Journal of Research on Technology in Education

Online ISSN: 1945-0818
Print ISSN: 1539-1523
This study investigated whether providing students with the choice of chat versus threaded discussion boards for online discourse is an effective instructional strategy in terms of student learning and satisfaction. The sample was teacher education students enrolled in face-to-face (FTF) and online sections of one undergraduate foundations course. Both sections required participation in online text-based discussion. Comparison groups included course format (FTF vs. online), discussion format (chat vs. discussion board) and discussion format option (choice vs. no choice). Results reveal that students' choice of discussion format was influenced by the trait of academic introversion-extraversion but not by the instructional environment (FTF or online) in which they enrolled. In addition, providing the choice of discussion format to students enhanced course satisfaction and, while some differences were found in cognitive achievement, the results were weak. (Contains 4 figures and 6 tables.)
This study investigated social studies achievement as a result of utilizing a multimedia-based American history software program (Ignite Early American History, 2003) to augment textbook and lecture materials for seventh-grade middle school history students in an ethnically and linguistically diverse urban school district. The instructional software used was an interactive multimedia program designed to teach middle school students through video, song, animation, text, and other media to develop critical thinking skills while acquiring knowledge of required content strands (Ignite Learning, 2003). Teacher and student activities, pretest and posttest scores, and instructional methods for experimental and control conditions were documented in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the results. (Contains 2 tables.)
Despite the growing popularity of robotics competitions such as FIRST LEGO League, robotics activities are typically not found in regular K-12 classrooms. We speculate that, among other reasons, limited adoption is due to the lack of empirical evidence demonstrating the effect of robotics activities on curricular goals. This paper presents a mixed methods study exploring the impact of a summer robotics camp on middle school students' physics content knowledge and scientific inquiry skills. It was found that the camp enhanced students' physics content knowledge but failed to improve their skills in conducting scientific inquiry. Qualitative data provided an explanation of the findings.
Course materials and technologies most helpful for the treatment group students
Student responses to the question "Did the course provide a good learning experience?"
Student confidence in their algebra and technology skills
Student enrollment in K-12 online learning programs showed a tenfold expansion in the years between 2002 and 2005. Despite increased implementation to fulfill critical local needs, there is very little evidence-based research available to inform education leaders' decisions relating to these initiatives. To address the important question of whether online learning can be as effective as traditional face-to-face learning, this research presents the findings from a quasi-experimental design implemented to examine the effect of the Louisiana Algebra I Online initiative on student outcomes. The findings presented suggest that the Louisiana Algebra I Online model is a viable online model for providing effective Algebra I instruction. (Contains 9 tables and 1 footnote.)
Writing an evidence-based explanation.
The magnifying glass.  
The pre-test and post-test.
A graphical representation of students' performance on the three tests in sequence from dyad 1 to dyad 9.  
In this study, we discuss the scaffolded design of ODRES (Observe, Discuss, and Reason with Evidence in Science), a computer tool that was designed to be used with elementary school children in science, and report on the effects of learning with ODRES on students' conceptual understandings about light, color, and vision. Succinctly, dyads of sixth-grade students were engaged in distributed collaborative inquiry regarding the scientific concepts of light, vision, and color in order to solve a mystery problem about a stolen diamond. ODRES was employed to scaffold students' collaborative inquiry with different tools, such as the simulator that simulates the effects of the color of a light source on an object, the magnifying glass that enables students to make careful observations, and the notebook that organizes the results of students' investigations. Students performed two cycles of collaborative inquiry, and each cycle was followed by a classroom discussion where students could present their solutions, share information, reflect, raise questions, and get feedback about their proposed solutions. The results showed that learning with ODRES positively affected students' understandings and promoted a lasting effect on their conceptions. Moreover, the results provide useful guidance about how ODRES can be used as a learning tool in collaborative inquiry, and explain the role of discussion and investigation of inquiry processes at the level of a distributed cognitive system. Implications for designing distributed educational systems for children are finally discussed. (Contains 5 figures and 3 tables.)
