Includes 14 papers which review and present new findings on reactions to art and the psychological processes which operate in aesthetic appreciation. Topics include verbal and exploratory responses to visual and auditory patterns varying in uncertainty level; the measurement of novelty, complexity, and interestingness; hedonic tone and reward value of exposure to paintings; and correlates of humor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reports findings from 2 studies of the teaching roles of college and university faculty members, the impact they have on students, and those variables of greatest relevance for improving instruction. Data from 1,000 faculty members at 6 colleges and their students are presented, including information on faculty attitudes, values, and activities; teaching practices; faculty accessibility; and qualities of student-teacher relationships. (31/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the dynamics of hypnosis and group processes, the techniques utilized, and the outcome of behavioristic learning and orthodox group theory on the problem of obesity. A 5-session course (21/2 hrs each session) was given to a group of overweight females and an overweight trainer. Topics discussed include aspects of group process which involve a benevolent authoritarian leadership style, limited interpersonal communication, and unconscious learning due to deep hypnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
George F. Root, Lowell Mason, and William B. Bradbury opened the New York Normal Musical Institute in April of 1853 in New York City. Each term lasted about three months and provided the first long-term preparation program for singing-school masters, church choir directors, private instructors, and school music teachers in the United States. Students at the institute studied pedagogy, voice culture, music theory, and choral literature and had the opportunity to take private lessons with prominent musicians and teachers. The Normal Musical Institute relocated to North Reading, Massachusetts, in 1856 and, in 1860, began meeting in various cities throughout the country. In 1872, the school became the National Normal Musical Institute and continued under this name until its final season in Elmira, New York, in 1885. This study was designed to examine the history of this institution in relation to its origin, details of operation, pedagogy and curriculum, prominent students and faculty, and influence on music education. Data included articles from music periodicals and newspapers, pamphlets and catalogs from the institution, biographies of prominent participants, and other primary and secondary sources.
This study investigated music education in the black community of Kansas City, Kansas, from 1905 to 1954. It examined the facilities, teachers, curriculum, activities, and students to determine if this history was worthy of recognition by mainstream music education. Public documents, including annual reports, courses of study, personnel records, grade reports, programs, and newspaper articles, were the main sources of information. Interviews and letters of former students, teachers, and administrators were used as supportive evidence. The study documents the respectable music education that developed in this black community by identifying the black music educators who possessed outstanding credentials, the curriculum, and the musical activities that resulted from their students' involvement. This study, which helps to fill a void in the documentation of blacks in music education, provides valuable historical data on a nonwhite group's music educational development.
In 1917 and 1918, Charles Hubert Farnsworth, a leading music educator from Teachers College, Columbia University, and David Snedden, a critic and educational theorist of national repute, privately exchanged views on the role of art and music in society and in education. Snedden mulled over Herbert Spencer's query “What knowledge is of most worth?” and concluded that music must have practical survival value: it must contribute primarily to the maintenance of social and political order and secondarily to other aims. Farnsworth, on the other hand, thought that music performance or appreciation should be for the immediate joy that it gives the individual, not for some deferred social purpose no matter how important it might be. These divergent positions are explained in light of Farnsworth's interests in philosophy and Snedden's schooling in Spencerian and Darwinian thought. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68979/2/10.2307_3345173.pdf
The Universal Teacher for Orchestra and Band Instruments (UT), a class method by Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings published by the Conn Musical Instrument Company in 1923, was the subject of this study. Research questions focused on (1) details surrounding the writing and publishing of the UT; (2) philosophical, psychological, and pedagogical principles behind the method; (3) the influence of the UT on class teaching and subsequent books; and (4) implications of this research for modern practice. Maddy and Giddings wrote the UT from 1920 to 1922 while teaching summer methods courses together at Chautauqua, New York, and at the University of Southern California. The authors designed the book to appeal to children by applying the song method from elementary vocal music to instrumental instruction. This pedagogy differed from previous instrumental methods in that instructional material consisted entirely of melodies rather than scales and exercises. The UT also employed a detailed, systematic series of procedures intended to maximize the use of class time, hold students accountable for their progress, and allow independent learning with as little teacher intervention as possible.
