city after Jakarta. Based on the number of SMEs mentioned above, in this research, only leading SMEs are taken amounted to 161 leading SMEs in the Surabaya City. Information or technological exchange and development are faster compared to other cities because most of the community living in this city uses information technology in running their business. Findings SME actors in Surabaya city have high interest in using m-commerce. In expanding the network, the SME actors use online media. The SME actors in Surabaya have successfully expanded the business network through online marketing by using m-commerce to overseas including Germany, France, South Korea and the UK. Effective model is needed for the policy in Surabaya city is Disperdagin has its own website to overshadow all SMEs in Surabaya City, and identify the role of Disperdagin to SME or vice versa, and clustering SMEs in Surabaya such as cluster of handicraft and Food and Beverage (MAMIN). Factors that are the advantages of using m-commerce are wider business network; increasing sales; adding resellers and buyers; smooth business transaction; development of product innovation, process and marketing; the facilities provided by the government; and easy to use m-commerce application. Originality/value This is one of few papers that study the interest of SMEs actor in using mobile commerce in effort to expand business network. The use of m-commerce will grow the business capability of SMEs, thus increasing the role of SMEs as the counterweight to the structure of the national economy. Therefore, the government policy related to the use of e-commerce and m-commerce is very important to be socialized to business actors, especially the SMEs.
 
Purpose This paper aims to find the pattern of interaction of political actors in situations of tenurial conflict in the watershed through a review of cases of social conflicts of plantation villages around Siak watershed 2009-2014. Design/methodology/approach In harmony with the Research Master Plan (RIP) of Riau University, the socio-political of Riau Malay society and the fundamental scientific pattern of Riau university, the development of the resources of area and waters and Malay culture, since 2001, the writer has conducted a study related to the issues of natural resources policy, especially oil palm in the era of regional autonomy and decentralization. This is in line with the umbrella of research developed by the University of Riau namely studying various aspects of natural resources (especially oil palm) and human resources of Watershed (DAS). The writer's review is; first, the dynamics of politics in relation to the issue of oil palm plantation policy in Riau. This study shows that there are many central policies when implemented at the local level including watersheds clashing with local interests such as forests and land ownership. Second, the writer has also reviewed the policy issues and problems of oil palm plantations in Riau watershed in 2000. This study shows there are many issues and problems formulated differently by different people. Findings Mapping and strategy are examined through the study of political strategies on oil palm plantations and use them to answer the following two questions: what kind of political model which can be used to manage the watershed conflict since regional autonomy is implemented. Economic factors are influential in mapping and management strategies for the emergence of tenurial conflicts in the Siak River Rivershed 2009-2014. The tenurial conflict management model of Siak rivershed, which is considered relevant, is a conflict-based model of cooperation with a partnership pattern between local government, watershed civil society and plantation business actors. The change of agrarian structure is directed to the effort to open the space for the accesibility of society in decision-making. Originality/value Some of these studies have not reached the tenurial conflicts in the watershed areas, especially Siak watershed. In fact, about 80 per cent of Riau province region consists of watershed. This becomes the originality and gap of this study with previous studies. This research was conducted further as an effort to synergize Riau's development policy with Riau University's research in harmony with RIP that was created and aimed to find the pattern of interaction of political actors in situations of tenurial conflict in Watershed through a review of cases of social conflicts of plantation around Siak watershed in 2009-2014.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of government intervention on a firm's innovation activities. Design/methodology/approach On the basis of previous literature, this paper proposes a framework to explain behavioral changes in the firm resulting from government interventions. Using propensity score matching technique, this research tries to estimate the effect of R&D subsidies on Iranian firms (small and medium-sized enterprises and large-sized firms). Findings This paper identified that R&D subsidies have a significant effect on the innovation process. Furthermore, investigations indicate that behavioral variables (innovation capabilities, collaboration agreements and risk-taking) have been partly changed in both SMEs and large firms after subsidizing. The analysis of innovation outputs showed that although R&D subsidies significantly increase the number of new products/services or patents (especially for SMEs), it could not increase the total sale of the firms. These results show that the effect of R&D subsidies has not interestingly covered all variables influencing innovation activities. Research limitations/implications The work used dynamic capability theory, transaction cost theory and behavioral theory of the firm to explain behavioral changes in the firm resulting from government interventions. Practical implications This paper proposes several policy concerns which can help the policymakers to stimulate the innovation support procedures in Iran. Social implications This paper provides insights for improved policymaking which in turn can aid boosting social welfare. Originality/value This paper re-conceptualized behavioral additionality based on firms’ behavioral theories and evaluated the effects of Iranian R&D subsidies on their measures.
 
