(3)H-IAA transport in excised sections of carnation cuttings was studied by using two receiver systems for recovery of transported radioactivity: agar blocks (A) and wells containing a buffer solution (B). When receivers were periodically renewed, transport continued for up to 8 h and ceased before 24 h. If receivers were not renewed, IAA transport decreased drastically due to immobilization in the base of the sections. TIBA was as effective as NPA in inhibiting the basipetal transport irrespective of the application site (the basal or the apical side of sections). The polarity of IAA transport was determined by measuring the polar ratio (basipetal/acropetal) and the inhibition caused by TIBA or NPA. The polar ratio varied with receiver, whereas the inhibition by TIBA or NPA was similar. Distribution of immobilized radioactivity along the sections after a transport period of 24 h showed that the application of TIBA to the apical side or NPA to the basal side of sections, increased the radioactivity in zones further from the application site, which agrees with a basipetal and acropetal movement of TIBA and NPA, respectively. The existence of a slow acropetal movement of the inhibitor was confirmed by using (3)H-NPA. From the results obtained, a methodological approach is proposed to measure the variations in polar auxin transport. This method was used to investigate whether the variations in rooting observed during the cold storage of cuttings might be related to changes in polar auxin transport. As the storage period increased, a decrease in intensity and polarity of auxin transport occurred, which was accompanied by a delay in the formation and growth of adventitious roots, confirming the involvement of polar auxin transport in supplying the auxin for rooting.
The effect of (+) (ABA) and (?)-abscisic acid and nine ABA metabolites, precursors or derivatives on radial water movement through maize roots, was investigated using a suction technique (Freundl and others 1998). (+)-ABA, (+)- and (?)-abscisyl aldehyde, (+)-8?-hydroxymethyl ABA, (+)-8?-methylene, and (+)-8?-acetylene ABA stimulated radial water transport. (?)-ABA, phaseic acid, and (+)-8?-acetylene methyl ABA were ineffective. ELISA analysis for ABA detected and apparent increase of free ABAxyl in xylem sap of excised root systems that were perfused with either (+)-abscisyl aldehyde, (+)-8?-methylene, (+)8?-acetylene-ABA, or ABA-glucose ester. The analogues (+)-8?-hydroxymethyl ABA and (?)-abscisyl aldehyde passed the cortex of maize roots without changing the ABAxyl. The data from this study permit conclusions about the structural requirements for hormonal regulation of hydraulic conductivity.
The metabolism of cytokinins in tissue cultures of two oil palm clones previously known to regenerate palms ultimately manifesting normal and abnormal flowering was studied using radiolabeled benzyladenine and isopentenyladenosine, with particular regard to the kinetics of formation of the cytokinin 9-glucoside. Labeled products were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and identified by comparison of retention times with authentic cytokinin standards run immediately before or after the experimental sample. Using benzyladenine, which is insensitive to cytokinin oxidase, ribotide appeared rapidly and then declined. 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) 9-glucoside quickly became the major soluble product with some formation of riboside. No other ethanol-soluble products were found. Over an incubation period of 24 h up to 30% of label appeared in the ethanol-insoluble fraction. The uptake of label was consistently faster in the normal than the abnormal clone. Dose-rate and time course experiments produced an in vivo asymptotic dose-response curve for the accumulation of BA 9-glucoside analogous to a Michaelis-Menten first-order reaction with a ~~``V
max'' of 3.5 nmol·g−1·h−1 (on a fresh weight basis) and a ``K
'' of 0.12 mm. There were no differences between clones in the rate of synthesis. Using isopentenyladenosine, which is susceptible to cytokinin oxidase and cannot be glucosylated without prior deribosylation, a complex pattern of metabolism was seen, with much slower production of 9-glucoside. A number of transient unidentified compounds were seen, together with adenosine and adenine. Comparison of normal and abnormal flowering clones showed striking differences in the kinetics of production of a compound thought to be [9R]Z and in a transient compound eluting at 22 min which accounted for 42% of the radioactivity after a 7-h incubation in the abnormal line. By 17 h there was no difference between normal and abnormal lines in the radioactivity in this compound. Cytokinin uptake was slower in the abnormal than in the normal flowering clone.