This study is the first investigation of the nine-year history of the National Solo and Ensemble Contests, held in the United States in conjunction with the National School Band and Orchestra Contests of the late 1920s and early to mid-1930s. Primary sources used include letters from those involved with the planning of the contests, meeting minutes from the responsible organization, and music journals from the early twentieth century. Dissertations and research articles pertaining to the National Band Contests are the secondary sources that helped corroborate the existence of the events described and provide foundational information. This research offers a picture of the interest in the Solo and Ensemble Contests and how they flourished during a time of substantial change in the philosophy of music contests. Changes in the rules and format of the Contests also are explored as they affected the establishment of solo and ensemble contests across America, many of which are still in existence today. This work adds to the previous research conducted about the National Band Contests by documenting a little-known but important element of the contest movement.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the institutional history and documentary evidence of the North American Band Directors’ Coordinating Committee (NABDCC) during the first decade of its existence, from 1960 through 1970. The NABDCC constituted a forum of national band, music industry, and related associations, including the American Bandmasters Association, College Band Directors National Association, and the National Association of Music Merchants, for examining mutual concerns critically and for fostering discussion with experts outside of the wind profession. The research questions addressed the development of the NABDCC, important events in its history, and the specific issues in music education examined by the committee. Important issues in instrumental music that were discussed by the NABDCC included the role of the band in the school curriculum, music advocacy, federal and state legislation, standards-based education, and the inclusion of new musical styles and ensembles. Various themes across these issues emerged from the study, including the difficulties of collaboration within a multifaceted representation of specific interests and the oscillating relationship between music educators and the music industry. The results of this study contribute to enhanced understanding of 1960s instrumental music education, with implications for the present.
This study examined the effects of teacher characteristics, school conditions, teacher efficacy, external support, and remuneration on music educators' risk for attrition and migration. Data from the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey--a comprehensive, nationally representative survey of teachers, principals, and schools conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics--were examined for 1,931 music teacher participants. Based on sequential logistic regression analysis, significant predictors included young age (less than 30 years; 30-39 years), teaching in a secondary or private school, extracurricular hours, schoolwide concerns, limited support from administrators and parents, lower salary, and dissatisfaction with salary. When not controlling for school conditions and teacher efficacy, female music teachers were more likely than males to be at greater risk, and minority teachers were more likely to be a high risk than nonminorities. No observed effects were found for older teachers, education, mentoring, and school location. Implications for music teacher retention policy are discussed. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)
Jere T. Humphreys is the recipient of the MENC 2006 Senior Researcher Award. The following speech was presented on April 20, 2006, at a special session of the Society for Research in Music Education at the National Biennial In-Service Conference of MENC: The National Association for Music Education, held in Salt Lake City, Utah.
This study was designed to replicate and extend existing literature by seeking to determine important factors and abilities that influence sightreading skill in music. The Watkins-Farnum Performance Scale (WFPS) was administered to 101 high school clarinet and trumpet students who were completing Australian Music Examinations Board (AMEB) performance examinations. Findings show that, in the beginning stages of training, sightreading skill is not significantly correlated with the ability to perform a repertoire of rehearsed music for a comprehensive performance examination as assessed on the AMEB examination. As instrumentalists mature, however, correlations between these two aspects of performance seem to strengthen markedly. Consistent with other studies, results show that rhythmic errors far outweigh all other types of errors. Differing strategies used by high-scoring and low-scoring subjects on the WFPS and by two groups of high school subjects in school years 7-9 and 10-12 were observed and discussed.
