Lovaas was the first professional to use the principle of behavior modification for autism with a technique he called DTT (Discrete Trial Training), which later to be known as ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis). Through his study, Lovaas found that 47% of subjects had excellent results. While 42% with varying degrees, and the other 11% of subjects very little progress. In DTT, there are 2 possible responses, but the researchers' observations do not seem to be just 2 possibilities. This study's goal is to improve discrete trial training (DTT) procedures to increase the effectiveness of Smart Applied Behavior Analysis therapy for autism spectrum disorder. This study uses quantitative methods with a literature review research design. Research data is obtained through interviews, document studies, and literature reviews (journals and websites). The study focused on the researchers' findings that were adapted to earlier theories. The study was conducted at the researchers' autism clinic. During the implementation of therapy using DTT, the researchers observed that the child's response is not only 2, namely correct and incorrect. Based on the study conducted, it was obtained that there were 5 possible responses: Correct, incorrect, partial-correct, off-task, and no-response. Each of which required different feedback and its subsequent sequences, as well as the possibility of different causative factors which require different interventions. Further research with large and multi-center samples will further increase the effectiveness of DTT applications in Smart ABA for autism. This study was based on the researchers' findings while observing, mentoring, and supervising autism therapists.
This research identified the factors influencing the adjustment to college life among freshmen students, specifically focusing on those enrolled in the College of Business and Accountancy. The findings of this study will serve as the foundation for an actionable plan to be presented to the University of Cebu's administration department. A descriptive-correlational research method was employed, utilizing data from the Freshmen Interaction Form gathered over the past decade. The research uncovered a significant correlation between the factors impacting freshmen students' adjustment to college life and their gender. Among freshmen in the College of Accountancy, these factors were found to be linked to their biological sexual orientation. Notably, factors such as Personal, School-Related, Interpersonal, and financial aspects were identified as the primary influencers on the adjustment of first-year students within the College of Business and Accountancy. This study sheds light on the nuanced nature of college adjustment factors, especially among students pursuing business and accountancy degrees, and provides valuable insights for enhancing the support systems and services offered by the University of Cebu.
This study aimed to analyze the relations between smartphone addiction, personality traits, achievement motivation and problem-solving ability and explore the influence of smartphone addiction, personality traits, achievement motivation on university students' problem-solving ability. 682 students (male = 227, female = 455) from a Chinese public university participated in the research voluntarily. Data were collected by the short-version of the smartphone addiction scale, the ten-item personality inventory, the achievement motives scale, and the social problem-solving inventory. The correlations and multiple hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results were as follows: Firstly, it was found that there was a significant negative correlation between smartphone addiction and achievement motivation and problem-solving ability, a significant positive correlation between achievement motivation and problem-solving ability, and a significant correlation between the factors of personality traits and smartphone addiction and problem-solving ability respectively. Secondly, it was found that emotional stability of personality traits, smartphone addiction and the "fear of failure" sub-dimensions of achievement motivation significantly explained problem-solving ability. Based on these research results, some suggestions were given for the improvement of the educational field.
This research paper explores the linguistic profile of a six-year old autistic boy who acquired the English language without receiving formal instruction. The study tries to shed light on the child’s linguistic abilities in the light of Chomsky’s innateness theory. This paper uses participant observations and informal questioning to collect data covertly in a naturalistic setting which is the school. The findings of the study revealed that school boy has a functional and communicative use of the English language, which exceeds basic knowledge. His early exposure to YouTube videos in English made him fully conversational, even verbose, contrary to his state when he is using the Moroccan dialect, a fact that implies that English might be his L1 language.
Psychological and physical disabilities or impairments create barriers to aspects of healthy eating, thus nutritional needs. A Formulated Meal Replacement (FMR) can reduce those barriers and often can be seen as a necessity in optimising nutritional needs. Healthy eating is interdependent on psychological, social, and environmental factors. In recent years FMRs have become a popular nutrition method to help individuals reach their healthy eating goals. FMRs do solve several problems which may impact healthy eating, such as different social determinants of health, adherence, and permitting some unhealthy behaviours in relation to nutrition, such as more calories available for alcohol or other discretionary nutrition choices. However, FMRs do have a drawback when considering the product serving for different ages, genders, and activity levels. APOC is a nutrition-based company that has developed an FMR. APOC FMR allows easy adherence to self-administration of an appropriate serving for an individual’s age and gender at its simplest form, weight, and activity level at its more complex form. This paper provides two phases. Firstly, discussing the scientific rationale for APOC FMR’s nutrition, including addressing psychological, social, and environmental factors contributing to healthy eating. Secondly, the importance of the FMR for the case study of an individual with a disability. The APOC FMR significantly assisted the individual in healthy eating. It is important to note that the actual reasons that APOC FMR contributes to healthy eating in individuals who have a disability or impairment can be replicated to abled or only slightly limited individuals.
Adolescence is a developmental phase marked with a heightened risk of inception of mental health disorders. The neglect in addressing mental health issues during childhood and adolescence could lead to the development of mental health problems in later life. The perspective with which children perceive their parent's parenting influences the children's mental health. Furthermore, the gender of the parent has its impacts on the shaping of a child's personality under the patriarchal society. The present research attempted to investigate the impact of different parenting styles (paternal) on adolescents' mental health. The study sample comprised 150 adolescents of 14-17 years in age from different schools located in the state of Haryana, India. Parenting Authority Questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used to assess parenting styles and mental health. The present study's findings suggest that adolescents with a permissive parenting style have poor mental health compared with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles. The study recommends incorporating healthy practices in parenting styles to prevent mental health issues among adolescents.
The study aimed to analyze the psychological intrinsic mechanisms of learning-weariness among Chinese adolescents from the perspective of Satir's iceberg theory. Desktop research and literature review are adopted to investigate Chinese adolescents. Learning-weariness phenomenon among Chinese adolescents can be explained in three main aspects in conjunction with the iceberg theory: Resistance to Authority, labeling trap, and emotional Appetite, so that relevant suggestions can be made to focus on the positive qualities or capability of the service targets themselves, deconstruct the internal iceberg, use positive resources to change the state of self, and realize self-empowerment.
This research has an objective to see whether optimistic thinking training has an effect of improving the street children's self-esteem in the Komunitas Peduli Anak (KOPA) Medan. The hypothesis in this research is that optimistic thinking training improved the street children's self-esteem in the Komunitas Peduli Anak (KOPA) Medan. This research was an experimental research type with the design of one group pretest-posttest design. The data was obtained through the normality test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. The analysis technics in this research were qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative analysis used parametric measurement was the statistic analysis technic of Paired Sample Test with SPSS program assistance (Statistical Product and Service Solution) version 23. The qualitative analysis was based on the observation result data and interview. The result from the Paired Samples Test statistic test used in this research obtained the Sig. Value of 0.000. Statistically, if the value is Sig.<0.05 so, the hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, based on the analysis result, the conclusion that can be drawn is optimistic thinking training is affected to improve street children' self-esteem in the Komunitas Peduli Anak (KOPA) Medan.
Many Chinese undergraduate students report feeling anxious in college, particularly in English classes. Parenting styles make a profound impact on students’ learning behaviors and emotions due to many factors. Thus, the current study is about to what extent could parenting styles predict foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA). The participants were 247 college students whose native language was Chinese. The FLCA levels among Chinese undergraduate students were moderately high, and there was no discernible difference in anxiety levels between males and girls. Parents of participants with varying levels of education did not show preferences for parenting styles. The results of the multiple regression model pointed out that parenting styles were significantly and positively correlated with linguistic anxiety in the classroom. According to the findings, warmth and monitoring, both have a positive and significant correlation to FLCA, and students who experienced rejecting-neglecting parenting were less likely to develop FLCA than children who experienced authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive parenting. Three monitoring measures were the next best predictors of FLCA after the acceptance variable of warmth variables. The Iceberg Metaphor indicates that the students’ yearning for acceptance led to their expectation that they would only be accepted if they were perfect, which in turn exposed the students’ sentiments of anxiety and their emotions in class. Future research should validate these findings and investigate the causes underlying students’ language anxiety.
This paper presents the researcher's perspectives on the place and value of learning assessment tools that are applicable to the current situation and the traditional settings where students would like to grow and improve. The researcher decided to examine and cover various materials that could identify, explain, and capture the purposes of assessment and the tangible benefits students can get from it. Even the teachers can do self-assessment from the results of the test and through their own conscious and mindful practices. Further, this perspective article covers and explores the roles of relevant curriculum design and appropriate assessments in the teaching and learning environments.
In Saudi Arabia, English is taught starting from kindergarten at National Public and Private Schools. At International schools, English is the medium of instruction. This study aims to explore how parents promote children’s language development, their evaluation of their children’s proficiency level, which language the children use in communicating with family members and on WhatsApp. Surveys with parents revealed that English is stronger and preferred by children in International Schools and many children in Private Schools. More parents worry about their children’s proficiency level in English than Arabic and promote English more than Arabic. Watching English cartoons and movies, using English educational and entertainment apps/programs, playing English games, and enrolling the children in English courses during holidays are common home-based activities. To promote Arabic, some parents hire a tutor. Others encourage their children to read Arabic stories and watch Arabic cartoons. Results and recommendations are given in detail.
This study sought to find out whether educated Arabs read paper or digital materials; which reading technologies they use; amount of material they read; the place where they read; how much time they spend on reading; when they read; how they reduce distractions; how they motivate themselves to read; how they interact with the text; their reading rituals; and whether there are significant differences in reading habits according to gender, age, area of specialty and educational level. Unsolicited responses to a Twitter survey from 172 male and female adult Arabs with different ages, educational levels and areas of specialty showed that 13.5% use reading technologies, 15% prefer to listen audiobooks, and 71.5% read paper books. 16% read an hour a day; the majority read less than an hour a day and 13% read whenever they can. Some read 10 pages a day; others finish three chapters/articles a week; 14% read before bedtime; 15% listen to audiobooks while driving, working out, walking, cooking, and running errands; 5% read during wait times; 4% read before they start work; 3% read during their break at work; 3% read in the afternoon; 3% read after sunset prayer, and over the weekend. Some carry their Kindle device with them and read anywhere. To reduce distractions, 23% set a specific time for reading; 12% stay away from their smart phones or turn their mobiles to the silent mode; 6% read in a quiet place; 6% use a timer; 3% drink coffee to focus; 2% listen to music; and some use a pencil and paper to take notes and underline. No significant differences were found among respondents in terms of gender, area of specialty, educational level, the type of material read, reading technologies and applications they use, how much time they allocate to reading, where they read, how they reduce distractions, how they motivate themselves to read, their reading rituals and how they interact with the reading material. The study gave recommendations for encouraging the young generation to read in the age of social media and distractions and which technologies help them develop better reading habits.
The research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients, when compared to a control group (traditional medical care group). The final number of patients who completed the program (30), (13) In the experimental group, (17) in the control group, the cognitive-behavioral therapy group received a treatment program consisting of eight treatment sessions, and two preparatory sessions at two sessions per week, for a period of (6) weeks, and to evaluate the program, two subscales from the list of pathological symptoms were used, namely: Anxiety scale and depression scale, and the assessment was conducted before and after the program and after a month and a half of follow-up. the results of the research indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the post-measurement, and the measurement in the follow-up period in the scale of psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression), and these differences were in the direction of Improvement of psychological symptoms for the CBT group in addition to medical treatment. These results indicate the effectiveness of CBT when it is added to conventional medical treatment in improving mental health Psychological symptoms.
The long history of conflict in Poso, Indonesia, causes the trauma of people living in the area, including children. This study aims to examine the risks and needs of children raised amongst terrorist organizations in Poso. 33 children whose parents were involved in terrorist groups were assessed in this study and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings show that the average risk is 1.35, which is at low risk. Moreover, they need to be addressed to prevent them from joining terrorist groups. The findings could help educational and counterterrorism practitioners to plan an intervention for children raised within the terrorism movement in Poso.
Volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) relentlessly targeted the corporate and economic sectors in the twenty-first century. Innovative work behavior is seen as the most important contributor to the organization's performance and sustainability in the face of VUCA. Authentic leadership is a variable that impacts innovative work behavior. This research aimed to examine the effect of authentic leadership on innovative work behavior by mediating the role of work meaningfulness. 208 employees from one of the Learning & Consulting companies in Indonesia were selected by simple random sampling. Data analysis used a simple mediation model by Hayes. The result shows that work meaningfulness has a role booster as a mediator between authentic leadership and innovative work behavior. The results of the study revealed that organizations could enhance creative work behavior by offering authentic leadership development programs for all leaders. The leader can stimulate information and opinion, build trustworthy relationships with employees and communicate the company's vision, goal, objectives, and values linked to employees' personal values. Then for strengthening, companies can further support by explaining the importance of the meaning of work, the roles and contributions of employees to the company and the large purpose. It is hoped that this study has provided some insights into the effect of authentic leadership on innovative work behavior mediated by work meaningfulness.
Not being able to speak is one of the Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms, which, if not treated properly, will remain unable to speak. Teaching them to speak and read is beneficial for cognitive development as well as its social and educational purpose. The aim of this study is to teach/train speaking and reading abilities in children with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) who had been declared as non-verbal and should not expect to speak by clinics in the United States and Indonesia, using Smart ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis Rudy Sutadi’s Method). This study used an experimental method with a single-subject research design that focused on behavioral changes as a result of the treatment using Smart Applied Behavior Analysis on the subject. The participants were two nonverbal Autism Spectrum Disorder individuals, N (female, 12 years 6 months) and E (male, 9 years 8 months). This study showed that therapy with the Smart ABA resulted in the verbal abilities of both subjects. Both subjects eventually became verbal, and their verbal and nonverbal abilities continued to improve. The study was only on two children with non-verbal Autism Spectrum Disorder, using Indonesian with the Smart Applied Behavior Analysis method for autism that has been developed from the Applied Behavior Analysis Lovaas Method. It requires multi-center experimental research with large samples of various ages with multiple languages to further increase the validity and reliability. This novel Smart Applied Behavior Analysis method was developed by researchers based on the Lovaas Method's Discrete Trial Training/Applied Behavior Analysis.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze and study the causes of childhood emotions and the effects of such emotions on the growth process by combing through relevant literature with Satir’s iceberg theory as a guide. Through comparative analysis, the effects of negative and positive behavior on children are discussed and argued separately. The results suggest that education received in childhood that adopts a critical and skeptical approach is positively associated with self-deprecation in the child’s self-awareness and has a negative effect on future development that is difficult to eliminate. The results of the study have practical implications for how emotion management and education in childhood should be approached in schools and at home nowadays.
This research investigated the psychological effects of selected first-time mothers in Cebu province during COVID-19. It further described the participant’s experiences as a first-time mother during a pandemic, the apprehensions and challenges of a first-time mom, and the effects on the psychological well-being of such challenges and uncertainties. This study utilized the qualitative research method. This study's sixteen (16) participants were selected through convenient and purposive random sampling. The researcher's semi-structured interview guide was used in data gathering through in-depth interviews. The thematic analysis of Braun and Clarke was used to analyze the qualitative data. Codes, categories, and common themes were identified from the transcript of in-depth interviews. Eight (8) emergent themes were established from the participants' responses that were classified under three (3) overarching themes that provided answers to the sub-problems. The emergent themes were extracted from the significant statements of the key participants. For the descriptions of the participants on their experiences as first-time moms during the pandemic, the overarching theme, The Experiences of the Participants during the Pandemic, has two (2) emergent themes that were categorized as: On Experiences on COVID-19 health protocols and Heightened Maternal Protective Instinct. For the challenges and apprehensions of the participants as first-time mothers during COVID-19, the overarching theme is Challenges and Apprehensions. The participants have two (2) emergent themes classified as Transition to Motherhood and Financial Factors Affecting Emotions. For the effects of such challenges and apprehensions on the psychological well-being of first-time mothers during COVID, the overarching theme Effects of Such Challenges and Apprehensions on the Psychological well-being of the Participants has four (4) emergent themes were identified: Psychological Effects during Motherhood; Increased Maternal Value; Relationship with Society; and Heightened Maternal Motivation from Witnessing Developmental Milestones. The findings and recommendations derived from the study were used to improve understanding of the lived experiences of first-time mothers during COVID and future research designed to delve into coping strategies for such experiences to the overall well-being.
This study was conducted in the Philippines, the world's Business Process outsourcing capital. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the lived experience of leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in selected BPO firms. This research report used a qualitative method based on descriptive phenomenology research design to analyze BPO personnel lived leadership experience, specifically front-liners and managers’ experience from Taguig City, Makati City, Pasay City, and Pasig City within Metro Manila. We used an open-ended questionnaire to collect data from respondents. Five major themes emerged: (1) strengths development, (2) Communication and Innovation (3) Trust and respect (4) Delegation and Employee empowerment (5) Reward and Correction. According to the study's premise, most BPO companies in the Philippines practiced a combined transformational leadership and transactional leadership style. To keep employees happy, managers and BPO businesses can adopt a variety of leadership styles. The most popular and researched leadership style is transformational leadership, which stresses intrinsic motivation and employee development. Transactional leadership is task-oriented and focuses on the needs of the followers. Laissez-faire managers, on the other hand, stay out of the way. Job satisfaction is a pleasant or good emotional state caused by job evaluation. Workplace happiness is unaffected by transactional leadership remedial actions. The results show that employees are satisfied when their leader develops their skills, communicates and encourages innovation, builds trust and respect for others, delegates and empowers employees while recognizing top performers, and respectfully corrects mistakes. However, a definite correlation between leadership styles and employee job satisfaction requires more investigation.
To get a better understanding of the psycholinguistic approach to language, a wide range of sources were examined in the present research. Language and its cognitive approach were explored in this study from many perspectives. The capacity to learn a language is one of the most complex and distinctive human traits, and no one knows why it happens. It is hard to pin down exactly what bilingualism means since it is such a broad concept. The research of psycholinguistics made important discoveries, such as the need to have language information to utilise language and the mental processes involved. To better understand how two languages (L1, L2) are processed, this article discusses why only a few methods combine behavioural and imaging testing. Therefore, bilingualism cannot be considered a full attribute since no one can be granted a complete or minimum degree of proficiency in a second language.
Results of surveys with a sample of EFL and translation instructors and students showed that many instructors feel that their role is limited to preparing the teaching material, in-class instruction, writing exams, grading assignments and other paperwork. They declared that students have many academic problems in EFL and translation and interpreting course. They added that they are unaware of positive psychology and how to apply its principles in their courses. Students’ responses and comments on social media showed that they have a negative image of themselves. They feel inadequate and are always afraid of failing their courses. If they fail, they blame it on their bad luck, on the instructor or exams. Some are not willing to try, hate school and studying. They are under stress if they have a writing or translation assignment, a class presentation, or a test. They cram and lose sleep. Based on findings of the surveys, this study proposes a model for applying the principles of positive psychology in EFL and language classrooms to help the students become happy and relaxed learners, overcome stress and anxiety, develop positive attitudes, positive affirmations, emotional resilience, positive thinking and make more achievements and improvements. The model consists of strategies and tips for improving students’ English language and translation skills, providing psychological help (e.g., student-instructor communication, giving moral support, feedback, reading simplified self-help books, watching motivational videos), and developing students’ pragmatic skills (goal setting, time management, study skills, presentation, and note-taking skills). In addition, it provides some strategies for effective teaching.
The study explored the influence of plant parenting on the well-being of AB Psychology students during a pandemic. It further described the participants' engagement in plant-parenting, the benefits gained by the participants during the Pandemic, the challenges met by the participants during the Pandemic, and the improvements in wellbeing based on the participants' experiences as they engaged in plant-parenting. This study utilized a qualitative research method with purposive sampling for the number of participants. Semi-structured with open-ended interview guide questions were used to gather the necessary data for the study. Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis was adopted in the study's data analysis. Codes, categories, and common themes were identified from the transcript of in-depth interviews. Thirteen (13) emergent themes were established from the participants' responses that were classified under three (3) overarching themes that provided answers to the sub-problems. The emergent themes were extracted from the significant statements of the key participants. For the description of the participants on their experiences during the Pandemic, the overarching theme, Experience of the Participants During the Pandemic, has four (4) emergent themes that were classified as Lack of Social/Physical Interaction, Negative Physical Effects; Spending with their Family; and By Being Influenced to do Home Gardening. For the Plant-parenting on influencing the participant's ways of coping with the challenges met, the overarching theme is Plant-parenting on Influencing the Participant Ways of Coping, which has five (5) emergent themes that were classified as Gardening as a Coping Mechanism; Enhancing Self-Care; Developing Awareness; Character Development; and Improvement of Wellbeing. For the challenges on the participant's wellbeing during the Pandemic, the overarching theme is Challenges Affecting the Wellbeing during the Pandemic has four (4) emergent themes: Emerging Family Issues, Emerging Issues of Mental Stability, maintaining a Healthy Lifestyle, and Academic Performance. The findings and recommendations derived from the study were used to address the challenges met during a pandemic and to promote healthy well-being through plant parenting.
The study aimed to identify the level of happiness among a sample of students from the University of Misurata, as well as to know the differences in happiness according to gender, specialization and stage of study, on a sample of (375) male and female students from the University of Misurata, who were chosen randomly, including (137) males and ( 238) females, and the comparative descriptive approach was used as the appropriate approach for the objectives of the study, and the happiness scale prepared by (Abbott, et al, 2006) was used. Data, and statistical methods included the use of arithmetic means, standard deviations, Pearson correlation coefficient, and a t-test for the significance of differences between averages and analysis of variance.
The present study aims at studying the impact of social media on socio-emotional well-being of children. The methodology used here was random sampling through snowballing technique. A sample of around 50 children aged 11-18 years was collected to understand their responses about their own socio-emotional well-being. The results of the study showed that people use social media for different reasons, but they also face a variety of challenges, from physical health to mental health issues, the most prominent of what is needed is gratitude, resilience, calmness, compassion, and the pursuit of hobbies, fitness, and one's own peace of mind and happiness.
The present study has been conducted on the youth (N=200) of age group 18-24 years to find the role of the character strengths of gratitude and hope in their psychological well-being. Gratitude and hope have been assessed using the Value in Action Inventory of Strengths (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), and psychological well-being has been assessed using the Psychological Well-Being Scale by Carol Ryff (1989). The data has been analyzed by using Pearson correlation and linear regression. The findings depict a significant positive correlation of gratitude and hope with the psychological well-being of youth. Also, the regression analysis establishes the significant and positive role of gratitude and hope in predicting the psychological well-being of youth.