The Meyerhoff Scholarship Program (MSP) is widely recognized for its comprehensive approach of integrating students into the science community. The supports provided by the program aim to develop students, primarily Blacks, into scientists by offering them academic, social, and professional opportunities to achieve their academic and career goals. The current study allowed for a rich understanding of the perceptions of current Meyerhoff students and Meyerhoff alumni about how the program works. Three groups of MSP students were included in the study: 1) new Meyerhoff students participating in Summer Bridge (n=45), 2) currently enrolled Meyerhoff students (n=92), and 3) graduates of the MSP who were currently enrolled in STEM graduate studies or had completed an advanced STEM degree (n=19). Students described the importance of several key aspects of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program: financial support, the Summer Bridge Program, formation of Meyerhoff identity, belonging to the Meyerhoff family, and developing networks - all of which serve to integrate students both academically and socially.
This study investigated the knowledge gains and attitude shifts attributable to a unique online science education game, Uncommon Scents. The game was developed to teach middle school students about the biological consequences of exposure to toxic chemicals in an environmental science context, as well as the risks associated with abusing these chemicals as inhalants. Middle school students (n = 444) grades six through eight participated in the study consisting of a pre-test, three game-play sessions, and a delayed post-test. After playing the game, students demonstrated significant gains in science content knowledge, with game usability ratings emerging as the strongest predictor of post-test content knowledge scores. The intervention also resulted in a shift to more negative attitudes toward inhalants, with the most negative shift occurring among eighth grade students and post-test knowledge gains as the strongest predictor of attitude change across all grade levels. These findings suggest that the environmental science approach used in Uncommon Scents is an efficacious strategy for delivering both basic science content and influencing perceived harm relating to the inhalation of toxic chemicals from common household products.
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction
with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer
attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan
Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental
group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students’ entry-level physics academic achievement, science
process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly
higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer
attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic
achievement and science process skills.
TheEarth Day: Forest Watch Program at the University of New Hampshire utilizes morphological and anatomical measurements made on branch and needle samples from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), collected by K-12 students throughout New Hampshire and Maine. White pine is considered to be a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure. A University research project which monitors the response of white pine to elevated levels of tropospheric ozone has been developed by the authors, who incorporate student-made measurements such as needle length, occurrence of diagnostic foliar symptoms, needle retention, and cellular levels of damage, into an on-going project which characterizes conifer response to a variety of air pollutants. The research team compares classroom measurements with laboratory spectral reflectance measurements made on student-collected branch samples, and infers state-of-health conditions in white pine from the two-state area. These state-of-health data are, in turn, compared with State-monitored tropospheric ozone measurements on a yearly basis, resulting in change-over-time analysis of both regional ozone levels and relative levels of tree health. Based on the work to data (1991–1996), student-derived data have been found to correlate well with spectral parameters and with spatial patterns of summer ozone levels, suggesting that student measurements represent an accurate and reliable source of data for research scientists. Specific examples of student datasets and comparisons with reflectance data and how these can be used for Landsat data verification are presented, along with a discussion of the importance of being able to assess the accuracy of student data. Research scientists need to recognize the tremendous potential for access to reliable data represented by student data-collection programs such asEarth Day:Forest Watch.
This paper summarizes activities and perspectives from the Center for Innovative Learning Technologies' annual conference in 2000. The theme of the conference was technology and equity, seeking to promote collaborative discourse and deeper understanding of the complex challenges and opportunities of improving quality of learning for all students.
Computing is anticipated to have an increasingly expansive impact on the sciences overall, becoming the third, crucial component
of a “golden triangle” that includes mathematics and experimental and theoretical science. However, even more true with computing
than with math and science, we are not preparing our students for this new reality. It is appropriate and compelling therefore
to consider how computer science can be fundamentally integrated into science education. This study is a ten-year review (1998–2008)
of the Journal of Science Education and Technology, with the following research questions in mind: What are the intersections at the K-16 level between science and computing?
What do K-16 science educators already know about the newly emerged field, computational science?
This paper reviews the historical and current response of the United States to threats to its world leadership in scientific endeavors, with particular attention to the National Defense Education Act of 1958. The current status of the United States in mathematics, science, and engineering education is reviewed with respect to K-12 student achievement, K-12 teacher quality, numbers of degrees granted, and other indicators of international competitiveness. Concluding that we are a nation in peril, recommendations are made to enhance the likelihood that the United States will retain its preeminent position in science and technology and, therefore, provide for the national defense and economic wellbeing of citizens in an information age and global economy.
The purpose of this study was to identify the major science education programs in the United States, where the science education
researchers published their research. This research is the first study of the scholarly productivity of science education
programs at domestic institutions of higher education. Each issue of the eight research journals (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Science Teacher Education, School Science and Mathematics, Journal of Computers in Math and Science Teaching, Journal of Science Education and Technology, and Journal of Elementary Science Education) published in the 1990s provided the author(s) and their institutional affiliation. The resultant ranking of raw and weighted
counts for the top 30 science educations programs shows variation in journals where research was published. Overall, regardless
whether the total number of publications (raw) or weighted rating there was 90% agreement among top 10 and 70% agreement among
the bottom 10. Potential explanations for variations and uses for rankings are discussed.
