Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science

Online ISSN: 2347-2545
Ear Nose and Throat problems
Health seeking behavior
Background: India is home to more than 400 million children forming about 35% of its total population. Upper respiratory tract infections predispose a child to complications such as otitis media, tonsillitis, and sinusitis that further contribute to morbidity leading to hearing impairment and learning disability & even RHD. Unfortunately these morbidities are either not detected or remain untreated making situation worse. Aims and objectives:1. To assess the prevalence of common Ear Nose and Throat symptoms among children aged 5-14 years and to study its relationship with socio-demographic factors 2. To know regarding health seeking behavior in relations to Ear Nose and Throat morbidities. Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was done over a period of 2 months among 300 school children aged 5-14 years of six government schools of Jamnagar district. Assessment was done through clinical examination and oral questioners. Results: Prevalence of Ear Nose and Throat morbidity was 46.66%; Ear (14.33%), Nose(28.66%) and Throat(10%).Common Ear Nose and Throat problems were– common cold(23%), cough(9.67%), sore throat(8.34%) and ear ache(8.67%). Associations of Ear Nose and Throat morbidity with age and religion were statistically significant. Only 31.40% of children had taken treatment for the problems. Mother’s education had statistically significant association on health seeking behavior of school children. Conclusion: Prevalence of Ear Nose and Throat morbidity was very high among school children, only 1/3 children had taken treatment, indicating negligence towards problems on the part of parents as well as teachers suggesting strong need for sensitization of parents and teachers.
The incidence and burden of cancer is huge and is set to rise. Cancer kills more people on a global scale than AIDS, malaria and TB combined, hence proving to be the most fatal disease for our Society. The aim of this study is to evaluate the most common organ malignancy amongst all System Organ Malignancies. We present a brief review of malignancy cases studied at Terna Medical College, Navi Mumbai over a span of 5 years (2011-2015). Study was undertaken at Terna Medical College, Nerul, Navi Mumbai for 5 Years ( 2011-2015) for:-Malignant Cases and System Organ Specific Malignancies. We have studied Total of 5495 Cases out of which 172 turned out to be malignant over a span of 5 Years (2011-2015). Out of these 172 Malignant Cases, Female Genital System, Breast & Oral Cavity Cancers together account for 79 Percent (135 Cases). In view of the above, we have concluded that Female Genital System, Breast & Oral Cavity cancers are Top Three Malignancies among all System Organ Specific Malignancies.
Reasons for the edentulous patients' visiting clinics 
Background: High statistic of edentulism in Iran shows that condition of hygiene in society is not good. It shows that the people do not have enough information about oral hygiene measurements. Aim: This study was aimed to assess prevalence of complete edentulism and associated factors in patients referred to clinics in Ardabil city. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study that has been done on 440 patients referred to clinics in Ardabil city. Information was collected through questionnaire and collected data analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.16 software. Results: Out of 440 patients, 241 were men and other 99 were women. 76 people (17.3%) were completely edentulous. Most important cause of tooth loss with (65.8%) was tooth decay. Percentage of patients referred to dental laboratories for making denture was 64.5%. Conclusion: Results showed that there was a significant relationship between age, education, smoking, week hygiene of oral, dental care and periodontal diseases, economic, Diabetes and heart disease with edentulism.
Gender wise vaccination coverage 
Dropout rate 
Association between various demographic factors & immunization status 
Background: Immunization is one of most cost effective public health intervention. Aims: (1) To assess immunization status among children of 12-23 months age group (2) To find out left out/dropout rate (3) To check association of socio demographic factors with immunization status. Material & Methods: A cross sectional study of sample 240 children aged between 12 to 23 months (using 30 cluster sampling technique) from Jamnagar municipal corporation area. Immunization of child was assessed through immunization card, presence of BCG scar & interview. Results: Out of 240 children, Coverage of BCG-99.58%, OPV0-94.58%, DPT1-98.33%, DPT2-96.67%, DPT3- 95.42%, OPV1-96.67%, OPV2-95.83%, OPV3-4.58%. Coverage of HepB1, HepB2, and HepB3 were 73.33%, 70.42%, 68.75% respectively. Coverage of measles was 87.75%. Fully immunized children were 65%. Vaccine dropout of BCG-Measles was highest 11.34%, followed by DPT1-measles 10.58%. For BCG-DPT3 4.17%, DPT1- DPT3 2.96% & for HEP1-HEP3 6.25%. Fully immunized status was higher among male child as compare to female child which was statistically significant. Fully immunized children were more in Hindu religion compared to others which was statistically significant. No association found between educations of mother & immunization status of child. Socioeconomic class had no association with immunization status. Conclusion: Vaccination coverage shows gradual improvement in last decade (Fully immunized 65%) but at the same time reflects incomplete utilization (dropout rate is around 11%). Coverage was higher among male children as compared to female children which indicate the existence of gender difference in utilization of immunization services in our study areas. Utilization of immunization services was higher in Hindu community as compared to other community. Keywords: Immunization status, Vaccine, dropout rate
