Levobupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.5% were shown to be equally effective in spinal anaesthesia. In previous studies, low dose bupivacaine with an intrathecal opioid was used successfully in urological surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and block quality of low dose levobupivacaine, and compare it with low dose bupivacaine when they are combined with fentanyl in transurethral resection of prostate surgery.
Forty nine patients undergoing transurethral prostate surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized and double blind study. Patients in levobupivacaine group received 5 mg levobupivacaine + 25 μg fentanyl and bupivacaine group received 5 mg bupivacaine + 25 μg fentanyl. Demographic data, surgery times, hemodynamic parameters, block qualities and patient and surgeon satisfactions were recorded.
Demographic data, surgery times and patient and surgeon satisfactions were similar in both groups. Hemodynamic parameters were comparable and stable during the procedure in both groups. Sensory block characteristics were comparable and clinically effective in both groups. While 3 patients in bupivacaine group had Bromage score of 3 at the beginning of the surgery, no patient in levobupivacaine group had this score and this difference was significant (p = 0.042). Bromage scores at the end of the surgery were comparable in both groups.
In conclusion, for transurethral prostate surgery 5 mg levobupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl can provide stable hemodynamic profile, patient and surgeon satisfaction and effective sensorial blockade with less motor blockade in spinal anaesthesia; so it could be used at low doses as a good alternative to bupivacaine.
The new antiepileptic medications are prescribed for the treatment of patients with seizure disorders since 17 years ago. Gabapentin (GBP) was approved on January 1994 as adjunctive treatment in patients 12 years or older with partial seizures, with or devoid of secondary generalization. GBP, was formerly known as an anticonvulsant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mimetic, is considered as a safe and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug (AED) with promising pharmacokinetic properties and a wide therapeutic index. GBP is useful for the therapy of mixed seizure disorders and refractory partial seizures in children. GBP must be regarded as the first treatment for older patients with recently diagnosed seizures. GBP has a well recognized clinical efficacy in those types of focal epilepsy which were resistant to the traditional AEDs. The main object of this review was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, dosing schedules and safety of GBP that have been investigated in peer-reviewed journals.
Acne scarring is treatable by a variety of modalities. Ablative carbon dioxide laser (ACL), while effective, is associated with undesirable side effect profiles. Newer modalities using the principles of fractional photothermolysis (FP) produce modest results than traditional carbon dioxide (CO(2)) lasers but with fewer side effects. A novel ablative CO(2) laser device use a technique called ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR), combines CO(2) ablation with a FP system. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Q-switched 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser and that of fractional CO(2) laser in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe acne scarring.
Sixty four subjects with moderate to severe facial acne scars were divided randomly into two groups. Group A received Q-Switched 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser and group B received fractional CO(2) laser. Two groups underwent four session treatment with laser at one month intervals. Results were evaluated by patients based on subjective satisfaction and physicians' assessment and photo evaluation by two blinded dermatologists. Assessments were obtained at baseline and at three and six months after final treatment.
Post-treatment side effects were mild and transient in both groups. According to subjective satisfaction (p = 0.01) and physicians' assessment (p < 0.001), fractional CO(2) laser was significantly more effective than Q- Switched 1064- nm Nd: YAG laser.
Fractional CO2 laser has the most significant effect on the improvement of atrophic facial acne scars, compared with Q-Switched 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser.
Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a multisystem, progressive and fatal disease. Renal involvement occurs early in the course of AA. We aimed to investigate the etiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of patients with biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 121 patients (male/female: 84/37, mean age 42.6 ± 14.4 years) were analyzed retrospectively between January of 2001 and May of 2013. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features and outcomes data were obtained from follow-up charts.
Familial Mediterranean fever (37.2%) and tuberculosis (24.8%) were the most frequent causes of amyloidosis. Mean serum creatinine and proteinuria at diagnosis were 2.3 ± 2.1 mg/dL and 6.7 ± 5.3 g/day, respectively. Sixty-eight (56.2%) patients were started dialysis treatment during the follow-up period. Mean duration of renal survival was 64.7 ± 6.3 months. Age, serum creatinine and albumin levels were found as predictors of end-stage renal disease. Fifty patients (%41.3) died during the follow-up period. The mean survival of patients was 88.7 ± 7.8 months (median: 63 ± 13.9). 1, 2 and 5 years survival rates of patients were 80.7%, 68.2% and 51.3%, respectively. Older age, male gender, lower levels of body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin, calcium, and higher levels of phosphor, intact parathyroid hormone and proteinuria were associated with a higher mortality. Higher serum creatinine, lower albumin, dialysis requirement and short time to dialysis were predictors of mortality.