This research study assessed the effects of an information technology initiative on undergraduates at a Western Pennsylvania college. A random sample of alumni from the classes of 1997, 1998, and 2000 were surveyed to gauge their attitudes about a technology program instituted in 1994, which provided laptop computers to all incoming freshman. The results indicated that not only was there a positive change in attitudes after the program was initiated, but digital divides based on sex and field of study were diminished during the students' time on campus. Interestingly, parts of the divide reappear after graduation, by field of study.
The validity and reliability of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to measure the extent to which teachers can teach with technology, hinges on the ability to aggregate results across empirical studies. We synthesized mean difference effect sizes resulting from university classroom studies, which used a survey of preservice teacher knowledge of teaching with technology (TKTT) using confidence intervals (CIs). We then characterized the mean effect sizes for the influence of classroom instruction on preservice teacher TPACK by graphing CIs across studies from 2009 until 2011. The results present approximations of TPACK population parameters as well as implications for researchers and teacher educators.
The article documents a two-year interpretive case study of fourth through sixth grade students engaged in a problem-based telecollaboration exchange between classrooms in Laramie, Wyoming, and Monteverde, Costa Rica. Problem-based learning was viewed in concert with a constructivist perspective to guide examination of global issues. The investigation of participants in sites that were separated by nation, language, and culture informed a framework for problem-based learning collectively across international boundaries. Issues of access to computer mediated technology in a world context and the importance of an agreed upon language of communication were also examined.
This paper covers an experiment designed to investigate the relationship between the didactical setting and learning effects with animations. We investigated whether the cognitive load imposed by animations could be reduced when the students could control the flow of the animation. We did not find an effect due to the fact that the students did not actively use this feature to take more control of the presentation. Further, by applying differentiated knowledge measures, we investigated if the characteristics of the acquired knowledge were related to the characteristics of the multimedia presentation. We found that media do not influence knowledge acquisition homogeneously. The multimedia effects found in this study are in line with known principles of didactical multimedia design. This study sheds light on some theoretical aspects involved in the complex interaction between learning content, presentation, learning, and resulting knowledge. (Contains 5 tables.)
Two versions of a Web site on the United States Constitution were used by students in separate high school history classes to solve problems that emerged from four constitutional scenarios. One site contained embedded conceptual scaffolding devices in the form of textual annotations; the other did not. The results of our study demonstrated the situational importance of the annotations as well as the need for instructional Web designers to make their design intentions transparent. A holistic approach to examining annotational content is recommended in which teachers and designers consider how Web-based annotational content might function in instructional settings. An initial topology is also proposed for the annotations on the Web site used in this study.
Despite three decades of advances in information and communications technology (ICT) and a generation of research on cognition and new pedagogical strategies, the field of assessment has not progressed much beyond paper-and-pencil item-based tests. Research has shown these instruments are not valid measures of sophisticated intellectual performances. Simply using technology to deliver automated versions of item-based tests does not realize the full power of ICT to innovate in assessment via providing rich experiences that enable observing and analyzing student performances. To illustrate this approach, we describe our early research on using immersive technologies to develop virtual performance assessments. (Contains 7 figures.)
An instrument was administered to a sample of educators in two suburban school districts in the Midwestern United States. The purpose was to gauge the attitudes toward electronic grade book systems, and to ascertain the relationship between attitude and chronological age, years of teaching experience, years of computer experience, and gender. The study also compared the attitudes of teachers with those of administrators.
This study investigates whether gender has an effect on students' attitudes toward, and their uses of, technology. Data were collected from 59 sixth grade students to examine their attitudes toward and uses of technology by means of The Computer Survey (TCS), computer logs, interviews, classroom observations, field notes, and student work. One of the major findings of the study was that gender differences in attitudes, perceptions, and uses of computers were not found to be significant. The results of this study indicate that gender does affect students' attitudes toward technology for the participants of this study. The majority of females do not perceive computers as being difficult for themselves, other females, or males. However, several males indicated they were better at using the computer than females. (Contains 5 tables.)