This study examined the effect of conductor academic task presentation, reinforcement, and student performance on attentiveness, achievement, and attitude of members of a university symphonic band. The band rehearsed five times under three treatment conditions: (A) conductor directions and student performance; (B) conductor academic task presentations, directions, and student performance; and (C) conductor academic task presentations, directions, student performance, and contingent conductor academic reinforcement.Student attentiveness was defined as the percentage of students overtly off-task. Music achievement was independently rated by a panel of expert judges on the basis of audiotape recordings. Student attitude was assessed by a five-question student survey.Results indicated attentiveness was a function of both performance time and treatment. All treatments resulted in gains for music achievement with Treatment B resulting in the smallest and Treatment C resulting in the largest gains. Student attitudes were significantly related to music, conductors, and their interaction. Student ratings of rehearsal enjoyment and conductor as a good teacher were significantly related to treatments, with Treatment C consistently rated highest.
This study applied the conceptual structures of gemeinschaft (community) and gesell-schaft (association) developed by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies (1855–1936) to the history of music education in Kansas during the nineteenth century. It documents the interactions among musical activities, educational institutions, and community structures in the missions of the early nineteenth century, the relatively independent small town and rural schools from around 1850 to 1875, and the state-wide educational system that grew up in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Primary and secondary sources were taken primarily from the Kansas Collection at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, the Kansas State Historical Society in Topeka, and the Country Schools Legacy project of the Mountain Plains Library Association.
The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of harmonic accompaniment on the tonal achievement and tonal improvisations of young children. The specific problems of this study were the following: (1) Does the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affect the tonal achievement of children in kindergarten and first grade? (2) Does the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affect the tonal strength of the improvisations of children in kindergarten and first grade? Results indicated that song instruction with a root melody accompaniment had no significant effect on the tonal achievement of children in kindergarten and first grade. However, children who received song instruction with root melody accompaniment improvised melodies with implied harmonic functions while maintaining the tonic pitch and tonality of the song better than those children who did not have such instruction.
This study investigated the effects of melodic perception instruction on the auditory discrimination of pitch and vocal accuracy of kindergarten children. Sixty-one subjects were assigned to three different instructional settings for 11 weeks. E1 had vocal instruction designed to promote melodic perception through visual and kinesthetic reinforcement; E2 had vocal instruction consisting primarily of imitation alone; and C had a traditional, nonconceptual approach. Subjects were pre- and posttested on the Gordon Primary Measures of Music Audiation (Tonal Test), the Boardman Test of Vocal Accuracy, and a rote-singing test. Results showed that there were (1) no differences among groups in auditory discrimination, (2) significant differences on vocal pitch-pattern accuracy between E1 and C and E2 and C, and (3) significant differences in rote-singing accuracy between E2 and C.
The author sought to determine whether self-evaluation instruction had an impact on student self-evaluation, music performance, and self-evaluation accuracy of music performance among middle school instrumentalists. Participants (N = 211) were students at a private middle school located in a metropolitan area of a mid-Atlantic state. Students in intact classes, grades 5 through 8, were assigned to one of three treatment groups: self-evaluation instruction (SE-I), self-evaluation only (SE-O), or no self-evaluation (SE-No) for treatment lasting 5 weeks. All groups played through music used in the study at each lesson and heard a model recording of it. Participants in the SE-I group received instruction in self-evaluation while students in the SE-O group self-evaluated their performances daily and the SE-No group received no additional instruction. Results suggest that instruction in self-evaluation had little impact on students' self-evaluation accuracy or music performance, although grade level did influence music performance. Additional time may be necessary for students to learn to evaluate their own performances effectively; however, it is interesting that students' music performance did not appear to suffer from time spent in self-evaluation instruction or practice. Music teachers may wish to consider implementing self-evaluation strategies to help students develop the skills necessary for successful self-regulation of music performance.