The outcome of patients with AA amyloidosis and renal involvement is poor, particularly in those who had massive proteinuria, severe hypoalbuminemia and dialysis requirement at the outset.
Gastric carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Iran. It is well-known that atrophic gastritis is a major risk factor for gastric cancer, which leads to variations in the serum levels of gastrin 17 (G-17), pepsinogen I (P-I), and pepsinogen II (P-II). The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of these serum biomarkers in the early detection of atrophic gastritis.
A total of 132 dyspeptic patients underwent upper endoscopy and biopsies were taken. The biopsy specimens were evaluated as the gold standard according to operative link for gastritis assessment staging system. Serum levels of G-17, P-I, and P-II were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the diagnostic indices and optimal cut-off values using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS statistical software.
A total of 67 men and 65 women were analyzed, among which 48 (36.4%) had atrophic gastritis. The mean age was 45.8 (±15.8) years. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the biomarkers (including pepsinogen I/II [P-I/II] ratio), except for P-I, are diagnostically significant in detecting gastric atrophy. The area under the curve (95% confidence interval [CI]) for G-17, P-I, P-II, and P-I/II ratio were 0.65 (0.55-0.76), 0.42 (0.32-0.53), 0.62 (0.52-0.72), and 0.61 (0.50-0.72), respectively. However, the diagnostic indices were low (sensitivity <50%, specificity < 90%). The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with atrophy against those without atrophy (75.0% vs. 57.4%, P value < 0.0001).
In the studied population, the serum biomarkers of atrophic gastritis are not useful screening tests due to their low sensitivity.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease with autoimmune etiology, characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. There are controversial data about the profile of interleukin-17 (IL-17A), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-gamma (INFγ), indicating in some studies the key role of IL-17, while in others the Th1 cytokines.
Serum samples of 31 early RA patients were evaluated for erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and for the tested cytokines (IL-17A, IL-4, and INFγ). Disease activity score (DAS28) calculation was done for all patients. Control serum samples were obtained from 29 healthy volunteers.
The levels of tested cytokines were significantly higher (IL-17A, p < 0.001; INFγ, p < 0.001; IL-4, p < 0.01) in patients with early RA, compared to the healthy controls. In early RA patients, a strong correlation of serum IL-17A was found with DAS28, ESR, and CRP. Also, significant negative correlation was found between serum INFγ levels and the DAS28 score, indicating that INFγ may play a key role in maintaining immune homeostasis in patients with RA.
The mean serum IL-17A levels in patients with early RA, corresponded with the disease activity and severity. This might highlight the usefulness of the serum IL-17A level in defining the activity and predictive patterns, for aggressive disease therapy, and it might express specific therapeutically targets.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of an innovative, minimally invasive sling technique with autologous tissue in women with concomitant incontinence and anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP).
Fifty-six women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence and AVWP were randomly assigned into two groups: In Group A (26 patients), anterior colporrhaphy (Kelly placation) and sling placement using a strip of anterior vaginal wall were performed, and in Group B (30 patients), transvaginal mesh correction of AVWP and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) insertion (retropubic - craniocaudal route) using polypropylene mesh were carried out. The patients were followed-up for over 18 months and were assessed objectively using a 48 h frequency-volume chart, a 48 h pad test and a standardized stress test. Related surgical complications and outcomes were recorded and compared.
Surgical cure rates for Group A and Group B at the first (3 days) and last (18 months) post-operative visits were 62% and 84%; and 54%, and 72%, respectively (P = 0.09 and 0.31). Complications occurred in 9 patients (44%) of Group B, but only 3 patients (12%) in Group A.
Vaginal sling surgery using an anterior vaginal wall strip can improve SUI and in comparison with propylene mesh is associated with lower complication rates. Although, the surgical success rate of this technique is lower than T-Sling, larger studies with selected patients will help assess the suitable patients for this pelvic reconstructive surgery.
