Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

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Online ISSN: 1435-8107
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Location map of the study area
Climate data of the study area between 2010 and 2020 Ethiopian Meteorological Service Agency (EMSA), Northwest branch, Bahir Dar 2020
Vegetative response of tef for the omitted nutrients
Article
Abstract Currently, the government of Ethiopia is supplying fertilizers containing N, P, S, Zn & B. However, many researchers argued that N and P are the only yield-limiting nutrients. The current study was conducted to identify yield-limiting nutrients for tef and to assess the inherent nutrient supplying status of Vertisols. The experiments were carried out during the 2020/2021cropping season under screen house, on-station, and on-farm conditions at Yilmana Densa district of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Tef (Quncho variety) was used as a test crop. This trial contained ten treatments including: control, PKSZnB, NKSZnB, NPSZnB, NPKZnB, NPKSB, NPKSZn, NPKSZnB, NP, and NPS. Each pot with a height of 0.185 m and volume of 0.186 m3 was filled with 5 kg of soil which was taken from 0 to 20 cm depth by auger. The pot trial was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD), while the field trials were laid out in a completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. The gross plot area was 7.5 m2 for field experiments. Yield-limiting nutrients were identified through a nutrient omission trial. The data were analyzed using SAS version 9.0, and significant treatment means were separated by using LSD at P ≤ 0.05. The nutrient contents of the soils determined from the composite samples collected before planting indicated that TN (0.126% on-station and 0.125% on-farm) was low. The Av.P (3.89 mg kg−1on-station and 4.24 mg kg−1 on-farm) content of the soil was also very low. The result revealed that omission of N and P highly significantly (P < 0.01) reduced grain yield, straw yield, and yield components of tef in all experiments. The results were affected by inadequate supply of N and P nutrients. However, the absence of potassium, sulfur, zinc, and boron did not show significant (P < 0.05) yield reduction. The lowest grain and biomass yields (2.2 and 7.9 g/pot under greenhouse), (177.2 and 533.3 kg ha−1 on-station), and (24.9 and 533.3 kg ha−1 on-farm), respectively, were recorded from omission of N. The low yield of tef mainly caused by poor soil fertility. As a result of N and P omissions, grain yield decreased by 81.6% and 80.7% on-station, by 96.5% and 85.2% on-farm, and by 58.0% and 54.2% in the pot experiment, respectively. In addition, omission of P also resulted in significant grain and biomass yields (2.4 and 8.1 g/pot under screenhouse), (191.1 and 1066.7 kg ha−1 on-station), and (106.4 and 533.3 kg ha−1 on-farm), respectively. Application of K, S, Zn, and B did not have any effect on tef yield over the applied NP. The uptake of N, P, K, S, Zn, and B by tef grain and straw was low in N and P nutrient omissions. Based on these results, N and P were identified as the most yield-limiting nutrients. Application of NP is better than K, S, Zn, and B containing fertilizers for tef production.
 
Article
  • Imren KutluImren Kutlu
  • Nurdilek GulmezogluNurdilek Gulmezoglu
  • Sylwester SmoleńSylwester Smoleń
Iodine is an essential nutrient for all living organisms to maintain their vital functions. Enrichment of oat, which has the highest nutritional value among cereals, with iodine will be an important step in alleviating the malnutrition and health problems caused by microelement and iodine deficiency. In this study, the effects of biologically active iodine (BAI) and potassium iodide (KI) applied to oat plants from seed, soil and foliar on grain yield, grain protein, β-glucan, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents, and grain iodine and potassium concentrations were investigated under field conditions. The findings of this study showed that soil application of BAI was effective in increasing the grain yield of oats, while foliar BAI application was effective in improving grain quality. The highest iodine and potassium concentrations of grain were determined from foliar KI application. The results revealed that foliar spraying of iodine in addition to basic fertilization in oat cultivation could contribute to obtaining products with high yield and quality as well as higher nutrition. The product containing BAI can be recommended as an environmentally friendly practice as it will restrict the use of chemicals. Higher doses of BAI should be used to determine the effectiveness in increasing grain iodine content.
 
a Emergence percentage (%) of dodder for the interaction of basil varieties and the Syrian bean-caper residues and b Emergence percentage (%) of basil for the interaction of basil varieties and SA seed priming. Means with different letters within each figure are significantly different (p ≤ 0.01). SA Salicylic acid
a Relative water content at vegetative stage (%) and b Relative water content at flowering stage of basil plants for the interaction of SA seed priming, the Syrian bean-caper residues, and dodder infestation. Means with different letters within each figure are significantly different (p ≤ 0.01). SA Salicylic acid
a Chlorophyll a, b Chlorophyll b, and c carotenoids content at the flowering stage of the basil plants for the interaction of SA seed priming, Syrian bean-caper residues, and dodder infestation. Means with different letters within each figure are significantly different (p ≤ 0.01). SA Salicylic acid
MDA content of the basil plants at the a vegetative and b flowering stages for the interaction of SA seed priming, Syrian bean-caper residues, and dodder infestation. Means with different letters within each figure are significantly different (p ≤ 0.01). SA Salicylic acid, MDA Malondialdehyde
Article
  • Elham AbbasvandElham Abbasvand
  • Sirous HassannejadSirous Hassannejad
Seed priming can improve plant capacity in response to different stresses. This study investigated the effectiveness of seed priming with salicylic acid (SA) and Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) shoot residues in promoting the germination and growth of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) infested by field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.). Basil seeds were pre-treated with 0.5 mM of SA for 12 h at 25 °C. In the allelopathic plant treatments, 10 g of the Syrian bean-caper powder was mixed into the top 5 cm of pot soil. Among the studied varieties, the Iranian variety had the highest susceptibility to infestation with dodder and application of the Syrian bean-caper residues. Dodder infestation reduced plant biomass, relative water content, leaf area index, soluble proteins, and pigments content, especially in the Iranian variety of basil. By contrast, dodder infestation stress increased proline, soluble sugars, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. Application of the Syrian bean-caper residues via reducing the seed emergence of dodder increased the basil plant’s height, dry weight of shoots, leaf area index, relative water content, soluble proteins, and chlorophyll a and b. The positive effects of the Syrian bean-caper residues were higher in the Italian variety of basil than in the Iranian variety. Despite these inhibitory effects of the Syrian bean-caper residues on the dodder infestation, it decreased the basil plant’s height, dry weight of roots, relative water content, soluble proteins, and chlorophyll a and b in the vegetative growth stage. However, the application of SA reduced these inhibitory effects and alleviated the negative impact of the Syrian bean-caper residues on basil plants.
 
Article
  • Haiying ZongHaiying Zong
  • Xiaohong GuoXiaohong Guo
  • Ningning SongNingning Song
  • [...]
  • Lingyun GaiLingyun Gai
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that is highly toxic to humans and plants. Adding chitosan (CTS) or silicon (Si) can reduce the uptake of Cd and mitigate Cd toxicity in plants, but the joint effects of CTS and Si on alleviating Cd toxicity remain unclear. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of CTS alone, Si alone, and their mixture on the growth, biochemical parameters, and Cd uptake by Cd-treated edible rape plants under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that adding CTS only or Si only could significantly minimize the accumulation of Cd and alleviate Cd toxicity in edible rape, and a strong joint effect of adding both CTS and Si was found. The combined application of CTS and Si significantly increased growth and the leaf chlorophyll contents, decreased the malondialdehyde contents, and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the shoots of rape plants. The simultaneous application of CTS and Si also increased the antioxidant enzyme activities in the shoots and the proportion of Cd in the root cell walls by 40.4%. Furthermore, the Cd translocation factor was 66.4% lower under the combined CTS and Si treatment compared with treatment using only Cd. These results indicated that CTS and Si had a strong effect on alleviating Cd toxicity by enhancing the oxidative stress response and suppressing the uptake and transport of Cd.
 
Article
The GARP transcription factors have been identified for multiple biological functions throughout the life cycle of a plant. Despite of its involvement in crucial functions, systematic study of GARPs remains obscure in plants. In this study, we explored the genomic, molecular, and evolutionary perspectives of the GARP gene family in the three major leguminous plants, namely chickpea (Cicer arietinum), soybean (Glycine max), and barrel clover (Medicago truncatula). Here, we identified 53, 56, and 107 GARP genes in Cicer, Medicago, and Glycine, respectively. They were classified into four clades and two sub-clades as per phylogenetic analysis, and the result was supported by consensus motifs, domain organization, and exon–intron structures. Detailed comparative analysis indicates conservation of the GARP gene family in plants. Identification of paralogous and orthologous gene pairs revealed that the expansion of this family occurs mainly through genome duplication in legumes. Additionally, the three-dimensional structure and functional enrichment analysis indicated their major role in signaling, growth, development, and stress processes. The chickpea GARP genes were also characterized for their transcript modulation in diverse plant organs and during pathogenic stress. Differential regulation of 24 CaGARP genes was observed during Ascochyta Blight (AB) stress. Characterization of AB-responsive genes reveals an over-representation of stress and hormone-binding elements on the promoter of CaGARPs. Additionally, interactome analysis also confirms the role of GARPs in plant stress and development. Our findings not only provide a handful of stress-responsive genes but also lay the foundation for prospective functional studies of GARPs in legumes.
 
AC94377 displays GA-like activities in rice. A Micro-drop assay of semi-dwarf rice cultivar, Tan-ginbozu, in response to GA4 and AC94377. Error bars indicate ± SD, n ≥ 6. **P < 0.01 (two-tailed Student’s t-test). The mock treatment and test compound treatments (GA4 or AC94377) were compared. B Transcript levels of OsGA20ox2 relative to those of OsACT1 in 12-day-old Tan-ginbozu seedlings treated with the test compound (or not). Error bars indicate ± SD, n = 3. **P < 0.01 (two-tailed Student’s t-test). C Differential scanning fluorometry assay of OsGID1 in response to varying concentration of GA4 (0–300 μM) and AC94377 (0–500 μM). The negative first derivative of the relative fluorescence units with respect to temperature (− d(RFU)/dt) was calculated by Precision Melt Analysis™ software (Biorad), and further plotted against the temperature in GraphPad Prism 5.0. D Yeast two-hybrid assay of the interactions between OsGID1 and SLR1. AH109 transformed with pGBK-OsGID1 or with pGBK-Vec as bait and pGAD-SLR1 as prey on SD/–Leu/–Trp/–His/–Ade medium containing the test compound (GA4 or AC94377) or not (mock), or containing His and Ade (+His/+Ade) as control. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) was added with a final concentration of 10 mM. E Effects of GA4 or AC94377 on 4DO levels in Shiokari (a rice cultivar). 4DO in root exudate of rice treated with GA4 and AC94377 was extracted and detected with LC–MS/MS. Error bars indicate ± SD, n = 3. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (two-tailed Student’s t-test)
Structure–activity relationship studies on AC94377 derivatives. A A homology modeled GID1c structure (in yellow color) superposed with GID1a (PDB: 2zsi, in orange) and OsGID1 (PDB: 3ebl, in green color). Val319, Val326, and Ile317 in GID1a, OsGID1, and GID1c, respectively, are displayed with ball stick model. B Alignment of the residues that form the ligand-binding pocket (Murase et al. 2008) in GID1s are shown. Numbers represent the residue numbers in GID1a and OsGID1 as indicated respectively. C Yeast two-hybrid assay of the interactions between OsGID1/OsGID1V326I and SLR1 in response to the treatments with GA4 and AC94377. AH109 transformed with pGBK-OsGID1/OsGID1V326I or with pGBK-Vec as bait and pGAD-SLR1 as prey on SD/–Leu/–Trp/–His/–Ade medium containing the test compound (AC94377 or derivatives) or not (mock), or containing His and Ade (+His/+Ade) as control. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) was added with a final concentration of 10 mM (Color figure online)
Organic synthesis of AC94377 derivatives. A A brief scheme of synthesis processes. B Five chemical products with alternative groups represented by R1 or R2
Structure–activity relationship studies on AC94377 derivatives. A, B Micro-drop assay of Tan-ginbozu, in response to treatments with AC94377 and its derivatives. Error bars indicate ± SD, n ≥ 6. The mock treatment and test compound treatments (AC94377 or derivatives) were compared. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (two-tailed Student’s t-test). C Yeast two-hybrid assay of the interactions between OsGID1/OsGID1V326I and SLR1 in response to treatments with AC94377 and its derivatives
Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence assay for AC94377 derivatives. A Analysis of OsGID1 structure (PDB: 3ebl). The lid domain is colored in orange, the rest part including the pocket is colored in green. Tryptophan is displayed in ball-stick mode and colored in yellow. B, C The fluorescence changes of OsGID1 or OsGID1V326 in response to the titration with chemicals. ΔF/ΔFmax is plotted versus ligand concentration by fitting to nonlinear regression with ‘One Site-Nonspecific Binding’ model, finally giving Kd value (Color figure online)
Article
  • Kai JiangKai Jiang
  • Jianwen WangJianwen Wang
  • Shinsaku ItoShinsaku Ito
  • [...]
  • Tadao AsamiTadao Asami
An N-substituted phthalimide, AC94377, was reported to mimic gibberellin (GA) activity in various plants, and was demonstrated to be a selective agonist for GA receptor GID1 in Arabidopsis, suggesting its potentiality for developing novel GA signal regulators. Here, we confirmed the GA-like activity of AC94377 in rice, including promotion on 2nd leaf sheath growth and suppression on strigolactone exudates from roots. We performed chemical and genetic manipulation of interaction between rice GA receptor GID1 and phthalimides. Our results showed that modifications of carboxamide moiety of AC94377 can interchange the preference for different GID1-subtype. To summary, our findings confirmed universal roles of AC94377 as a GID1 agonist, and the potentiality of designing novel GA agonist or even antagonist based on the scaffold of AC94377 coupled with GID1 manipulations in crops, which could be used for root parasitic weed control.
 
