Journal of Planning History

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1552-6585
Print ISSN: 1538-5132
Carl Fredrik Akrell; After: Baron Axel Leonhard Klinckowstro  ̈ m, ‘‘Broadway gatan och R  ̊dhuset, New York.’’ 1824 etching of pigs on Broadway in New York City. Image provider: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Charles Allen Munn, 1924 via ARTStor. 
Birch and Sons engraving, 1800 Hog being unloaded at the Alms House in Spruce Street, Philadelphia . Image provider: University of Pennsylvania. 
‘‘Cattle driving in the streets,’’ Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, April 28, 1866. Library of Congress. 
‘‘Pig Club‘‘ from USDA. ‘‘‘‘Boys! Raise Pigs To Help Win The War. Girls! 40,000 Boys and Girls are Raising Pigs. You Can Do It Too. 200,000 Members Wanted in 1918. Join a Pig Club! Don’t Delay! Join Today . . . ’’, ca. 1917 - ca. 1919’’ Image provider: Library of Congress. National Archives Identifier: 512546 Local Identifier: 4-P-107. 
Oxen from the Howell Living History Farm outside Trenton, New Jersey, till the Chestnut Street Garden in the city with students from Grant Elementary School (photo courtesy of Isles Community Orga- nization). While chickens and bees have been zoned back into many US cities, large animal agriculture has returned only in limited ways, often tied to educational programs for youth. 
Municipal ordinances to remove farm animals from city limits played a central part in defining city planning's role in urban ecosystems, economies, and public health. This article examines the regulation of animal agriculture since the eighteenth century in four cities: Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. Across the nineteenth century, municipal ordinances to remove farm animals from city limits set the tone for the planning profession, aligning it with the field of public health in creating a hygienic city. In the efforts to untangle animal agriculture from waste management, public space, and urban food supply, urban authorities employed some of the first land-use regulations in the United States, shaping new planning powers. Ordinances banning slaughterhouses, piggeries, and dairies culminated with zoning as planning became a profession. These regulations ultimately allowed planners to transform cities and their food environments by dismantling a system in which animals and their caretakers among the urban poor had played integral parts in food production, processing, and municipal waste management. Unpacking the objectives, debates, and impacts of these early regulations reveals enduring tensions and challenges as planners today seek to reweave animal agriculture into cities.
This article describes a new model for urban planning in ancient and preindustrial cities that moves beyond the traditional simplistic dichotomy of planned versus organic cities. The model has two components: coordination of buildings and spaces, and standardization among cities. A variety of coordinated arrangements of buildings reflect urban planning, including simple coordination, formality and monumentality, orthogonal layouts, other forms of geometric order, and access and visibility (view-shed). Standardization among cities is analyzed in terms of architectural inventories, spatial patterns, orientation, and metrology. The political and social significance of ancient urban planning is then discussed using Amos Rapoport's model of levels of meaning in the built environment.
In the last three decades, five projects have been proposed to bridge the 101 Freeway in downtown Los Angeles; none have come to fruition. Two of significant design merit were selected through international competitions, Steel Cloud in 1988 and the 101 Pedestrian Bridge in 1999. By studying the competition objectives, media portrayal, jury, and winners, this research analyzes why these proposals failed to be implemented in context of the larger planning objectives, politics, agency relationships, and economic contexts of the era. More broadly, this work explores the larger struggle to transform autocentric infrastructure into vibrant and publicly accessible civic space.
In 1829, the perceptive landscape gardener John Claudius Loudon published an essay in which he introduced the design of a “systematic plan” for the layout of an ideal London that became a theoretical model. Little known today, yet the influence of the Scot’s “beau ideal” is measurable on the course of town planning theory and practice for the remainder of the nineteenth century. This includes colonial Adelaide’s renowned park lands that were conceived in 1835 and executed in 1837.
This article examines land governance transitions during the transformation from a monarchy to a western/US private property governance system in the Hawaiian Islands, covering the historical structures through the 1830s, the implementation of the Māhele (division) during the 1840s–1850s, and the immediate consequences. Though the Hawaiian monarchy initiated land reforms in part to protect indigenous Hawaiian commoners from eviction, the institutions and practices created through land reform effectively disadvantaged indigenous Hawaiian commoners from claiming property, and later, even the Hawaiian monarchy lost direct control over lands that the King had set aside. Implications of this analysis for future research and political debate are discussed.