Carbamazepine has been used as AEDs since 1965, and is most effective against partial seizures. Two basic mechanisms of action have been proposed: 1) enhancement of sodium channel inactivation by reducing high-frequency repetitive firing of action potentials, 2) and action on synaptic transmission. The aim of this study was to provide a review of carbamazepine pharmacokinetics and its management guidelines in Iranian epileptic population.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), Web of Science were searched; 1600, 722 and 167 research and review articles relevant to the topics; carbamazepine pharmacokinetics, carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in epilepsy and review on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in epilepsy were found, respectively.
Carbamazepine is highly bound to plasma proteins. In patients the protein-bound fraction ranged from 75-80% of the total plasma concentration. Bioavailability ranges from 75-85%. The rate or extent of absorption was not be affected by food. It is completely metabolized and the main metabolite is carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-E). Carbamazepine induces its own metabolism, leading to increased clearance, shortened serum half-life, and progressive decrease in serum levels. Increases in daily dosage are necessary to maintain plasma concentration. Severe liver dysfunction may cause disordered pharmacokinetics. In cardiac failure, congestion of major vital organs, including kidneys, may result in abnormally slow absorption and metabolism.
Carbamazepine shows variability due to its narrow therapeutic window. Therefore clinical management in a3n Iranian epileptic population should focus on results derived from therapeutic drug monitoring in order to reduce inter and intra- individual variability in plasma drug concentrations.
By providing a picture from published articles in a field, bibliometric studies can inform policy-makers in their challenging research funding decisions. In this regard, we applied bibliometric analysis to the Iranian pediatrics articles published in PubMed indexed journals between 1975 and 2007.
We evaluated all pediatric articles that had been published from Iran in different PubMed indexed journals from 1975 to 2007. Journal data (i.e. date of publishing, journal name, impact factor of the journal, language), authors data (i.e. number of authors, international collaboration, affiliation of the corresponding author), and paper characteristics [i.e. type of article, research design, study population (neonate, infant, child, and adolescent), and specialty] were registered.
During this period of time, 819 articles from Iran had been published in PubMed indexed journals, with a sharp increasing trend after 2002. Impact factors were up to 25.8. Paper had an international co-author in 13.7%. Regarding study population, 24.1% of studies were published on neonates, 23.6% on infants, and the remaining 66.3% of studies were performed on children and adolescents from 2 to 18 years old. Infectious disease was the most frequent area of research, followed by public health and metabolic disease. Original articles were the most frequent type (89.7%) of the published articles. Study design was cross-sectional in 51.2%, retrospective in 36.3%, and prospective in 11.6%. Clinical trials made up 4.8% of the total papers.
Contribution of Iran in production of pediatrics science is showing a sharp increase after 2002, this pattern is in parallel with other research fields.
Iraq fought three wars in three consecutive decades, Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), Persian Gulf War in 1991, and the Iraq's war in 2003. In the nineties of the last century and up to the present time, there have been anecdotal reports of increase in cancer in Ninawa as in all provinces of Iraq, possibly as a result of exposure to depleted uranium used by American troops in the last two wars. This paper deals with cancer incidence in Ninawa, the most importance province in Iraq, where many of her sons were soldiers in the Iraqi army, and they have participated in the wars.
The data was derived from the Directorate of Health in Ninawa. The data was divided into three sub periods: 1980-1990, 1991-2000, and 2001-2010. The analyses are performed using Poisson regressions. The response variable is the cancer incidence number. Cancer cases, age, sex, and years were considered as the explanatory variables. The logarithm of the population of Ninawa is used as an offset. The aim of this paper is to model the cancer incidence data and estimate the cancer incidence rate ratio (IRR) to illustrate the changes that have occurred of incidence cancer in Ninawa in these three periods.
There is evidence of a reduction in the cancer IRR in Ninawa in the third period as well as in the second period. Our analyses found that breast cancer remained the first common cancer; while the lung, trachea, and bronchus the second in spite of decreasing as dramatically. Modest increases in incidence of prostate, penis, and other male genitals for the duration of the study period and stability in incidence of colon in the second and third periods. Modest increases in incidence of placenta and metastatic tumors, while the highest increase was in leukemia in the third period relates to the second period but not to the first period. The cancer IRR in men was decreased from more than 33% than those of females in the first period, more than 39% in the second period, and regressed to 9.56% in the third period.