Article
  • Zebus SeharZebus Sehar
  • Harsha GautamHarsha Gautam
  • Asim MasoodAsim Masood
  • Nafees A. KhanNafees A. Khan
Ethylene regulates the photosynthetic efficiency of plants grown under challenging environments by the regulation of the antioxidant system and other biomolecules, such as osmolytes (proline). The role of ethylene in modulating proline biosynthesis and subsequent changes in antioxidant system to protect wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) against heat stress was studied. The effects of exogenously sourced ethylene (as 200 µL L⁻¹ ethephon: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) and proline (50 mM) were studied in the protection of photosynthetic performance and heat stress tolerance by studying mechanisms of proline biosynthesis, activity and gene expression of antioxidants, and ethylene evolution. The cultivars WH-711, RAJ-3765, PBW-373, HD-2967, PBW-550, DBW-17, PBW-343, and UP-2338 were screened for their proline accumulation capacity and tolerance to heat stress. Plants of the cultivar WH-711 with higher proline accumulation and heat tolerance capacity were subjected to a temperature of 40 °C for 6 h per day over 15 days and then allowed to recover at 28 °C. These plants showed increased H2O2 and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), proline accumulation, and ethylene evolution, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced photosynthetic characteristics. Ethephon plus proline supplementation under heat stress upregulated the antioxidant defense system, reduced oxidative stress, and upregulated psbA and psbB expression and photosynthesis. The study’s outcome may be taken to improve photosynthetic performance and heat stress tolerance through ethylene-enhanced proline accumulation and antioxidant defense system.
 
Article
Syzygium zeylanicum (L.) DC. is an endangered tree species indigenous to Western Ghats region and it is traditionally utilized to cure many diseases. The species is sparsely distributed in their natural stands with poor natural regeneration. The present investigation was undertaken with a view to understand the reasons that hinder regeneration process. Physiological, embryological and hormonal changes during embryogeny were studied to understand any developmental anomalies. Embryogeny was typical as that in other dicots with globular, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary stages and no deformations could be identified. Physiological data showed two distinct phases during embryogeny; histodifferentiation and reserve food accumulation stages, and no maturation drying stage. The predominant PGRs identified during histodifferentiation process were IAA (9.96 ng gfw⁻¹), GA4 (9.33 ng gfw⁻¹), BA (484.85 ng gfw⁻¹), ABA (10.58 ng gfw⁻¹), 24-epiBL (18.34 ng gfw⁻¹) and cisJ (10.92 ng gfw⁻¹). Reserve food accumulation phase was marked by the rapid influx and accumulation of IAA (140.17 ng gfw⁻¹), IBA (21.43 ng gfw⁻¹), GA4 (25.53 ng gfw⁻¹), BA (790.04 ng gfw⁻¹), ABA (111.31 ng gfw⁻¹) and cisJ (15.21 ng gfw⁻¹) from the maternal tissues. The seed shedding stage showed the accumulation of higher quantities of GA4 (90.12 ng gfw⁻¹) and lower ABA (26.93 ng gfw⁻¹) with GA4/ABA ratio of 3.34 indicating clear hormonal antagonism during germination. SA was found to accumulate in exceptionally high quantities during embryogeny (from 5335.88 ng gfw⁻¹ to 14699 ng gfw⁻¹). Germination and desiccation study indicated the extreme desiccation intolerance of the seeds and the critical moisture content was found to be 23.70% with an electrolyte leakage of 134.65 µS cm− 1. The results indicate the true recalcitrant behaviour of Syzygium zeylanicum seeds.
 
Effect of liquid seaweed extract treatment applications on a plumule length, b radicle length, and c dry weight of tomato seedlings at different concentrations: 0.2% (white columns), 0.4% (gray columns), and 1.0% (black columns). Treatments: control (C), U. lactuca (UL), C. sertularioides (CS), P. gymnospora (PG), and S. liebmannii (SL). Columns denoted by a different letter are significantly different at P ≤ 0.05. Values represent average (n = 300 seedlings); bars represent standard error (Hernández-Herrera et al. 2014)
Article
Plant biostimulants are being studied extensively as a realistic method to increasing horticulture crop productivity in a sustainable manner. They are one of the natural preparations used to help plants grow and develop while also protecting them from illnesses. Despite their economic importance, research on the widespread usage of plant extracts to substitute synthetic chemicals shows that their practical application is underutilized. Plant extracts have a variety of applications in the fight for sustainable agriculture through organic farming, including growth and development and the provision of critical nutrients. Insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides are all used on them. They are also crucial for improving the quality of fruits and vegetables throughout harvest and postharvest storage.
 
Article
Although gibberellic acid (GA3) improves seed germination and seedling growth in stressful conditions, the mechanisms underlying GA3-priming improved drought tolerance have not been defined. To investigate the effects of GA3-priming on physiology and antioxidant enzymes, we primed rapeseed seeds with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000)-induced stress and quantified the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, root morphology, osmotic adjustment, stomatal morphology, and cell ultrastructure analysis. Drought stress reduced the germination rate and the subsequent growth. GA3-priming improved rapeseed germination rate and seedling growth under PEG-6000-simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that the lower germination rate and the inhibition of seedling growth in non-primed seeds under drought conditions were associated with higher production of ROS. However, GA3-primed seedlings accumulated higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbic acid, and glutathione. They thus developed a stronger antioxidant defense system for scavenging the over-accumulated ROS under drought. GA3-priming also contributed to osmotic adjustments by promoting the accumulation of proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins. Ultimately, GA3-priming protected the cell wall from degradation and preserved chloroplast from autophagy. These ameliorative effects of GA3-priming under drought stress were further confirmed by significantly improving the rapeseed root morphology in hydroponic experiments. We conclude that GA3-priming improves seed germination and promotes productivity by regulating physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress.
 
Venn diagram; the number of genes expressed differently in three temperature treatments (0, − 4, and 25 °C) between cold-sensitive cultivar (CP) and cold-tolerant wild species (SP). A warm color was used for 25 °C treatment and a cold one for 0 °C and − 4 °C
The Volcano plot displays genes expressed differently in the cold-sensitive cultivar and the cold-tolerant species. The red spots indicate genes selected for complementary analysis. Comparison of sensitive cultivar and tolerant species indicated the positive fold change as up-regulated and negative fold change as down-regulated genes in the cold-sensitive cultivar, or up-regulated genes in the resistant species
Gene ontology analysis of cold-sensitive cultivar and cold-tolerant species in three temperature treatments of a 25 °C; b 0 °C, and c − 4 °C
Co-expression network of up-regulated genes in cold-sensitive (a, b, c) and cold-tolerant species (a', b', c') in three temperature treatments of 25, 0, and − 4 °C, respectively; larger node indicates higher BC, reddish color indicates higher CC, and greater thickness and reddish color of network paths indicate higher EBC of that path (Color figure online)
The results of comparing the expression of LOS1 and SVR3 genes in RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR experiments show great harmony between the two methods used. The numbers (4-, 0 and 25) are the temperature treatments used in two types of sugarcane, sensitive and cold-resistant, respectively
Article
Wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum, is a cold-tolerant species, and cultivated S. officinarum is highly sensitive to cold stress. The present study aimed at identifying genes and mechanisms acting in stress conditions using RNA-Seq technique to compare S. spontaneum and the cold-sensitive CP69-1062 cultivar of S. officinarum under non-stress (25 °C), chilling (0 °C), and freezing (− 4 °C) conditions. By studying 347,840,362 reads, the number of 16,088 genes showed a significant expression difference at the 1% probability level. A total of 413 genes with the highest expression changes were selected for the complementary analysis. The results showed the amount and intensity of biological activities of the cold-sensitive cultivar increased at 0 °C. By lowering the temperature to − 4 °C, the catabolic activity of the cold-sensitive cultivar drastically reduced. Reconstruction of the gene co-expression network in sugarcane showed that the LOS1 is a key gene in the chloroplast protein synthesis (elongation factor 2). Its expression profile showed that its expression level in all six samples examined was above 6000 transcript copies. It seems that the SVR3 gene plays a key role in tolerating cold stress in tolerant cultivars. Examination of the expression profile showed that with increasing cold, the SVR3 gene expression decreased in the sensitive cultivar. The expression difference of the SVR3 gene between sensitive and tolerant cultivars exceeded five times at 0 °C, and even more than 13 times at − 4 °C. Given its role in the translation process, the SVR3 gene can be considered a superiority factor of the cold-tolerant cultivar over the sensitive one. It is suggested to study the expression of LOS1 and SVR3 genes in other cold- tolerant plants for a comprehensive view of the action process of these genes. The expression levels of transcripts were validated by RT-qPCR.
 
Article
Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to plants and other living beings present in the next trophic level. It inhibits growth of the plant. Since Brassica juncea is a hyperaccumulator plant for Cd, its consumption is hazardous to living beings. Hence, it is important to reduce the accumulation of Cd inside the foliage of mustard plants to make it safe for consumption and reduce bio-magnification. 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) was applied in various doses (10–10, 10–8 or 10–6 M) as a foliar spray at 25–30 days stage of growth on Brassica juncea var. Varuna, growing in Cd (25 or 50 mg Kg⁻¹ of soil) amended soil. The sampling was done at 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) to determine photosynthesis, nutrients, antioxidants, cell death, enzymatic activities, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, and Cd content. EBL restricted the Cd uptake and translocation of Cd from root to shoot and induced defence responses to protect photosynthetic machinery. Out of the three doses, EBL (10–8 M) proved most effective and the effect was more pronounced against lower concentration (25 mg Kg⁻¹ soil) of Cd which persisted at both the stages of sampling. The study suggests that EBL alleviated the adverse effects generated by Cd on physiology of the plant.
 