Music education students (N = 21) at a university in the southeastern United States took an error detection test that had been designed for this study to determine the effects of tonal contexts versus atonal contexts on the ability to detect performance errors. The investigator composed 16 melodies, 8 of which were tonal and 8 of which were atonal. The test administered included 18 planned errors, 9 in tonal melodies and 9 in atonal melodies, and errors were balanced between the two sets of melodies for error duration and error interval. These melodies were performed live for the participants, who were asked to identify where errors took place in the performance. Participant test scores were calculated, and mean scores were generated for each individual error. Each error was then classified according to its attributes of tonal context, interval deviation, and duration. Interval deviation and duration did not significantly affect error detection scores, while tonal context did. More specifically, errors in tonal contexts that deviated from the tonal framework were significantly more easily detected than atonal errors or errors in tonal contexts that remained within the tonal framework. These results confirmed findings in existing research.
To test the effects of octave and timbre on tuning accuracy, four stimuli—B-flat 4 sounded by flute, oboe, and clarinet and B-flat 2 sounded by tuba—functioned as reference pitches for high school wind players (N = 72). The two stimulus octaves combined with participants’ assigned tuning notes created soprano, tenor, and bass tuning groups. All participants tuned to each instrument. Results indicated no effect due to tuning group. There was a significant difference due to stimulus. Participants’ responses were more out of tune to the tuba stimulus than to the oboe, clarinet, and flute stimuli, which were not different from each other. There was no difference in the distribution of in-tune, sharp, and flat responses across tuning stimuli, a result that differs from the “preference for sharpness” effect in previous research. Verbal and performance responses to the tuba, oboe, and flute stimuli revealed misconceptions between participants’ perceptions of tuning difficulty and actual performance difficulty and favored the use of oboe and flute as tuning references. Most of the participants (82%) reported tuning to the tuba as the prevalent approach to mass tuning in their school bands.
Participation in an expressive ensemble may be inappropriately presumed to produce expressive independence in individual ensemble members. This study is an examination of relationships between individual expressive achievement and (a) the expressive achievement of choral ensembles, (b) technical performance, and (c) musical background. Subjects included 11 high school choral ensembles and 82 individual ensemble members. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed no significant relationships between individual and ensemble expressive achievement. Cor-relations showed technical and expressive performance to be strongly related. Significantly related musical background factors from a MANOVA included: (a) involvement in outside performing groups, (b) semesters of high school choir, (c) private vocal lessons, and (d) age of first private lessons. The study provided grounds for questioning the assumption that expressive ensembles yield expressive individuals.
This study investigated the relationship of tonal pattern instruction to tonal concept development and performance achievement of beginning instrumentalists. The problem was to compare a course of study emphasizing tonal concept development with another emphasizing technical skill development Forty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control group. Experimental group content included tonal patterns taught through harmonization and vocalization. Control group content included a set of symbols and range of pitches taught from notation. Students received 14 weekly 30-minute lessons. A one-factor design was employed. The independent variable was teaching content. The dependent variables were pastiest mean scores from Iowa Tests of Musical Literacy and an investigator-constructed sight reading test Analysis of covariance was used. The experimental group scored significantly higher (p < .001) on aural identification of major and minor tonalities and significantly higher (p < .0001) in melodic sight-reading achievement. No significant difference occurred between groups in reading recognition (p > .05).
The purpose of this research was to develop and to examine an improvisation curriculum designed to improve the music achievement of elementary school instrumental music students. The specific problems of this study were (a) to investigate the effect of improvisation study on the music achievement of fifth-grade wind and percussion students, and (b) to investigate the effects of various levels of music aptitude on the music achievement of fifth-grade wind and percussion students.
Sixty-six fifth-grade students participated in this study. Students who received instruction that included emphasis on improvisation were found to perform at significantly higher achievement levels than students who received instruction without such emphasis. High-aptitude students performed at higher achievement levels than low-aptitude and moderate-aptitude students. The data obtained in this research provide preliminary evidence that improvisation contributes to the improvement of instrumental music performance achievement in elementary students.