Simultaneous measurements of respiration, ethylene production, and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, as well as the growth parameters length, fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Konservolia) inflorescence were carried out at short intervals (3-7 days) during the period from bud burst until the 3rd week after full bloom (AFB), when young fruit reached 8 mm in length. The axis of inflorescence elongated remarkably during the 3rd week after bud burst (ABB), massive bract shedding occurred during the 4th week ABB, full bloom (FB) was observed 7 weeks ABB, and massive floral organ abscission 1 week AFB. The results showed a continuous increase in inflorescence FW and DW from bud burst until 4 days before FB. Respiration rate, ethylene production, and levels of ABA were relatively high during the first 3 weeks ABB. After this period, respiration and ethylene followed a similar pattern of changes, inversely to that of ABA concentration. An accumulation of inflorescence ABA 6 and 4 days before FB was associated with the minimum values of respiration and ethylene production on the same dates. The sharp decrease in the ABA concentration during FB and 3 days later was followed by a high rise in ethylene and an increase in respiration rate, which both rose further 1 week AFB. The results suggest a possible correlation of ABA with the early stage of floral abscission, whereas ethylene production seems to be correlated with the terminal separatory activity in olive inflorescence abscission processes.Key Words. Abscisic acid-Abscission-Ethylene-Inflorescence-Olive-Respirationhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00344/bibs/18n1p1.html
Under the same mannitol pretreatment and culture conditions, regeneration efficiency in the barley cultivar (cv.) Igri was about 10 times higher than in the cv. Digger, a difference only partially reflected by a difference in viable microspores after anther pretreatment. Therefore, a comparative study between cvs. Igri and Digger was carried out under various pretreatment conditions. For both cultivars, under water, CPW buffer and mannitol pretreatment conditions, there was a positive correlation between microspore viability and regeneration efficiency in that mannitol > CPW buffer > water. Mannitol pretreatment of cv. Igri produced a much higher endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level than as to Digger. Addition of ABA stimulated both percentages of viability and regeneration efficiency except in the case of mannitol pretreatment. Under CPW buffer pretreatment conditions, addition of ABA significantly stimulated regeneration efficiency and was ABA concentration dependent. However, cv. Digger was less responsive to ABA than cv. Igri. In both cultivars, under less optimal pretreatment conditions (e.g., water and CPW buffer), the effect of ABA was to stimulate increased percentages of viability and/or to reduce the number of binucleate microspores. Moreover, in cv. Igri, direct culture of anthers for 4 days without pretreatment caused an increased number of binucleate microspores compared with microspores with pretreatment for 4 days. These binucleate microspores showed DNA degradation in the nuclei. However, with mannitol pretreatment binucleate microspores and DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of microspores was rarely observed. On the basis of our observations, we suggest that the difference in regeneration efficiency in cv. Igri and cv. Digger is related to the differences in endogenous ABA production levels under mannitol pretreatment and responsiveness to ABA. One of the effects of ABA is likely due to an inhibition of cell death.
The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in banana fruit ripening was examined with the ethylene binding inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). ABA (0, 10(-5), 10(-4), or 10(-3) mol/L) was applied by vacuum infiltration into fruit. 1-MCP (1 µL/L) was applied by injecting a measured volume of stock gas into sealed glass jars containing fruit. Fruit ripening, as judged by ethylene evolution and respiration associated with color change and softening, was accelerated by 10(-4) or 10(-3) mol/L ABA. ABA at 10(-5) mol/L had no effect. The acceleration of ripening by ABA was greater at 10(-3) mol/L than at 10(-4) mol/L. ABA-induced acceleration of banana fruit ripening was not observed in 1-MCP treated fruit, especially when ABA was applied after exposure to 1-MCP. Thus, ABA's promotion of ripening in intact banana fruit is at least partially mediated by ethylene. Exposure of ABA-treated fruit to 0.1 µL/L ethylene for 24 h resulted in increased ethylene production and respiration, and associated skin color change and fruit softening. Control fruit (no ABA) was unresponsive to similar ethylene treatments. The data suggest that ABA facilitates initiation and progress in the sequence of ethylene-mediated ripening events, possibly by enhancing the sensitivity to ethylene.