Article
can also interfere in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. There is no detailed information available on the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) on the physiology of barley; investigating the effect of this phytohormone on the relationships between fungus and plant, the combined effect of application of these two factors on the growth and physiology of the plant is a new perspective in sustainable agriculture. The present factorial experiment was conducted with three factors as a pot experiment. The plants were grown with inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae (AM) and application of 75 μM MeJ under drought stress conditions. Each of the treatments alone (+ MeJ − AM and − MeJ + AM) improved the plant growth under drought by fortifying the antioxidants defense. Although + MeJ − AM was found to be the most effective treatment under stress conditions, it caused some damages by reducing chlorophylls under non-stress conditions. Meanwhile, the highest plant growth under non-stress conditions belonged to − MeJ + AM. Application of MeJ along with AM reduced the damage caused by MeJ under non-stress conditions by taking advantage of the potential of mycorrhiza and improving symbiosis. However, under stress conditions, this treatment resulted in better plant growth compared to – MeJ + AM and – MeJ − AM with the positive effects of MeJ on the antioxidant system. Generally, due to the inevitable imposition of drought stress in the period of plant growth under normal conditions, it seems as if the combination of these treatments could be considered in future. https://rdcu.be/cSZ1F
 
Article
Jasmonates are believed to affect plant growth under stress conditions by improving the plant’s antioxidant defense. They can also interfere in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. There is no detailed information available on the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) on the physiology of barley; investigating the effect of this phytohormone on the relationships between fungus and plant, the combined effect of application of these two factors on the growth and physiology of the plant is a new perspective in sustainable agriculture. The present factorial experiment was conducted with three factors as a pot experiment. The plants were grown with inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae (AM) and application of 75 µM MeJ under drought stress conditions. Each of the treatments alone (+ MeJ − AM and − MeJ + AM) improved the plant growth under drought by fortifying the antioxidants defense. Although + MeJ − AM was found to be the most effective treatment under stress conditions, it caused some damages by reducing chlorophylls under non-stress conditions. Meanwhile, the highest plant growth under non-stress conditions belonged to − MeJ + AM. Application of MeJ along with AM reduced the damage caused by MeJ under non-stress conditions by taking advantage of the potential of mycorrhiza and improving symbiosis. However, under stress conditions, this treatment resulted in better plant growth compared to – MeJ + AM and – MeJ − AM with the positive effects of MeJ on the antioxidant system. Generally, due to the inevitable imposition of drought stress in the period of plant growth under normal conditions, it seems as if the combination of these treatments could be considered in future. Graphical Abstract Graphical preview of physiological and growth variations of barley under experimental factors. AM Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, MeJ Methyl jasmonate, + MeJ MeJ application, − MeJ non-MeJ application, + AM AM application, − AM non-AM application, Shoot Shoot dry weight, Root Root dry weight, Total Total dry weight, MDA Malondialdehyde, SOD Superoxide dismutase, POD peroxidase, PPO polyphenol oxidase.
 
Article
Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is a perennial herb that has been widely cultivated for its phytoremediation potential, prevention of soil erosion and, in particularr, for production of aromatic essential oils. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on morpho-physiological traits, essential oils content and composition of vetiver grass exposed to water deficit stress. Three irrigation levels (40%, 70%, and 100% available water) and foliar application of SNP (250 and 500 μM) were applied to six months plants under greenhouse conditions. the findings indicated that water deficit reduced shoot and root growth, leaves chlorophyll, carotenoid and relative water content whereas, total phenol and flavonoid content, electrolyte leakage, proline, antioxidant enzyme activity, and roots essential oils content increased with decreasing soil available water. SNP application ameliorateed adverse effects of water deficit stress by rising antioxidant capacity, proline, phenolic compounds and pigments accumulation as well as reducing electrolyte leakage, which was highly pronounced in 500 μM cobcentration. The highest shoot and root dry weight were obtained from SNP at 500 and 250 μM in the irrigation level of 100% available water, respectively. The maximum amount of phenol, total flavonoids, essential oil percent (0.284%), proline, catalase, and peroxidase were observed in plants exposed to the 40% available water following treatment with 500 μM SNP. Heatmap results showed that the impact of SNP on vetiver grass is more significant under severer stress, while its efficiency might decrease under no-stress condition. Therefore, applying water deficit stress and SNP would be a potantial tool for improving plant essential oils yield.
 
Article
Plant-mediated synthesis methods of nanoflowers (NFs) open a new epoch of extensive application, economical, exceedingly stable, and reproducible synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NFs. To study the effects of bio-synthesized (BS) NFs and chemically synthesized nanowires (CS NWs) ZnO on soybean, a gel-free/ label-free proteomic technique was used. Length and weight of root including hypocotyl were enhanced by 10 ppm BS NFs and CS NWs ZnO. Oppositely changed proteins between BS NFs and CS NWs ZnO were related to hormone metabolism, protein folding, and redox metabolism. Abundance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) increased in BS NFs ZnO while did not change in CS NWs ZnO. Abundance of ascorbate peroxidase and peroxiredoxin increased and decreased, respectively, in BS NFs ZnO. Ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide increased, respectively, with BS NFs and CS NWs ZnO. These results suggest that BS NFs ZnO might improve the soybean growth by increasing the protein folding due to accumulation of HSP70 and redox metabolism through detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, CS NWs ZnO treated soybean experienced loss of protein folding and increased oxidative stress.
 
Article
Pelargonium sidoides (African geranium) is recognised by South African traditional healers and the pharmaceutical industry for its medicinal properties. Nonetheless, this medicinal herb is highly susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species), which limit its growth and medicinal values. Meloidogyne species over the years have been managed with synthetic chemicals. However, the continuous use of these nematicides poses health and environmental threats. Therefore, natural and environment-friendly nematode management strategies are required as alternatives. This study assessed the efficacy of ground or crude extracts of eight different botanicals on vegetative growth and phytochemical accumulation in P. sidoides and their ability to manage Meloidogyne incognita population density. The in vitro study revealed that Cucurbita maxima seed crude extract showed a 100% juvenile mobility inhibition after 72-h at 5 mg mL-1. Furthermore, P. sidoides seedlings treated with either ground or crude extracts of C. maxima seeds significantly enhanced plant growth and reduced nematode infection. In addition, C. maxima seed extract significantly increased the Chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid content, which might have enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of the plants at 10 g and 5 mg mL-1. A reduction in total phenolics (68 and 64 %), superoxide dismutase (1.33 and 1.45 fold) and carbohydrates (1.07 and 1.16 fold) content was recorded for both ground (10 g) or crude (5mg mL-1) extracts. Whereas a significant enhancement (10 g; 1.02 fold) and reduction (5 mg mL-1; 1.06 fold) in total protein content was noted when compared to the untreated control. The nematicidal properties observed could be due to the bioactive compounds such as Octadec-9-enoic acid z (cis), Octadecanoic acid, 17 octadecynoic acid, octanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexaonoic acid, 1-octanol, 1-octanal, 2,4-decadienal, (E-E) and 2-decenal, (E) identified and quantified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.
 
The hard-end occurrence of ‘Whangkeumbae’ pear fruit grafting in P. betulaefolia rootstock and P. bretschneideri rootstock
Root vigor (a), water potential (b), MDA content (c), and sodium content (d) of ‘Whangkeumbae’ pear trees on different rootstocks. Asterisks indicate significant differences (*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; unpaired t-test)
The comparison of the appearance of the empty vector and PpNAC187-overexpressing (PpNAC187-ox) transgenic tobacco lines. a, b The morphology of roots (a) and flowers (b) in PpNAC187-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants. c, d The expression of genes in overexpressed PpNAC187 tobacco. Significant differences between the empty vector and PpNAC187-ox plants are indicated (*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; unpaired t-test)
The treatment of different concentrations of PEG6000 (a) and drought stress (b) on the transgenic tobacco and the determination of MDA content (c) in transgenic tobacco plants. Asterisks indicate significant differences (*, P < 0.05; unpaired t-test)
Transgenic plants were treated by different concentrations of NaCl and the DAB, NBT staining in transgenic tobacco leaves
Article
The hard-end of pear fruit might be a disorder of the environmental abiotic stress, which is mainly caused by the reduced water intake of the fruit resulting from climate drought. To explore the factors that cause fruit hard-end, two rootstocks of Pyrus betulaefolia and P. bretschneideri with different root absorptive capacity of water and nutrients were used as base stock of ‘Whangkeumbae’ (P. pyrifolia) pear fruit. The results showed that the incidence of hard-end fruit in ‘Whangkeumbae’ pear trees using rootstock with lower rate of water absorptive increased, indicating that this physiological disorder was related with water deficiency. PpNAC187 was selected from RNA-Seq carried out on the calyx end of with and without the hard-end symptom of different rootstocks. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing PpNAC187 showed higher tolerance with drought and salt stress, which might suggest that PpNAC187 acts an important role during the hard-end occurring caused by drought or salt stress.
 
Article
Nitrogen (N) is one of the major limiting elements affecting the growth and productivity of cereal crops including bread wheat. Identification and detailed characterization of the candidate genes involved in the assimilation of N from inorganic to organic form is very important for better N utilization. Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) and Ferredoxin-dependent-glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT) are the two critical enzymes involved in GS/GOGAT cycle, which are necessary for primary N-assimilation. In the present study, GS2 and Fd-GOGAT genes were cloned from a popular bread wheat variety HD-2967 and their individual homeologues (A, B and D) were characterized under different levels of N-stress. Homeologous cDNAs of GS2 and Fd-GOGAT showed > 93% and > 98% sequence similarity, respectively, in the coding region but were distinguishable at UTRs. The expression patterns and contribution of each homeologue of both the genes in HD-2967 under different N treatments showed downregulation in the shoot and upregulation in the root tissues. However, the contribution of the individual homeologue varied with the tissue, time point and level of N-stress. Further, when the expression pattern and contribution of each homeologue were studied in a diverse set of wheat genotypes, a generalised contribution pattern of each homeologue of wheat was observed. While the transcript ratio of A and D homeologues of both the genes demonstrated to be compensating each other, Fd-GOGAT-B showed the least contribution in all the conditions and at all stages of growth. Substantial variation in cis-regulatory elements was observed among all three homeologues of both the genes. Overall, characterization and spatio-temporal contribution of GS2 and Fd-GOGAT homeologues would provide applied value for further detailed studies as well as their exploration in primary N-assimilation process in wheat.
 
Article
The paramount role of pH and temperature T in the expansive growth of a plant coleoptile/hypocotyl non-meristematic zone or plant and fungal cells was examined within the framework of the underlying chemical bond statistics in order to reproduce an experimental plot of growth vs. pH. Here, according to the definition, pH=pHμH+T,T is considered as a function of the chemical potential of the H+ (hydronium) ions (μH+), as well as an implicit and explicit function of T. The derivation of the pH and T dependent expansive growth distribution from the Poisson statistics of the “tethers” that reproduce the chemical bonds between microfibrils was determined. The probability distribution for the attachment/detachment/reattachment events of the tethers that are connected to the microfibrils in the elongation zone was obtained. The two distinct but interrelated modes of the expansive growth, which are known as “acid growth” and “auxin growth” were distinguished in the analytic model, while the acid growth hypothesis was verified and confirmed at the semi-empirical and microscopic levels for the first time. Moreover, further perspectives, in which the macroscopic variables P,V,T with P standing for the turgor pressure and V for the cell volume, and the microscopic variables, Ed,r, which represent the binding energies of the detachment/reattachment events at the expense of ATP energy, and μH+ can occur simultaneously, were identified. With a few assumptions that are partly based on experimental data it was possible to synthesise a link between the microscopic, explicit statistical explanation of bond dynamics and the macroscopic rheological properties of the cell wall at a given pH and temperature. A statistical description that predicted the importance of pH and temperature-dependent chemical potential of the H+ ions in microscopic events that result in growth would be supposedly applicable across scales.
 