The last several decades have been marked by tremendous changes in education - technological, pedagogical, administrative, and social. These changes have led to considerable increments in the budgets devoted to professional development for teachers ~ with the express purpose of helping them accommodate their practices to the new realities oftheir classrooms. However, research has suggested that, in spite of the emphasis placed on encouraging sustained change in teaching practices, little has been accomplished. This begs the question of what ought to be done to not only reverse this outcome, but contribute to transformational change. The literature suggests some possibilities including: a) considering teachers as learners and applying what, is known about cognition and learning; b) modifying the location and nature ofprofessional development so that it is authentic, based in the classroom and focusing on tasks meaningful to the teacher; c) attending to the infrastructure underlying professional development; and d) ensuring opportunities for reflective practice. This dissertation looks at the impact of each ofthese variables through an analysis ofthe learning journeys of a group ofteachers engaged in a program called GrassRoots in one midsized school board in Ontario. Action research was conducted by the researcher in his role as consultant facilitating teacher professional growth around the use of Web sites as culminating performance tasks by students. Research focused on the pedagogical approach to the learning of the teachers involved and the infrastructure underlying their learning. Using grounded theory, a model for professional development was developed that can be used in the future to inform practices and, hopefully, lead to sustained transformational school change.
What do teachers learn about their teaching when their students engage in curriculum-based online learning projects? This qualitative study explores beliefs about on-the-job, profession-related learning - or "authentic professional development" - among eight teachers whose students participated in educational projects hosted by five well-established programs: The Electronic Emissary, iEARN, KidLink, ThinkQuest, and ThinkQuest Jr. Telecomputing alone does not change teachers' teaching styles. Instead, teachers who are innovative, inquiry based, and student centered may find telecomputing to be a useful tool for helping their students become more confident, self-directed learners.
Although computers arc now commonplace within our lives, integration within schools is much less ordinary. While access and training are no longer considered significant barriers, attention has turned to the potential influence of teachers’ beliefs. In response, problem-based learning (PBL) has been proposed as an effective approach for changing beliefs. This study investigated the impact of PBL on preservice teachers’ beliefs regarding technology use and on their intended teaching practices. Participants included 48 preservice teachers enrolled in a one-credit educational technology course. Results sho wed that beliefs regarding technology use did not change significantly. However, participants significantly shifted their intended teaching practices from teacher-directed to student-centered learning. Implications for practice are discussed.
As a result of the growth of virtual schools across the United States, K-12 school courses and diplomas are increasingly offered, either completely or partly, at a distance. In light of this increase, it is apparent that there will be demand for teachers who are prepared to teach from a distance and a complementary need for local counselors. The U.S. Department of Education agreed that the creation of a model for incorporating virtual schooling in preservice teacher education programs accompanied by appropriate assessment of the effect for a range of competencies would be a significant innovation. This article describes the planned model led by Iowa State University and the evaluation designed to establish its effectiveness, including dissemination through a national community of practice. For example, evaluation of the competence of counselors, who will be prepared to mentor K-12 students learning from a distant teacher, moves from a formative approach into scientifically-based research with experimental and control groups. In addition, instruments to measure institutional adoption include a modified version of the CBAM instrument developed by Christensen and longitudinal surveys of preservice student teachers and graduates.
This study examined relationships between students' perceptions of course-related interaction and their course satisfaction within the learner-centered paradigm in distance education. A Students' Perceived Interaction Survey (SPIS) instrument was developed to examine nine separate hypotheses about the nature of course-related interaction. A volunteer sample of 855 students from the 949 students enrolled in Computer Science 103--Computer Literacy and Applications at Iowa State University in the fall of 2005 was used. This study employed a multiple linear regression. It concluded that student-instructor personal interaction, student-student personal interaction, and student-content interaction, along with students' perceptions of WebCT features and gender were predictors of course satisfaction. In this study 94% of the participants indicated they were satisfied with the course. No significance was found in the relationships between student satisfaction and student-teaching assistant (TA) personal interaction, the student's prior partial online distance education experience, the student's prior entirely online distance education experience, and academic year. (Contains 4 tables.)
This study examines students' use of technology for learning (accessing the course Web site to download PowerPoint slides for note taking and exam preparation) relative to more traditional learning methods (reading the textbook and taking notes in class and from the textbook) and the effect of their learning strategies on exam performance and class attendance. Students who were categorized as high on use of technology and low on traditional learning methods or low on technology and high on traditional learning methods exhibited higher attendance and performance than those students categorized as high or low on both technology and traditional learning methods. Results suggest that there is more than one path for optimal exam performance. (Contains 7 tables.)