Since 1999, MIT has undertaken an extensive effort in creating and implementing educational technology. Broadly speaking,
there have been two kinds of efforts: developing web-based services for higher education and creating educational technology
applications for use in the classroom. This article reviews a group of projects that produced educational technology applications
for use in the classroom or for classroom-based activities and were assessed by educational researchers in the Teaching and
Learning Laboratory (TLL). From those in depth studies, as well as less extensive involvement with a half dozen more initiatives,
we draw three major findings on the role and impact of educational technologies as they were developed and used at MIT over
6years: (1) the most successful educational technologies meet a specific instructional need that has been unmet or poorly
met by traditional media; (2) too much technology or technology that does not work well can be detrimental; and (3) there
are important relationships between the technologies and the learning environments in which they operate.
Paul F-Brandwein was a visionary who looked at education broadly. He left us with an insightful view of the ecology of education in which he identified three ecological systems: school–family–community, postsecondary, and cultural. The first part of this lecture, by Dean B. Bennett, examines Brandwein's ideas related to environmental education and explores the relationship of environmental education with science teaching in the K-12 school–family–community ecosystem. Focusing particularly on the middle-secondary level, evidence suggests that the goals of environmental education, since their emergence in the late 1960s, are today strongly evident in science curricula, instructional resources, educational assessment, and teacher education. But the author points out that more must be done and provides some fundamental suggestions. The second part of the lecture, by Sheila K. Bennett, examines the role of distance education in the teaching of science in the postsecondary ecosystem and addresses its value as a viable tool in promoting scientific literacy. The lecture focuses on a successful statewide, interdisciplinary laboratory science course delivered by interactive television, the Internet, and computer network. Now in its ninth year, the course reflects Brandwein's thinking about effective classroom teaching and is based on national standards for scientific literacy.
Recent education reform initiatives (“No Child Left Behind Act,” “Goals 2000”) emphasize raising student achievement and increasing the size of the highly trained science and technology workforce in the United States. These sentiments were reiterated recently by former Secretary of Education, Paige (2004) in his opening address at the Secretary’s Summit on Science Education in Washington, DC when he said “there is no doubt that our nation’s embrace of science has contributed to our nation’s greatness. Our future leadership in science, however, is not assured. While some of our young people receive a world-class education in science—and indeed in all subjects—many others are being left behind.” A critical shortage in the future number of available scientists and engineers is a pressing issue. According to Altschuld (2003), a leading medical scientist, “science and mathematics education in the US is failing to produce an adequate number of American scientists. Foreign postdoctoral fellows and students who typically remain in the US and become permanent residents and citizens increasingly populate US research laboratories. Were these foreign scientists to return home upon completion of their training, we would be facing a severe shortage of well-trained research personnel in US laboratories” (2003, p. 635). Addressing this shortfall is a national priority. National science education standards describe science instruction that focuses on students using the
Attitudinal data tested hypotheses that students have more positive attitudes toward science when
teachers regularly emphasize hands-on laboratory activities and when students more frequently
experience higher levels of experimentation or inquiry. The first predicted that students would have
more positive attitudes toward science in classrooms where teachers regularly emphasized hands-on
laboratory activities. The second predicted that students more frequently experiencing a higher level of
experimentation or inquiry would have more positive attitudes. Data from a student attitude
questionnaire measuring three attitudinal factors were analyzed using descriptive and inferential
statistics. Both hypotheses were partially supported. Analysis of individual student data showed more positive attitudes in hands-on classrooms on all
three factors at the .01 level of confidence while data based on class averages offered opposing
differences. More challenging, open-ended experimentation and inquiry experiences produced more
positive student attitudes. This was especially true when students were provided frequent opportunities
to generate independent hypotheses and draw their own conclusions. Many variables influence an
educational environment, so discussion is therefore provided on how future studies might be conducted
to achieve more meaningful results.
As I look back at K-12 science education in post-World War II America, it strikes me that surprisingly little progress has
been made. This disappointing outcome cannot be due to a lack of effort, for in the last half-century our investment in science
education reform—human and financial—has been substantial. In this essay, I focus first on some of our failures (as I see
them) of the last 50 years, and speculate on why we were not more successful. With that in mind, I then propose a reform agenda
for the next 50 years.
In today’s world, scientific literacy has become essential to full participation of citizens. Certainly, important components
of scientific literacy include resource use and environmental quality. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment
(PISA) centered on scientific literacy and included resources and environments as two contexts for the test and student questionnaire.
The article first introduces PISA 2006, and then provides a general overview of results. Using two released units from PISA
2006, I then turn to results and a discussion of students’ science competencies and attitudes relative to environmental and
resources issues. The article concludes with a discussion of educational policies for science education programs and teaching
This paper explores Paul Brandwein’s contribution to the concept of conservation education in America. It examines the evolution
of the concept to today’s environmental education. It then identifies some of the weaknesses of current environmental education
and presents ideas on how to move past them to a point where conservation education is integrated into every classroom discipline,
which brings conservation closer to Brandwein’s concept of conservation education to create a sanative environment. The paper
looks at place-based learning as a step in that direction, giving several examples. It concludes with the 24 scientifically
based conservation concepts compiled by the Society for Conservation Biology that can serve as curriculum for the 21st Century
Lynne Cherry Brandwein Lecture March 2010 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Conference, Philadelphia, PA. Young
Voices on Climate Change: Inspired and Empowered Youth Tackle Climate Science and Find Climate Solutions. As a child, Lynne
Cherry was profoundly connected to the natural world and a special place. She watched the destruction of her world. Now, through
her Young Voices on Climate Change project, she is trying to give teachers and young people the tools to prevent planetary
meltdown on a greater scale. Global climate change is upon us and the need for education and action is immediate. Outreach,
visual storytelling, and scientific understanding are especially necessary in light of the recent polls that show that the
public is becoming more confused and less concerned about climate change. Cherry’s climate book, co-authored with photojournalist
Gary Braasch, and her Young Voices on Climate Change films feature climate solutions. They’re about win–win—save the environment,
protect human health, reduce global warming gases, demonstrate youth making a difference with practical tools, motivate engagement
in climate science, take pride in increased science literacy, reach young people through their hearts as well as their minds,
and save money. Although young people can help their parents, peers and communities understand climate science, they can also
show them that reducing CO2 is in their economic interest, and spur them to take action. School carbon reduction initiatives are spilling over into communities
yielding measurable results in both global warming gas reductions and significant monetary savings.
KeywordsClimate change–Global warming–Climate science–Climate solutions–Climate education
Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science is a long-term initiative for systemic reform of K-12 education in science, mathematics, and technology. The project was named after the next return of Halley's comet to envision a future where all Americans are science literate. To fulfill this vision, Project 2061 is developing a coordinated set of reform tools for educators to use in achieving the goals of science literacy.
Despite decades of precollege science education programs, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans remain critically
underrepresented in science and health professions. This report describes college and career outcomes among graduates of the
Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP), a 5-week summer residential program for low-income high school students among
whom 97% have been followed for up to 21years. Approximately 24 students are selected annually, with participation limited
to low-income students who have faced substantial personal hardships. Undergraduate and medical students provide key program
leadership and training. The curriculum is based on science inquiry education and includes hospital internships, anatomy practicums,
research projects, faculty lectures, college admissions/standardized test preparation, and long-term college and career guidance.
A total of 476 high school students participated between 1988 and 2008, with 61% from underrepresented ethnic minority groups.
Overall, 78% of African American, 81% of Latino, and 82% of Native American participants have earned a 4-year college degree
(among those admitted to college, and excluding those currently attending college). In contrast, among 25–34-year old California
adults, 16% of African Americans, 8% of Latinos, and 10% of Native Americans earn a 4-year college degree. Among SMYSP’s 4-year
college graduates, 47% are attending or have completed medical or graduate school, and 43% are working as or training to become
health professionals. SMYSP offers a model that expands inquiry-based science education beyond the classroom, and recognizes
the role of universities as “high school interventionists” to help diversify health professions.
The paper outlines the significant influence of constructivism in contemporary science and mathematics education and emphasizes the central role that epistemology plays in constructivist theory and practice. It is claimed that constructivism is basically a variant of old-style empiricist epistemology, which had its origins in Aristotle's individualist and sense-based theory of knowledge. There are well-known problems with empiricism from which constructivism appears unable to dissociate itself.
Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand
the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and
related to weightlessness on science student teachers’ learning. The sample of the study was 9 volunteer student teachers
who were in their first grade in Science Teaching Program in Fatih Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University. Both
qualitative and quantitative data were gathered to find answers to the research questions. Findings revealed that all physics
textbooks reviewed gave gravitational definition of weight. Also the concept of weightlessness hasn’t been covered in high
school and some university textbooks. It was determined that before the implementation student teachers had non-scientific
explanations about weightlessness. The implementation of the 5E teaching model and materials developed are effective on learning
the weightlessness. It is suggested that similar applications can also be used in other physics subjects or in other fields
KeywordsConstructivist learning theory-Student teacher-5E teaching model-Weightlessness
The database for the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS:88), compiled by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), was examined for connections between student use of computers in math and science classes and their academic success. Data were studied from the surveys carried out in the base year in 1988, first follow-up 2 years later, and second follow-up 2 years after that. Composite variables from the three datasets were examined for their connections to socioeconomic status, parent's level of education, respondent's race, and respondent's gender. Race was the only one of these four factors that was not found to correlate to the amount of computer use in schools. Values for the Item Response Theory (IRT) scores and gains in those IRT scores between subsequent follow-ups were examined with respect to average computer use in math and science classes. It was found that gains in IRT scores could be positively correlated to the amount and type of computer use in science and math classes.