Schematic representation of PGPR-mediated soil and plant health below as well as aboveground for overall plant growth and development
Diagrammatic representation of PGPR-mediated Cd-resistance in plants
Article
Cadmium (Cd) is predominantly observed within the soil to cause deterioration of plant and microbial activities within rhizosphere. Cd-toxicity leads to major agricultural constraints due to its accumulation within plants and therefore entry within food chain. Plants face numerous repercussions like stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis, inhibition of photosynthetic machinery and other physiological and biological activities. Utilization of microbial inoculants for Cd-stress tolerance from plants is lucrative for agricultural practices in order to enhance their productivity and yield. The presence of microorganisms in rhizosphere is of utmost importance as they interact with plants in direct and indirect ways through signalling mechanisms. They are quintessential in improving nutrient uptake and reducing ill effects of metal ions through detoxification, transformation and secreting certain volatile organic compounds that inhibit survival of pathogens near plants. The rhizobacteria possess plant growth-promoting characteristics in terms of improved enzyme activities, nitrogen fixation and phytohormones (Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (CK), ethylene (ET), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase etc.), siderophores and chelating agents. Furthermore, microbes are acquired with specific mechanisms against metal ions such as efflux, immobilization, stabilization, complexation, volatilization, sequestration and detoxification of different Cd-ions. Therefore, descriptive understanding of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM) favours their exploration as biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture through successful commercialization of strains.
 
Article
The deficiency of N-P availability in soil is a primary cause for crop yield and nutrient loss. Since plant-beneficial microbial symbiosis is an eco-friendly method for compensating this negative effect, understanding the interconnection between endophytic fungus colonization and mineral nutrient accumulation in edible parts of crop is important in agricultural production. In this study, we focused on the effects of endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambaris on the absorption and distribution of 14 essential mineral elements in vegetative organs (root and shoot) and reproductive organs (grain) of rice during its growing period with reduced N-P fertilizer application, as well as the changes in yield, quality, and mineral nutrition of rice grains. The possible mechanisms including the transcriptional level of the transport-related genes and the structure of endophytic community were also investigated. The results indicated that the P. liquidambaris significantly increased the accumulation of N, P, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mo, and Se in rice grains by 20.5%, 18.9%, 18.2%, 9.5%, 17.9%, 13.3%, and 17.1%, respectively, accompanied by the significant increase in yield (23.8%) and protein content (17.3%). These beneficial effects were attributed to the enhancement formation of iron plaque, the upregulation of nutrient transporters genes, and the altered endophyte community by P. liquidambaris symbiosis. In conclusion, P. liquidambaris could promote the partition of nutrients to the grains by increasing the efficiency of nutrient uptake and remobilization. Our results suggest P. liquidambaris symbiosis as a useful candidate for improving the mineral nutrition, quality, and yield of rice grains under N-P-deficient field condition. Graphic Abstract
 
Propagation through culm-branch cuttings in Bambusa tulda and Bambusa nutans. a Hormone treatment b Horizontal planting in sand c Sprouted cuttings d Sampling of cuttings e Shifting of rooted cuttings in polybags f, g Rooting in Bambusa tulda h, i Rooting in Bambusa nutans
Representing relationship between season and different characters in thin (≤ 2.0 cm diameter) and thick (> 2.0 cm diameter) cuttings of Bambusa tulda (a–e) and Bambusa nutans (f–j). Between season and number of sprouts (a and f), between season and length of sprouts (b and g), between season and number of primary roots (c and h), between season and root length (d and i), between season and rooting % (e and j). Summer represents spring–summer season and winter represent autumn–winter season
Article
Bamboo propagation through conventional methods like seeds and rhizome has limitations of availability pose practical and economic constraints and are, by and large non-sustainable. To overcome the situation, macro-propagation efforts of commercially important Bambusa tulda Roxb. and Bambusa nutans Wall. have been endeavored. Season and cuttings’ thickness is influential in determining rooting ability in culm-branch cuttings of these two species. Age of donor culm, treatment concentration and duration, rooting substratum, temperature, and humidity are other affecting factors. Present study exhibited initiation of sprouts within a week after planting of cuttings, whereas adventitious rooting initiates in 20 days after planting. Culm-branch cuttings planted during spring–summer in March and sampled after 60 days reveals 63.39% and 72.68% rooting ability, respectively in ≤ 2.0 cm diameter (thin) and > 2.0 cm diameter (thick) cuttings of Bambusa tulda and 73.60% and 69.02% rooting ability, respectively in thin and thick cuttings of Bambusa nutans. Rooting ability of branch cuttings decline in rainy season followed by autumn–winter in two diameter classes of both species. Sprout number, sprout length, number of primary adventitious roots, and root length of the longest root was comparatively higher during spring–summer than rainy and autumn–winter season in thin and thick cuttings of both species. Propagation through culm-branch/sub-branch cuttings is without hampering economic value of culms and therefore, a non-destructive, cheap, and easy to handle technique of large scale production of planting stock. Strong relationship between season and rooting ability will help in achieving planting stock production targets of forest nurseries.
 
The number and classification of DEGs. a The number of DEGs between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type under 50 mM NaCl treatment. Red bars, number of up-regulated genes; blue bars, number of down-regulated genes. b Venn diagram showing the intersection of DEGs between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type under different treatments. The pink color represents number of DEGs in leaves under control condition; the yellow color represents number of DEGs in roots under control condition; the green color represents number of DEGs in leaves under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 6 h; the blue color represents number of DEGs in root under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 6 h; the red color represents number of DEGs in leaves under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 24 h; the black color represents number of DEGs in roots under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 24 h. c Top 20 enriched functional categories of 3560 DEGs which only differently expressed in leaves under 50 mM NaCl for 6 h, and this classification were based on KEGG pathway
DEGs between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type under salt treatment. a Venn-diagram analysis of DEGs between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type under salt treatment. The yellow color represents number of DEGs in leaves under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 6 h; the green color represents number of DEGs in leaves under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 24 h; the pink color represents number of DEGs in roots under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 6 h; the blue color represents number of DEGs in roots under 50 mM NaCl treatment for 24 h. b Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of 142 DEGs which differently expressed in roots and leaves under salt treatment for 6 h and 24 h between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type
Correlation of gene expression between quantitative real-time PCR and RNA-Seq results. Horizontal axis and vertical axis represent the fold change derived from RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. a WT-C-R vs L7-C-R, b WT-C-L vs L7-C-L, c WT-S6-R vs L7-S6-R, d WT-S6-L vs L7-S6-L, e WT-S24-R vs L7-S24-R, f WT-S24-L vs L7-S24-L. Abbreviations: WT and L7 represent wild type and ZxNHX1-RNAi line, respectively; C and S6 and S24 represent control and 50 mM NaCl treatment for 6 h and 24 h, respectively; L and R represent leaves and roots, respectively. These results were performed on GraphPad Prism version 5.01
Article
Zygophyllum xanthoxylum, a succulent xerophyte, possesses excellent salt tolerance which is closely associated with vacuolar Na⁺ compartmentation via ZxNHX1. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated ZxNHX1 silencing impaired the characteristics of Na⁺ accumulation and thus inhibited normal growth of Z. xanthoxylum. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the changed phenotype, here we compared the different expression of salt-responsive genes between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type at transcriptome level. The result showed that vast genes were differently expressed in leaves or roots between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and wild type under control condition or salt treatment. Among them, 142 unigenes were differently expressed in both roots and leaves under 50 mM NaCl for 6 h and 24 h between ZxNHX1-RNAi line and WT. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to transmembrane transportation based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. In terms of ion transport, 49 DEGs were identified, in which some genes associated with Na⁺ and K⁺ homeostasis were down-regulated; meanwhile, silencing of ZxNHX1 triggered the differential expression of several genes involved in the transport of important nutrient elements including N, P, Ca, and Mg. Besides, silencing of ZxNHX1 affected the expression level of 18 and 26 genes related to photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, respectively. This study provided strong evidences to indicate the dominant role of ZxNHX1 in maintaining the characteristics of salt accumulation and regulating the salt tolerance of Z. xanthoxylum.
 
Temporal change in water soluble phosphorus (a) and boron (b) in soil from different formulations of B-DAP
Effect of different formulations of DAP-B on boron concentrations (mg kg⁻¹) in shoots and grains of B. napus under pot and field experiment. Columns show mean values while means sharing different letters vary significantly from each other according to Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). T1: C-DAP130, T2: C-DAP130 + B2.5,T3: 0.5% B-DAP98, T4: 1% B-DAP98, T5: 1.5% B-DAP98, T6: 0.5% B-DAP130, T7: 1% B-DAP130, T8: 1.5% B-DAP130
Effect of different formulations of DAP-B on phosphorus concentrations (g kg⁻¹) in shoots and grains of B. napus under pot and field experiment. Columns show mean values while means sharing different letters vary significantly from each other according to Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). T1: C-DAP130, T2: C-DAP130 + B2.5,T3: 0.5% B-DAP98, T4: 1% B-DAP98, T5: 1.5% B-DAP98, T6: 0.5% B-DAP130, T7: 1% B-DAP130, T8: 1.5% B-DAP130
Effect of different formulations of B-DAP on oil content (%) in grains of B. napus under pot (A) and field (B) experiments. Columns show mean values while means sharing different letters vary significantly from each other according to Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). T1: C-DAP130, T2: C-DAP130 + B2.5,T3: 0.5% B-DAP98, T4: 1% B-DAP98, T5: 1.5% B-DAP98, T6: 0.5% B-DAP130, T7: 1% B-DAP130, T8: 1.5% B-DAP130
A correlation between B concentrations in grains (mg kg⁻¹) and oil content (%) of B. napus under pot (A) and field (B) experiments
Article
Many agricultural soils fail to supply sufficient boron (B) and phosphorus (P) to growing plants due to their adsorption, precipitation and fixation phenomena. Moreover, the application of individual B sources without a macronutrient fertilizer is impractical owing to the separate handling and poor distribution in the field. The study aimed to develop and compare the efficiency of organically complexed boron-diammonium phosphate (B-DAP) formulations with commercial diammonium phosphate (C-DAP) and boric acid for improving yield and oil content of canola. To prepare 0.5, 1 and 1.5% B-DAP formulations, PGPR-impregnated pressmud containing 1% B (slurry) was coated on C-DAP to achieve slurry to P2O5 ratio as 0.5:1, 1:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Treatments tested in incubation, pot and field studies were C-DAP130, C-DAP130 + B2.5, and 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% B-DAP; each B-DAP formulation was added to supply 98 and 130 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹. The results of the incubation study depicted that with the application of 1.5% B-DAP130 available P content increased by 51% between 2 and 10 weeks of incubation. Likewise, soils fertilized with B-DAP98 and B-DAP130 had significantly (p < 0.05) higher hot-water extractable B content up to 10th week of incubation. In case of pot and field experiments, 1.5% B-DAP98 was found the most effective for canola as it produced the maximum grain yield under field conditions with 38% escalation compared to C-DAP130 and 16% increase compared to C-DAP130 + B2.5. The application of 1.5% B-DAP98 showed maximum oil content of 48 and 42% under pot and field conditions, respectively. It is concluded that the application of 1.5% B-DAP98 enhanced the canola yield, nutrient uptake and oil content more than C-DAP130 + B2.5.
 