Virtual environments are able to extend the space of interaction beyond the classroom. In order to analyze how distributed cognition functions in such an extended space, we suggest focusing on the architecture of intersubjectivity. The Euroland project--a virtual land created and populated by seven classrooms supported by a team of researchers--was analyzed with the aim of tracking down the process and the structure of intersubjectivity. Participants were located in different cities in two countries--Italy and the Netherlands. At the end of the project, the initial empty virtual world was filled with virtual artifacts borne from the intersubjective process. A group of ten 13-year-old students was observed throughout the project. Seven videotapes were collected in the classroom. By analyzing the videotapes, a set of episodes revealing intersubjectivity was captured and discussed. Intersubjectivity first concerned only participants and tools located in the classroom. Later, partners at a distance and the various communication tools available entered the architecture of intersubjectivity. Finally, intersubjectivity revealed not only information, but the reciprocal perception of the roles and awareness of a joint project. From the episode analysis, recommendations for teachers' use of virtual technology were drawn. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
displays the number of messages posted within each cohort for each session of the course. Throughout the course, the average number of messages per person for each cohort was: 38.9, 40.3, 37.6, and 44.6. An informal analysis showed that the large majority of the messages were directly relevant to the course content.
The study investigated whether online professional development courses with different levels of support have different impacts on teacher outcomes. Variations of an online course for middle school algebra teachers were created for four experimental conditions. One was a highly supported condition, with a math education instructor, an online facilitator, and asynchronous peer interactions among participants available as participants worked through the course together. Another was a self-paced condition, in which none of the supports were available. The other two conditions provided intermediate levels of support. All conditions showed significant impact on teachers' mathematical understanding, pedagogical beliefs, and instructional practices. Surprisingly, the positive outcomes were comparable across all four conditions. Further research is needed to determine whether this fending is limited to self-selected teachers, the specifics of this online course, or other factors that limit generalizability. (Contains 8 tables.)
Thirty-seven graduate students in two course sections were required to contribute to the online discussion of an instructional design case study. The discussion forums required different participation protocols; students in section one implemented a constructive argumentation approach while students in section two had less structure for their postings. The results revealed that both sections exhibited co-construction of knowledge as measured using the content analysis protocol the Interaction Analysis Model (IAM), but the less structured section reached the highest phase of knowledge building. In addition we found that the constructive argumentation approach and the task-oriented nature of the discussion influenced the interactions and co-construction of knowledge. The findings reveal practical implications for effective design of online discussion that may improve the quality of learning.
Data gathered from 10,000 Texas public school students in Grades 3-12 over the years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2005 were analyzed to replicate findings first discovered as a byproduct of evaluation of a large scale U.S. Department of Education Technology Innovation Challenge Grant. Initial findings were that girls in Grades 4 and 5 reported enjoying computers more than boys. Detailed trend analyses determined that although boys and girls begin first grade with few or no differences in attitudes toward computers (Collis, Knezek, Lai, Miyashita, Pelgrum, Plomp, & Sakamoto, 1996), by Grades 4 and 5, girls are more positive in their enjoyment. Starting about Grade 6, girls' self-reported perception of computers begins to become less positive than boys, and by Grade 8 becomes significantly lower than boys. Attitudes may become similar again by the end of secondary school. The authors suggest further study is needed to determine if this phenomenon exists in many locations, and if it does, why it takes place.
Maine was the first state to put laptops in the hands of an entire grade of students. This interpretive case study of two middle school science-math teachers was driven by the general question: Given ubiquitous computing, how do teachers use computers in constructing curriculum and delivering instruction? Specifically, the researchers sought to examine the facilitators and barriers for teachers in using laptops in the classroom. Using qualitative methods, the researchers collected data during the first year of the Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI). Differential effects of one-to-one computing on each teacher were found along two dimensions: the effect of technical technological issues, and the educational effect of technology policies. For both teachers, the effects were deeply altered by the teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning, which in turn affected their ultimate choices of how their time (and their students' time) was spent. This empirical study offers a preliminary analysis and can be used both as a reflective mirror for practitioners and as a guide for administrators and teacher educators.