The experiments were carried out with maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, hybrid Kneja 530, grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Twelve-day-old plants were foliar treated with putrescine, N1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea (4-PU-30), and abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations of 10(-5) m. Twenty-four hours later the plants were subjected to a water deficit program, induced by 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight, 6,000). Three days after drought stress half of the plants were transferred to nutrient solution for the next 3 days. The effects of the water shortage, rewatering, and plant growth regulator (PGR) treatment on the fresh and dry weights, leaf pigment content, proline level, relative water content (RWC), transpiration rate, activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide content, and level of the products of lipid peroxidation were studied. It was established that the application of PGRs alleviated to some extent the plant damage provoked by PEG stress. At the end of the water shortage program the plants treated with these PGRs possessed higher fresh weight than drought-subjected control seedlings. It was found also that putrescine increased the dry weight of plants. Under drought, the RWC and transpiration rate of seedlings declined, but PGR treatment reduced these effects. The accumulation of free proline, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide was prevented in PGR-treated plants compared with the water stress control. The results provided further information about the influence of putrescine, 4-PU-30, and ABA on maize plants grown under normal, drought, and rewatering conditions. Key Words. Maize-Putrescine-4-PU-30-ABA-Drought
The effect of disaccharide lepidimoide on light-induced chlorophyll accumulation was studied in cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings and detached cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons. From studies on the structure-activity relationships of lepidimoide, its analogs, and sucrose with respect to light-induced chlorophyll accumulation in the cotyledons of sunflower seedlings, both lepidimoide and the free carboxylic acid of lepidimoide (lepidimoic acid) showed the highest promoting activity, whereas the hydrogenated lepidimoide, which lacks a double bond in the C4, 5 position in uronic acid, showed lower activity than lepidimoide; however, sucrose exhibited very weak activity. These results suggest that lepidimoide acts as a new type of plant growth regulator, not simply as a carbon source providing energy. Lepidimoide promoted not only light-induced chlorophyll accumulation in sunflower cotyledons but also light-induced 5-aminolevulinic acid content, which is considered to be a rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Lepidimoide with cytokinin stimulated the accumulation of chlorophyll and 5-aminolevulinic acid additively. In detached cucumber cotyledons, lepidimoide also promoted light-induced chlorophyll accumulation. These results indicate that lepidimoide, in cooperation with cytokinin, causes light-induced chlorophyll accumulation in the cotyledons of several dicot plant species by affecting the level of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Key Words. 5-Aminolevulinic acid accumulation-Chlorophyll accumulation-Cucumis sativus-Cytokinin-Helianthus annuus-Lepidimoic acid-Lepidimoide-Structure-activity relationship
1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) were required for in vitro callus formation at the basal edge of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa [A. Chev] Liang and Ferguson, cv. Hayward) petioles. The uptake, metabolism, and concentration of NAA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content were examined in the explants during the callus initiation period. After 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h of culture in the presence of [H(3)]NAA, petioles were divided into apical, middle, and basal portions and analyzed. Except for a high IAA level measured at 12 h, IAA content decreased in tissues during a culture period of 96 h. NAA uptake was higher in petiolar edges than in the middle portion, and NAA was rapidly conjugated with sugars and aspartic acid inside the tissues. The amide conjugation was triggered in apical and basal portions from 12 h and in the middle part from 48 h, with alpha-naphthylacetylaspartic acid being the major metabolite. Free-NAA concentration in cultured petioles achieved an equilibrium with the exogenously applied NAA (0.27 µm) from 12 h, and it remained constant thereafter. The relationships between the role attributed to NAA and BA in the initiation and the maintenance of disorganized growth of callus in kiwifruit cultures are discussed.
Incubation of oat coleoptile segments with 40 μm indoleacetic acid (IAA) induced a decrease of 35–60% in peroxidase activity at the cell wall compartment. Treatment with IAA also produced a similar decrease in the oxidation of NADH and IAA at the cell wall. Isoelectric focusing of ionic, covalent, and intercellular wall peroxidase fractions showed that acidic isoforms (pI 4.0–5.5) were reduced preferentially by IAA treatment. Marked differences were found between acidic and basic wall isoperoxidases in relation to their efficacy in the oxidation of IAA. A peroxidase fraction containing acidic isoforms oxidized IAA with a V
max/s0.5 value of 2.4 × 10−2 min−1· g fw−1, 4.0 times higher than that obtained for basic peroxidase isoforms (0.6 × 10−2 min−1· g fw−1). In contrast, basic isoforms were more efficient than acidic isoperoxidases in the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol or ferulic acid with H2O2 (5.6 and 2.1 times, respectively). The levels of diferulate and lignin in the walls of oat coleoptile segments were not altered by treatment with IAA. The decrease in cell wall peroxidase activity by IAA was related more to reduced oxidative degradation of the hormone than to covalent cell wall cross-linking.
Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.
Plant parasitic nematodes are ubiquitous and cosmopolitan pathogens of vascular plants and exploit all parts of the roots and shoots, causing substantial crop damage. Nematodes deploy a broad spectrum of feeding strategies, ranging from simple grazing to the establishment of complex cellular structures (including galls) in host tissues. Various models of feeding site formation have been proposed, and a role for phytohormones has long been speculated, although whether they perform a primary or secondary function is unclear. On the basis of recent molecular evidence, we present several scenarios involving phytohormones in the induction of giant cells by root-knot nematode. The origin of parasitism by nematodes, including the acquisition of genes to synthesize or modulate phytohormones also is discussed, and models for horizontal gene transfer are presented.
In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.
Evidence is accumulating implicating cortical microtubules in the directional control of cell expansion. However, the role of actin filaments in this process is still uncertain. To determine the involvement of actin in cell elongation, the organization of actin filaments in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined by use of an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin-labeling method. With this method, a previously undetected state of actin organization was revealed in the elongation and maturation zone of maize roots. Fine transversely oriented cortical actin was observed in all cells of the elongation zone, including the epidermis, cortex, and vascular tissues. The orientation of cortical actin shifted from a predominantly transverse orientation to oblique, longitudinal, and/or random arrangements as the cells matured. The reorientation of cortical actin in maturing root cells mimics the behavior of cortical microtubules reported in other studies. Furthermore, roots treated with the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol improved the quality of actin preservation as evidenced by the thicker bundles of cortical actin. This suggested that taxol was also capable of stabilizing the cortical actin networks. The elongation of roots exposed to 1 micromole Latrunculin B, an actin-disrupting drug, was inhibited, and after 24 h the roots exhibited moderate swelling particularly along the elongation zone. Latrunculin B also caused microtubules to reorient from transverse to oblique arrays. The results from this study provide evidence that cortical microtubules and actin filaments respond in a coordinated way to environmental signals and may well depend on both elements of the cytoskeleton.
The term "actinorhiza" refers both to the filamentous bacteria Frankia, an actinomycete, and to the root location of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Actinorhizal plants are classified into four subclasses, eight families, and 25 genera comprising more than 220 species. Although ontogenically related to lateral roots, actinorhizal nodules are characterized by differentially expressed genes, supporting the idea of the uniqueness of this new organ. Two pathways for root infection have been described for compatible Frankia interactions: root hair infection or intercellular penetration. Molecular phylogeny groupings of host plants correlate with morphologic and anatomic features of actinorhizal nodules. Four clades of actinorhizal plants have been defined, whereas Frankia bacteria are classified into three major phylogenetic groups. Although the phylogenies of the symbionts are not fully congruent, a close relationship exists between plant and bacterial groups. A model for actinorhizal specificity is proposed that includes different levels or degrees of specificity of host-symbiont interactions, from fully compatible to incompatible. Intermediate, compatible, but delayed or limited interactions are also discussed. Actinorhizal plants undergo feedback regulation of symbiosis involving at least two different and consecutive signals that lead to a mechanism controlling root nodulation. These signals mediate the opening or closing of the window of susceptibility for infection and inhibit infection and nodule development in the growing root, independently of infection mechanism. The requirement for at least two molecular recognition steps in the development of actinorhizal symbioses is discussed.
Some phenotypic effects produced in plants by light are very similar to those induced by hormones. In this review, the light-gibberellin (GA) interaction in germination, de-etiolation, stem growth, and tuber formation (process regulated by GAs) are discussed. Germination of lettuce and Arabidopsis seeds depends on red irradiation (R), which enhances the expression of GA 3-oxidase genes (GA3ox) and leads to an increase in active GA content. De-etiolation of pea seedling alters the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox genes and induces a rapid decrease of GA1 content. Stem growth of green plants is also affected by diverse light irradiation characteristics. Low light intensity increases stem elongation and active GA content in pea and Brassica. Photoperiod controls active GA levels in long-day rosette (spinach and Silene) and in woody plants (Salix and hybrid aspen) by regulating different steps of GA biosynthesis, mainly through transcript levels of GA20ox and GA3ox genes. Light modulation of stem elongation in light-grown plants is controlled by phytochrome, which modifies GA biosynthesis and catabolism (tobacco, potato, cowpea, Arabidopsis) and GA-response (pea, cucumber, Arabidopsis). In Arabidopsis and tobacco, ATH1 (a gene encoding an homeotic transcription factor) is a positive mediator of a phyB-specific signal transduction cascade controlling GA levels by regulating the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox. Tuber formation in potato is controlled by photoperiod (through phyB) and GAs. Inductive short-day conditions alter the diurnal rhythm of GA20ox transcript abundance, and increases the expression of a new protein (PHOR1) that plays a role in the photoperiod-GA interaction.
When exogenous chemicals allow rapid, conditional, reversible, selective, and dose-dependent control of biological functions, they act like conditional mutations, either inducing or suppressing the formation of a specific phenotype of interest. Exploration of the small molecules that induce the brassinosteroid (BR) deficient-like phenotype in Arabidopsis led us to identify brassinazole as the first candidate for a BR biosynthesis inhibitor. Brassinazole treatment reduced BR content in plant cells. Investigation of target site(s) of brassinazole revealed that the compound directly binds to the DWF4 protein, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes 22-hydroxylation of the side chain of BRs. These results suggest that brassinazole is a BR biosynthesis inhibitor. There are currently at least two BR biosynthesis inhibitors that act like conditional mutations in BR biosynthesis. They allow the investigation of the functions of BRs in a variety of plant species. Application of BR biosynthesis inhibitors to a standard genetic screen to identify mutants that confer resistance to these inhibitors allowed the identification of new components working in BR signal transduction. This method has advantages over mutant screens using BR-deficient mutants as a background. Development of chemicals that induce phenotypes of interest is now emerging as a useful way to study biological systems in plants and this would be a complement to classical biochemical and genetic methods.
In general, this overview covers literature from 1999 until early 2003. Topics covered include aspects of the biosynthesis and transport of brassinosteroids, their effects on cell division, expansion, and differentiation, and their effects on whole plants, including source-sink relations and other endogenous interactions. Some interactions with environmental signals are discussed, as well as results that may promise applications in future. Topics that warrant further investigation of the roles of BRs include phenotypic variability, reproductive physiology, senescence, branching, and apical dominance, whereas topics in which possible roles for BRs are relatively unexplored include lignification, phototropism, photoperiodism, and endogenous rhythms.
The positioning and gravity-induced sedimentation of statoliths is crucial for gravisensing in most higher and lower plants. In positively gravitropic rhizoids and, for the first time, in negatively gravitropic protonemata of characean green algae, statolith positioning by actomyosin forces was investigated in microgravity (<10(-4) g) during parabolic flights of rockets (TEXUS/MAXUS) and during the Space-Shuttle flight STS 65. In both cell types, the natural position of statoliths is the result of actomyosin forces which compensate the statoliths' weight in this position. When this balance of forces was disturbed in microgravity or on the fast-rotating clinostat (FRC), a basipetal displacement of the statoliths was observed in rhizoids. After several hours in microgravity, the statoliths were loosely arranged over an area whose apical border was in the same range as in 1 g, whereas the basal border had increased its distance from the tip. In protonemata, the actomyosin forces act net-acropetally. Thus, statoliths were transported towards the tip when protonemata were exposed to microgravity or rotated on the FRC. In preinverted protonemata, statoliths were transported away from the tip to a dynamically stable resting position. Experiments in microgravity and on the FRC gave similar results and allowed us to distinguish between active and passive forces acting on statoliths. The results indicate that actomyosin forces act differently on statoliths in the different regions of both cell types in order to keep the statoliths in a position where they function as susceptors and initiate gravitropic reorientation, even in cells that had never experienced gravity during their growth and development.
We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.
Changes in acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in cytoplasmic and wall-bound fractions of developing mustard (Brassica juncea) seed were studied. Growth was measured by seed dry weight and water content. Seed dry weight data were fitted to a cubic polynomial equation. Seed water content and dry matter accumulation was significantly correlated. Cytoplasmic acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were substantially less in the cytoplasmic fraction than the wall-bound fraction. Wall-bound acid phosphatase activity was low initially, but high levels were maintained after day 25, indicating a relationship with dry matter accumulation. The results suggest that acid phosphatase plays an important role during mustard seed development.
The allelopathy of a serious weed, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), was investigated. Root exudates of young barnyard grass showed allelopathic effects and plant-selective activity and inhibited root elongation of all plants tested. With respect to shoot growth, the exudates did not show inhibition of barnyard grass only. The allelopathic substance was isolated and identified as p-hydroxymandelic acid by NMR. p-Hydroxymandelic acid strongly inhibited shoot growth and root elongation of all plants tested. The effects of three congeners of p-hydroxymandelic acid were tested on rice shoot growth. In the biological activity exhibited in rice, shoot growth was related to the hydroxyl groups.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings treated with uniconazole [(E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-l-penten-3-ol] were transplanted at the five-leaf stage into specially designed experimental containers and then exposed to waterlogging for 3 weeks. After waterlogging stress, uniconazole-treated seedlings had significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes and endogenous free proline content at both the seedling and flowering stages. Uniconazole plus waterlogging-treated plants had a significantly higher content of unsaturated fatty acids than the waterlogged plants. There was a parallel increase in the lipid peroxidation level and electrolyte leakage rate from the leaves of waterlogged plants. Leaves from uniconazole plus waterlogging-treated plants had a significantly lower lipid peroxidation level and electrolyte leakage rate compared with waterlogged plants at both the seedling and flowering stages. Pretreatment of seedlings with uniconazole could effectively delay stress-induced degradation of chlorophyll and reduction of root oxidizability. Uniconazole did not alter the soluble sugar content of leaves and stems, after waterlogging of seedlings. Uniconazole improved waterlogged plant performance and increased seed yield, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms, and it retarded lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration of plants.Key Words. Waterlogging-Uniconazole-Brassica napus L.-Enzymes-Lipid peroxidation-Membrane integrityhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00344/bibs/18n1p9.html