Distribution of cases according to sex and religion
The observation made by the various workers and the results obtained have been presented below
Correlation coefficient (r), Regression equation to estimate stature from foot length in different study groups
Background: Assessing the height of an individual, from measurements of different parts, has always been of immense interest to forensic medicine experts. The study of foot measurement in personal identification has obvious significance in forensic sciences. Having this idea in mind we did our project. Aims: Aim of the present study was to estimate stature from foot length of both side and compare the correlation coefficient in both sexes. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 500 medico-legal autopsies which were brought to Forensic Medicine Department, M. P. Shah Govt. Medical College, Jamnagar during the period of August 2012 to June 2013. We took the height by standard measuring tap and foot length by sliding vernier calliper. Result: The stature of males varied in range of 150 to 188 cm with mean of 167 + 4.58 cm and in females in the range of 139 to 171 cm with mean of 154 + 4.7 cm. Right foot length in males varied in range of 20.12 to 28.9 cm and in females 19.1 to 24.4 cm. Left foot length in males varied in range of 20.4 to 29.1 cm and in females 19 to 24.36 cm. Correlation co-efficient for both foot in both males and females are > 0.7. Conclusion: Males were taller and have longer feet than females. There is very large correlation between height and foot length in both males and females. Correlation co-efficient for male for both foot are higher than females so, stature prediction from foot length is more accurate in males than females.
Baseline characteristics of the patients (n=52) 
The results of previous studies regarding the success rate 
The comparison of dysmenorrhea levels before and after treatment
Objective: dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common gynecological condition which affects about 20-30% of premenopausal women. When medical treatments fail to provide adequate relief, surgical interventions, including hysterectomy or destruction of the endometrium, might be considered. The aim of the present study was to determine the menstrual outcomes and the satisfaction level, after thermal balloon endometrial ablation to treat this condition among Iranian patients. Design classification: A single-arm prospective study. Setting: University teaching hospital. Patients:52 patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Intervention: Patients underwent endometrial ablation using Cavaterm plus and were fallowed up for 12 months, Post operatively. Measurements: The pictorial blood loss assessment chart score of menstrual cycle, number of days in the cycle, degree of dysmenorrhea, satisfaction from treatment and any complication of treatment were assessed. Main results: Eighty-eight percent of patients responded to treatment; the mean number of days of bleeding per month decreased from a mean of 13.6 to 4days (p
Association between women's knowledge regarding symptoms, risk factors and Breast Self Examination
Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. In India, the number of new breast cancer cases is about 115,000 per year. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. Objectives: Present study has the objective to assess the level of awareness about Carcinoma Breast and to study the knowledge and practice regarding screening methods of breast carcinoma Material & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 160 women aged 15 years & above by simple random sampling. Pretested preformed questionnaire was used. Verbal consent was taken prior to interview. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20 & MS Office Excel 2007. Results: 58.7% women had no knowledge regarding breast carcinoma. 93.12% women had no knowledge regarding risk factors of it. Only 8 women had knowledge about Breast Self Examination and amongst them only 2 practice it. Only 2 women had knowledge about mammography and MRI as screening method. Conclusion: Majority of women had no knowledge regarding Risk factors & Screening methods of Breast Ca. Education has positive impact on knowledge of symptoms of breast carcinoma.
TB treatment outcome among HIV-TB patients, N=2893
Risk factors associated with case-fatality among HIV-TB patients
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) control efforts have been challenged by deadly interaction of TB and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) epidemics. To address this challenge in India, all TB patients are routinely offered HIV testing and HIV positive TB patients are provided CPT (Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Therapy) and ART (Anti-Retroviral Treatment) as part of TB/HIV collaborative activities. Objective: To study the impact of TB/HIV collaborative activities on case-fatality among HIV infected patients with tuberculosis. Methods: All TB registers maintained under National TB programme (RNTCP) in Gujarat were reviewed and data on HIV testing, ART, CPT and TB treatment outcomes were retrieved for all the TB patients registered in 2010. Results: Among 77,839 registered TB patients, 59,638 (75%) were ascertained for HIV status and 2,893 (4%) were HIV infected. Among those HIV infected TB patients, 95% received CPT and 68% received ART during TB treatment. Case fatality among patients who received both CPT and ART was 10% compared to 37% among those didn’t receive both. Conclusion: TB-HIV collaborative activities reduced mortality among HIV infected TB patients under program condition in Gujarat. The programme needs to sustain efforts of collaborative interventions to improve care for such co-infected patients. Moreover, future TB-HIV collaborative efforts should focus on early diagnosis of HIV and TB and prompt initiation of ART.