This study investigates how inservice teachers constructed new knowledge, the extent of knowledge construction achieved, and how instructors participated in and facilitated the online discussion to affect knowledge construction. One finding is that most inservice teachers seemed to favor discussion activities at the stage of knowledge confirmation rather than knowledge construction. Another finding is that some facilitation approaches used by the instructors when serving as both facilitator and co-participant were particularly helpful for enhancing knowledge construction. However, neither student-perceived learning nor satisfaction with instructor roles and facilitative strategies significantly differ between the two classes involved. (Contains 4 tables.)
This paper investigates the questions and considerations that should be discussed by administrators, faculty, and support staff when designing, developing and offering a hybrid (part online, part face-to-face) degree program. Using two Web questionnaires, data were gathered from nine instructors and approximately 450 students to evaluate student and instructor perceptions and opinions of hybrid instruction and activities. In comparison to prior research, the results of this study offer larger and more significant policy and programmatic implications for degrees based on the hybrid format, including instructional technology training and support for students and instructors, creation of common class procedures and expectations, and development of consistent schedules that maximize benefit and flexibility for students and instructors. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)
Treatment Conditions in 2x2 Factorial Design 
Treatment Group Scores on the Technology Integration knowledge, Skill, and Self-efficacy Assessment Pre-survey and Post-survey 
This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question prompts as independent variables and students' perceptions of their competencies and self-efficacy for technology integration as dependent variables. While three of the four conditions showed significant increases in perceptions of knowledge and skills, ANOVA results showed no significant differences among treatments. It is speculated that additional conditions may have distracted students from the content/message of the teacher models highlighted on VisionQuest. (Contains 2 tables and 1 footnote.)
This paper reports a three-year study of Praxis Inquiry based developments in teacher education undertaken by an international consortium of university colleagues who have worked in Australia, Iceland, Latvia, and the United Kingdom. Our study suggests that the attainment of inclusive community responsive pedagogies--in schools and in teacher education programs--is situated in the public/personal dialectic between the transformation of individual values, world views, ethics and practice, and the sociocultural and structural factors that mediate equity, access, and opportunity in educational systems. (Contains 2 figures, 1 table and 9 footnotes.)
This paper investigates the use of online technologies to extend the learning of a group of junior secondary school students after attending a Sun, Science, and Society camp. The students were of mixed ages and came from metropolitan and rural schools. Their teachers described them as students of high ability or students interested in science who required extension work. These students were engaged in online learning for a period of 6 months after the camp. This paper reports on how they engaged with the extended and open learning supported by online technologies. (Contains 2 tables and 1 footnote.)
Digital fabrication consists of manufacturing design technology that is used to facilitate the creation of physical objects. Existing research suggests digital fabrication technology can inspire student creativity and innovation in mathematics and science. However, there is a lack of research that informs teacher education by identifying practical pedagogies to meaningfully integrate digital fabrication into language arts curricula, which this article seeks to achieve. Guided by the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework of 21st century teacher knowledge, this case study explores one middle school teacher’s yearlong journey as she integrated digital fabrication technology to create pop-up books in an afterschool program with a language arts focus.
This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics of students. MANOVA analyses of pretest, posttest, attitudinal, and attendance data revealed no significant difference between approaches on achievement. A main effect was found for self-regulation level and achievement, as well as for goal orientation and class preparation/attendance. Other findings are that students in the operant conditioning group were significantly more likely to be anxious when using SRS but were more motivated to prepare for and attend class than the metacognitive group. Finally, type of pedagogy and self-regulation level also interacted significantly on the achievement measure, with highly self-regulated students in the metacognitive group outperforming students with low self-regulatory skills. (Contains 5 tables.)
Current conception of the relationship between technological and pedagogical content knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2009.)  
Conception of the relationship between technological and pedagogical content knowledge based on Shulman's original PCK framework.  
In the education community, the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework has become a popular construct for examining the types of teacher knowledge needed to achieve technology integration. In accordance with Katz and Raths’s ’Goldilocks Principlen’ (cited in Kagan, 1990), TPACK, with its seven knowledge domains, may be too large (vague or ambiguous) of a construct to enable reasonable application. In this article, we provide a critical review of the TPACK construct and address the development, verification, usefulness, application, and appropriateness of TPACK as a way to explain the teacher cognition needed for effective technology integration. We make suggestions for returning to a simpler conceptualization to refocus our efforts on what teachers need to achieve meaningful technology-enabled learning.