The purpose of this study was to (1) reexamine academic achievement motivation orientations within the context of instrumental music, and (2) examine relations among achievement motivation orientations, self-concept in instrumental music, and attitude to band in relation to teachers' ratings of performance achievement and effort, and students' grade level, gender, instrument, self-reported practice time, and selected music experience variables. Participants ( N= 300) were band students (Grades 7-12) in four school districts. Data were gathered concerning students' (a) motivation orientations (mastery, intrinsic, individual, cooperative, ego, competitive, approach success, avoid failure), self-concept, and commitment to band; (b) instrument, grade level and gender, practice time per week, and experience in private lessons, solo festival, and all-county band; and (c) performance achievement and effort as rated by their teachers. Results indicated that ratings of performance and effort were most strongly correlated with self-concept and intrinsic motivation, respectively. Practice time was most strongly correlated with intrinsic motivation. Factor analysis revealed three factors of motivation: Learning/Task Orientation, Performance/Ego Orientation, and Individual Orientation. The factors essentially replicated those found in a general academic achievement setting. Learning/Task Orientation was positively correlated with practice time, ratings of performance and effort, solo festival and private-lesson experience, and grade level. Performance/Ego Orientation was negatively correlated with grade level and solo festival ratings. Individual Orientation scores were positively correlated with ratings of performance and effort and solo festival ratings. Differences by gender and instrument group were nonsignificant.
October 11, 2004
March 20, 2005.
The effects of music aptitude, sex, handedness, eyedness, and footedness on music achievement and executive skills of elementary instrumental music students was explored. Handedness was defined for the present study as the observed preferred hand used for a specific set of familiar tasks; eyedness refers to sighting dominance; and footedness was defined as the observed foot preferred to perform selected familiar tasks. A five-way multivariate analysis (2×2×3×2×3) was employed to analyze the data. No conclusive evidence was found to show that combinations of eye and limb dominance, sex differences, and music aptitude variables affect music achievement or executive skill variables. Only music aptitude levels when considered alone strongly affected tonal, rhythmic, and performance achievement
Table 1 shows a synthesis of the findings of this study. Correlations for the hypotheses significant beyond the .05 level are listed along with the direction of correlation and the type of statistical test used. A summary of the findings and conclusions of the study are listed below: 1. There was a positive significant relationship between self-concept of music teaching ability and achievement in student teaching. 2. Significant changes occurred during the student teaching experience for the IAV and the SCMTA, but not for the EPPS or the IPAT. 3. Changes occurring during the student teaching experience for the IAV, SCMTA, and EPPS were not significantly related to achievement; but those who achieved higher in music student teaching indicated significantly less anxiety than those who achieved lower. 4. Music student teachers with a high self-concept were dependent, conforming, and gregarious. 5. There were high correlations between anxiety and adjustmentthe more well-adjusted subjects indicated less anxiety. 6. Subjects in the experimental group were significantly higher than the normal population in self-concept, deference, and order; they were significantly lower in affiliation, intraception, and anxiety. 7. High achievers in music student teaching indicated a high need for deference, order, and affiliation; they indicated a low need for autonomy. There was no difference between high and low achievers for anxiety level.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of aural versus notated pedagogical materials on achievement and self-efficacy in instrumental jazz improvisation performance. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate how achievement and self-efficacy may be related to selected experience variables. The sample for the study consisted of collegiate instrumentalists (N = 62) enrolled as music majors at one of six Midwestern universities. All study participants received identical instructional materials but were assigned to one of two differing instructional modalities. Participants engaged in three 70-minute instructional treatment sessions over 4 days and completed pre- and postinstruction improvisation performances that were evaluated by four expert judges using the researcher-constructed Jazz Improvisation Performance Achievement Measure. Self-efficacy was measured using the researcher-constructed Jazz Improvisation Self-Efficacy Scale. Results indicated a significant (p < .05) interaction effect for pre- to postinstruction and instructional method, with the aural instruction group demonstrating significantly greater gains than the notation group. Posttreatment achievement scores indicated nonsignificant correlations with experience variables. Participants’ self-efficacy for jazz improvisation increased significantly (p < .001) following exposure to improvisation instruction; however, no interaction effect was found for instruction and mode of instruction.