Our paper confirms the media reports that there are increases in the number of cancer cases, but when it analyzed statistically with population growth in the Ninawa province, there are decreases in incidence rates in most cancer types.
This study aimed to compare the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene expression in the cord blood of infants born from mothers living in low- and high-air polluted areas.
The study was conducted in Spring 2012 in Isfahan, the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The study comprised 60 neonates, consisting of 30 infants born from mothers residing in areas with high levels of air pollution and an equal number of infants born in areas with a lower air pollution level. The umbilical cord blood sample was taken immediately after birth. The relative gene expression levels of CYP1A1 were examined using real time-polymerase chain reaction method.
CYP1A1 gene expression level was 3.3-fold higher in the group living in areas with higher pollution level than in the other group (P = 0.01). No significant difference existed in the mean values of maternal age, gestational age, the newborns' birth weight, and the gender distribution between the two groups.
This study provides confirmatory evidence of prenatal health hazards of ambient air pollution and highlights the need for pollution prevention programs to protect women of childbearing age and their children. The clinical implications of this study finding should be confirmed in future longitudinal studies.
Endometriosis is a chronic and progressive gynecological disorder and is manifest by dysmenorrhea and a major cause of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. The study was designed to compare the value of cervico-vaginal fluid of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) in patients with and without endometriosis.
Fifty women were assessed in this case control study. The case group included 25 patients with endometriosis. The control group included 25 women without any evidence of endometriosis or any other genital disease. Endometriosis was confirmed by laparoscopy and histopathological examination. Cervico-vaginal fluid samples were obtained from patients during the follicular phase and preup surgery to assess the levels of IL-1α in cervico-vaginal fluid. The level of IL-1α was assessed using commercially available Avi Bionhuman Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits (FIN-01720, Vantaa, Finland) for IL-1α. Receiver-operator curve analysis was used to estimate the power of IL-1α to distinguish subjects with endometriosis from controls.
The cervico-vaginal fluid level of IL-1α in cases was 210.44 ± 40.11 pg/mL and in controls was 54.28 ± 25.73 pg/mL, the differences between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The cut-off point for cervico-vaginal fluid IL-1 for endometriosis was 105 pg/mL, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.2-100), and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 86.2-100).
Results show a significant increase in the cervico-vaginal fluid levels of IL-1α, in women with endometriosis, that it can be a useful marker in the diagnosis of endometriosis.
The efficacy of Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus interferon beta-1a (IFNB-1a) in treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) was evaluated.
This was a pilot study with randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design. Patients with RRMS and Expanded Disability Status Scale score (EDSS) of < 6.0 were included. Those with relapse within the previous two months and prior use of immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive drugs were excluded. Patients were randomized into MMF (n = 13) and placebo (n = 13) groups and received weekly intramuscular IFNB-1a plus either MMF or placebo. MMF started by 500 mg/d for one week and weekly escalated by 500 mg/d, until target divided dose of 2000 mg/d and continued for 12 months. Radiologic and clinical assessments were performed at baseline and then at month 12.
After one year of therapy, difference between the two groups in number of new T2 lesions was not statistically significant (0.54 ± 0.77 in MMF vs. 1.85 ± 3.2 in placebo group, p = 0.169). Two patients in the placebo group had gadoliniumenhanced lesions and one patient had relapse. There were 3 patients in each group with more than one point progression in EDSS. Common side effect in the MMF group included gastrointestinal upset, but no patient discontinued the treatment.
Combination of MMF with IFNB-1a in patients with RRMS is well tolerated, but the efficacy of such combination was not statistically significant in this pilot study and deserves further investigation with a larger sample size and a longer follow-up.
Methotrexate, a toxic antimetabolite that limits cellular reproduction by acting as an antagonist to folic acid, has been used to control autoimmune disease with different results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low dose Methotrexate in the relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
Eighty patients with definite RRMS aged 15 to 55 years were randomly allocated to receive a 12-month treatment course of either oral Methotrexate (7.5 mg/week) or intramuscular Interferon β-1α (30 μg/week). Response to treatment was assessed at 12 months after start of therapy.