Instructor persona in online discussion may set the tone for a variety of course outcomes. Instructors establish persona via both presence (amount of instructor posts) and position (interaction relative to those in the student role). In this paper, three online classes were studied using positioning theory as a grounding framework to elicit ways in which instructors self-position as well as how their students position them, and the relative impact of these positions along with presence levels on persona development. Findings demonstrate that both instructor activity levels and use of performative position statements likely impact student expectations, and that students are unlikely to engage in instructor positioning that falls outside the standard definition of the traditional instructor role unless doing so has been modeled by the instructor him/herself. (Contains 4 tables.)
This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and instructional tasks, and information overload. Effective online learning requires interdependence for a shared understanding of learning goals in a learning community. Monitoring student participation and patterns of participation closely can help instructors identify student needs and scaffold learning accordingly. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based environment offers promise in accommodating individual differences in terms of learning style. In addition, the significant positive effect of the VR (guided exploration) mode--which provides additional navigational aids over the VR (non-guided exploration) mode--which does not provide additional navigational aids--also implies the importance of providing VR-based learning environments with proper instructional design to achieve the desired educational outcomes. (Contains 5 figures and 8 tables.)
Maine was the first state to put laptops in the hands of an entire grade of students. This interpretive case study of two middle school science-math teachers was driven by the general question: Given ubiquitous computing, how do teachers use computers in constructing curriculum and delivering instruction? Specifically, the researchers sought to examine the facilitators and barriers for teachers in using laptops in the classroom. Using qualitative methods, the researchers collected data during the first year of the Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI). Differential effects of one-to-one computing on each teacher were found along two dimensions: the effect of technical technological issues, and the educational effect of technology policies. For both teachers, the effects were deeply altered by the teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning, which in turn affected their ultimate choices of how their time (and their students’ time) was spent. This empirical study offers a preliminary analysis and can be used both as a reflective mirror for practitioners and as a guide for administrators and teacher educators.
We launched a technology professional development initiative in a school district with the goal of extending technology use in the classroom beyond being a mere teaching tool. For teachers to teach expertly, we wanted them to “be the technology” by modeling technology use in the classroom, applying technology across the curriculum, applying technology to problem solving and decision making in authentic learning environments, and applying technology to facilitate collaboration and cooperation among learners. To implement this technology initiative, we established a set of technology standards and indicators to describe best practices for expert teaching and student learning using technology. We hypothesized that teachers would experience several stages as they developed into expert technology integrators and that we could evaluate this technology initiative by tracking their progress through these stages. We formulated and validated a developmental model for technology integration, the Technology Integration Standards Configuration Matrix (TISCM), based on the stages, standards, and indicators of our technology professional development initiative, as a tool for use in the evaluation of technology integration among the teachers in the school district.
Emergency remote teaching has been widely implemented in the education system worldwide to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing upon data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in eight middle schools in eastern China (a sample size of 1,550 students and 1,550 parents), we employed multiple linear regressions with school fixed effects to examine the associations among student affective engagement, parental involvement, and teacher support in an emergency remote teaching environment. Our results show that higher levels of parental involvement and teacher support are associated with higher levels of student affective engagement with teacher support presenting the strongest relationship with student engagement. These findings contribute to the understanding of emergency remote teaching in different countries where schools and individual households devise varying strategies and solutions.
The Covid-19 outbreak has brought the whole world to a standstill, forcing schools and universities to move online immediately. The abrupt change has led to a general fear of a drop in the quality of education due to the loss of physical interaction. Against this background, the present study describes how we managed the crisis by adapting a conventional flipped course to a fully online flipped course, using the community of inquiry conceptual framework. The quantitative analyses reveal that online flipped course participants performed as well as their counterparts in the conventional flipped learning format, and that students’ interest levels remained constantly high throughout the online flipped classes. The qualitative analyses of the students’ survey and interview data suggest five key factors that promote their engagement in the online flipped classes. The findings of this study provide practical guidelines for instructors who are interested in the online flipped classroom approach.