If singers, without prior prompting, mimicked a conductor’s nonverbal behavior and if this mimicry changed their vocal sound in less than a second, then such a phenomenon could interest vocal music teachers as a time-efficient pedagogical strategy. We tested this claim (“What they see, you will get”), which appears in choral methods literature, by measuring visual and acoustic responses to one nonverbal conductor behavior in a particular singing context. Specifically, we sought to determine whether singers (N = 114) performing the first phrase of Mozart’s motet, “Ave Verum Corpus,” would mimic a conductor’s rounded lip posture on two /u/ vowels. We also wondered whether conductor lip rounding affected these singers’ tone quality. Visual measures (within-subjects photo comparisons and photo grid analyses) indicated that more than 90% of participants displayed more lip rounding on both /u/ vowels in the experimental condition as compared with baseline. Formant frequency profiles indicated that more than 90% of singers lowered all four examined formant frequencies each time the conductor rounded his lips. We discussed these converging visual and acoustic data in terms of the study’s limitations, potential pedagogical implications of mimicry by vocal performers, and directions for future research.
The purpose of this study was to examine the ability to learn relative pitch-perception, and how it is affected by age, frequency, and ear. Thirty-four musically naive subjects were assigned to four age groups and taught individually, over a period of five daily sessions, to adjust the frequency of a variable stimulus to be twice the frequency of (or an octave higher than) a specified reference stimulus. Three-octave intervals were learned in this manner with either the left or right ear. Results indicated no age or ear difference in amount of accuracy attained. The octave interval 1000–2000 Hz appeared significantly more difficult to estimate accurately than the octave intervals 400–800 Hz or 1500–3000 Hz, however. The youngest age group learned the task with maximum accuracy more quickly than the older age groups. There was, furthermore, a significant ear difference in how quickly the task was learned. This difference, however, was frequency-dependent.
This study was designed to examine two aspects of sight-singing instruction: (1) solfège syllables versus the syllable loo for singing patterns and (2) the use of related songs (songs that began with tonal patterns being studied) as compared with unrelated songs. Second-grade students (N = 193) enrolled in general music classes participated in 25 minutes of sight-singing instruction for 16 sessions. In each session a new four-note pattern and song were introduced, and previously learned patterns were reviewed. Four levels of instructional treatment were examined as the independent variable: (1) related songs/solfège, (2) related songs/loo, (3) unrelated songs/solfège, and (4) unrelated songs/loo. Pitch and contour accuracy of familiar and unfamiliar patterns were examined as dependent variables on sight-singing pre-, post-, and retention tests. Results indicated significant pre- to posttest improvement in sight-singing skills. Most post- to retention test differences were nonsignificant, indicating skill retention. Sight-singing skills transferred to unfamiliar patterns. Treatment effectiveness differed by pattern familiarity. Solfège with familiar patterns and a neutral syllable (loo) with unfamiliar patterns resulted in significantly greater contour accuracy. Relating patterns to songs had no significant effect on achievement.
In order to explore the factors that inform the occupational identity development of in-service music educators and to compare the identities of in-service teachers with those of preservice music educators as examined in previous research, the purposes of this study were to examine the reported occupational identity of in-service secondary music educators and identify the interpersonal interactions and activities that help form occupational identity. A stratified random sample of secondary music teachers (N = 300) completed a questionnaire based on previous research. Participants reported a majority of integrated (view of self and perceived view of others) professional roles, although participants believed themselves to be musicians more than they felt others believed them to be. Participants reported positive interactions with music students and other music educators and that directing ensembles and attending music conferences were the most positive experiences. Participants who reported positive relationships with other music educators and music students were likely to develop an educator identity. External musician identity was predicted by relationships with other teachers as well as with students outside of music. Participants with positive administration relationships were less likely to exhibit an internal musician identity. As teachers move from preservice to in-service, their musician identities may transform from being relatively integrated to becoming more differentiated.