Research conceptual model (modified from (Ammar and Ahmed, 2016))
Reliability tests
Guttman split half
Purpose This paper aims to examine the determinant factors that influence the adoption of mobile banking by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Palestine. The aim of this paper has supported with the objectives to identify the role of mobile banking practices in enhancing sustainable growth and development of Palestine SMEs; determining the factors that influencing the SMEs as a service and products providers’ intention to adopt mobile banking and proposing a conceptual model for adoption mobile banking development by SMEs sectors in Palestine Design/methodology/approach Hypotheses were developed guided by the technology organisation-environment (TOE) model. The primary data was collected from 408 SMEs in Palestine using questionnaires and 8 interviews. Findings The empirical results are based on partial least squares analysis and statistical package for the social sciences. The findings presented in this paper reveal that SMEs factors, enabling environment and business model are the main determinant factors affecting the intention to adopt mobile banking by the SMEs sector in Palestine. Practical implications The main contribution of this study is the concise identification of the obstacles and facilitators to SMEs’ mobile banking, especially in developing countries. A suggestion for further study was made. The findings could be useful to policymakers, government institutions and agencies especially in Palestine and other development partners in designing and directing their policy intervention. Originality/value This study contributes significantly to the theoretical understanding of mobile banking through the development of a mobile banking framework for the SMEs’ sector in Palestine. A major contribution of this study is to the existing knowledge and literature in mobile banking by developing a TOE framework for providers (supply-side) factors in general and in particular in Palestine to fill the gaps in past studies.
 
Purpose Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council could significantly increase the production of scientific articles in the field by imposing ten-year incentive policies so that Iran ranked 7 in this area in the year 2015. But this progress was insufficient to speed up the production and commercialization of nanotechnology products and Iran ranked 44 with a share of 0.03 per cent of nanotechnology production in the world. Therefore, Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council as a governmental policymaker institution in this area has sought for the policy threefold increase of funding to speed up the production and commercialization of products in this field. But given that the result was not so clear, this research was formed in the form of modeling Iran Nanotechnology Innovation Network and testing various scenarios to increase its efficiency. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses simulation framework of innovation networks (SKIN) in an attempt to model the production innovation network in Iran in the field of nanotechnology that can measure the effect of incentive policies in changing the network structure and, consequently, increasing the level and pace of innovation in it. Given that the volume of articles produced in Iranian universities in the field of Nanotechnology had a high speed and volume in comparison with the volume of technical knowledge produced by companies, and because the SKIN framework did not consider the distinction between the two, in the first step, the framework is developed using the model of absorptive capacity of knowledge provided by Cohen and Levinthal (1990) and then the developed model was used to model the Innovation Network. Findings Finally, two policies of threefold increase of budget (Scenario 1) and increasing the support for joint projects (with maintaining the current budget level) (Scenario 2) were tested in this model. The social network analysis method was used to analyze the results of the two scenarios, where innovation network topology was compared (as an index to measure the network efficiency) in three states of current status of the network (the baseline scenario), implementing the first and second scenarios of extraction and with each other. Originality/value This paper models Iranian Nanotechnology Innovation Network for studying the evolution of the network as a result of executing different supportive scenarios.
 