Association of Kimberley Young scale score with Family harmony
Background: The Internet has become an important tool for education, entertainment, and communication. Internet addiction in adolescence can have a negative impact on identity formation and may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Aims and objectives: the present study was carried out in undergraduate students of four streams i.e. MBBS, BDS, B Com., B Tech. to evaluate the pattern of internet addiction and the factors affecting internet addiction among them in Udaipur city, Rajasthan. Material and methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2015 to December 2015. Total 400 students were evaluated by a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and family harmony. To collect information on Internet addiction inter personal interviews were performed using a standardized ‘Internet Addiction Test’ developed by Dr. Kimberly S. Young in 1998. Results: majority (54.7%) was identified as normal users of the Internet, 25.5% moderately and 15.7% severely addicted. Majority of severely internet (39.7%) addicts were doing B.Tech. Majority (36.5%) belonged to Class II and 28.6% were from class I. Conclusion: The findings are suggestive of rising internet dependence among students. Effective IEC activities should be carried out to increase awareness regarding overuse of internet.
Hand washing facilities
Adherence to hand hygiene practices among different health personnel
Background: Infection prevention and control is an integral component of health care delivery in any setting to reduce risks for morbidity and mortality in patients. Adherence to hand hygiene recommendations is the single most important practice for preventing the transmission of microorganisms in health care, and directly contributes to patient safety. Aim: To assess the hand washing facilities and adherence to hand hygiene practices among different health personnel. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study has been conducted at tertiary level institution i.e. RNT Medical College, Udaipur and Associated Hospitals from 25th of July 2013 to 25th of October 2013. Data was collected by personal interview and observations of Healthcare personnel and Hand washing stations. Results: 70% hand washing stations were in good condition. Running tap water was available at 78.33% stations. 44.28%doctors performed hand hygiene practices before patient contact and 58.57% were found to perform hand hygiene practices after patient contact. In case of nurses, 28.41% hand hygiene practices observed before and 36.36% practices after patient contact. Highest practices related to hand hygiene in general ward were observed to be 56.67% in neurology unit followed by 53.33% in ENT and Obstetric unit. Conclusion: Guidelines related to hand hygiene practices need to be widely circulated. Hospital should develop their own training module for developing the skills of all health care personnel to address issues related to hand hygiene practices and infection control practices.
Fluorescence of light  
Oral cancer is amongst the common malignancies worldwide, hence early detection and treatment is essential. Detection of oral cancer at an early stage improves the results of treatment. One of the upcoming technologies is the use of non-invasive imaging technique to capture the molecular changes in order to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review highlights the Fluorescence technology and its use in early detection of malignant oral tumours.
Background: Osteoarthritis is a condition which causes the joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. There are two types of osteoarthritis one primary OA and second secondary OA. The conventional treatment TENS, Ultrasound, IFT, along with knee specific exercises in one group. And the second group focused on the spinal exercises with all these conventional approaches. The purpose of the study was to see the effect of spinal exercises effect on knee OA symptoms and functional ability. The significant difference was found in the pain , range of motion and the timed -up-go test. Methods: Total 30 participants were selected. groups of two were done one experimental given the spinal exercise and conventional treatment second controlled group given the knee exercises and conventional management. The pain, ROM and TUGT were analysed pre and post treatment. Results: According to statistical analysis, the study showed a significant difference in the pain intensity, ROM of knee and TUGT pre and post intervention. The study documented difference in the pain intensity post-intervention (0.0004) at rest and (0.0002) on activity and range of motion of right knee (<0.0001) and of left knee (<0.0001), timed up go test (0.0110) considered significant. Conclusion: The conducted study shows that there was significant difference in values of pain, ROM of knee and timed up go test in experimental group compared to controlled group. So, the spinal exercises have proven beneficial in knee osteoarthritis. KEYWORDS: Osteoarthritis, visual analogue scale, kellgren and Lawrence classification, spinal exercises.
Background: Among alpha 2 adrenergic agonists the role of Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics to prolong duration of block is extensively studied but effect of Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics in brachial plexus block is not much investigated. Aim: To compare effects of Clonidine and Dexmedetomidine with inj. Ropivacaine 0.5% in brachial plexus block with regard to block characteristics, post operative analgesia, hemodynamic stability and complications. Materials and Methods: 50 patients of ASA gr I and II undergoing upper extremity surgeries were selected and randomized to receive Clonidine(group RC) or Dexmedetomidine(group RD) with inj. Ropivacaine 0.5% 30 ml in supraclavicular brachial plexus block .Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, duration of post operative analgesia, hemodynamic parameters and adverse effects were compared. Results: Significant difference was observed in relation to duration of sensory block 346.8(±74.54) minutes in group RC and 540 (±56.12) min in group RD, duration of motor block 386.4(±67.82) min. and 586.8 (±55.51) min. respectively. Duration of post operative analgesia 372(±70.86) min in group RC and 559 (±55.40) min in group RD. No significant difference was observed in onset of sensory block which is 11.92(±2.55) min in group RC and 11.36(±2.14) min in group RD and onset of motor block which is 18.56(±2.12) min in group RC and 17.28(±2.70) min in group RD. Conclusion: The duration of sensory motor blockade and post operative analgesia was significantly prolonged by Dexmedetomidine with inj Ropivacaine in brachial plexus block without significant hemodynamic alterations.