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare self-estimates, peer estimates, and actual time preservice teachers spent talking in rehearsal. Participants (N = 32) conducted a short choral rehearsal and estimated their teacher talk (expressed as a percentage of total rehearsal time). Their peers also reported estimates, and the researchers took data on actual time. Later, participants observed themselves on video and used stopwatches to compute teacher talk percentages on the same session. Participants then conducted a second rehearsal and again estimated their teacher talk percentage. Results indicated that by the second rehearsal, participants reduced their teacher talk by about half, and their estimates became closer to actual time. Significant differences were discovered between all estimates from the first rehearsal and the second rehearsal. Self-analysis through videotapes appears to be a useful tool for reducing teacher talk and increasing estimation accuracy.
This study investigated the relationship between reliability of music performance, adjudication, judge performance ability, and judge nonperformance music achievement. Thirty-three recent music education graduates rated a series of trumpet performances. Individual judge reliability was calculated and applied music, music history, and music theory academic grades were collected for each of the subjects. In addition, a composite variable labeled “nonperformance music grade” was obtained by averaging each subject's music theory and music history grades. Results of statistical analyses showed: (1) no relationship between judge performing ability and judge reliability, (2) no relationship between judge performing ability and judge nonperformance music achievement, and (3) a statistically significant inverse relationship between judge reliability and judge nonperformance music achievement.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of differentiated performance attire and stage deportment on adjudicators’ ratings of high school solo vocal performances. High school choral students (n = 153) and undergraduate (n = 97) and graduate music majors (n = 32) served as adjudicators (N = 282). Adjudicators rated recorded solo vocal performances displayed in audio-only and four audiovisual presentation conditions with differentiated combinations of performance attire and stage deportment. Performance quality ratings were affected significantly by soloists’ performance attire and stage deportment and adjudicators’ academic level. Significant two-way interactions were identified: adjudicator gender by academic level for comparisons of performance ratings assigned in four of the five presentation conditions and adjudicator gender by academic level when differentiated attire was isolated from presentation conditions. Adjudicators assigned significantly higher ratings to performances presented in the audio-only condition.
The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the current reflections of experienced teachers on their past perceptions of preservice music teacher preparation as documented in the author’s previous research. Research questions included the following: (a) How would participants describe their reactions to a present-day examination of 1999 or 2000 data (journals, individual and focus group interviews, and two questionnaires) and 2002 study findings? (b) How had their perceptions regarding preservice music teacher preparation changed since 1999-2000? and (c) On the basis of their recent work with preservice interns and student teachers, what could these experienced teachers say about preservice music teacher preparation today? Data collected in 2010 included participant journals and individual interviews. Findings categories include (a) general agreement with 2002 study findings regarding best and worst facets of preservice preparation, (b) experience is the best teacher, (c) teacher education is doing the best it can do, (d) preservice students will get out of teacher education what they put into it, and (e) specific suggestions for teacher education provided by participants.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between high or low cultural mistrust and the vocal characteristics of African-American adolescent females (N = 44). The vocal characteristics were vocal self identification, singing style, and singing range. The subjects were assigned to high or low cultural mistrust groups based on scores on the Cultural Mistrust Inventory. A researcher-devised vocal self-identification survey provided information about the subjects' vocal self-concepts and acceptance of vocal models. Subjects sang “America” in a key and style of choice for the singing-style measurement. The performances were analyzed for eight style characteristics: bends, glides, breathiness, hoarseness, raspiness, dips, hard attacks, and emphasis of chest voice. Results indicated statistically significant differences between two groups on each vocal characteristic. The high-mistrust group demonstrated more characteristics associated with the African-American culture than did the low-mistrust group.