The results of the study demonstrated significant reduction in relapse rate in both groups (p < 0.01). In 40 patients treated by Methotrexate, the mean value (SD) of relapse rate decreased from 1.75 (0.74) to 0.97 (0.83) (p < 0.01). Correspondingly, the mean value (SD) of relapse rate in patients treated by Interferon β-1α decreased from 1.52 (0.59) to 0.57 (0.78) (p < 0.01). Decrease of relapse rate in Interferon β-1α group was more than that in the other group (p = 0.06).
This study suggests that although treatment with Methotrexate may significantly reduce relapse rate and slow progression of disease in patients with RRMS, its efficacy is less than Interferon β-1α and it may be better used as add-on therapy.
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed.
The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009.
Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant.
The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.
Cancer incidence rate is increasing in the world particularly in developing countries. The awareness regarding cancer incidence and distribution helps policy makers and researchers to design comprehensive plan for controlling cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate and trend of cancer in Isfahan area, one of the most importance provinces of Iran.
Data of Isfahan cancer registry were derived from 2005 to 2010. Direct standardization through world standard population produced by the world health organization was used and adjusted standard rate (ASR) was calculated. The Poisson regression analysis was employed to estimate cancer incidence trend during 5 years.
The new cases of cancer were 24771 patients from 2005 to 2010. Mean age of these patients was 56.1 ± 18.0 years and 54.6% were male. Male patients were approximately 7 years older than females. The most frequent cancer was gastrointestinal in men and breast cancer in women. The rate of cancer increased approximately 4 per 1000 population and incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 1.004 (95%CI: 1.002-1.005).
The rate of cancer is increasing rapidly in Isfahan province. Cancer control and comprehensive prevention plan for Isfahan is necessary.
This study aimed to determine the secular trends in the national prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old Iranian children, and to compare the results in Northern, Central and Southern parts of the country.
The data were collected as part of a routine and mandatory national screening program on children entering elementary schools in 2007, 2008 and 2009.
The study population comprised 2,600,065 children including 862,433 in 2007, 782,244 in 2008 and 955,388 in 2009. Of total children 12.8%, 13.5% and 10.9% were overweight in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively (P > 0.05). The corresponding figures for obesity were 3.4%, 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively (P > 0.05). In all surveys, the prevalence of overweight was higher in Southern region than in the other two regions. P for trend was not significant for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in any of the regions.
To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first of its kind in presenting the nationwide trend of overweight and obesity in young children living in a developing country. It showed a considerably high prevalence of overweight and obesity, but with a constant rate in three years. The higher prevalence of overweight in Southern region than in Central and Northern regions might be related to the lower socioeconomic position of this population. At a very young age, children's lifestyle is more under control of parents. Primordial and primary prevention efforts against the overweight epidemic can be effective and shall be further strengthened.
Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus arrived at Isfahan in August 2009. The virus is still circulating in the world. The abnormal thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) scan findings vary widely among the studies of 2009 H1N1 influenza. We evaluated the thoracic CT findings in patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection to describe findings compared to previously reported findings, and to suggest patterns that may be suggestive for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in an appropriate clinical setting.
Retrospectively, the archive of all patients with a diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A were reviewed, in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, central Iran, between September 23(rd) 2009 to February 20(th) 2010. Out of 216 patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus, 26 cases with abnormal CT were enrolled in the study. Radiologic findings were characterized by the type and pattern of opacities and zonal distribution.
Patchy infiltration (34.6%), lobar consolidation (30.8%), and interstitial infiltration (26.9%) with airbronchogram (38.5%) were the predominant findings in our patients. Bilateral distribution was seen in 80.8% of the patients. Only one patient (3.8%) showed ground-glass opacity, predominant radiographic finding in the previous reports and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
The most common thoracic CT findings in pandemic H1N1 were patchy infiltration, lobar consolidation, and interstitial infiltration with airbronchogram and bilateral distribution. While these findings can be associated with other infections; they may be suggestive to 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in the appropriate clinical setting. Various radiographic patterns can be seen in thoracic CT scans of the influenza patients. Imaging findings are nonspecific.