Background: The trachea makes a significant portion of the conducting airways. In addition to its vital role in breathing, variations in the anatomy of the trachea between individuals could have significant importance in clinics. Objective: To obtain values of length and diameter of human trachea. Material and Methods: The Length, antero-posterior and transverse diameters of the trachea were measured on 28 cast of trachea prepared by luminal cast Plastination in the anatomy department of B. J. medical college of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Result: The maximum length of trachea was 10.59 cm and minimum was 8.51 cm. The mean length of trachea was 9.37 cm. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of trachea was 2.25 cm and minimum was 1.16 cm. The mean anteroposterior diameter of trachea was 1.70 cm. The maximum transverse diameter of trachea was 2.1 cm and minimum was 1.42 cm. The mean transverse diameter of trachea was 1.78 cm. Conclusion: Knowledge of the diameter and length of the trachea is essential in the proper selection of endotracheal tube size used for delivery of anaesthetic gases during general anaesthesia. In addition, this knowledge aids clinicians in choosing the proper size of tracheostomy tubes used in emergency situations.
Background: Hypertension, a major chronic lifestyle disease is most prevalent non communicable disease in India. Blood pressure (BP) measurements in the community are generally performed with a mercury sphygmomanometer. However, it is the common teaching that average of at least three readings of blood pressure measurement is considered to be the gold-standard method. How far this is true has been determined in this study with the Aim: To find out the prevalence of hypertension and compare the one reading of blood pressure taken by mercury sphygmomanometer with average of three such readings. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January-March 2015 among 160 adults of Chetla slum, Kolkata chosen through a two stage sample design. Subjects included -Male: 39.4%; Female: 60.6%. Data was collected by interview and blood pressure measurements. Comparison was made between the first reading and the average of three readings of BP taken by mercury sphygmomanometer. Result: The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 30 % (48). Strength of agreement between first reading of Blood Pressure with that of average reading was excellent, with kappa=0.940. Conclusion: Though the average of three blood pressure readings according to Standard operation Procedure is considered ideal for accurate Blood Pressure measurement it may not always be feasible to undertake such a practice especially at community level. This study observes that single reading can safely be considered for Blood Pressure measurement instead of average of three readings.
Aim of the present study was to compare the ADRs in patients taking antitubercular treatment under RNTCP regimen between intermittent treatment & daily therapy and to know the impact of ADRs on outcome of treatment in patients. 100 patients having pulmonary tuberculosis were included in the study who were taking the treatment of tuberculosis as per criteria, guidelines and various regimens of RNTCP. They were observed in DOTS group (group 1, intermittent) and in the group receiving treatment on OPD basis (group 2, daily treatment) for various ADRs and relevant findings were recorded during each clinical visit of the patients. The impact of ADRs on outcome of treatment was seen in the form of cured, relapsed, treatment failure, defaulted and alteration in therapy. 39 patients developed 1 or more ADRs out of 100 patients. The incidence of ADRs was more in group 2 (27, 54%) as compared to group 1(12, 24%) (p
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the important bacterial pathogens isolated from various samples. Despite advances in medical and surgical care and introduction of wide variety of antimicrobial agents, Pseudomonas aeruginosa continues to cause life threatening infection & complications in hospital acquired infections. Aims: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Material and Method: This prospective study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. During these period total 6390 samples (blood, wound pus, sputum, various body fluids, urine) were tested, of which 4076 samples showed growth. Out of 4076, 415 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. The samples were selected on the basis of their growth on routine Mac Conkey medium (lactose non-fermenting pale colonies) and on Brain Heart Infusion agar (greenish pigmented colonies) which were oxidase test positive & all confirmatory test positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility of all the isolates were performed by the Modified-Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method with Ceftazidime, Piperacillin, Piperacillin+Tazobactam, Imepenam, Lomefloxacillin, Tobramycin, Polymyxin B, Ofloxacin, Ticarcilin+Calvulanic acid & Amikacin according to CLSI guidelines. Results: In this study, maximum isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various samples were sensitive to Imepenem (90%), Ticarcillin+Clavulanic acid (79%) followed by Piperacillin+Tazobactum (73%) & polymyxin B (73%), Piperacillin(64%),Amikacin(52%) Ceftazidime (48%), Tobramycin (48%), Ofloxacin (47%), Lomefloxacillin (46%).