School closures during the COVID-19 pandemic presented a threat to student learning and motivation. Suspension of achievement testing created a barrier to understanding the extent of this threat. Leveraging data from a mathematics learning software as a substitute assessment, we found that students had lower engagement with the software during the pandemic, but students who did engage had increased performance. Students also experienced changes in motivation: lowered mathematics expectancy, but also lower emotional cost for mathematics. Results illustrate the potential and pitfalls of using educational technology data in lieu of traditional assessments and draw attention to access and motivation during at-home schooling.
Due to COVID-19, the primary teaching method has changed from traditional face-to-face teaching to online teaching. The present study explored the correlates between two personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, and two types of self-efficacy, Internet self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, on practical performance anxiety. Data from 273 technical college students were collected. Structural equation modeling analysis was performed. Results show that Neuroticism and Extraversion can predict students’ practical performance anxiety through Internet and academic self-efficacy. Moreover, Neuroticism can negatively predict Internet and academic self-efficacy. Extraversion can positively predict Internet and academic self-efficacy. The two types of self-efficacy can positively predict practical performance anxiety. According to the results, it seems necessary to reduce students’ practical performance anxiety by paying attention to their personality features and their self-efficacy.
As the COVID-19 pandemic began, universities swiftly moved to remote teaching, posing challenges to students and instructors alike. This case study discusses how a distributed team approach was used to support instructors teaching four sections of a technology class for preservice teachers. Students struggled with stress, technology, and in some instances, meeting basic needs as the pandemic began. Starting with a common syllabus and assignments, the instructors and their mentor swiftly redesigned the course to be flexible and engaging without compromising academics. Collaborative course development and teaching helped minimize pedagogical and technological tasks so instructors could focus on meeting the unique needs of students in their course sections. This approach may be useful for promoting professional development and maximizing student engagement in non-pandemic times, too.
This case study examines how a cohort of eleven induction secondary STEM teachers engaged learners during the onset of COVID-19 and their designs for student engagement given an online or blended teaching context in fall 2020. Participants attended a summer professional development workshop guided by trauma-informed teaching practices and learner engagement conceptual frameworks. Through the analysis of teacher artifacts and interviews, we identified dimensions of student engagement that teachers prioritized. Results indicate a marked increase in teachers’ attention to affective and social dimensions of learner engagement. We argue that teacher awareness and action in the affective domain of student engagement is critical during times of trauma.
Due to social distancing mandates during COVID-19 pandemic, school-based staff no longer shared physical spaces, necessitating resilience and resourcefulness in recruitment of unique models to engage school community (Baker et al., 2021 Baker, C. N., Peele, H., Daniels, M., Saybe, M., Whalen, K., Overstreet, S., & The New Orleans, T. I. S. L. C. (2021). The experience of COVID-19 and its impact on teachers’ mental Health, coping, and teaching. School Psychology Review, 50(4), 491–504.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; Brown, 2021 Brown, T. (2021). The response to COVID-19: Occupational resilience and the resilience of daily occupations in action. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 68(2), 103–105.[PubMed] , [Google Scholar]). In a northeastern public elementary school, related service and classroom staff sustained engagement remotely through a novel yearlong interprofessional initiative known as “Breakfast Club.” Objective of this research was to explore, via phenomenological approach, lived experiences of three educators and two therapists who participated in the yearlong interprofessional initiative. Upon qualitative thematic analysis, five themes emerged: (1) Technological Literacy (2) Consistency (3) Role-Blurring (4) Social-Emotional Benefits (5) Challenges/Advantages of Scheduling. Findings of this study support an intentional approach to sustained tele-therapeutic interprofessional efforts for school-based educational teams.
This study used multiple regression to identify predictors of middle school students' Web 2.0 activities out of school, a construct composed of 15 technology activities. Three middle schools participated, where sixth- and seventh-grade students completed a questionnaire. Independent predictor variables included three demographic and five computer use variables and three interaction examinations. A regression model, accounting for 25% of the variance, revealed student's ethnicity, access to technologies at home, in-school technological activities, and the school a child attends, predicted students' Web 2.0 activities out of school. Ethnicity-based (but no gender-based) technology participation gaps existed in and out of school, with students of Hispanic ethnicity showing statistically lower use of Web 2.0 activities out of school. The interaction of the school attended and in-school Web 2.0 use was a strong predictor but revealed both significant positive and negative relationships in different schools. Educators and schools must become more aware of their students' technological experiences and access to optimize technological-focused learning experiences for students in and out of school. (Keywords: middle school, Web 2.0, social technologies, participatory culture, technology use in school, technology use out-of-school, multiple regression)
Research framework for preservice teachers’ intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (Taylor and Todd, 1995). 