In this investigative study, the authors sought to reveal the learning strategies adopted by participants as they learned to play a 12-bar improvised blues with both hands together on a musical keyboard in an e-learning environment. There were 3 participants, 2 female and 1 male. Participants’ average age was 21 years. They worked individually in an e-learning environment with the assistance of “Blues Activities” text and supporting audio material. A remote facilitator was available via e-mail to provide advice, support, and encouragement during and after each of the learning sessions. Video observation techniques were employed, and a coding scheme emerged via a qualitative analysis procedure. A time analysis of the video data based on the emergent coding scheme revealed the percentages of time participants spent in five distinct learning activities, which were interpreted as instruction, copying,practicing, playing, and evaluating. The findings of the current study provide an insight into the learning strateges adopted by these 3 participants in this particular learning situation and provide empirical support for theories of learning to play by ear proposed in prior research reviewed in this article
In this study the effects of skill development on the eye movements of beginning adult sight-readers were examined, focusing on changes in the allocation of visual attention within metrical units as well as in the processing of larger melodic intervals. The participants were future elementary school teachers, taking part in a 9-month-long music training period. During this period, 15 novice sight-readers’ development was observed in three measurements, with 15 amateur musicians functioning as a comparison group. The novices’ allocation of fixation time within metrical units gradually approached a pattern demonstrated by the amateurs in which increased sensitivity to metrical divisions was evinced by larger average fixation times on the latter halves of bars. Concerning larger melodic skips in otherwise stepwise melodic contexts, an analysis of fixation times suggested that the novices’ visual processing of skips did not proceed in terms of note comparison across the skip but rather through a direct identification of the notational symbols involved. Skill development was seen, then, as increasing fluency of this identification process. These and similar findings may lead to a better understanding of the problems encountered by novice sight-readers and thus to advancements in the pedagogy of music reading.
The purpose of this investigation was to identify and describe the characteristics of effective teaching in the piano studio. Thirteen piano teachers were videotaped with one adult student and one child student during three consecutive lessons each. An 8- to 12-minute segment showing work on a piece in progress was excerpted from each of the 78 lessons. Computerized observation procedures, designed specifically for this and related research, were used to record and analyze teacher behavior, student behavior, and lesson progress. Ten representative excerpts were evaluated by five expert piano pedagogues, who rated the teaching effectiveness observed in each. The expert pedagogues were generally reliable in identifying ineffective teaching, but were less reliable in assessing effective teaching. Correlational analyses were used to identify the lesson characteristics associated with effective and ineffective ratings. Relatively active teachers were ranked higher than were inactive teachers. Active teachers provided more modeling and gave more feedback. Student performance episodes generally were shorter among the more active teachers, and students of the more active teachers tended to perform mare successfully. The duration and pace of behavior episodes were important variables in discriminating among levels of instructional quality, with shorter episodes and, thus, faster pace associated with more effective teaching.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of preservice music teachers’ concerns using Fuller and Bown’s model. Participants were 8 instrumental teachers who participated in the previous Berg and Miksza (2010) study. Data sources included goals essays, journals, a midterm growth plan, and teaching observation reports with accompanying lesson plans that were collected over a 1.5-year period. The participants expressed less concern for self-survival and more concern for making an impact on students as time progressed from their junior-level practicum experience to the end of student teaching. Concerns regarding basic competencies and professionalism ultimately gave way to specific contextual aspects of the participants’ teaching placements and more nuanced instructional issues. Results indicated that the focus of the participants’ concerns also was greatly affected by their teaching context. Implications for music teacher preparation as well as extensions of Fuller and Bown’s model are discussed.
This study was designed to examine the effects of high versus low non-verbal teacher affect and active versus passive student activities during music listening on preschool children's attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Three-through five-year-old subjects (N = 94) participated in four small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests. Through the use of a modified multiple baseline design, each of four treatment conditions, representing different sequences of instructional events, was replicated three times. All lessons were videotaped on a split screen showing both teacher and students. Data obtained through observation of the videotaped lessons indicated that high teacher affect was associated with higher levels of group attending behavior than was low affect, and active listening activities elicited similar or higher on-task behavior than passive activities. No significant effects concerning teacher affect during listening or piece familiarity were found in analyses of posttest piece preferences, time spent listening, or piece recognition, although some differences between older and younger children were evident.