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram negative bacterium that continues to be a major cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections, causing around 9-10% of hospital infections. It is hard to treat because of intrinsic resistance of the species and its ability to further resistance to multiple groups including β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas and their susceptibility pattern at S.S.G. Hospital, BARODA. Materials and Methods: Between March 2015 to May 2015, 150strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different clinical specimens. The samples were selected on the basis of their growth on Mac Conkey and nutrient agar medium with oxidase positive. Colonies were subjected to biochemical tests to identify species. Antimicrobial susceptibility of all the isolates was performed by disc diffusion (Kirby –Bauer) method according to CLSIs guidelines. Results: Majority of isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from specimens of blood, pus, wound, sputum, tracheal aspirates, pleural fluid, ICD fluid, bile fluid.The prevalence of pathogen was 4.15% and 98% pathogens were sensitive Piperacillin+Tazobactum followed by Meropenem (93.33%), Levofloxacin (92.66%) , Ceftazidime (82%), Cefoperazone(81.33%), Piperacillin (80.66%), Amikacin(56%), Gentamicin(54.66%). Conclusion: The results confirmed the occurrence of drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Meropenem, Levofloxacin and Piperacillin+Tazobactumwere found to be the most effective antimicrobial drugs. It is rational treatment regimens prescription by the physicians to limit the further spread of antimicrobial resistance among the P. aeruginosa strains.
Frequency Percentage (%) Distribution of Palmaris Longus Agenesis in Different Population of the World 
Background: Palmaris longus muscle is a degenerating superficial flexor muscle of forearm. Absence of palmaris longus in different ethnic groups has been frequently encountered in clinical practice. Aim & Objectives: Present study was done to determine the incidence of unilateral and bilateral absence of palmaris longus and its association with gender and sides of the upper limb in western Indian population. Methods & Material: The sample constituted 500 healthy subjects (250 males and 250 females) which were examined clinically by standard technique. In subjects with an absence of palmaris longus tendon, three other clinical tests were performed to confirm its absence. Results: Overall absence of palmaris longus was observed in 91 subjects (18.2%) out of which 48 (9.6%) had unilateral absence and 36 (7.2%) had bilateral absence. Frequency of unilateral (Males: 8.4%, Females: 10.8%) and bilateral (Males: 5.2%, Females: 9.2%) agenesis was higher in females. In males, unilateral (8.4%) agenesis was more common than bilateral (5.2%). In subjects with unilateral agenesis right side (5.2%) was more commonly involved than left side (3.2%) in males whereas in females left side (7.2%) was more commonly involved than right (3.6%). However in present study there was no statistical association observed between absence of palmaris longus and gender or body sides in western Indian population. Conclusion: Agenesis of palmaris longus, both forms unilateral and bilateral was fairly common in western Indian population in both gender. Females had higher incidence of agenesis than males with unilateral agenesis more common than bilateral.
Background: Today‟s society dictates that it is the norm for people to have straight, white teeth. The demand therefore for tooth whitening in dental practice has increased exponentially over the last decade. A common approach to achieving this goal is by bleaching. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of bleaching with carbamide peroxide agents at concentrations 10%, 21% on the Micro hardness of Nano Composites and Nano hybrid Composite Restorative materials. Material and Methods: 60 pellets were prepared with both types of composites of 30 each using brass molds of inner diameter 4 mm and a height of 2 mm. For Micro hardness evaluation, samples of both were subdivided into control group (stored in artificial saliva), Experimental groups bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide and those bleached with 21% carbamide peroxide. Following 2 weeks of bleaching treatment, Vickers‟s hardness number was recorded for each test specimen using a Micro hardness meter. Results: One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Tukey‟s test for pair wise comparison. Bleaching with carbamide peroxide at concentrations 10% and 21% caused reduction in Micro hardness of Composite Restorative materials. Conclusion: On the basis of the present findings, it can be suggested that there was a significant reduction in the Micro hardness of restorative materials observed after exposure to Carbamide Peroxide agents under a clinically simulated bleaching regimen.
Distribution of cases according to the knowledge of causative organism
Observation showing myths among tuberculosis cases
Background: Tuberculosis is known since ages and its causative agent was discovered eight to nine decades ago and still misconception is present regarding its cause in India. India is facing TB epidemic at present. Objective: To assess the knowledge of Tuberculosis in patients regarding causative agent of the disease. Results: Total 300 TB patients participated in the study, 75% were male and 25% were female, 60% were married and 25% were unmarried 15% were widow or widower, 77% were Hindu and 22% were Muslims, 49% were literate and 51%were illiterate, 59% patients belonged to social class IV. 56% of patients knew the causative organism, 72% of the female don’t know the causative agent. 71% to 73% literate patients knew about the causative agent. Evil eye (56%), past sins (52%) was main myths as cause of TB. Lower socio economic class had more myths about the causative agent (23% in class IV) (58% in class V). Conclusion: In poor country like India emphasis must be paid regarding awareness of tuberculosis among poor and low socioeconomic group people and patient.