Weekly weather data at experimental site during the cropping year 2018 (a) and 2019 (b). Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum. The data were obtained from Meteorological Observatory at Norman E. Borlogue Crop Research Centre, G.B.P.U.A.T., Pantnagar
Qualitative estimation of in vitro phosphorus solubilization by isolated PSB based on solubilization index (a), quantitative estimation of in vitro phosphorus solubilization by the bacterial isolates and pH of the media. Each value is a mean of three replicates. Bars are the standard error of mean (n = 3). Different letter(s) above the error bars indicate significant differences of the mean between bacterial isolates (Duncan’s multiple range test, p < 0.05). PSB1 = Bacillus licheniformis; PSB2 = Pantoea dispersa; PSB3 = Staphylococcus sp.; Standard strain = Pseudomonas putida
Synergistic effect of Phosphorus (P) and different P application rates (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended P 45 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹) on panicle weight at maturity during Kharif season 2018 (a), 2019 (b), spikelet fertility at maturity during Kharif season 2018 (c), 2019 (d), and grain yield of upland rice during Kharif season 2018 (e), 2019 (f). Each value is a mean of three replicates. Bars are the standard error of mean (n = 3). Different letter(s) above the error bars indicate significant differences of the mean for interaction ‘P doses × treatments’ (Duncan’s multiple range test, p < 0.05). T1 = uninoculated control with different P fertilizer rates; T2 = PSB1; T3 = PSB2; T4 = PSB 3; T5 = PSB1and 2; T6 = PSB 1and 3; T7 = PSB 2and 3; T8 = PSB1, 2, and 3; and T9 = Standard strain
Synergistic effect of Phosphorus (P) and different P application rates (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended P 45 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹) on peroxidase activity during Kharif season 2018 (a), 2019 (b), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity of flag leaves of upland rice during Kharif season 2018 (c) and 2019 (d). Each value is a mean of three replicates. Bars are the standard error of mean (n = 3). Different letter(s) above the error bars indicate significant differences of the mean for interaction ‘P doses × treatments’ (Duncan’s multiple range test, p < 0.05). T1 = uninoculated control with different P fertilizer rates; T2 = PSB1; T3 = PSB2; T4 = PSB 3; T5 = PSB1and 2; T6 = PSB 1and 3; T7 = PSB 2and 3; T8 = PSB1, 2, and 3; and T9 = Standard strain
Article
In the present study, we examined the synergistic effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and the chemical phosphate on the growth, photosynthetic efficiency, phosphorus (P) uptake, antioxidant activity, and yield of upland rice. Three effective bacterial strains with potent P solubilizing activity viz., Bacillus licheniformis (688.18 µg ml−1), Pantoea dispersa (570.90 µg ml−1), and Staphylococcus sp. (551.81 µg ml−1), were isolated from rice rhizosphere to study their impact on upland rice growth and yield under field conditions for two consecutive years. The experiment data revealed significant increments in shoot height, shoot dry weight, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, chlorophyll fluorescence (fv/fm), P uptake, antioxidant activity, and yield characteristics in upland rice treated with individual PSB or their consortia alone, compared to uninoculated control. However, the integrated use of PSB with 50% recommended P dose showed maximum increment in growth indices (21.25%, 21.86% increase in shoot length and 87.18%, 97.06% increase in shoot dry weight), P uptake (110.37%, 122.78% increase), and yield (50.58%, 35.64% increase) compared to uninoculated control for 2018 and 2019, respectively, indicating a reduction in the dependence of chemical P fertilizer by 50%. Therefore, it can be concluded that combined application of PSB and 50% recommended dose of chemical P can be implied for the sustainable cultivation of upland rice systems to give maximum benefits to the farmers and the environment.
 
Article
Soil salinity is one of the main yield-limiting factors in various crops. Under different environmental stresses, many rhizobacteria have demonstrated encouraging role in enhancing plant growth and tolerate stress conditions. In this study, three potential 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase- and exopolysaccharides (EPS)-secreting bacterial strains including Bacillus megaterium, B. tequilensis, and Pseudomonas putida have been assessed for their growth-promoting characteristics. These bacterial strains positively affected the physiology, biochemistry, and antioxidant enzymatic activities of wheat plant, under salinity stress. Results of this study depicted that the inoculation of PGPR positively invigorates growth attributes like relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of wheat seedling under saline conditions. Moreover, plants inoculated with PGPR also showed decreased concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Inoculation of PGPR reduced electrolytic leakage and enhanced enzymatic activity for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These PGPR also increased the production of proline and total soluble sugar. Expression analysis of selected genes by qPCR revealed higher expression of Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS1 and SOS4) genes and predicted their potential role in stress tolerance. These genes can be further overexpressed in wheat plant to tolerate salinity stress. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that the priming of seeds with aforementioned PGPR can decrease the adverse effects of salinity on wheat plant.
 
Article
Early-spring plants are a special type of plant that complete their life cycle promptly in cold, early spring. Very little effort has been made into researching the flowering mechanism of this type. Vernalization, as an indispensable process for flowering induction at low temperature, is likely to be closely related to life cycle transition in early-spring plants. To explore the flowering strategy at low temperature, this study selected two local early-spring flowering plant species (Hylomecon japonica (Thunb.) Prantl, Smilacina japonica A. Gray) and two early-spring unflowered plants species (Cimicifuga foetida L., Veratrum nigrum L.) as subjects. Firstly, the ratio of abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin (CTK) hormones was analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, results of which indicated that early-spring flowering plants have completed vernalization and thus entered the flowering stage. IAA content in early-spring flowering plants was significantly lower than that of unflowered plants, while GA3 and ABA contents were higher. Secondly, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was adopted to profile metabolite richness across the two types of plants. Integrated key metabolic pathway analysis suggested that the contents of D-ribose, L-valine, L-isoleucine, alanine as well as various other compounds participating in the key pathways of early-spring flowering plants significantly reduced, demonstrating that early-spring flowering plants consume a significant amount of energy to regulate flowering, that is sourced from mass carbohydrate consumption. These results provide a greater understanding of early-spring flowering plants and their metabolic mechanism of vernalization, laying the foundation for further exploration on early-spring plants as well as the processing mechanism of the plant life cycle.
 
Article
Gibberellin (GA), auxin (IAA) and brassinosteroid (BR) are indispensable in the process of plant growth and development. Currently, research on the regulatory mechanism of phytohormones in banana dwarfism is mainly focused on GA, and few studies are focused on IAA and BR. In this study, we measured the contents of endogenous GA, IAA and BR and compared the transcriptomes of wild-type Williams banana and its dwarf mutant across five successive growth periods. We investigated the relationship between hormones and banana dwarfism and explored differential gene expression through transcriptome analysis, thus revealing the possible metabolic regulatory mechanism. We inferred a complex regulatory network of banana dwarfing. In terms of endogenous hormone levels, GA and IAA had significant effects on banana dwarfing, while BR had little effect. The key gene in GA biosynthesis of is GA2ox , and the key genes in IAA biosynthesis are TDC and YUCCA . The differential expression of these genes might be the main factor affecting hormone levels and plant height. In terms of hormone signal transduction, DELLA and AUX/IAA repressor proteins were the core regulators of GA and IAA, respectively. They inhibited the process of signal transduction and had feedback regulation on hormone levels. Finally, the transporter protein PIN, AUX1/LAX protein family and ABCB subfamily played supplementary roles in the transport of IAA. These results provide new insights into GA and IAA regulation of banana growth and a reliable foundation for the improvement of dwarf varieties.
 
Article
The over use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is the major anthropogenic cause of low N-use efficiency and environmental damage in wetland rice production. Biochar (B) addition to soil is suggested as a climate change mitigation tool that supports carbon sequestration and reduces N losses and greenhouse gas emissions from the soil. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of four levels of B (0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha−1) combined with two levels of N (135 and 180 kg ha−1) on soil health, roots dynamics, physiological attributes, and yield components of rice. The addition of B at 30 t ha−1 combined with 135 N kg ha−1 increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, biomass, and grain yield by 104%, 64%, 12%, and 30%, respectively, over control. Further, root traits such as total root length (TRL), total root volume (TRV), total root surface area (TRSA), and total average root diameter (TARD) were improved under 30 t ha−1 combined with 135 N kg ha−1 by 20%, 13%, 13%, and 25%, respectively, than non-biochar treatment under lower N application. Improvements in these traits resulted from higher N uptake due to improved soil physiochemical properties and soil microbial biomass combined with biochar. Interestingly, enhanced N metabolizing enzyme activities, including nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) in biochar-treated plots, further supported the increases in these traits. Our results revealed that the integration of 30 t B ha−1 with 135 kg N ha−1 is a favorable option for enhancing soil health and rice grain yield.
 
Phenotypes of HD86 and Nipponbare under salt stress conditions. a Seed germination of HD86 and Nipponbare in NaCl solution of EC 32.90 dS/m for 10 days. Scale bar = 1 cm. b Seed germination rates of HD86 and Nipponbare in NaCl solution of EC 32.90 dS/m for 10 days. Asterisks (**) denote significant difference (P < 0.01) between Nipponbare and HD86 according to a t test. c Phenotypes of 2-week-old seedlings of HD86 and Nipponbare exposed to NaCl solution of EC 20.30 dS/m for 7 days and restored in water for 7 days. Scale bar = 1 cm. d Survival rates of seedlings restored in water for 7 days after 7-day treatment with NaCl solution of EC 20.30 dS/m. Asterisks (**) denote significant difference (P < 0.01) between Nipponbare and HD86 according to a t test. e Phenotypes of 2-week-old seedlings of HD86 and Nipponbare exposed to the diluted seawater of EC 12.80 dS/m. Scale bar = 5 cm. f Phenotypes of HD86, Nipponbare, HD86-derived hybrids and some cultivars in paddy filed of saline-alkali soil in Dongying, Shandong Province, China. YG218 (Yangeng 218) and YF47 (Yanfeng 47) are two salt-tolerant cultivars. YG218/HD86 F2 means F2 segregation population of hybrid crossed by YG218 and HD86. YF47/HD86 F2 means F2 segregation population of hybrid crossed by YF47 and HD86
The phenotype of seed germination of F2 population derived from a cross with HD86 and Nipponbare under NaCl solution of EC 32.90 dS/m for 10 days. a The frequency distribution of seed germination rate of the population and the two parents. b Seed germination of typical progeny lines under salt conditions
Mapping of qST1. a The position of qST1 on a linkage map of chromosome 1. b Genotypes of recombinant lines. c Phenotypes of groups of recombinant lines
qRT-PCR-based expression levels of candidates conferring to qST1. Asterisks denote significant difference (* means P < 0.05, ** means P < 0.01) and between Nipponbare and HD86 at the same treatment time according to a t test. The data are means ± SE from three independent replicates
Comparison of QTLs for rice salt tolerance identified in this study with previously reported QTLs on chromosome 1
Article
Salinity is a key abiotic constraint on crop production worldwide. To minimize the effect of salinity on rice production, crop improvement strategies based on molecular marker techniques and genetic engineering are being used to develop salt-tolerant rice varieties. The development of such varieties, however, is hindered by limited parental resources. In this study, Haidao 86 (HD86) was observed to exhibit strong salt tolerance during its entire growth period, suggesting that it is a good donor for breeding salt-tolerant rice varieties. To dissect the molecular characteristics underlying the salt tolerance of HD86, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis at the seed germination stage of an F2 segregating population derived from crossing HD86 with Nipponbare under 2% NaCl treatment (EC of 32.90 dS/m). One salt-tolerant QTL, qST1, was identified on the long arm of chromosome 1 between the markers CHR1-30M and CHR1-36M, corresponding to a genetic distance of 17.9 cM, and explained about 9.27% of the phenotypic variance. Using 1500 plants of the HD86 BC4F2 introgression lines in the Nipponbare genetic background with heterozygous segments between markers CHR1-30M and CHR1-36M, the exact location of qST1 was narrowed down to a 900 kb region. Combined with a bulk segregant analysis using two extreme phenotype pools of F2, eleven candidates were predicted among the mapped qST1 region. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that eleven candidates were differentially expressed in response to salt stress at the germination stage in HD86 compared with Nipponbare, suggesting the possible role of these genes in regulating salt tolerance in HD86.
 
Post-Harvest soil sulfur (mg kg⁻¹) as affected by different levels of sulfur and zinc
Post-Harvest soil zinc (mg kg⁻¹) as affected by different levels of sulfur and zinc
Article
A field trial was performed to study the effect of zinc (Zn) and sulfur (S) on yield and uptake by wheat crop at research farm, the University of Agriculture (34° 1′ 2″ N, 71° 28′ 5″ E,) Peshawar, Pakistan during 2019–2020. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement and was replicated three times. Four Zn levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg Zn ha−1) and four S levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg S ha−1) were used. Wheat plant biomass, grain yield and straw yield were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected by different levels of Zn and S. Plant biomass (8514 kg ha−1), grain yield (3887 kg ha−1) and straw yield (4531 kg ha−1) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with combine application of Zn at 15 kg ha−1 and S at 60 kg ha−1. The interaction (Zn x S) was found significant for all the above-mentioned parameters including S and Zn content in plant and post-harvest soil. It can be concluded that application of Zn at 15 kg ha−1 and S at 60 kg ha−1 has the potential to enhance wheat yield and yield components in the prevailing soil and environmental condition.
 
Bt protein expression of different transgenic genotypes at different growth stages. Vertical bars indicate standard errors. BTC Bt protein content, MT mid-tillering stage, PI panicle initiation stage, H heading stage, FS filling stage
Bt protein expression of MH63 (CryAb/Ac) at different phyllotaxy (A) and different leaf age (B). Columns with the different letter are significantly different according to LSD (0.05). Vertical bars indicate standard errors. BTC Bt protein content
Bt protein expression of MH63 (CryAb/Ac) in different organizations. Columns with the different letter are significantly different according to LSD (0.05). Vertical bars indicate standard errors. BTC Bt protein content
Dead heart stem (A) and damaged leaves (B) of MH63 (CryAb/Ac), MH63 (Cry1C*), MH63 (Cry2A*), and MH63 (CK) at different N levels. Columns with the different letter under each genotype are significantly different according to LSD (0.05). Vertical bars indicate standard errors
Article
Transgenic rice with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes has been successfully cultivated in recent years. The stable and sustainable expression of Bt protein is the guarantee of effective resistance within these strains against target pests. It is well known that the synthesis of Bt protein in Bt crops needs nitrogen (N). Therefore, how is the efficacy of transgenic Bt rice against target pests in response to N application? In our study, we found that enhanced nitrogen inputs increased soluble protein content (SPC) and glutamine synthetase (GS), but decreased amino acid content (AAC); it is evident that the protein synthesis was enhanced, and degradation was reduced with increasing nitrogen application. Thus, both increased protein synthesis and decreased protein degradation contributed to the increased Bt protein content (BTC) in transgenic Bt rice. Responses of the three Bt rice lines to N proportions and N sources were different. All these differences can be explained by the changes of nitrogen metabolism of different genotypes. The BTC in leaves was higher than that in other organs, and the fully expanded green leaf had higher BTC than the senescent leaf and tender leaf. Despite the difference of Bt protein expression, all transgenic rice lines showed 100% resistance to target pests under different N conditions. Our results indicated that the response of Bt protein expression in transgenic Bt rice with different genotypes to N fertilizer was inconsistent; moreover, there exist obvious spatial-temporal differences. Therefore, in order to guarantee the stability and sustainability resistance of Bt rice, it is necessary to adopt appropriate N management practice according to the expression pattern of Bt protein of transgenic Bt rice with different genotypes.
 
Article
Plant growth and development are regulated by phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, auxins, or gibberellins. Under drought stress, melatonin and the signaling calcium (Ca2+) are involved in plant defense and stress responses by controlling phytohormone and antioxidant machineries. Exogenous melatonin (MT) promotes drought stress tolerance in plants. As an essential second messenger, the signaling molecule Ca2+ is necessary in the stress tolerance of plants and might increase stress tolerance induced by exogenous melatonin. The present study elucidated the effects of Ca2+-MT on Dalbergia odorifera seedlings under drought stress. Results showed increases in growth traits and photosynthesis indexes (pigments, net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, and transpiration) by MT and Ca2+ under non stress and stress conditions. Under drought stress, the water status in leaves was slightly ameliorated by MT and Ca2+ treatments, whereas the Ca2+-MT combination strongly improved water status. Comparison between combined Ca2+-MT and single Ca2+/MT treatments showed that superoxide anion was significantly lower in Ca2+-MT-treated seedlings. Lipid peroxidation was lower in Ca2+-MT-treated seedlings under drought stress. Further, relative conductivity was significantly decreased by Ca2+ and MT treatments under stress compared with seedlings untreated with Ca2+ or MT under drought. The accumulation of proline decreased by Ca2+ and MT under stress, but the carbohydrates and protein contents were increased by exogenous MT and Ca2+. Under drought, antioxidant systems (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities, and glutathione [GSH] and ascorbic acid [ASA] levels) were significantly increased by the Ca2+ and MT treatments. The combined treatment showed better performance in increasing GSH and ASA levels than single MT or Ca2+ treatment. The gibberellin GA3 and cytokine ZR increased significantly under non stress and stress conditions, but exogenous Ca2+ or MT did not increase their activities compared with those in the control groups. Exogenous Ca2+ and Ca2+-MT enhanced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content in D. odorifera leaves under stress compared with the control. Moreover, abscisic acid (ABA) level is downregulated by MT and Ca2+-MT treatments compared with the control. The seedlings treated with Ca2+ only showed increase in ABA concentration under drought stress. This study provides an insight into a possible coordination between Ca2+ and melatonin and into drought tolerance in woody plants.
 
Phenotypic characterization of the lax2-4 mutant. A Morphology of wild-type (left) and lax2-4 (right) plants, Bars = 10 cm. B, C Panicle (B) and primary branch (C) of wild-type (left) and lax2-4 (right), Bars = 2 cm. D, E SEM observations of the primary branch primordia (blue asterisks) (d, Bars = 100 μm), and the secondary branches primordia (red asterisks) (e, Bars = 20 μm) of WT (left) and lax2-4 (right). F Stereoscope observations of primary branches of WT (left) and lax2-4 (right), Bars = 0.5 mm. G Grain morphology of WT and lax2-4, Bars = 1 cm. H The grain length (up) and width (down)of WT and lax2-4, Bars = 1 cm. I Quantification of the number of primary branches per panicle. J Quantification of the number of secondary branches per panicle. K Quantification of the number of lateral spikelets per panicle. L Quantification of the number of grains per panicle. Error bars mean standard error. **means P ≤ 0.01 by the Student’s t-test
Map-based cloning of LAX2-4. A Fine mapping of the LAX2-4 locus. The molecular markers and recombinant numbers are displayed. The INV region is depicted in orange. B The structure of candidate gene for LAX2-4
Identification of the LAX2-4 transcripts. A RACE identification of the transcripts of lax2-4, named LAX2-4 a-d according to the amplification products length. B Relative expression level of different LAX2-4 transcripts in WT and lax2-4, error bars mean standard error. Letters indicate significant differences by one-way ANOVA following Duncan’s test (P < 0.05)
Phenotypes and relative expression of overexpression lines. A–D Phenotype of lax2-4 (A), overexpression (OE#1-3) lines B–D, the pictures from left to right show the whole plants, Bars = 10 cm, panicles and primary branches, Bars = 2 cm, respectively. E Relative expression of the WT type transcript of LAX2-4 in WT, lax2-4, and transgenic lines. F Quantification of the number of primary branches per panicle. G Quantification of the number of secondary branches per panicle. H Quantification of the number of lateral spikelets per panicle. I Quantification of the number of grains per panicle. Error bars mean standard error. Different letters indicate significant differences by one-way ANOVA following Duncan’s test (P < 0.05)
Diagram of CRISPR/Cas9 targeted sites and interaction between LAX2 and OsMADS1. A Schematic diagram of the targeted sites in LAX2, exons and introns are indicated by rectangles and black line, respectively. The target sequence is labeled up of the schematic exon structure, and the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) is highlighted in red. B Y2H assay for the interaction between LAX2 and OsMADS1. Truncated LAX2 was fused with the GAL4 binding domain (BD), OsMADS1 with the GAL4 activation domain (AD). The pGBKT7-53 and pGADT7-T pair is the positive control, the pGBKT7-Lam and pGADT7-T pair is the negative control. The yeast cells were grown on the SD/-LT (Synthetic media without Leu and Trp) and SD/-TLHA (Synthetic media without Trp, Leu, His and Adenosine).C BiFC assay for the interaction between LAX2 and OsMADS1 in N. benthamiana leaf cells, Bars = 50 μm. D Relative expression of OsMADS1 in WT and lax2-4. Error bars mean standard error. **P ≤ 0.01 by the Student’s t-test
Article
The number of grains per panicle is one of the most important factors of rice yield and determinated by branch and spikelet number. Genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for panicle branching and spikelet development remain unclear in rice. Here, we report a mutant lax2-4 mainly showing lax panicle, longer grains, a little abnormal spikelet, lower setting rate and abaxial curled leaf. Genetic analysis indicated that the defective panicle phenotype of lax2-4 was controlled by single recessive gene. Further mapping and re-sequencing revealed that the fourth exon of LAX2 was lost caused by an approximately 2-Mb INV in lax2-4, thus LAX2-4 could be a new allele of LAX2. Overexpression assays showed that lax panicle was rescued in correspondence with the gradually increased expression level of wild-type LAX2-4 transcript. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the fourth exon verified that LAX2-4 participates the regulation of sterile lemma and lemma development in rice. LAX2-4 could interact with an E-class gene, OsMADS1, and the fourth exon was necessary for its function. Collectively, we proposed that LAX2-4 plays a dual role in lateral spikelet and lemma development.
 
Effect of Bacillus subtilis JN005 suspension of 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL treatment (right) on rice seed germination in comparison to the control or sterile water treatment (left)
Effect of Bacillus subtilis JN005 suspension at 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL treatment on rice seedlings (right) in comparison to the control or water treatment (left)
Effect of Bacillus subtilis JN005 on the activities of defense enzymes: A catalase (CAT), B phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), C superoxide dismutase (SOD), and D peroxidase (POD). T1 Water, T2 2 × 10⁵ conidia/mL M. oryzae suspension, T3 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL B. subtilis JN005 suspension, T4 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL B. subtilis JN005 suspension + 2 × 10⁵ conidia/mL M. oryzae spore suspension
Effect of Bacillus subtilis JN005 on rice blast development on detached rice leaves. T1 Sterile water, T2 40% isoprothiolane EC, T3 75% tricyclazole WP, T4 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL B. subtilis JN005 suspension
Article
It is quite important to develop the microorganism resources with biocontrol capacity for rice blast. This study evaluated Bacillus subtilis JN005 for growth promotion and biocontrol efficacy against Magnaporthe oryzae. Results showed that rice seeds treated with 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL suspension of B. subtilis JN005 had 16% germination energy, 14% germination rate, 15% germination index, and 270% vigor index compared to those treated with sterile water (control). In pot experiments, the JN005 strain-treated rice plants exhibited notable increase in plant height, root length, stem circumference, and fresh weight, as well as higher concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll in rice leaves. Rice leaves inoculated with the JN005 strain resulted in increased activities of defense-related enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) compared to the water and the M. oryzae-inoculated treatments. In vitro inoculated rice leaves with 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL bacterial suspension compared to sterile water or control treatment exhibited lower disease incidence in the curative and preventive groups by 79% and 76%, respectively. Field experiment showed that after spraying with 1 × 10⁷ cfu/mL bacterial suspension, efficacy rates on controlling rice blast on plants were (56.82 ± 1.12)% and (58.39 ± 3.05)% at seedling and maturity stages, respectively, and that rice production yield was (524.40 ± 17.88) g/m². Therefore, B. subtilis JN005 could be a promising biological control agent for rice blast, thereby warranting further investigation of its efficacy.
 
Length distributions and percentages of 5’-terminal nucleotide of Larix kaempferi miRNAs
Expression changes of three age-related miRNAs with age
Correlations between expression patterns of coordinated miRNAs
LkTAS3 EST contained dual miR390 complementary sites. Seventeen tasiRNA pairs are predicted between two miR390 cleavage sites in 21-nucleotide intervals and coded as 5’D1(+), 5’D2(+), and so on, or 5’D1(−), 5’D2(−), and so on, on the opposite strand. Two miR390 complementary sites are highlighted by italic fonts
miRNA-mediated regulatory network underlying chronological development of meristems of Larix kaempferi. Ellipse nodes correspond to the miRNAs, diamond nodes are the target genes, and rectangle-rounded corners nodes represent GO-biological processes of miRNA targets. Age-related miRNAs are marked in yellow, miRNAs directly correlated with age-related miRNAs are marked in pale cyan, and miRNAs indirectly correlated with age-related miRNAs are marked in orange. Solid lines represent miRNA pairs, of which negative correlations are marked in blue, whereas positive correlations are marked in black. Separate arrows represent miRNA-mRNA pairs and marquee dash dot represents mRNA-annotation pairs
Article
Plant growth and development is usually characterized by chronological age over the plants’ lifetimes. Age-related changes actually originate with meristems because they control if, where, when, and how new tissues are formed along the axis of the shoot. The “time-keeping” of plant meristem development is a complex process. To uncover the post-transcriptional regulation underlying the chronological development of Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch) meristems, we investigated the miRNA-mediated regulatory network in the defoliated, uppermost main stems of 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-old L. kaempferi using RNA-seq methods. We identified 29 high-confidence miRNAs, three of which were defined, age-related miRNAs whose expression changed depending on L. kaempferi age, and 17 showed coordinated expression patterns with three age-related miRNAs based on hierarchical correlations. All hierarchically coordinated miRNAs and their targets constituted a miRNA-mediated regulatory network. The developmental timing pathway lka-miR-1-5p-156-SBP/SPL (Squamosa Promoter Binding Protein-Like), the lignin biosynthesis pathway lka-miR-7,13-5p-397-LAC (Laccase), and an unknown pathway lka-miR-3-5p-CMSS1 (Cms1 Ribosomal Small Subunit Homolog) were age-driven, and information from auxin and light could be integrated by the lka-miR-9-5p-390-TAS/ARF (Trans-Acting siRNA3/Auxin Response Factor) and lka-miR-8-5p-IRL4 (Plant Intracellular Ras-Group-Related LRR Protein 4) pathways, respectively. Age-driven regulatory network will lead the way to understand which and how genes mutually cross-regulate their activity orchestrating development of meristems of L. kaempferi with age. We also discussed and contributed to miRNA annotation and nomenclature.
 
Schematic representation for CKs action under salt stress in Arabidopsis. Severe salt treatment declined plant CKs contents through modulating its biosynthesis or degradation. The modification of CKs concentration regulates the expression levels of salt-responsive genes that reported to confer salt tolerance (like HKT1;1) via CKs signaling pathway, which are composed of AHKs, AHPs, ARRs, and CRFs. In addition, CKs also negatively regulate plant salt tolerance through antagonizing ABA as well as through repressing biosynthesis and signaling of the plant hormone ethylene
Article
The plant hormone cytokinins (CKs) were generally considered associated with plant development. More recently, functions of CKs in plant stress defense including salt have been increasingly characterized. Under saline conditions, not only CKs homeostasis but also its signal transduction pathway is disturbed in a plant species-dependent manner. In turn, through manipulating exogenous CKs application or endogenous CKs metabolism or signaling, plant behavior can also be diverse across species. In this review, we systematically summarized this mutual regulation between CKs and salt stress. Considering the senescence-delaying effect of CKs, its roles in mitigating salt-induced senescence and maintaining crop yields are specifically highlighted. We also discussed here how CKs crosstalk with other phytohormones, including ABA and ethylene, to mediate salt response. In sum, this review provides a comprehensive integration of current knowledge on the regulatory role of CKs upon salt stress and puts forward research directions for future studies.
 
Generation and identification of srl1-KO. a Gene structure with CRISPR/Cas9 target site of SRL1. The gray rectangles represent the exons. The white rectangles represent the untranslated region. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) site is underlined. Details with adjacent sequence of the target site are showed below. b Genomic structures of SRL1 locus in KO and non-KO line. c Target site DNA sequence in non-KO and homozygous KO line. The PAM is underlined, the asterisk indicates a “T” inserted in the srl1-KO. d The whole plant phenotypes of non-KO and srl1-KO. e, f Leaf blade phenotype of non-KO and srl1-KO
Overview of the RNA-seq a Pair-wise correlation analysis (Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient) of all the samples. b Numbers of DEGs. c KEGG pathway analysis. The vertical axis represents the top 50 enriched pathways according to enrichment factor; the horizontal axis represents the number of genes in the corresponding pathway. d The expression profiles of twelve leaf-rolling-related genes were validated by qPCR. Values are shown as means ± s.d. (n = 3). For the qRT-PCR, *represents P < 0.05; ** epresents P < 0.01 (Student’s t test). For the RNA-seq, *represents FDR < 0.01
Article
SRL1 (SEMI-ROLLED LEAF 1) also named as CLD1 (CURLED LEAF AND DWARF 1), encoding a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, has been characterized as a gene involved in the regulation of leaf morphology in rice. Mutants of srl1-1 (point mutation) and srl1-2 (transferred DNA insertion) exhibit defects in leaf development resulting in a phenotype with adaxially rolled leaves. To explore the gene regulatory network of leaf development controlled by SRL1 in rice, we created a homozygous SRL1 knock out (KO) line by CRISPR/Cas9, which showed defects in leaf development with adaxially rolling. By comparing the leaf transcriptome of a homozygous SRL1 KO line (srl1-KO) with the control, a total number of 3178 genes were identified as differentially expressed genes, of which 1,216 genes were significantly upregulated, while 1962 genes were downregulated. Further analysis indicated that a group of differentially expressed genes that related to the bulliform cells development (OsZHD1, OsLBD3-7, RFS and ACL1) and the cuticle of leaves (CFL1) may take responsibility for the defects in leaf development for the srl1-KO. Moreover, the downregulation of cellulose synthase (CESA) genes and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)/ cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) gene expressions may lead to the reduction of cellulose/lignin contents in srl1-KO. Our study sheds light on the gene regulatory network controlled by SRL1, the important leaf development-related gene, which could be utilized in future breeding.
 
Article
Root rot and head blight caused by soil-borne fungi are prevalent diseases endanger the global food security. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the interaction of Fusarium graminearum with two weed extracts, concentrating on growth rate, physiological responses, molecular changes in wheat seedlings and yield parameters. In a pot experiment, wheat grains pre-soaked for 12 h either in distilled water or 25% aqueous weed extracts (purslane or chard) were germinated either in free or F. graminearum pre-inoculated sandy soil. The results revealed that F. graminearum inoculation resulted in reduced growth rate and chlorophyll content in wheat seedlings. However, following the fungal invasion, carotenoids, stress markers (EL, MDA, C = O, OH˙ and H2O2), non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate and flavonoids), osmoregulators (GB, proline and free amino acids), antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT, POX, SOD and PPO) and the expression of some stress-induced genes (CAT, GR and PR4) were substantially increased. Nevertheless, priming of wheat grains with purslane or chard extracts resulted in enhanced growth rate, balanced chlorophyll content, decreased stress symptoms, restoration of the normal level of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes activity, as well as down-regulation of stress-induced genes in F. graminearum-infected wheat seedlings, besides improving yield characteristics. However, PR2 gene expression was not affected by either fungal infection or weed priming. In conclusion, natural weed extracts as supplement to chemical antifungals, can be safely employed to increase the growth rate and reconfigure the pathophysiological status of wheat seedlings by reducing the detrimental effects of F. graminearum infection.
 
Article
Rice sulfite reductase (OsSiR) is important protein in reducing sulfite to sulfide. In this paper, it is aimed to shed light on OsSiR’s probable structure, function, and expression using in silico methods and test its responses under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, it was also analyzed if OsSiR was structurally different from other SiR proteins. We estimated that OsSiR lacks ribbon–helix–helix DNA-binding motif allowing it to bind to DNA; therefore, it was probably localized in stroma as a non-nucleoid-type protein. Also, we found that OsSiR expression was regulated by JA in roots and by crosstalk of JA and ABA in shoots. RT-qPCR results showed that there was 20% increase in the expression of OsSiR at 3rd h of the salt treatment. However, OsSiR was downregulated when exposed to drought stress and salt stress for longer periods of time, respectively. OsSiR has a high post-translational potential because of its high phosphorylation sites. This may be originating from the most prevalent residue, Gly, facilitating its binding to phosphates in OsSiR. Our docking results showed that ligand binding residues of OsSiR (Arg159, Thr162, Gln167, and Pro501) were also active site residues of OsSiR. Both two domains of OsSiR interacted with sulfite and the number of the residues in 4Fe–4S domain (PF01077) was higher. The findings in this study are important in terms of structural and expressional studies of rice SiR (OsSiR) and can be used for SiR proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), and foxtail millet (Setaria italica), which are closely related and highly similar to OsSiR in terms of sequence and predicted 3D structure.
 
Article
Mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaf, a “source of both medicine and food”, contains antioxidant ingredients such as flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenols. The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) treatment on plant growth and flavonoid contents in mulberry leaves were investigated in this study. The expression of rutin (Rut), chlorogenic acid (ChA), isoquercitrin (IQ) and astragaloside IV (Ast) related genes in the flavonoid synthesis pathways was investigated in mulberry leaves. The results showed that 6-BA treatment significantly promoted mulberry differentiation and growth as well as, increased the numbers of new shoots and buds compared to the control. In addition, 30 mg/L 6-BA significantly increased the contents of Rut, IQ and Ast, and it strongly induced the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes, including flavonoid 3- O -glucosyltransferase (F3GT), 4-xoumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), phenylalanine (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). The dietary risk assessment of mulberry leaves was based on hormone residues 5 days after treatment with 30 mg /L 6-BA, and the results showed that the dietary exposure risk of 6-BA was extremely low without causing any health concern. Thus, treatment with 30 mg/L 6-BA is a new method to improve the medicinal quality and development of high-value mulberry leaf foods without any potential risk.
 
Article
The current study established the protective effects of exogenous melatonin in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in Khitish (arsenic-sensitive) and Muktashri (arsenic-tolerant) rice cultivars. Melatonin highly improved the overall growth performance of arsenic-treated seedlings, more prominently in the sensitive variety, Khitish. Although the level of arsenic increased in both the cultivars, Khitish accumulated comparatively higher arsenic level. However, melatonin supplementation reduced arsenic bioaccumulation and restored physiological growth attributes, as supported by lowering of electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll loss (by inducing RuBisCo), protein carbonylation, malondialdehyde accumulation, lipoxygenase (LOX), NADPH oxidase (NOX) and protease activity, and improvement of membrane stability index. Isoforms of LOX and NOX showed varietal differences during arsenic stress, both in the presence and absence of melatonin. Melatonin reduced methylglyoxal content during arsenic stress, concomitant with down-regulated gene expression and enzyme activity for glyoxalases. The nitrogen assimilation was improved via induced nitrate reductase (NR) activity and NR expression. The variable accumulation of osmolytes like proline, glycine betaine and total amino acids, concomitant with suppressed P5CS and BADH1 expression, and induced PDH was noteworthy. Antioxidant metabolites like anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenes, xanthophylls and total phenolics were accumulated upon supplementation of melatonin in arsenic-stressed Khitish, supported by the activation of ANS and PSY genes. Melatonin lowered the ascorbic-acid oxidase activity and restored the ascorbate sink in arsenic-affected seedlings. Overall, the study revealed the potential role of exogenous melatonin in mitigating arsenic-induced injuries by strengthening osmolytes and antioxidative machinery, leading to the restoration of growth and metabolism in rice, especially in the susceptible cultivar.
 
Article
Under the stressed conditions plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to stimulate plant growth through several mechanisms, including antioxidants alleviation, regulation of stress responsive genes and phytohormones etc. Present study is conducted to investigate the impact of Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488 inoculation on salinity and drought stress mitigation in Arabidopsis thaliana through modulation in defense enzymes, phyto-hormones and root system architecture associated gene expression profiling. In vitro experiments clearly demonstrated the role of B-30488 in stimulating the root length, branches, lateral root formation and biomass under salinity and drought stress. The inoculation of B-30488 modulated the phytohormones levels to protect the plants from salinity and drought stress. Similarly, defence enzymes were also activated under the stressed conditions, but B-30488 inoculation reduced the antioxidants content during salinity and drought stress as compared to their respective controls. Microscopy results showed decrease in lateral roots hair formation under both stresses and B-30488 inoculation not only mitigate but also enhanced the lateral root formation. Gene expression analysis through real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed modulated expression of several genes related to root development, stress and lateral root formation in B-30488 inoculated seedlings. Results based on the present study, B-30488 is also involved in alteration root architecture, its growth regulation via modulation in phytohormones and genes expression and overall significant improvement in plant growth under stress conditions.
 
Article
Brassinolide (BR) plays an important role in physiological and biochemical processes of plants. The natural resources of Pinellia ternata (P. ternata) were gradually exhausted, while the yield of artificial cultivation was limited due to the uncertainty of technology and climate. The paper mainly studied BR effects on the yield and quality of two P. ternata cultivars (peach leaf shape and willow leaf shape) on the 15th and 105th day after treatments, which could provide references for P. ternata cultivation. Six levels of BR (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) were sprayed at three-leaf fully expanded. The results showed that BR treatments increased the yield and quality of two P. ternata cultivars. After the 15th day of treatments, BR was beneficial to increase DPPH radical scavenging activity and contents of total flavone, ascorbic acid, and soluble sugar in tuber of two P. ternata cultivars. After the 105th day of BR treatments, peach leaf P. ternata had higher yield and contents of total alkaloids, free amino acid, and soluble protein content in tuber and bulbil, and willow leaf P. ternata had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and contents of total flavone and soluble sugar in tuber and bulbil. Comprehensive analysis showed that the optimum BR concentration was 2 mg/L for tuber and bulbil of peach leaf shape and was 0.5–1 mg/L for tuber and bulbil of willow leaf shape, respectively.
 
Article
This study aims to investigate the effects of cold and salicylic acid (SA) priming on osmolytes accumulation in wheat leaves under freezing stress and its underlying physiological mechanism. The results showed that cold and SA priming treatment significantly enhanced sucrose and free proline contents as compared with non-priming treatment under freezing, resulting in increased leaf water potential, reduced cell death and boosted freezing tolerance. Cold and SA priming-induced free proline accumulation under freezing not only depended on promoting its synthesis, but also on inhibiting its degradation. Interestingly, the synthesis and hydrolysis of sucrose were both increased by cold and SA priming treatment under freezing. Besides, cold and SA priming up-regulated the catabolism of glucose and the assimilation of ammonia as compared with non-priming treatment under freezing stress. Findings of the present study suggested that cold and SA priming could simultaneously promote-free proline and sucrose accumulation in wheat leaves by coordinating carbon and nitrogen metabolism under freezing conditions, and then conferring tolerance to freezing stress. These findings could provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which cold and SA priming enhanced freezing tolerance in wheat.
 
Transgenic rice lines with root-specific expression of OsCKX5 gene. For a, relative OsCKX5 expression in roots and leaves of wild type (WT) and transgenic rice lines (L#48 and L#49) containing the PRCc3:OsCKX5:3xHA gene construct, harvested at 20 days after germination (DAG) grown in a hydroponic system. OsCKX5 expression levels were normalized to the expression of the OsUBQ5 and OseEF-1α reference genes. For b, immunodetection of the 3xHA tag in the roots and leaves of WT and transgenic rice lines (L#48 and L#49) containing the PRCc3:OsCKX5:3xHA gene construct, harvested at 15 DAG. The gene expression and immunodetection was performed using four biological replicates for each genotype. Bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n = 16). Asterisk (*) indicates statistically significant differences between WT and transgenic lines by the Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05)
Root-specific OsCKX5 expression increases root system size. Morphological parameters and root morphology of wild type (WT) and OsCKX5-overexpressing (L#48 and L#49) plants. Root morphology parameters of WT and transgenic rice lines was performed using four biological replicates for each genotype and harvested at 20 days after germination (DAG) grown in a hydroponic system. a- Total average diameter (mm); b- Total root length (cm); c- Total root projection area (cm²); d- Total root surface area (cm²); e-Total root volume (cm³); f- Total number of tips and g- Root phenotypes. Morphological parameters were calculated using the WinRhizo software. The bars represent the standard error of the mean (n = 16). Asterisk (*) indicates statistically significant differences between WT and the transgenic lines by the Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05)
Root-specific OsCKX5 expression did not affect shoot growth and increases root biomass. Shoot phenotypes of wild type (WT) and the OsCKX5-overexpressing (L#48 and L#49) lines was performed using six biological replicates for each genotype. The images a- untransformed plants (wild type—WT), b and c- OsCKX5-overexpressing plants (L#48 and L#49, respectively) represent plants at the maturity stage. The graphic bar d- Root and shoot biomass, e- Root:Shoot (R/S) ratio and root system depth represent plants harvested at 30 days after germination (DAG) grown in soil-filled. The plants were grown in low-fertility soil (Dystric Planosol) and the soil chemical characterization is showed in Table 1. The bars represent the standard error of the mean (n = 6). An asterisk (*) indicates statistically significant differences between the WT and the transgenic lines by the Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05)
Nutrient concentrations and contents in root and shoot. P, K, Ca and Mg concentration and content in roots (a and c) and shoots (b and d) of wild type (WT) and the OsCKX5-overexpressing (L#48 and L#49) lines were performed using six biological replicates for each genotype and harvested at 30 days after germination (DAG) grown in soil-filled pots. The plants were grown in low-fertility soil (Dystric Planosol) and the soil chemical characterization is showed in Table 1. The bars represent the standard error of the mean (n = 6). Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference between WT and transgenic lines by the Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05)
Nutrient concentrations and contents in root and shoot. Fe and Zn concentration and content in roots (a and c) and shoots (b and d) of the wild type (WT) and the OsCKX5-overexpressing (L#48 and L#49) lines were performed using six biological replicates for each genotype and harvested at 30 days after germination (DAG) grown in soil-filled pots. The plants were grown in low-fertility soil (Dystric Planosol) and the soil chemical characterization is showed in Table 1. The bars represent the standard error of the mean (n = 6). Asterisk (*) indicates significant differences between the WT and transgenic lines by the Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05)
Article
Cytokinin is a plant hormone and an important regulator of root growth. Reduced cytokinin levels increase root systems, which can be beneficial for crops grown on nutrient poor and/or dry soils. Our study analyzed the effects of increased cytokinin oxidase 5 (OsCKX5) expression in rice roots on root morphology, architecture, and nutrient uptake. We fused the OsCKX5 gene to the strong, root-specific RCc3 rice promoter and overexpressed it in rice plants. The root-specific expression of OsCKX5 in the transgenic plants resulted in positive effects on root development without compromising shoot growth. The root system of the transgenic plants exhibited greater volume, length, projection area, a higher number of tips, and enhanced surface area. OsCKX5 overexpression also resulted in an increased uptake ability of certain macro- and micronutrients, a greater root biomass, deeper root system, and a higher root:shoot ratio, when cultivated on low-fertility soils. We conclude that the enhanced root growth and development by root-specific expression of OsCKX5 could be advantageous for crops grown on oxidic soils in the tropical regions, with a low availability of certain nutrients, especially P and Zn.
 
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Yellow mosaic virus (YMV) transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) causes yellow mosaic disease (YMD) in blackgram cultivars only during kharif season but disease was not observed in the same cultivars sown during spring season. The main objective of the present investigation was to study the cooperative role of various antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydro ascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) along with non- enzymic antioxidants and free radical scavenging activities under natural epiphytotic disease conditions in black gram cultivars during kharif and spring season. Three black gram cultivars-KUG253 (highly susceptible to YMD), MASH114 (resistant) and Cross (KUG253 × MASH114) at F5 generation were sown during both the seasons. During the kharif season, YMV caused severe chlorosis only in KUG253 cultivar at 40 days after sowing (DAS) which affected its quantum efficiency by 58% as compared to the spring season. Higher specific activities of MDHAR, DHAR, and GR in Cross and MASH114 cultivars during kharif season at 20DAS might have helped these cultivars to fight off YMV right from the beginning of the infection. Cross cultivar showed the highest superoxide anion scavenging activity (SASA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and total reducing power (TRP). On the other hand, KUG253 cultivar struggled to maintain the specific activity of CAT, GR, and DHAR as the disease progressed further. GPOX and APX enzymes might have tried to compensate for the loss of CAT enzyme but high specific activity of NADPH Oxidase promoted the production of harmful ROS which ultimately lead to higher oxidative damage in KUG253 cultivar.
 
Article
Plants possess a sophisticated hormone-signaling system, which includes salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), to defend themselves from herbivores. In addition, this immune system is modulated by nonpathogenic microbes that live asymptomatically within intercellular spaces of host grasses. We investigated the resistance triggered by defense hormones, and that provided by endophyte Epichloë gansuensis against aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, and how the endophyte regulates this tripartite interaction. We detected that endophyte-induced plant tolerance to the aphid feeding and exogenous SA increased plant shoot biomass, root biomass, plant length, and chlorophyll content. Endophyte colonization induces the WRKY54 factor that overrides negative effects on plant growth and possibly suppresses SA accumulation. In addition, the endophyte promotes a level of JA that is antagonistic to the SA pathway. By disabling the SA mechanism for herbivore-mediated plant growth inhibition, the endophyte induces plant tolerance to herbivory.
 
Article
In plants, apical hook opening is critical for the post-germination stage and subsequent photomorphogenesis, and this process is activated by a luminous environment. Primary and secondary metabolites are universally distributed in plants and play vital roles in seedling development and stress response. However, little is known about the metabolic dynamics in response to light during the apical hook opening phase so far. To throw further light on this omission, we performed dark- and light-grown seedling by examining widely non-targeted metabolomics and a full-scale detection of flavonoids in virtue of GC–MS and LC-QTOF/MS strategy, respectively, in the model medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. Results herein revealed the strong differences focusing on metabolites distribution in response to light stimulus during the apical hook opening phase. In terms of primary metabolites, the sugar derivatives increased upon light exposure except for several special sugars, such as glucose, fucose, and galactose. Nevertheless, amino acids and several acids were stored in etiolated seedling, which was probably regarded as connecting with C/N balance. Strangely, in terms of flavonoids, flavonols caused by FLS gene expression were dramatically promoted in etiolation whereas reduced during de-etiolation, which likely associated with auxin asymmetric distribution by acting as an inhibitor of auxin transport. Therefore, we proposed a metabolic network elaborating the metabolite dynamics in a light-dependent manner during the apical hook opening phase. Our global view of metabolites alterations in C. roseus provided a new insight into uncovering the complex metabolic changes for the post-germination growth in seedling establishment.
 
Top-cited authors
Parvaiz Ahmad
  • GDC Pulwama J&K INDIA/ King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia
Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef
  • South Valley University
Mohammed Alyemeni
  • King Saud University
Muhammad Ashraf
  • University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Se Won Park
  • Konkuk University