Path analysis of factors that influence preservice teachers’ intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies in the classroom. (* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001) 
Preservice teachers' intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies in future classrooms.
This study investigated factors that predict preservice teachers’ intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies in their future classrooms. The researchers used a mixed-methods research design and collected qualitative interview data (n = 7) to triangulate quantitative survey data (n = 286). Results indicate that positive attitudes and perceptions of perceived usefulness are significant predictors of preservice teachers’ intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies. Additional findings indicate that preservice teachers intend to use blogs, wikis, and social networking in their future classrooms to improve student learning, student-student and student-teacher interaction, collaborative learning, student writing ability, and sharing content knowledge. Although preservice teachers intend to use Web 2.0 technologies due to these pedagogical benefits, they believe that successful use of Web 2.0 depends on the meaningful integration of these technologies with the subject being taught, learning goals, and age level of their students. This study has implications for teacher educators who are preparing preservice teachers to use Web 2.0 technologies in their classrooms.
This literature review examined empirical research conducted between 2004 and 2014 regarding 1:1 technologies in K–12 educational settings. Our overarching research question was: What does research tell us about 1:1 technology in K–12 classrooms? We used the constant-comparative method to analyze, code, and induce themes from 46 relevant articles. Findings showed that the studies selected for analyses primarily concentrated on the following themes: effects on student achievement, changes to the classroom environment, classroom uses, effects on learner motivation and engagement, and challenges to classroom integration. In this article, we define each of these themes, describe the implications of the use of technologies on a 1:1 basis in classrooms, and offer suggestions for future research. Download @
The purpose of this literature review is to examine data-based studies published on mobile learning in K–12 from 2007 to the present. In total, 63 studies from 15 refereed journals were selected for analysis. The findings are organized in four themes: (a) comparison studies, (b) nocomparison studies, (c) mobilized learning, and (d) academic content areas. The findings showed research was primarily exploratory in nature and focused on understanding the educational affordances of using mobile devices in instructional practices. Affordances examined in the studies were identified within the contexts of multiple academic disciplines. Additionally, trends were observed, and critical issues to consider for future research are discussed.
This research study examines preservice teachers’ experiences of learning through game design. In particular, we investigate how their perceptions of digital games have evolved through the process of designing and building their own educational games. We are also concerned with the knowledge and reasoning skills that preservice teachers incorporate into their games. Further, we investigate the 21st century skills involved in the game design and implementation process. In this case study, the participants are first-year students at a university in Western Canada enrolled in a secondary mathematics methods course. A total of 21 preservice teachers (10 males and 11 females) in the class participated, ranging from ages 20 to 45 years old. We collected three sets of data: open-ended pre- and post-surveys, games created by preservice teachers, and follow-up interviews with selected participants. The analysis of the data shows that the game-building experience impacted preservice teachers’ perceptions related to challenges, problems solving, and attitudes toward gaming and design. Further, their games demonstrated these preservice teachers’ fair understanding of pedagogical and cognitive components.
Traditional educational patterns are giving way to more innovative modes and methods of learning, primarily due to radical technological changes that have increased the availability of information and improved communication. In an attempt to address this shift toward 21st century skills and learning, a single school district began a large-scale, district-wide 3-year professional development study involving the implementation of technology, differentiated instruction, and assessment for learning upgrades and teacher inservicing. After 3 years, results suggest that significant changes did occur with respect to teachers’ knowledge and use of information and communication software, the purposes for communication, differentiated instruction and assessment practices, and levels of information and communication usage. In particular, the number of hours of professional development a teacher reported having undertaken was the most notable factor affecting levels of significance.
Top-cited authors
Michaela Gläser-Zikuda
  • Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Bärbel Kopp
  • Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Marion Händel
  • Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften Ansbach
Albert Ziegler
  • Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Melanie Stephan
  • Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg