College students' illusions regarding their vulnerability to risks related to sexual intercourse affect their contraceptive behavior. The authors explored the influence of the illusion of fertility control and attachment tendencies upon contraceptive behavior among 141 male and 251 female self-selected undergraduate students at a small Midwestern university during fall 1993 and spring 1994 semesters. The illusion of fertility control scale (IFCS) was designed to measure the extent to which aspects of the situation present at last intercourse foster an illusion of fertility control. The IFCS attempts to measure the degree to which people believe that they completely control their own fertility, when they are actually taking some degree of fertility risk. 79% of the students were aged 16-24, with the rest older, 90.56% are White, 6.89% Black, 76.3% never-married, 16.6% currently married, and 18.6% had children. Study findings are based upon the analysis of responses from those sexually experienced, never-married, and aged 16-24 years. Multiple regression analyses determined that illusion of fertility control and attachment style were related to contraception, and that 2 subscales of the IFCS were related to contraception. More precisely, a belief in bodily control was associated with less effective current contraceptive use. Females who felt more independence from their partners in making sexual decisions were characterized by a higher contraceptive failure rate. Furthermore, people with a dismissing attachment style reported a history of less reliable contraception.
An intervention combining AIDS information with condom eroticization, condom normalization, and communication skills training was found to increase both AIDS-related knowledge and condom use among Canadian college students. 112 unmarried female undergraduates (mean age, 18 years) were randomly assigned to this combination intervention (n = 49), an information-only intervention (n = 44), or a pre-test/post-test control group (n = 19). 80% of students had engaged in vaginal intercourse and 14% in anal intercourse. 84% of coitally active women had engaged in unprotected intercourse in the past year and 48% had not used condoms consistently with any sexual partner. Condom use in the pre-intervention period was associated with positive attitudes toward the method and the perception that condom use was normative among peers. One month after the interventions, both the combination and information groups, but not controls, showed an increase over baseline in AIDS-related knowledge. However, among the 36 students who were coitally active in the 1-month periods before and after the intervention, only the combination intervention was associated with increased condom use. In the combination group, the percentage of episodes of intercourse protected by condoms increased from an average of 21.8% in the month preceding the study to 50% during the 4-week follow-up period. Due to the small sample size and design of the study, it was not possible to determine which component of the multifaceted educational intervention was most responsible for this change.
This study examined attitudes toward condoms as a function of reading scenarios that described condom placement. Those who read explicit accounts of sexual activity that included condom placement were expected to hold more positive attitudes toward condoms, as measured by the Attitude Toward Condoms Scale (Brown, 1984). Subjects in Experiment 1 were assigned to one of three conditions: condom story, no-condom story, or no story. The results showed that men, but not women, who read the condom stories exhibited more positive attitudes than their same-sex no-story controls. The results also suggested that men and women require somewhat different levels of sexual explicitness in the stories. Subjective arousal was negatively correlated with attitudes toward condoms. Therefore, a partial replication was conducted using less explicit and less arousing stories. We expected reading the stories to result in significant attitude differences in both genders. Subjects in Experiment 2 were assigned to one of two conditions; condom story or no-condom story. The results partially replicated Experiment 1. Men, but not women, reported more positive attitudes toward condoms if they read the condom stories. In addition, for women, reported sexual experience was positively correlated with attitudes toward condoms.
Kyes, Brown and Pollack'S (1991) study on the effects of reading condom scripts on attitudes toward condoms was replicated partially to differentiate between Werner'S (1948) orthoge-netic principle and social learning theory (Bandura & Walters, 1963) as theoretical explanations for their findings. College students read one of three types of stories: erotic with condom placement described, erotic without condom use, or non-erotic with a model for discussing condoms. Social learning theory predicted that non-erotic stories with condom use would be as effective as erotic stories with condom use in producing positive attitudes toward condoms. Werner'S orthogenetic principle predicted that the erotic condom stories would be most effective because they would link sexual arousal with cognitive information about condoms. The results indicated that men
This quasi-experimental study evaluated the influence of structural intervention components (e.g., changing organizational and social influence factors) in reducing biological sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reports of unprotected sex among female bar workers (FBWs) in the Philippines (N = 369 at baseline). Recruited from four large southern Philippines cities, FBWs were exposed to a standard care, a manager influence, a peer influence, or a combined manager/peer influence condition. After the two-year intervention period, FBWs in the combined peer and manager intervention condition showed greater reductions in STIs and unprotected sex relative to those in the standard care condition. FBWs in the combined and the manager only conditions also showed a decrease in STIs compared to those in the standard care condition. Managers in the standard care condition reported lower positive condom attitudes and lower attendance at HIV/AIDS related training sessions compared to those in the combined condition. The combined effect of managers and peers had a positive, synergistic effect on condom use behavior and STI reduction compared to the standard care. This research provides empirical evidence that structural changes such as rules, regulations, and increased accessibility of condoms must be in combination with normative changes (individuals' attitudes, beliefs and normative expectancies) in order to achieve the greatest benefit in condom use behavior and STI reduction/prevention.
This study examines the reported sexual behaviour of 1,245 injecting drug users (both in and out of treatment) who were recruited off the street in Sydney, Australia. The major differences in sexual behaviour were determined by sexual orientation (homosexual, bisexual or heterosexual). Condom use in the six months prior to interview was higher than that reported by IDUs in New York but similar to that reported in San Francisco and the U.K., wilh bisexual men reporting higher rates than heterosexual men, and homosexual men higher rates than bisexual men. Condom use for oral sex was low. Condom use with regular partners was about 5% lower than with casual partners. Regular parlners of male IDUs were more likely not to be IDUs, with the converse true for women. Half the respondenls were likely to be intoxicated when having sex. These data underline the importance of dislinguishing between sexual orientation as well as gender in determining type and degree of risk associated with sexual behaviour in IDUs, and suggest that condom use should be assessed in terms of known risk behaviours (vaginal and anal intercourse) rather than across all sexual contacts when sexual risk for HIV transmission is assessed.
Koro is the term used to define the fear that one's sex organ is retracting into the body and that the complete retraction of the organ will result in death. While koro is found mainly among the Chinese and other Asian societies near China, the condition is most prevalent in southern China, where repeated epidemics have occurred. In that region, koro is found only among the Hans, the dominant ethnic group, and is over-represented among people under age 24 years. Koro provokes considerable anxiety in the individual in question and his/her family and neighbors, and is more prevalent among males than females. Men try to pull the penis out from the body or to prevent it from shrinking further by tying a string around the penis or securing it with a clamping device. Some Asian women have reported shrinking breasts, nipples, or labia. Relatives and neighbors of the same sex often help to rescue the organ in question, especially in applying anchoring devices. Others may also believe a person has koro and attempt to rescue their organ without the individual's consent. Injury to the sex organ, including bruises, bleeding, and infection, is common and sometimes results in permanent damage. In general, however, koro attacks are acute, brief, and tend not to recur. The 1984-85 koro epidemic in Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula is reviewed to shed light upon prevailing cultural attitudes and beliefs, news and rumors about koro, and anxiety in neighborhoods which may be causative environmental risk factors for koro. Education, age, and marital status are considered as individual risk factors. Koro in China is best described as a social sickness supported by cultural myths which tend to affect young people who are deprived of proper sex information to explain their physical development.
Sources of social support for contraceptive use were examined in a survey of 280 sexually active college students (132 female and 148 male) aged 17-23 years. Variables measured were contraceptive use at last intercourse, perceived social support for contraceptive use, and motivation to comply with these sources of support. Friends and partners were identified as equally supportive, but only partner support was related to contraceptive use. Among nonusers of an effective method, best friend support exceeded partner support. Finally, students reported more motivation to comply with their partners than with friends or parents. Men were even less likely to comply with support provided by a best friend than women. The finding that parental support was not an important factor suggests that contraceptive use is best promoted through the self-disclosure and open discussion young adults enjoy with peers. Moreover, a desire to please one's sexual partner seems to outweigh advice provided by a best friend. Thus, contraceptive promotion among young adults should be targeted not only at potential users, but also at sexual partners. The potential of such an approach is demonstrated by this study's finding that young men were willing to use condoms when encouraged by their partner, despite widespread dislike of this method.
This study investigated the impact of interventions designed to affect contraceptive knowledge and attitudes on the intent to use and reported use of contraceptives among 362 first year college students. After completing a pretest questionnaire, students were randomly assigned to a nonintervention control group or one of four workshops utilizing different approaches to education about sexuality and contraceptive use. The posttest results indicated that all four treatment groups increased in contraceptive knowledge relative to the control group. In addition, groups receiving an experientially oriented intervention showed significantly more positive changes in their
This study combines qualitative and quantitative research methods to gain insight into the determinants of condom use in prostitution by putting high or low risk taking behavior into context. Female prostitutes (N = 119) have been interviewed in depth about their sexual conduct and condom use, their working attitude and risk perception. Health Locus of Control and attributions concerning an unpleasant proceeding of client contacts were assessed by means of item lists. Prostitutes were identified as either 'consistent condom users,' 'selective risk takers' or 'risk takers.' It is found that protection behavior is linked to working attitude. Condom use is most likely with a working attitude that is moderately positive yet businesslike and least likely with a negative working attitude and when there is no positive identification with the professional group. Health Locus of Control appears to be of no influence on protection style but risk takers attribute an unpleasant proceeding of client contacts significantly more to 'powerlessness' and 'helplessness.' It is concluded that the objective situation of women is at least as strongly of influence on condom use as subjective motivations are.
Identifies 14 prevalent behavior patterns and personality characteristics (e.g., excessive repression). Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the patterns and characteristics of 56 male offenders (mean age 39 yrs) before treatment. Clusters of these characteristics were present in Ss. 70% of Ss have 11 of the patterns and characteristics, and 83% have 8. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assessed gender differences in AIDS-related heterosexual concerns and sexual behavior with new sexual partners, with an emphasis on condom use and subjective condom experiences. 193 middle class bar patrons (aged 18–51 yrs) completed a questionnaire regarding their number of sexual partners, AIDS-related worries and corresponding behavioral responses, and use of condoms in different sexual situations and their subjective condom experiences. AIDS related concerns affected most of the Ss' behavior in some way, primarily in the increased use of condoms. Condom use varied according to the type of relationship and the type of sexual act, and resulted generally in more peace of mind, but less sexual enjoyment. Peace of mind strongly predicted condom use during casual sex for both genders. In terms of gender differences, women worried about AIDS with new sexual partners, tended to limit their partners more and appreciated the use of condoms more than men did. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Interviewed 45 self-defined female-to-male transsexuals (aged 22–53 yrs) as part of a wide ranging sociological field study that examined Ss' childhood experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. 60% reported 1 or more types of severe child abuse. Ss reported having experienced many commonly cited initial and long-term effects of child abuse, including fear, anxiety and depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, excessive aggression, and suicide ideation and attempts. It was not possible to determine to what extent the sources of these complaints lay in child abuse, in gender dysphoria, in some combination of the two, or elsewhere. Preliminary results suggest that, in some cases, transsexualism may be an adaptive extreme dissociative survival response to severe child abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reports 2 cases of paraphilia in women, a 42-yr-old S with amputee paraphilia (apotemnophilia/acrotomophilia) and an S in her 30s with lameness paraphilia (abasiophilia/autoabasiophilia). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology among 316 college women (aged 17–34 yrs) who reported coercive sexual experiences. History of victimization, attributions of blame, and current symptoms were assessed. Acquaintance assault victims reported significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms than non-victims, and 33% exceeded criteria for clinical levels of distress. Situational variables, including the type of assault, were not associated with PTSD status or symptoms. Cognitive appraisals, however, were significantly associated with PTSD symptomatology. Attributions of blame were all associated with PTSD status, with characterological self-blame also being associated with level of current symptomatology. Results document the negative psychological consequences of acquaintance assaults among college students and help to focus the efforts of treatment programs for acquaintance assault victims. In addition, the results highlight the importance of cognitive appraisals in mediating effects of sexual victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Outlines 2 models of the psychological reactions of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The psychological problems most commonly requiring therapeutic intervention are discussed with attention paid to the importance of distinguishing between those whose etiology is functional vs organic (e.g., AIDS dementia complex). A model of integrated treatment for the psychological aspects of adaptation to AIDS, used by the San Francisco General–Shanti House Program, is described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The psychological intersection of biological sex, personality, and sexual orientation represents a unique prospect for investigating the evolution of human mating strategies. Evolved sex differences in human psychology may encounter different mating environments within homosexual and heterosexual contexts. The personality traits of homosexuals, if different from heterosexuals, may influence human mating dynamics in revealing ways. In the current study, 5,310 men (5,083 heterosexuals, 131 homosexuals, and 96 bisexuals) and 7,589 women (7,240 heterosexuals, 143 homosexuals, and 206 bisexuals) across four major world regions completed personality and sexuality self-report surveys. Consistent with previous research, sociosexual behavior (e.g., number of one-night stands) and personality traits (e.g., masculinity and openness to experience) varied across sexual orientation. In addition, personality traits were predictably related to sociosexual behavior. However, variability in personality traits did not account for the observed differences in sociosexual behavior across sexual orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the marital adjustment of 70 wives of transvestites, focusing on the attitudes of these women toward their husbands' behavior, the stresses under which they are placed, and their fears and concerns. Questionnaire results show that Ss generally learned about their husbands' transvestism early in the relationship. While they most often tended to be supportive and understanding at first, many Ss had negative feelings of hostility and resentment. Their immediate fear was that others would find out, followed by concern for their children. Most Ss did not support their spouses' transvestism. Yet, Ss overwhelmingly felt that their marriages were very happy. The Ss appear to have adjusted to their husbands' transvestism by developing a rationale that emphasizes positive aspects of their husbands' behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
To determine chracteristics of parents who talk to their adolescent children about sexuality, 194 female and 88 male college students (aged 18–23 yrs) and their parents completed questionnaires measuring psychological, family, and demographic variables, including sexual attitudes, sexual knowledge, erotophobia-erotophilia, social desirability responses, religiosity, education, income, sex of child, quality of general family communication, and extent to which sex was discussed with parents. Major predictors for mothers were openness in general family communication, sex of child, and extent to which the mother's own mother discussed sexuality with her. For fathers, major predictors were openness in general family communication, extent to which the father's own father discussed sexuality with him, and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined 68 African-American, 50 Latino, and 140 Caucasian male high school seniors' knowledge and beliefs regarding acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the relationship between attitude toward homosexuals and AIDS knowledge. Ss were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Ss that viewed an AIDS prevention video, Ss that viewed the AIDS prevention video plus videos concerning sexually transmitted diseases and drug abuse, and controls. African-American and Latino Ss were significantly less homophobic than Caucasian Ss. Level of homophobia was not predictive of AIDS knowledge. African-American and Latino Ss indicated a greater concern than Caucasian Ss about contracting the AIDS virus and desired further information about AIDS. Latino Ss were less knowledgeable about AIDS than their African-American and Caucasian counterparts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents the case report of a 36-yr-old female-to-male transsexual who was attracted to males prior to and following sex reassignment. Even before hormonal and sex reassignment, this individual considered himself to be a homosexual male. This represents an unusual clinical finding with import to theories of sexual development, the definition of gender identity and sexual orientation, and the relationship between gender identity and sexual orientation. This case may increase awareness that terminology is flawed. Gender identity and sexual orientation are separate phenomena, and theories of sexual orientation are inadequate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the relationships of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs, sexual response, and dating history to 4 types of sexual experiences in 90 university men (consenting intercourse, use of physical force, use of verbal coercion, and perceived uncontrollable arousal). All 4 types of sexual experiences were associated with traditional and rape-supportive attitudes. Use of physical force was associated with (high) acceptance of interpersonal violence, (high) arousability, and erotophobia. A more active dating history was associated with consenting intercourse, use of verbal coercion, and not having used physical force. The attitudinal variable set and dating history variable set each uniquely predicted sexual experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared the behavior of active male homosexuals in 2 countries; one group being exposed to a fear based public education campaign (the Australian Grim Reaper Public Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Campaign,