Purpose – This study aims to develop adoption barriers model that captures location factors and non-transparency in government support programs, and attempted to unveil why certain locations offer more adoption opportunities than others. Design/methodology/approach – The opinions of small and medium enterprise (SME) owners/managers in the six geo-political zones of Nigeria were purposefully sampled. Two major cities (the commercial nerve center and a state capital) in each zone were chosen for the study and the data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Findings – Irrespective of the need to enhance operations through real-time knowledge sharing and network externalities; evidence from the study shows that SMEs in Nigeria are yet to exploit the full potentials of e-commerce solutions. This is evidenced by non-transparency in government support programs, location factors, weak finances, firm’s size, confidentiality of information, infrastructural inadequacy and lack openness and business integration. Research limitations/implications – Sampling the opinions of SMEs in Nigeria limits the power of generalization. Therefore, extended data and measures are required to replicate the study to improve external validity and reliability, and possibly build theories. Also, some errors seem unavoidable in the course of converting data just as all the measures used appear subjective and prone to common method bias. Originality/value – Though e-commerce adoption draw-backs enjoy huge literature, location factors and non-transparency in government support programs as critical inhibitors seem least studied. Therefore, this paper complements literature, stimulates future research and advises policymakers on promulgating, and real implementation of, appropriate policy frameworks to create information, communication, technology (ICT)-friendly environment within which e-commerce diffuse amongst SMEs.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to adopt mobile commerce (m-commerce) by integrating the constructs of Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM 3), Universal Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 and Technology-Organization-Environment model. Though numerous m-commerce adoption (MCA) studies have been conducted, lesser attention is paid to how hedonic motivation (HM) can influence organizational users such as SMEs. This study bridges the gap by integrating the three models to provide a new lens to guide SMEs. Design/methodology/approach To examine the factors that influence the adoption of m-commerce, the researchers collected data from SMEs in Malaysia using an online survey. The sample size of the participants was determined through the available list provided by SME Corp Malaysia. The researchers also used Krejcie and Morgan’s sample size and G * Power techniques to determine that the sample size was appropriate. The data collected were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling. Findings The findings of this study reveal that technological factors (computer self-efficacy [ CSE ], result demonstrability [ RD ] and computer anxiety [ CA ]) positively and significantly influence MCA . Likewise, the organizational/environmental factors (m-commerce knowledge, pressure from trading partners and pressure from competitors) positively and significantly influence MCA . The moderating influence of HM was also achieved on the relationship between CSE and RD . However, the proposed hedonic moderating relationship between CA and the adoption of m-commerce is not significant. Research limitations/implications This study integrates three models to explain the adoption of m-commerce among SMEs in Malaysia and tested the moderating influence of HM. The results obtained better explain the decision by the SMEs to use m-commerce. Originality/value The study critically considered how m-commerce can be adopted by SMEs in Malaysia, which previous studies have largely ignored. Considering this, the study, therefore, advances a new relationship by integrating Technology-organization-environment model with TAM 3 and the moderating influence of HM to explain MCA among SMEs. This paper is one of the few research studies to test the moderating influence of HM in this regard.
 
Purpose This study aims to investigate the actual usage (AU) of digital payment systems by the consumers during the period of demonetization (from November 9, 2016 to December 30, 2016) in India. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual frame work for this study is based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT 2) and innovation resistance theory. A total of 766 sample respondents were surveyed using a pre-tested questionnaire. The empirical validation of the framework and analysis was done using partial least squares (PLS)-structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Findings The results suggest that the behavioral intention (BI) to use and innovation resistance (IR) affect the usage of digital payment systems. The relation between BI to use digital payment systems and the AU of digital payment systems is moderated by the stickiness to cash payments. Research limitations/implications This cross-sectional study is limited by geographic constraints and highlights the AU of digital payment systems by using the UTAUT 2 and IR theory only during the demonetization period. Practical implications This study offers valuable insights to the economists, policymakers and digital payment service providers regarding the usage of digital payment systems by consumers during demonetization. Originality/value This study assumes importance as it empirically examines the influence of BI and IR on the AU of digital payment systems during the demonetization period in India. This study empirically validates the moderating influence of stickiness to cash payments on the AU of digital payment systems.
 
The research model 
Results of hypotheses testing 
Purpose This study aims to investigate the applicability of technology acceptance model in explaining technology adoption among street vendors in Thailand as a representation of emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach A pen-and-pencil survey was administered to 370 street vendors in Bangkok; 356 usable surveys were analyzed for a completed rate of 96.2 per cent. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Findings This study contributes to the existing technology acceptance literature as follows: First, the predictive power of the technology acceptance model is strong and holds true for street vendors. Second, it revealed that the relationship of entrepreneurial orientation and technology adoption is completely connected through the decision-making process (i.e. trust and system characteristics, otherwise known as usefulness and ease of use). Finally, the degree of product differentiation strengthens the positive relationship between perceived usefulness and the intention to use mobile commerce. Originality/value This study advances the previous research on e-commerce adoption in settings outside the formal sector. More specifically, this study developed and validated the extended technology acceptance model in the smallest-scale of entrepreneurs, street vendors, to increase the understanding of the adoption of m-commerce.
 