Three different types of luting agents after application of Gluma desensitizing agent
Background: Veneer restorations either an individual or component of fixed partial prosthesis play vital role in prosthetic dentistry. This study is carried out to evaluate retentivity of cementing medium i.e commercially available desensitizing agents. Aims & Objectives: 1. To evaluate the retentive ability of different luting cements used in Fixed Prosthodontics. 2. To compare the retentive ability of different luting cements used in Fixed Prosthodontics after application of desensitizing agents. Methods & Material: Three desensitizing materials are used i.e. Gluma, Systemp and Prime desensitizer. Zinc Phosphate, Zinc Polycarboxylate and Resin Reinforce Glass Ionomer cement used in study. Teeth were mounted in the auto polymerizing acrylic resin blocks. Sixty recently extracted caries free maxillary first premolar teeth of approximately similar sizes were selected. All sixty teeth grouped in to equal four groups. Group II, III & IV coated with Gluma, Systemp and Prime desensitizers respectively and group I left uncoated. Five samples from each group cemented with three different types of cement as mentioned. Samples were incubated and tested. Results: The application of Gluma desensitizing agent increases the tensile bond strength of the cements and the application of Systemp and Prime desensitizing agent does not have any significance on the tensile bond strength of luting agents.
Correlation between Aggression Scores on Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) and Psychopathology Scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)
Background: Persons with mental illness especially psychosis are considered aggressive. Objective: Present study aims to explore the prevalence of aggression and its correlation with the psychopathology in patients with first episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Material & Method: Sample consist 100 patients in first episode with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to DSM-IV TR. Case Record Form, Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS), Modified Overt Aggression Scale(MOAS), Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAS) were administered. Result: 68% of male and 51% of female patients showed some type of aggression. Aggression positively correlated with positive symptoms and general psychopathology scale of PANSS. Aggression correlated with psychopathology more than aggressive personality traits. Conclusion: In present study, aggression was prevalent in schizophrenia and its spectrum disorders. It directly has a positive correlation with positive symptoms scale of PANSS.. However, larger community based studies are needed to replicate our findings.
Introduction: Breast cancer is 4th leading cause of death in many parts of world. Unexplained increase in aggressiveness and more number of lymph node involvements in young females with breast cancer is of interest. Objective: This study is designed to assess the lymph node involvement in younger patients (40 years showing >3 lymph node positivity. Out of this statistics younger patients showing most of lymph nodes out of total to be positive as compared to older age group as it affects TNM staging and treatment protocol. Conclusion: Increase in risk of lymph node involvement in younger patients (25-40). All the young women in their 20s and 30s should examine herself and every 3 years by her health care professionals.
Total Platelet Count among females
Total Platelet Count among males
Background: Aging is not a disease but due to biochemical changes in tissue it increase risk for development of disease. It also affects the blood cells count. Aims: To determine the changes of aging as early as possible and thereby extending life span. Material and Methods: The prospective cross sectional study was conducted in the Physiology Department in collaboration with Pathology Department at M. P Shah Govt. Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat with sample size of 103 in the age group of 20 to 89 years. Out of these, 53 were males and 50 were females. Blood parameters were measured by automated cell counter. Result: Our result showed that Platelet count decrease significantly in males after sixth decade. In females, the changes were not significant in most of the blood parameters. Conclusion: Poor nutrition resulting in vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in old age might be the cause of early hematological changes and early aging. Non significant changes of blood parameters in females might have some hormonal correlation. Further study with large sample size may reveal more information.
Distribution of cases
Comparison of Benign and Malignant lesions
Background: To study Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) count in FNAC lymph node in case of lymphadenopathy & to differentiate between malignant &non-malignant lesions Aim: To prove the diagnostic & Prognostic role of AgNOR in tumour pathology & application of AgNOR techniques to non-neoplastic& neoplastic growth & evaluation of AgNOR in cytology of various lesions of lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Lymph node FNAC specimens were taken from 150 patients attending pathology department of Shri M.P.Shah Govt. Medical College & GGG hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during the period of January 2004 to February 2006. FNA of enlarged lymphnode was taken & smears were prepared & fixed in cytofix (50% ethly alcohol) also all smears were stained by H & E(were confirmed) as well as silver nitrate stain. 100 nuclei were assessed for each smear by 100x oil immersion lenses. Result: In this study a total number of 150 cases were included (80 benign & 70 malignant) in various lesions of lymphnode. Conclusion: AgNOR count is directly proportional to the severity of neoplastic lesions which increases with ascending grades of malignancy. Also it is a good technique in cytology.
Pseudomonas Candidiasis a  
Hyperplastic Candidiasis a  
Human Papilloma Virus a  
Oral disease is frequently associated with HIV. While nearly all oral disorders associated with HIV infection also occur in other conditions characterized by immune-suppression, no other condition is associated with as wide and significant a spectrum of oral disease as is HIV infection. Many HIV-associated oral disorders occur early in HIV infection, not infrequently as the presenting sign or symptom. Thus, early detection of associated oral disease should, in many cases, result in earlier diagnosis of HIV infection. Likewise, awareness of the variety of oral disorders which can develop throughout the course of HIV infection, and coordination of health care services between physician and dentist, should improve overall health and comfort of the patient. This paper reviews the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of HIV-associated oral disorders.
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 2.5% of HIV cases among healthcare workers worldwide are due to result of such exposures. While treating HIV positive patients or persons with unknown status and with high risk behavior, health professionals are at risk of getting HIV/AIDS at every stage as one of the occupational hazards. Aim: The perceptions in relation with prevention of HIV/AIDS amongst health care workers. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional observational study carried out among 100 PG students, 50 medical officers, 210 nurses, 40 lab technicians and 100 primary health workers from district hospital as well as from peripheral CHCs and PHCs. Multistage stratified random sampling was done. Data was analyzed by Epi Info software. Results: The overall percentage of health functionaries having faith in Universal Precautions as a preventive tool in present study was 75%.Of those who had knowledge about Universal Precautions; only 49.45% of the PG students, 22% of the Medical officers, 28.3% of the Nurses, 17.40% of the Lab. technicians and 33.3% of the Health workers had favored using Universal Precautions with each patient. Conclusion: At the end of the study we can be able to find out various false perceptions and beliefs amongst health care worker in relation to prevention of HIV/AIDS at day to day work. Supportive supervision and onsite training and corrections are needed. Periodic Joint Training particularly in practical aspect for all level of health care workers is need of hour.
Background: Irrespective of modern suturing technique of closure of abdominal wall, POIH(post-Op incisional hernia) is frequent complication of abdominal surgery, Repair of POIH with mesh has improved result & it has also reduced recurrence. Aims: To observe and scrutinize the technique in the form of simplicity, post-Op complication and anatomical reconstruction. Material &Methods: Patients having lower midline incisional hernia were operated upon by present technique of incisional hernia repair by reconstruction of meshed lineaalba were selected for the study. Patients were observed in Pre Op and Post-Op period & when they attend out-patient clinics. Data was collected in prescribed format& statistically analyzed to draw the conclusion. Result: In our study of 20 patients, 95% of females (n= 19) outnumbered 5% males (n=1). The highest incidence was in the 5th& 6th decade of life. No patients were found having major wound infection, seroma formation, or recurrence of hernia. 20 patients (100%) attended our follow up which ranged from 3 months to 6 months. 15 patients (75%) attended the OPD personally for follow up. Remaining 5 patients (25%) were questioned over the telephone and their response recorded. The average hospital stay recorded was 5-6 days. No recurrence was encountered in the follow up group. Conclusion: This technique of Reconstruction of meshed lineaalba was found to be technically simple, leading to least post op complications and attaining its goal of curing the lower abdominal incisional hernia.
Background: Periodontal disease is closely related to type 2 diabetes and is an important complication of diabetes. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of periodontal treatment on levels of blood glucose (Glu) and glycated albumin (GA) among patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontal disease. Methods: A total of 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontal disease were selected and divided into two groups according to their GA levels. Group A was a well-controlled diabetic group and group B was uncontrolled. Their probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), the value of glucose and GA were analyzed before periodontal treatment and every two weeks in two months interval after. Results: There was a significant difference in periodontal condition between groups A and B (P
Grading of response to treatment 
Response to Treatment 
Background: Capillary hemangiomas are the most common tumors of the eyelids and orbit in children. They typically appear at or shortly after birth, with approximately 90% being clinically obvious by 2 months of age. Complications include functional sequelae like anisometropia, amblyopia, visual axis impairment; cosmetic sequelae like scarring, ulceration, bleeding, displacement of the globe, proptosis and even optic nerve compression. Therapeutic options include corticosteroids, beta-blockers, pulse dye laser, topical imiquimod, interferon-α, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and surgery. Aim: The aim of our study is to investigate the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone and combination of intralesional triamcinolone with topical timolol in treatment of periocular infantile hemangioma & its recurrence. Method: This prospective study was performed in 24 patients with periocular hemangiomas requiring intervention. Patients were arranged in two groups: Triamcinolone acetonide intralesional injection alone & combination of triamcinolone acetonide intralesional injection with timolol maleate local application. Patients were followed up for three months. The size of the hemangioma was measured in mm2. Result: In Group 1, 66.66% of patients showed good response while in group 2, 88.89% of patients showed good response. Group 2 showed less recurrence rate than group 1. None of the patients developed local side effects during or after injection. Conclusion: Beta blocker and intralesional steroid both are relatively safe and effective for the periocular capillary hemangioma. Beta blocker with intralesional steroid has less chances of recurrence than beta blocker and steroid alone.
Distribution of HIV positive persons according to route of transmission of HIV infection 
Introduction: AIDS epidemic has spread across all sections of Indian society. Some unique features of the disease like extraordinarily high fatality, taboos associated with it and non-availability of cure makes it different from other STDs. Objective: To study the risk behaviour and mode of transmission of HIV in attendees who tested HIV positive at ICTC. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study carried out at Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre at Govt. Medical College, Amritsar from Jan’09 to Dec’09. ICTC was visited thrice a week and by using purposive sampling all the persons (405) who came to collect their positive reports on these three days of the week, were included in the study after obtaining their written informed consent. Data analysis was done by using statistical software Epi Info version 7. Results: Most of the respondents were males, currently married, educated up-to middle school level and belonging to lower socio economic status. Almost three-fourth (76%) of them acquired HIV infection as a result of unprotected sex, followed by IV drug abuse (20%), blood transfusion (8.4%) and unsafe injections by quacks (1.5%). Majority of them had a single partner (57.5%) and out of those acquiring infection via IV drug use, majority were using shared needles as well as syringes. Conclusion: HIV infection is found to be more common in males. Sexual route was the commonest mode of transmission. The proportion of respondents acquiring HIV infection via IV drug abuse was found to be significant and much higher in this region as compared to national average.
Age distribution of patients
Comparison of result of Direct Coomb's Test Done by Conventional Method and Gel card Method
Agglutination of the sensitized red cell by antihuman globulin molecule  
Background: The diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) requires the establishment of hemolysis and demonstration of autoantibodies against red cells. Most laboratories use the conventional Coomb's test for the demonstration of the autoantibodies. However, in approximately 4-8% of the patients who present with the clinical and haematological features of AIHA, the direct agglutination test is negative on repeated testing. Attempts are therefore being made to identify a test which could be more sensitive than the conventional test, yet retaining the simplicity and cost effectiveness of the test. Aims & Objective: Comparison between Gel card and Conventional Direct Coombs Test for diagnosis of autoimmune haemolytic anemia. Material and Methods: Direct Coomb’s test done by conventional methods and Gel card methods. In the present study, the efficacy of the newly developed gel card test has been compared with the conventional Coomb's test for detection of autoantibodies in 100 cases clinically suspected to have haemolytic anemia in Guru Gobind Singh Government Hospital, Jamnagar. Results and Conclusion: The gel card picked up the antibodies in all the cases that were detected to be positive by the conventional test. In addition the gel card also picked up 2 tests which were negative by the conventional method. In view of the high sensitivity, specificity and the simplicity of the procedure this test (Gel Method) may be effectively used for diagnosis of AIHA.
Analysis of prescriptions using WHO prescribing indicators 
Background:To analyze prescription pattern of drugs and its cost in indoor malaria patients in year 2013-14 at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a record based, retrospective, observational study carried out in PDU Medical College Rajkot Gujarat, in which prescription pattern of drugs and cost of the therapy of indoor malaria patients of the year 2013-14 were analyzed. Results: Out of 100 patients, 59 were infected with Plasmodium falciparum (59%) and 38 withPlasmodium vivax (38%). Most of the complicated cases were found from Plasmodium falciparum (n = 29) than Plasmodium vivax (n = 2). In prescriptions, total 2238 drugs were prescribed to treat 100 cases out of which 69 were successfully treated.67.42% of the drugs were prescribed by parenteral route (n =1509).The average number of drugs per encounter was 6.11.Total 432 antimalarial and 259 antimicrobials drugs were used in this study. 59.02% of drugs were prescribed by generic name (n =1322). 8.40% of drugs were prescribed from outside (n = 188).Majority of the drugs (96.20%) were from EML. Average drug cost to treat complicated P. falciparum case (485.68 INR) was found to be higher than uncomplicated P. falciparum (297.35 INR). Same applies in case of P. vivax. Conclusion:This study showed that there was irrational use of anti-malarial drugs and the treatment guidelines given by NVBDCP, India were not being followed. This caused increase in cost of treatment and in long term this may even contribute to drug resistance. Interventions are necessary to improve rational drug use in our facility.
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