Archival research shows that village improvement was not simply a prequel to City Beautiful, but part of a larger rural reform movement responsible for developing small town American in the late nineteenth century. This article presents a detailed historical account of the Laurel Hill Association in Stockbridge, MA, and an overview of the scope of improvement theory and practice at the national level between 1853 and 1893, the period of village improvement's greatest impact on the development of small town America. This fuller history of village improvement offers important distinctions and emphases that have been previously neglected or not recognized in planning history literature. Further, in light of recent interest in small town America as a precedent for contemporary urban design, this research offers practitioners greater understanding of this archetype's planning history.
During the inauguration in 1857, a mysterious and lethal outbreak afflicted guests at the National Hotel in Washington, DC. The aftermath suggests a revision to the standard narrative of urban history in the antebellum years: a relatively smooth trajectory of improvement culminating in the prominence of experts during the Progressive Era. The response to the National Hotel sickness, in contrast, highlights the political tension attending this period—in one of the most planned American cities to date. The media fueled speculation about the disease to promote perceptions of bureaucratic incompetence, conspiracy, and mistrust toward city officials.
Everything that happens on the ground, every spatial intervention, has an impact on land and its value. It follows that the ability of governments to regulate the matter in its relations with private developers and landowners is of extreme importance for the civil society as a whole. Nowadays, in consideration of the fact that municipalities are short on financial resources, the need on the part of local governments to recapture part of the increase in the value of land that is generated from change in land use and other public investments, and so make landowners and developers contribute to the realization and maintenance of the public parts of the city, is ever more compelling. This article presents a historical review of the planning and fiscal measures that have been introduced in Italy since 1865 to deal with the question of betterment value with the intent of showing its importance and the specificities of the subject in city planning for central and local government.
In the first decades of the twentieth century, the concept of comprehensive zoning emerged in the United States as a legal method of imposing order upon unregulated urban growth. Despite formidable limitations on the extension of the police power before Euclid v. Ambler in 1926, the first comprehensive zoning ordinances were passed in New York city (1916) and Chicago (1923) where existing patterns of corporate-commercial development added complexity to the political process. This article examines how the zoning problem assumed particular dimensions in Chicago, shaped by a distinctive local geography, vested interests of an established real estate market and long-term planning objectives articulated in the 1909 Plan of Chicago. By focusing on the contentious issue of regulating building height and bulk in an established corporate-commercial district, this article illustrates how health and safety considerations were necessary to the political success of comprehensive zoning in Chicago, providing the necessary justification for the extension of the municipal police power.
The article presents the results of a study investigating the growth of metropolitan London from the second half of the nineteenth century to the present. A high-resolution longitudinal land-use database, assembled from historical Ordnance Survey maps, is used to trace the patterns of land development in a 200 km2 area of West London from 1875 to the present. The land-use database is then employed to develop a cellular automata model, which explores the impact of key forces shaping the patterns of metropolitan growth. The analysis highlights the interplay of three critical factors: (1) the preurban spatial structure determined by the patterns of settlements and infrastructure predating the expansion of the metropolis; (2) the urban code representing a set of consistent rules that describe the spatial interaction of land uses with elements of the built environment; and (3) the mixture of planning and development policies advanced by public and private initiatives related to infrastructure investments, density regulation, and open space preservation. Contrary to the popular view rendering the growth of London as an outcome of uncoordinated private initiatives and market-based forces, the study advances the argument that planning played an important role in shaping the patterns of metropolitan expansion. Our analysis reveals, however, that the impact of planning was strongly conditioned by the elements of the preurban spatial structure and the mechanisms of the urban code.
Outdoor advertising proliferation and the development of land use regulations in Los Angeles illustrate the complicated nature of balancing the economic and physical aspects of urban development. Regulating outdoor advertising is part of a movement to control the spatial structure of the consumer economy and manage the appearance of the landscape through zoning. The efforts of planners to regulate outdoor advertising are frequently challenged legally or stalled by political indecision. The history of Los Angeles billboard regulation illuminates the financial demands for encouraging the spectacle of consumer landscapes as well as the persistent difficulty planners have had regulating urban appearance.
This article reviews the urban revitalization and modernization actions of Oran’s Front de Mer, from the late nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth century. Throughout this period, when Algiers was undergoing a transformation based on the classical Haussmannian urban model, Oran stands out as an atypical example for the development of its urban planning projects. The research evidence, extracted for the first time from archival documents, reveals an advanced use of urban design concepts from the 1960’s, similar to the American model of waterfront revitalisation and deck urbanism developed in France.
This article studies the relationship between social culture and spatial discrimination in the modern urban planning of Tehran. It examines how planning attempts during the Qajar era began to enrich the ideas of citizenship and public space, which in effect transformed the racial and religious discriminations to new forms of segregation based on economic classes. It shows how multiple planning practices during Reza Shah favored a uniform modernist style to create an imaginary national identity. The divergence of socioeconomic classes under Shah's planning practices is also analyzed to show the spatial discrimination that the new urban poor had to bear.
Wacker Drive is a staple of Chicago’s modern road network, allowing two levels of cars to zip along the Chicago River and connect to nearby highways and streets. The roots of this driving experience date to 1909, when Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett proposed a comprehensive network of riverside boulevards in their Plan of Chicago. Engineered for traffic efficiency and draped with Beaux Arts garb, Wacker Drive introduced a new functional and architectural rationale to the riverfront. Charting its evolution from a casual idea to one of the Plan’s major accomplishments, this article positions Wacker Drive as an agent of architectural and civic change for Chicago.
Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett's 1909 Plan of Chicago unveiled a comprehensive vision for a street system designed to beautify the city, segregate traffic, and provide for easy circulation. In the planners' view, these attributes would create an environment attractive to business and uplifting to workers. Over the next two decades, the Chicago Plan Commission, an advisory board chartered by the city to implement the Plan, confronted two major challenges to this vision: first, the widespread adoption of the automobile-unanticipated by the Plan, and second, the shifting goals and methods of the officials charged with carrying out the Plan. In the face of these developments, the Chicago Plan Commission radically redefined its street plans to accommodate automobiles, often in contrast to the Plan's proposals-prompting protest from Edward Bennett and others. As a result, the Commission fired Bennett in 1929, signaling the Commission's turn away from the Plan's vision and toward a new view of the role of the street in the city.
This essay contends that the 1909 Plan of Chicago written by Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett represented and contributed to a dramatic change in the relationship between public and private spaces in American cities. The plan gave concrete form to the Progressive aim of strengthening government and using the state to shape individual behavior. It reorganized the ideological relationship between the family home and public space, suggesting that the home in the industrializing city was no longer adequate to shape democratic citizens.
From the 1910s to the 1950s, Los Angeles was a surprising exemplar of progressive planning for Australian cities. LA’s planned neighborhoods early captured the garden suburb ideal. Regional planning initiatives attracted increasing interest, then transport planning and management of auto traffic. Mechanisms of urban governance and formal alliances between private and public sectors followed. This learning from abroad is set within the paradigm of urban policy transfer, highlighting the selectivity of borrowing within the dominant ideology of town and country planning. From the 1960s, positive connotations would be extinguished by new representations of a sprawling, divided, and polluted metropolis.
The historiography of the Philippine City Beautiful recurrently centers on one date, 1905; two cities, Manila and Baguio; and one urban planner, Daniel Burnham. The colonial civil service's Filipinization of city planning after 1916 remains an unexplored facet of planning history. This article explores the planning practices of the Bureau of Public Works' Division of Architecture, which from 1919 was headed by Filipinos, and the relationship of these efforts to the City Beautiful, given the power mediation between the Americans and Filipinos in the run-up to the creation of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935.
Public open space (POS) bears prominent imprints of both the negative and positive effects of urban change. The public space development strategies play a fundamental role in the protection, promotion, and enhancement of POSs. This article examines the evolution of the POSs of Ankara within the development history from 1923 to 2017. This study shows that while the POS development of the city was addressed as an integrative and comprehensive structure in the entire city by the Lörcher (1924–1925) and Jansen (1932) plans, the subsequent plans’ approaches were more superficial, piecemeal, and simplistic about protecting existing POSs.
This article explores the conflicting claims on urban redevelopment in the aftermath of the 1927 St. Louis tornado. In the Finney Avenue District, a nascent middle-class African American neighborhood, residents saw the post-tornado rebuilding program as an opportunity for civic improvement through the construction of new schools and housing. This grass-roots vision, however, ran up against the objectives and machinations of efficiency-minded city planners and profit-seeking developers. A micro-analysis of the rebuilding process sheds light on the racial politics of early 20th century urban redevelopment as well as the role of natural disasters in reshaping the urban landscape.
John Nolen was one of the first planners to build a national consulting practice focused on new towns. However, his office began to struggle financially in the late 1920s. Despite a thirty-year record, Nolen had no paying private-sector clients after 1931 and finally had to downsize his office. He survived on New Deal contracts for a while. But eventually he could not obtain work even from the Resettlement Administration, where his former protégés were implementing his ideas. Modern new town ideas from Clarence Stein were ascendant. Seen as a relic, Nolen died without a single project pending in his portfolio.
This article examines the development of the Lisbon metropolis in the period between 1940 and 1966, looking for the ways in which urban and metropolitan planning established design and organizational connections with infrastructural development. Two arguments emphasize the changing role of infrastructure-starting as the driving force of a national policy of public works committed to the political construction of a modern capital and becoming the unfulfilled backbone of a late industrialization policy associated with morphological disruption in the context of a fast growing metropolis. A third argument of synthesis claims metropolitan public space as a key to acknowledge and design interfacing spaces of infrastructural mediation.
In 1951, the San Francisco Bay Area suburb of Walnut Creek welcomed the construction of a major shopping center adjacent to their downtown area—a configuration that would lead municipal planners to prioritize retail development for their city. Walnut Creek’s nonlinear path to retail dominance over the next several decades exemplifies not only the increasingly multivariate climate surrounding suburban retail development in the latter half of the twentieth century but also the increasingly autonomous role of municipal planners who have used retail as a versatile component of suburban spatial development in an age of metropolitan flux.
Japan’s Capital Construction Law, enacted in 1950, was intended to create the ability to obtain special financial assistance from the state to break the impasse of Tokyo’s reconstruction by regarding its planning and development as a national undertaking. However, recent studies in Japan’s planning history claim that the law was an infringement of local autonomy. This article considers how this law was discussed in the National Diet, which enacted it, and in a local referendum among Tokyoites as well as how its original proponents, particularly the metropolitan government planner Hideaki Ishikawa, who created the reconstruction plan for Tokyo, justified it.
This article explores outdoor recreation planning in Israel between the early 1950s and the 1970s as a unique example of state-initiated modern recreation planning that was influenced by western trends. Based on relevant plans and documents, it argues that recreation planning in Israel was an integral part of the nation building project aimed at cultivating place attachment toward the local landscape. Early state planning in this realm was initially based on the supply of attractive amenities but was followed by a demand for recreation-directed planning leading to consumption models based on abstract predictions.
This article takes up the creation of Boston?s Beacon Hill historic district during the 1950s as a significant chapter of preservation planning history. Inspired by similar efforts in the South, this campaign succeeded in a decade commonly associated with conformity and consensus, suburbia and urban renewal, obsolescence and progress. Activists on Beacon Hill persuaded their neighbors and city and state officials that the heretofore little-used technique of historic district designation should be employed in a big, northern industrial city. In so doing, they led the way for the more widespread historic preservation movement that followed during the 1960s and 1970s.
This article analyzes Shanghai’s suburban development during the first two Five-Year Plans (1953–1962). The development trajectory of Shanghai’s inner suburban industrial zones and satellite towns was shaped by Maoist geopolitics, economic realities, the urban–rural nexus, regional spatial strategy, and radical political campaigns. Shanghai’s strategy promoted the homogenization of suburban industrial development and employment patterns, and the city’s suburban industrial zones and satellite towns were subordinate to the central city. The effective functioning of industrial zones and satellite towns was probably secondary to the political goals behind China’s grand development plans and initiatives, which were intended to demonstrate the superiority of socialist industrialization.
Residential housing compounds known as mikrorayons were enclosed within vast housing estates and served as central features of socialist urbanism in the Eastern Bloc. To reduce daily travel, designers located the communities on well-considered metropolitan sites and proposed embedded commercial opportunities and community services. This article examines, twenty-five years after the disintegration of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the vision and implementation of transport planning in these modernist residential districts. A novel source of information is a rich literature, published during the operative years of the USSR, which explains and promotes contemporaneous socialist urbanization. This literature is enhanced with subsequently published critique and commentary to explore commuting, mobility, and transport-land use interaction vis-à-vis the legacy of central planning for housing estates. Findings suggest that various elements of built environments that were vital to access and mobility significantly lagged the timing, quality, and completeness of housing construction. The Soviet system substituted proximity for mobility in certain aspects of urban life, but incomplete service networks in residential districts meant that the promises of propinquity were unrealized.
Lloyd Rodwin (left) and Martin Meyerson (right) examine a model of Ciudad Guyana, one of the projects undertaken by the Joint Center. (Source: Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)  
In 1959, the Ford Foundation notified Harvard professor, Martin Meyerson and MIT professor, Lloyd Rodwin, with happy news, the award of the equivalent of a $5 million to support a new enterprise, the MIT–Harvard Joint Center for Urban Studies. In the next five years, Meyerson, as founding director, and Rodwin, as chair, Faculty Committee, would shape the Joint Center into the nation’s preeminent source of urban scholarship. By 1964, it had sponsored thirty monographs and reports, crafted a publication agreement with the Harvard and MIT presses that yielded ten books with ten more in development, and had become the architects of Ciudad Guayana, a resource-rich new town in Venezuela. This review of the early days of the Joint Center not only illuminates the development and growth of the seminal knowledge that informs today’s planning theory and practice, it also surveys the postwar relationships between foundations and universities as the nation’s institutions of higher education embarked on deep research agendas in the physical and social sciences focused on contemporary, issues, an effort advanced by substantial philanthropic support.
This article investigates the spatial transformation of the holy city of Jerusalem from 1967 to present. Since the middle of nineteenth century, new foreign Jewish and other immigrants played a great role in changing the traditional landscape of this holy city. At present, this holy city is being transformed into segregated neighborhoods. New mega urban projects are being constructed regardless of the holiness of the place, in order to change its identity as well as its demographic balance. Only just and lasting peace between Palestinians and Israelis is the only guarantee to keep Jerusalem's traditional landscape in place and at the same it may be modernized.
Harlem, the site where mostly black residents live by choice and historical circumstance, was designated for renewal in an exhibition hosted by the Museum of Modern Art (1967). Although a revisionist urban renewal was planned by four university teams, there was a problem of what would be the best for Harlemites. Cornell, Princeton, Columbia, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology each set forth unique ideological schemes, but only the latter two were visibly and socially feasible for the community. Analyzing these plans and discussing Harlem’s predicament with which the architects were sympathetic, form the crux of the article.
Jane Jacobs moved from New York to Toronto in 1968 and is often assumed to have played an important part introducing and advancing new planning ideas to Toronto and shaping the city's urban form. This study investigates the role she played in four important episodes in the transformation of the city's planning from 1968 to 1978 and finds that, although the ideas in her 1961 book The Death and Life of Great American Cities had considerable impact on Toronto, many other forces of change were at work and that she herself was not as influential an activist as some have claimed.
In 1968, a group of geographers led by William Bunge founded the Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute (DGEI), a methodology based on teaching neighborhood residents the skills of a folk geographer to help them improve their built environments. This article focuses on the necessity of revisiting the geographical expedition format today and its influence on participatory urban planning practices and advocacy mapping. After looking at DGEI’s activities in the Detroit neighborhood of Fitzgerald, I then focus on two specific elements in direct relation to the field of urban planning: that of communal participation and that of the map-making process itself.
As president of the University of Pennsylvania, Martin Meyerson (1922-2007) championed the idea of "OneUniversity," a concept that projected an intellectually integrated and respectfully diverse research university. In September 1970, when Meyerson assumed the presidency, he found Penn at a critical juncture. "Franklin's University" roiled with serious financial and relational problems, some inherited from his predecessor, Gaylord Harnwell, many of them emanating from accelerating trends in the larger society, such as a downward spiraling economy, an escalating urban crisis and heightened racial tensions, and a youth culture that was increasingly self-referential in its lack of political concerns. The era of Penn's great expansion was over; yet while physical growth had been successfully accomplished, there was little integration of the departmental, disciplinary, and student activities housed in the new or renovated buildings, and the historic core of the campus remained without a landscape design. Meyerson's embrace of "One University" promised to remedy such academic fragmentation and factionalism, which in his judgment impeded Penn's advance into the pantheon of the world's leading research universities. This essay looks look closely at Meyerson's handling of these crises, his juggling of the various tensions involved, his administration's design for the beautification of Penn's campus, and in the final analysis, the enduring strengths and significant limitations of his program to achieve "One University".
Like many American cities, Portland attempted to use urban planning and policy to control the geographic spread of adult entertainment during the 1970s. Portland’s efforts, however, were complicated by Oregon’s famously liberal state constitution. City Hall, the City Attorney, and the Planning Bureau spent nearly two decades trying to find a solution that would please angry city residents without violating the state constitution. As city officials worked to find a unique solution for their city, the technology used to disseminate adult entertainment was changing. Technological change was more rapid than policy change. The regulations ultimately adopted by the city did not fit the new landscape of adult businesses.
This article studies the intersection of systems ecology and urban planning in the Inter-Institutional Policy Simulator (IIPS) project, conducted between 1970 and 1974 in Metro Vancouver, and tries to understand how ecologists influenced the planning of urban systems. I analyze the rise and fall of IIPS as the interaction between “IIPS the Platform” and “IIPS the Product,” or between the network of experts and the simulator they aimed to create. Although IIPS failed to create a desirable product, I argue that the project can exemplify ecologists’ desire to reform the practice of urban planning through the power of systems science.
While the privatization of parks has been controversial since the 1980s, the origins of public–private parks in New York City were complex. During the 1970s fiscal crisis, the Parks and Recreation Department suffered severe budget cuts and was forced to drastically reduce services. Faced with parks that were falling apart, thousands of volunteers in block associations and community groups began to maintain parks on their own. They pioneered a radical forms of “do-it-yourself” urbanism with guerrilla horticulture, community gardens, children-fashioned adventure playgrounds, tree-planting drives, makeshift ambulances, and volunteer patrols. By the early 1980s, these “self-help” efforts coalesced into new public–private parks. The history of public–private parks is thus one of privatizations in the plural and points to an array of antistatist impulses that emerged on both the left and right in the 1970s.
Few studies of post–World War II, Washington, DC, focus on the development decisions local black officials made following the passage of limited home rule measures during the 1960s–1970s. This article uses the 1976 Bicentennial as a lens to study the divisions that urban development sowed locally while the city’s government was in transition. It focuses on one of the most deeply divisive projects contested during the Bicentennial, the construction of a convention center in Downtown DC, and argues that a new coalition of stakeholders used the Bicentennial to implement a prodevelopment agenda at the expense of the city’s black residents.
Suburban residents in the Detroit metropolitan area practiced a homeowner environmentalism that sought protection of property values, local sovereignty, and a bucolic aesthetic, while rejecting the sacrifice of political power or resources to the larger region. Such homeowner activism deftly navigated a new political terrain created in the wake of passage of the 1969 National Environmental Policy Act and the rise of the modern environmental movement. Using three case studies of organizations successfully defying major regional developments, this article illustrates the regional planning challenges created in the context of increasing environmental activism and ongoing urban crisis in Detroit.
Traditional urban renewal scholarship has emphasized the experiences of America’s largest cities, leaving the equally significant story of urban renewal in small cities largely unexplored. This is particularly surprising, given that the overwhelming majority of communities to have received urban renewal funds had populations of less than 50,000. This article uses the state of Kentucky to develop a framework for analyzing the effects of the federal urban renewal program on small cities in the United States. Of particular importance for this research is recognizing the value of the June 30, 1974, Urban Renewal Directory as a data source.
The recovery of Tangshan following the Great 1976 Earthquake was an illustrative microcosm of the planning culture and the evolving national politics in China. The early recovery planning was driven by the central state’s ideological priorities. The national reform that started in the late 1970s catalyzed China’s shift toward a more pragmatic development approach. Within this changing national context, the Tangshan recovery plan was fundamentally adjusted in 1982. Although the earthquake recovery was a long, turbulent process, Tangshan ultimately emerged with a vastly improved built environment. This allowed the city to better capitalize on the national economic reforms after the earthquake recovery was completed.
Top-cited authors
Laura Lawson
  • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Sonia Hirt
  • University of Georgia
Theodore S. Eisenman
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Michael Neuman
  • UNSW Sydney
Amy Hillier
  • University of Pennsylvania