n = 77), the other group being either exposed to a variety of gay-sensitive, sexually positive material or allocated to a control group (in New Zealand,
n = 159). Ss were aged 16–70 yrs. At baseline, about 75% of both samples reported engaging exclusively in safer sex behavior. A follow-up, while the percentage of those practicing safer sex behavior significantly increased to 83% in those exposed to the gay-sensitive material and control, the prevalence of safer sex among those who experienced the fear based program, decreased to 47%. Fear based education campaigns appear capable of increasing the spread of AIDS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Administered a questionnaire assessing sexual behavior (SB) changes over time to 239 gay and heterosexual bar patrons in Greenwich Village, New York. Concern about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had affected the SB of almost all gay men, a majority of gay women, over half of heterosexual women, but only a quarter of heterosexual men. Across all groups, the most frequent behavioral response involved the elimination or decrease of casual sex and the ascertaining of sexual histories. Only gay men were using condoms to any appreciable degree. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, gay men have reduced their risky sexual behaviors. Despite these changes, recent studies have found that some men who have sex with men (MSM) who regularly practice safer sex behaviors periodically engage in risky anal sex. Some behavioral scientists have questioned the ability of existing models of condom use to completely account for all types of HIV sexual risk and risk avoidance behaviors, especially episodic unprotected anal sex by men who otherwise use condoms. This paper applies a cognitive escape model to textual data from interviews with 41 MSM aged 22–51 yrs old who have sex in bathhouses. It was found that MSM recognized strong normative expectations for using condoms during anal sex, and usually comply with these expectations. Ss also reported that constant awareness of HIV and the AIDS epidemic and the need to comply with standards of safer sex produce stress. The men noted that they frequented certain settings, including bars and bathhouses, and used alcohol and illicit drugs because these provided stimuli that facilitated a cognitive disengagement from the norms of safer sex. Among the MSM interviewed who reported unprotected sex, a cognitive escape model appears to account for their lapses from safer sex standards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Modified the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire for boys and developed an analogous questionnaire for girls to facilitate the assessment of gender identity development problems in both physically normal and intersexual children. Questionnaires were administered as part of a battery to a demographically diverse community sample of the parents of 355 girls and 332 boys (aged 6–10 yrs). Gender scales (GSs) assessing aspects of gender role behavior and identity (GRBI) were constructed on the basis of the results of a factor analysis. By design, the GSs permit the characterization of a child's GRBI in relation to both gender-typical boys and gender-typical girls. The GSs show appropriate internal consistency. Demonstration of validity is complemented by 3 clinical case illustrations. As indicated by hierarchical regression analysis, the demographic factors, age, ethnicity, and parental education have a negligible influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes an experiment with 84 males and 95 females (aged 22–57 yrs) studying the assumption that males are motivated by physical and women by emotional factors. Ss completed a survey that included questions on the usual motive for engaging in sexual intercourse and on assessment of its most important benefit. Significant gender differences were found in usual motivation but not in ideal benefits and significant interactions showed up between gender and age in both usual and ideal motivations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Although the general populace has stereotyped bathhouses that cater to men seeking sex with other men as facilitators of HIV transmission, little research has been conducted that examines such claims. The authors conducted structured, in-depth topical interviews with 41 men who frequent bathhouses in Houston, Texas. Qualitative data were collected. The qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive and deductive analytical process. The study finds that bathhouses are a setting in which sex occurs, but bathhouses per se do not determine the nature of sexual activities. Instead, the meanings patrons attach to the commercial public sex environment bathhouses and to the activities they perform there account for men's sexual risk behaviors. Many participants reported accurate knowledge regarding HIV and safer sex practices and also reported either avoiding penetrative sex or using condoms in this setting. Data are presented that elucidate the relationships between perceptions, drug use, and sexual risk behaviors. Findings are discussed in regard to intervention and future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
59 couples expecting their 1st child completed the Sexual Interaction Inventory and a personal data questionnaire. Expectant fathers were less emotionally satisfied than their wives through the pregnancy. Expectant mothers experienced more conflict and guilt, reported feeling peaceful and fulfilled in pregnancy, were more self-accepting sexually, and derived more pleasure from sex. Women and men underestimated how attractive their partner found the woman's pregnant body, with men finding their wives more attractive. Comparison of these data with J. LoPiccolo and J. C. Steger's (see record
1975-09415-001) normative data revealed that expectant couples were less satisfied with the frequency of sex and derived less sexual pleasure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explored beliefs regarding the interrelationship of sex, love, and marriage as predictors of extramarital sex (EMS) through face-to-face interviews with 45 married adults (aged 23–36 yrs). Expectations of monogamy and a core set of attributions regarding EMS were pervasive among Ss. Marital dissatisfaction or problems were often seen as the source of spousal EMS, and these reasons were viewed as the most upsetting to the Ss. The least upsetting circumstance surrounding spousal EMS was sexual activity without emotional involvement. The estimated likelihood that spousal EMS would cause harm to the marriage was high. Ss viewed sex, love, and marriage as negatively related to whether one believed either spouse would engage in EMS, or that such activity would be considered acceptable, yet positively related to whether a S would disclose EMS to their spouse and would want such disclosure themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In the historiography of psychoanalysis and of sexuality in the West the important role of the psychoanalyst Wilhelm Stekel (1868–1940) in the demolishing of the once widely held belief in the harmfulness of masturbation has largely been neglected. The author contends that this is because Stekel launched his ideas in contradiction to those of Sigmund Freud and his orthodox collaborators, who stressed the connection between masturbation and the development of neurasthenia. The most important episodes of the controversy between Freud and Stekel, which ultimately led to the resignation of the latter from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, are discussed. The author tries to explain why the controversy was unsurmountable: most likely because it was intertwined with problems of an intimate nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted 11 focus groups with a total of 78 19–45 yr old women (primarily Latinas and Black) from high HIV seroprevalence neighborhoods. Results suggest that HIV interventions for women must consist of sex education, including anatomy and physiology. Sexual negotiation skills must be taught and HIV prevention messages must address many women's desire for pregnancy. Development of new HIV prevention strategies must focus on methods under women's control that are outside of negotiation with a male sex partner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study examined the relation between sexual orientation and suicidality among 73 transgender respondents, who were compared to heterosexual females (n = 1,083) and males (n = 1,077), psychosocially matched females (n = 73) and males (n = 73), and homosexual females (n = 256) and males (n = 356). Significantly more (p < .05)transgender respondents reported suicide ideation and attempts than any group except homosexual females. Sexual orientation did not differentiate transgender ideators or attempters from non-ideators or non-attempters. Attempters were more likely than non-attempters to report psychotherapy and psychiatric medications currently and previously as well as difficulties with both alcohol and drugs (attempters and ideators) or alcohol only (attempters). Implications for gender studies as well as research regarding suicide and sexual orientation are discussed.
Examined questionnaire data from 640 undergraduates to identify belief patterns of sexuality and rape attitudes. Most Ss did not accept victim-callous (VC) attitudes about rape. For both males and females, traditional gender role beliefs were associated with acceptance of VC rape attitudes, and egalitarian gender role beliefs were associated with rejection of VC rape attitudes. Males reported more liberal sexual attitudes, more VC attitudes, and less egalitarian attitudes than females. The VC attitudes that were most commonly accepted involved viewing rape in sexual terms, believing that women frequently falsely report rape, and justifying the use of force in sexual interactions between dates and acquaintances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents a case of a 2-yr-old boy with a gender identity disorder. Clinical history showed that S's mother was strongly expecting to bear a daughter. After birth, the parents delayed naming the boy for 8 wks and the chosen name was a variant of the preselected name for a daughter. The significance of parental newborn gender preference on psychosexual development is discussed. The maternal wish for a daughter is nondiscriminating and is probably not part of a psychosocial causal pathway. However, parental reactions to bearing a child of the nonpreferred sex are important and should be the subject of further investigation in controlled studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Specific sex-typed body movements and gestures were recorded in 23 gender-disturbed boys (aged 7–17 yrs) using 3 standardized procedures (behavioral observation of 9 expressive gestures during a 10-min test period, ratings of sitting, standing and walking on the Barlow Gender-Specific Motor Behavior Form [D. Barlow et al, 1979], and ratings of book-carrying behavior). Significantly higher frequencies of hand clasp, hyperextension, and limp wrist gestures were found in gender-disturbed boys compared to a nonclinical control group. Significant correlations were found between severity of gender disturbance and the frequency of hyperextension gestures and the percentage of feminine motor behaviors. Sex-typed carrying behavior did not discriminate between normal and gender-disturbed boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Age of consent through most of history and cultures has coincided with biological changes taking place in adolescents, i.e., between 12 and 14. It was in fact in the best interests of society to have girls become pregnant in their teens. Even when age of marriage for males was somewhat later, age of consent remained the same, and in some societies, this delay resulted in homoerotic relationships between boys and adult males as it did in Greece. This article discusses the meta-analysis published by Bruce Rind and his collaborators Tromovitch and Bauserman (1998) on the psychological effects of intergenerational sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the strategies of longitudinal clinical research in pediatric sexology and psychoendocrinology that depend on long-term funding. As compared with cross-sectional, short-term studies, longitudinal outcome studies from birth to maturity need the guarantee of long-term research funding. The 5 clinical research strategies ensured by long-term funding are (1) assembling of a caseload of rare clinical syndromes; (2) maintaining patients in follow-up from childhood through maturity; (3) providing a chronological perspective that permits serendipitous discoveries; (4) testing hypotheses in pilot studies that might not otherwise have been formulated; and (5) conceptualizing a theoretical synthesis of research discoveries in monograph or book form. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents a case of a sexual body-image pathology directed toward the eradication of genital eroticism and orgasm as "a threat to identity." It entailed a progressive program of self-castration and denervation of the penis that eventually proved to be self-limiting as the man's life stabilized in the role of eunuch. The case also serves as a guide to the syndromes that pertain to the body image or a specific component of it (body-image syndrome). Dependent on degree of severity and incapacitation, it may qualify as a body-image psychosis, neurosis, or fixation. The references for this article appear after p. 114 in the
Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 1988, Vol 1(2). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
29 prepubescent boys (aged 4.6–13.3 yrs) at initial referral were assessed by an independent clinical psychologist before any treatment was offered and again for follow-up at a mean of 4 yrs and 3 mo later. Completion of individualized behavioral treatment significantly accounted for long-term improvement in gender behavior and gender identity. Younger Ss received more severe initial diagnoses, were more likely to have completed treatment, and showed the greatest improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Critiques G. A. Rekers and S. M. Morey's (see record
1990-31046-001) article regarding sex-typed body movements in gender disturbance in boys. J. H. Neisen contends that the diagnosis "gender identity disorder in childhood" is problematic because it pathologizes the individual and perpetuates sexist and heterosexist standards of behavior as the only acceptable norm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Replicated research by D. B. Sawrer et al (see record
1993-37388-001) to investigate the relationship between sexual coercion, theoretical love styles, and adult romantic attachment styles among 123 male undergraduates. Ss completed measures of sexual experiences, descriptive love styles, adult attachment styles, love experience, and conflict and violence in relationships. 25 Ss reported that they had not experienced sex, 56 reported experience with consensual sex without sexual coercion, and 45 reported engaging in consensual intercourse and using verbal or physical coercion to obtain sex. Ss who had been sexually coercive were more likely to endorse a manipulative, game-playing orientation toward intimate relationships than other Ss. Sexually coercive men also reported less happiness, friendship, and trust in their romantic relationships. Manipulation and deception appear to form the link between love styles and sexual coercion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) continues to be controversial. Three papers by Hill et al. (see record
2006-03976-003), Lev (see record
2006-03976-004), and Winters (see record
2006-03976-005) each offer a critique of this diagnosis. Drawing from our clinical experience and research with transgender youth and adults as well as the scientific literature on gender dysphoria, we will comment on the main issues raised by these authors: the criteria reflect bias, who needs this diagnosis, and how can we lessen the associated stigma. Our discussion will clarify the rationale behind GID, and illustrate the dilemmas inherent in reform or removal of the diagnosis from the DSM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Sexology is the science of sex. Sexosophy is the ideology or philosophy of sex. In sex research, a great deal of what is actually applied ideology gets by, with its basic ideology unquestioned, as if it were scientific. The dominant ideology of the present era is that of the sexual counterreformation, a reaction to the reformation, usually called the sexual revolution, of the 1960s and 1970s. Victimology is a prime exemplification of ideology displacing science. In sex education, sex therapy, and marriage counseling, ideological research prevails over scientific research far too frequently. There is no consensus as to what constitutes the basic theory of scientific sexology: behavior modification competes with motivational teleology. A basic theory of exigencies developed by the author is discussed (J. Money, 1986). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Argues that sex should be studied from an emotion (EM) theory perspective. Although the definition of EM remains vague, many theorists see EM as having 3 components: neurophysiological-biochemical, behavioral-expressive, and feeling-experiential. Using P. Eckman's (1984) definition of EM, sex qualifies as an EM. P. J. Lang's (1984) theory on EMs can be used to derive a model of cognitive processing that underlies voluntary control of sexual arousal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the lack of innovation in sex therapy techniques, the increasing medicalization of the treatment of sexual problems, and the paucity of new outcome research on sex therapy. This article examines a range of sexual dysfunctions, including low sexual desire, aversion to sex, male orgasmic disorder, female orgasmic disorder, and vaginismus and dyspareunia, and their current treatment. No current models of treatment for hyperactive sexual desire rely on techniques used to treat sexual dysfunction, although clinicians might teach sexual communication skills in the context of a healthy relationship. There has been little change in behavioral strategies designed to deal with the psychological side of erectile dysfunction. Similarly, there has been little attention paid to developing new approaches to female arousal disorder and to premature ejaculation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Pornography is defined as a commercial product in the form of fictional drama designed to elicit or enhance sexual arousal. It embodies a sexual fantasy of an intended audience by presenting explicit sexual activities between predominantly sexually motivated characters whose mission is to experience erotic reality without the constraints of everyday reality, social norms, and conventional morality. D. L. Mosher's (see record
1982-01189-001) sexual involvement theory posits that subjective response to pornography is a function of the match to the person's sexual script. Deep involvement in the pornographic image or fantasy requires goodness-of-fit to preferred sexual images and plans. Pornophobes display an ambivalence-of-fit that reveals a fascinated-revulsion with pornography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Interviewed a 22-yr-old Samoan
fa'afafine as a preliminary step in studying the sexual history and social development of this population.
Fa'afafine literally means "the way of a woman." Transsexuals appear to make up a large portion of this population, although it has not been established that
fa'afafines are exclusively transsexuals. The S's early social development and sexual history are described. References are provided of agreement with findings of other researchers (e.g., F. L. Whitam; see record
1978-00847-001) with regard to early feminine behavior and elevated age of parents of homosexuals at birth. Gender roles and classification in Samoan society are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Retarded ejaculation (RE), or inhibited male orgasm, is the chronic difficulty or inability to ejaculate despite the presence of adequate sexual interest, sexual arousal, and penile erection. Clinical investigators, through largely nonexperimental methods and case studies, have reported a variety of characteristics, behavioral patterns, personality traits, and etiologies associated with the disorder. A review of RE is provided to describe the disorder and compare current treatment procedures. It is suggested that rational-emotive therapy be used as an adjunct to behavioral therapies directed at altering the dysfunctional symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the effect of severity and response-efficacy messages on safer sex attitudes and intentions of 130 college students (mean age 18.4 yrs). The intervention included exposure of some of the Ss to photographs of diseased human genitals (high severity) and messages that presented condoms as effective for reducing sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk (high response-efficacy). Following this, Ss were evaluated about STDs and condom use. Results show that the response overall to the severity manipulation suggests that generally the Ss perceived STDs to be a severe problem. The high severity condition produced the strongest perception of STD severity, but the messages about condoms produced no differences in perceived response-efficacy. No differences in attitudinal measures were found, but those exposed to consistent severity and efficacy messages reported greatest intentions to engage in safer sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)