Purpose Despite the substantial research in the domain of electronic procurement adoption, usage and performance (EP AUP), there is no structured review of these studies and most of the literature is in fragmented form. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate and synthesize EP AUP research in the past two decades and map key research approaches, prevailing theories and antecedents used by researchers to study EP AUP at the individual user and organizational level. Design/methodology/approach To evaluate and comprehend past and current patterns/themes in the EP AUP research area, a systematic literature review is undertaken. Significant peer-reviewed studies covering three categories – adoption, usage and performance and seven classification criteria are critically reviewed. Findings The findings reveal that most investigators mainly used “technology acceptance model,” “technology–organization–environment” framework and their extensions, demonstrating that “perceived ease of use,” “perceived usefulness,” “trust,” “organizational size,” “organizational readiness” and “behavioral intentions” are the most critical drivers of EP AUP. Research limitations/implications For researchers and practitioners, the review highlights a taxonomy of contextual factors to be considered for successful EP AUP. It further makes suggestions for future research meeting challenges of Industry-4.0. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic literature review undertaken in the field of EP that studies it from three different perspectives. It further builds on the determinants of EP AUP and classifies them in four distinct categories: organizational, individual, information system level and environmental.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop a model to understand the relationships among technology, organizational and environmental (TOE) contexts, intention to adopt cloud computing (IACC) and actual usage of cloud computing (AUCC) in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia as a developing country. More specifically, this paper seeks to explore the mediation effect of IACC on the relationship between TOE context and AUCC. Design/methodology/approach A positivist research approach was selected for this study. Drawing largely upon the TOE framework, this study uses survey data from 209 Malaysian SMEs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) based on partial least squares (PLS) was used to assess the structural relations of the research model. Findings The results of the structural model show that data security, technology readiness, top management support, competitive pressure and innovativeness are the most significant factors in predicting the adoption of cloud computing in Malaysian SMEs. Further, the results indicate that intention to adopt cloud computing can play a mediating role between TOE factors and the actual usage of cloud computing. Research limitations/implications The focus upon Malaysian SMEs may diminish the generalizability of the findings. This study provides profound insight into the management and foundation of cloud computing, different types of cloud services and deployment models that could facilitate the management of enterprise strategic resources and contribute to the performance improvement. This study also provides another important implication for practitioners regarding the absolute necessity of value drivers’ identification within enterprise and understand the causal relationships, which are vital in driving those values. Practical implications This study provides several practical guidance for practitioners in deploying cloud services which are most suitable option for their specific technology requirement in their enterprise to enjoy the full benefits of their intangible assets. Another significant implication of this study lies in the fact that it may require a different emphasis on nature and adoption design when there is a higher level of stress on technology-related and cloud computing resources. Originality/value This study contributes to the extant literature by developing an integrative model to identify how a wide set of contextual factors can determine the intention to adopt cloud computing and, in turn, influence the actual usage of cloud computing in SMEs in Malaysia as a developing country.
 
A framework of mobile marketing technology adoption in SMEs
Purpose The popularity and use of mobile marketing technologies or devices have led to significant interest from researchers and practitioners, particularly in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), where these technologies offer significant benefits to SMEs given the poor human capital and financial constraints encountered. The use of mobile marketing devices assists SMEs to boost their sales promotion strategies which aim at increasing the sales of their products and services. However, there has been limited focus on developing a suitable framework that enables the evaluation and shared an understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of mobile marketing technology by service SMEs in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a theoretically grounded framework for exploring these factors and explaining their impact on mobile marketing technology adoption in SMEs in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach The study is qualitative and used both unstructured and semi-structured interviews with a total of 26 participants drawn purposively from NIJA database in Nigeria. Thematic analysis was deployed in analysing the data. Findings The study developed an extended technology organisation environment (TOE) framework by incorporating the value anticipation context which helped to unveil 16 key factors influencing mobile marketing technology adoption in service SMEs in Nigeria. The finding revealed that factors associated with the extended TOE framework have an impact on SMEs mobile le marketing technology adoption but at different levels. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this study emerged because of the use of qualitative methodologies about the research design, rigour in the collection and management of the large volume of the raw data, the data analysis and the credibility of the findings. This may lead to unforeseen respondent and research bias in the data analysis, which may lead to a limited understanding of alternatives and insights into the factors influencing the adoption of mobile marketing. Hence, other measures and approaches such as case study and mix-method could be deployed to validate the findings further. Also, one of the limitations of qualitative study has been the issue of theoretical generalizability of the framework. The generalizability of the formwork needs to be established across a broader range of the population. Future studies may apply confirmatory statistical techniques to test and ascertain the validity and reliability of the framework across a broader population of mobile marketing technology adopters in Nigeria. Such studies may be used as a benchmark for the theoretical constructs and the factors that may lead to the success or failure of mobile marketing technology adoption. Originality/value The study had further enriched TOE framework and provided an analytical dimension for exploring the adoption of mobile marketing technology. It also demonstrates the capacity to provide a reliable explanation of the factors and serves as a tool for evaluating the benefits or challenges of mobile marketing technology adoption in SMEs in Nigeria.
 
Purpose This study aims to identify the critical factors that can explain the intention of customers to adopt mobile banking services (MBSs) in an emerging country like India. Further, this study analyzes the difference in mobile banking adoption between males and females. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a self-structured questionnaire to collect data on a sample of 143 respondents. On the contrary, qualitative research was conducted to test the reliability of results from the past literature by a hypothetical study. Findings This study identified four components, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, compatibility and perceived risk, using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, significantly influencing the intention to adopt MBS in India. However, the Chi-square test reflected a negligible percentage difference in MBS among males and females. Research limitations/implications The findings of this study have significant implications for both bankers and practitioners, as they can redesign their strategies by incorporating the parameters suggested in the study for better market penetration in the mobile banking industry. Originality/value This paper provides visions into factors influencing the behavior of banking users toward adopting new technology in an emerging country like India. This study adds to the past literature by exploring the difference in the percentage of mobile banking usage based on gender.
 
Electronic-payment gateway architecture
Proposed e-payment system adoption model
Results of SEM tests of study model
Purpose Electronic payment (e-payment) systems literature analysis reveals that they are growing in developing countries; however, they are limited in the Arab countries and, more importantly, scarce in Iraq in particular. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the factors influencing the intention of users to use e-payment systems in Iraq. Additionally, this study proposes an e-payment adoption model based on technology usage models to identify user trends toward e-payment systems. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach is adopted to test the proposed model. The proposed model is based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology theory. The proposed model is validated using survey data from 339 e-payment system users. Using Amos software, this study used structural equation modeling (SEM), a statistical technique for analyzing factor relationships. Findings The findings of the study indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and price saving orientation influence Intention to accept the e-payment system. Similarly, habit, technology security, trust, innovation resistance, psychological empowerment also affect intention to accept an e-payment system. However, hedonic motivation and perceived risk do not affect e-payment system adoption. Originality/value The identified factors play a major role in user intentions toward the adoption of e-payment systems for financial transactions and addressing these factors will make e-payment acceptable in the future. The results of this study contribute to assisting governments or e-payment firms and decision-makers in building strategic decisions or policies that will increase the adoption of e-payment by individuals.
 
Purpose Cashless payment is gradually replacing physical currency in almost every financial transaction across the world. Even though cashless payment methods have been available in Malaysia since a decade ago, their usage has remained relatively low in comparison to other countries. This study aims to analyse the elements that affect the Malaysian youth’s adoption intention and actual use of cashless payment by extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model with two key factors (perceived security [PS] and lifestyle compatibility [LC]). Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered online from 364 Malaysian youths and processed using partial least squares structural equation modelling. Findings The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE), LC and PS had a positive and substantial effect on the intention to use cashless payment (ICP). In contrast, effort expectancy (EE) and social influence did not have any considerable influence on ICP. Furthermore, ICP had substantial mediating effects between the adoption of cashless payment (ACP) and PE, LC and PS. In the analysis of the moderating effect of age, gender, experience and voluntariness, only experience had moderating effects on the associations between PE and ICP and between FC and ACP. Research limitations/implications This study’s findings will be highly useful for marketers and the management as they plan their promotional and marketing tactics, with a focus on the factors that inspire customers to adopt cashless payments. Besides, architects and designers can benefit from the study results while designing and updating their services by consolidating consumers’ lifestyle standards as well as enhancing security features. Finally, governments may support service providers with security building through legislative measures and policy campaigns to strengthen the trustworthiness and mass adoption of contactless payment. Originality/value This study extended the UTAUT model with two new variables, i.e. PS and LC.
 
Top-cited authors
Miltiadis D. Lytras
  • Effat University
Anna Visvizi
  • SGH Warsaw School of Economics | Deree College | Effat University
Hart O. Awa
  • University of Port Harcourt
Artemis Psaltoglou
  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Christina Kakderi
  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki