Journal of Peptide Science

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1099-1387
Publications
Article
CLA, a natural, highly hydrophobic cyclic nonapeptide with sequence c(Pro(1)-Pro(2)-Phe(3)-Phe(4)-Leu(5)-Ile(6)-Ile(7)-Leu(8)-Val(9)-), isolated from linseed oil, was found to possess a strong immunosuppressive activity comparable, in low doses, with that of CsA, with a mechanism that depends on the inhibition of the interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 action. Structural analysis of CLA and its related compounds has underlined that the presence of the tetrapeptide Pro-Pro-Phe-Phe sequence, the Pro-Pro cis amide bond, and the 'edge-to-face' interaction are possible important features for the immunosuppressive activity of CLA. To evaluate the role and significance of 'edge-to-face' interaction in the process of molecular recognition by receptors, we have synthesised three linear precursors and three cyclic analogues of CLA, in which one or both Phe residues have been replaced by beta(3)Phe residues. A conformational analysis by NMR in CD(3)CN/H(2)O mixture has been carried out on the CLA analogue, in which Phe(3) has been replaced by a betaPhe, to study the influence of the mutation on the three-dimensional structure. All linear and cyclic CLA analogues containing betaPhe have been tested in the humoral and cellular immune response in vivo assays in mice. The peptide activities have been compared with CsA, as a reference drug.
 
Time-dependence adsorption of DS 01 peptide to: (A) LRE-La, (B) DPPC and (C) DPPG monolayers at air–water interface, monitored by surface pressure measurements. From bottom to top, the following concentrations (µg/ml) of DS 01 were used: 1 (_____), 2 (----), 4 (····)
Elastic modulus (E) for different surface pressures of DPPG and DPPC monolayers after interaction with different concentrations of DS01
Article
This article addresses the interactions of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin 01 (GLWSTIKQKGKEAAIAAA- KAAGQAALGAL-NH(2) , DS 01) with phospholipid (PL) monolayers comprising (i) a lipid-rich extract of Leishmania amazonensis (LRE-La), (ii) zwitterionic PL (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), and (iii) negatively charged PL (dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, DPPG). The degree of interaction of DS 01 with the different biomembrane models was quantified from equilibrium and dynamic liquid-air interface parameters. At low peptide concentrations, interactions between DS 01 and zwitterionic PL, as well as with the LRE-La monolayers were very weak, whereas with negatively charged PLs the interactions were stronger. For peptide concentrations above 1 µg/ml, a considerable expansion of negatively charged monolayers occurred. In the case of DPPC, it was possible to return to the original lipid area in the condensed phase, suggesting that the peptide was expelled from the monolayer. However, in the case of DPPG, the average area per lipid molecule in the presence of DS 01 was higher than pure PLs even at high surface pressures, suggesting that at least part of DS 01 remained incorporated in the monolayer. For the LRE-La monolayers, DS 01 also remained in the monolayer. This is the first report on the antiparasitic activity of AMPs using Langmuir monolayers of a natural lipid extract from L. amazonensis.
 
Article
Trichofumins A–D were isolated from cultures of Trichoderma sp. HKI 0276 as new 11 and 13mer peptaibols. Similar to 15mer peptaibols they promote morphogenesis of the fungus Phoma destructiva and cause hypothermia in mice as a characteristic of neuroleptic activity. Membrane measurements using a synthetic BLM model showed that A, B, C and D increased membrane permeability for cations in a similar manner as was shown for larger peptaibols but with comparably lower efficiency. Copyright © 2003 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
To study the conformational preferences induced by the insertion of the 4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid (Adt) residue into a peptide backbone, the achiral N-protected dipeptide methylamide Boc-Adt-Adt-NHMe (1) was synthesized and its crystal state and solution conformation studied and compared with that exhibited by its carba-analogue Boc-Ac5c-Ac5c-NHMe containing two residues of 1-aminocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac5c). Compound 1 in the crystal adopts a type-III beta-turn conformation and an analogous structure is that preferred in chloroform solution as established by 1H-NMR and NOE information. In the crystal packing three different Adt rings form a cavity and the involved sulphur atoms give rise to unusual multiple interactions with one NH group. The chemical nature of these intermolecular and intramolecular main-chain...side-chain NH...S interactions are discussed in terms of quantum chemical calculations.
 
Article
The Fmoc-based SPPS of H-Xaa-Asp(OBzl)-Yaa-Gly-NH(2) sequences results in side reactions yielding not only aspartimide peptides and piperidide derivatives, but also 1,4-diazepine-2,5-dione-peptides. Evidence is presented to show that the 1,4-diazepine-2,5-dione derivative is formed from the aspartimide peptide. The rate of this ring transformation depends primarily on the tendency to aspartimide and piperidide formation, which is influenced by the nature of the amino acid following the aspartic acid beta-benzyl ester (Xaa). However the bulkiness of the amino acid side chain preceeding the aspartic acid beta-benzyl ester (Yaa) is also important. Under certain conditions the 1,4-diazepine-2,5-dione peptide derivative may even be formed dominantly, which is a highly undesirable side reaction in peptide synthesis, but which provides a new way for the synthesis of diazepine peptide derivatives with targeted biological or pharmacological activity.
 
Article
A number of protected proline-containing dipeptides Boc-Xaa-Pro-OBu(t) were converted via epimerization-free oxidation with RuO4 to dipeptides with an internal pyroglutamic acid residue, Boc-Xaa-Glp-OBu(t). The latter were subjected to oxidative Hoffman-type rearrangement induced by PhI[OC(O)CF3]2 to give N-(aminoacyl)-pyroglutamates. The behavior of these derivatives under basic conditions was studied, and for two such a derivatives an aminoacyl incorporation reaction was observed, producing otherwise poorly accessible 10-membered-ring dilactams derived from 1,4-diaminobutyric and glutamic acids in practicable yields.
 
Article
The surface properties of pure RuBisCo transit peptide (RTP) and its interaction with zwitterionic, anionic phospholipids and chloroplast lipids were studied by using the Langmuir monolayer technique. Pure RTP is able to form insoluble films and the observed surface parameters are compatible with an alpha-helix perpendicular to the interface. The alpha-helix structure tendency was also observed by using transmission FT-IR spectroscopy in bulk system of a membrane mimicking environment (SDS). On the other hand, RTP adopts an unordered structure in either aqueous free interface or in the presence of vesicles composed of a zwitterionic phospholipid (POPC). Monolayer studies show that in peptide/lipid mixed monolayers, RTP shows no interaction with zwitterionic phospholipids, regardless of their physical state. Also, with the anionic POPG at high peptide ratios RTP retains its individual surface properties and behaves as an immiscible component of the peptide/lipid mixed interface. This behaviour was also observed when the mixed films were composed by RTP and the typical chloroplast lipids MGDG or DGDG (mono- and di-galactosyldiacylglycerol). Conversely, RTP establishes a particular interaction with phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin at low peptide to lipid area covered relation. This interaction takes place with an increase in surface stability and a reduction in peptide molecular area (intermolecular interaction). Data suggest a dynamic membrane modulation by which the peptide fine-tunes its membrane orientation and its lateral stability, depending on the quality (lipid composition) of the interface.
 
Article
The synthesis of three hydrophobic peptides, which are partial sequences of thioredoxin, on a newly developed, flexible 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate cross-linked polystyrene, in good yield and purity, is described.
 
Article
A considerable quantity of an alkylation by-product is observed when using 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol as a scavenger during acidic release of peptides containing the thioether amino acid methionine from the solid support. Adjustment of the cleavage conditions by replacement of 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol with ethane dithiol or by using methionine sulfoxide as an alternative to methionine resulted in no such impurity. The by-product was detectable by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and characterised by NMR spectroscopy of an isolated model peptide. It could be effectively removed in a separate post cleavage step by treatment with dilute aqueous acid at 37 °C. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Maculatin 1.1 (Mac) is a cationic antibacterial peptide isolated from the dorsal glands of the tree frog, Litoria genimaculata, and has a sequence of GLFGVLAKVAAHVVPAIAEHF-NH2. A short peptide lacking the N-terminal two residues of Mac was reported to have no activity. To investigate the structure-activity relationship in detail, several analogs and related short peptides of Mac were synthesized. CD measurement showed that all the peptides took more or less an alpha-helical structure in the presence of anionic lipid vesicles. Analogs which are more basic than Mac had strong antibacterial and hemolytic activities, while short peptides lacking one or two terminal residues exhibited weak or no activity. Outer and inner membrane permeabilization activities of the peptides were also reduced with shortening of the peptide chain. These results indicate that the entire chain length of Mac is necessary for full activity, and the basicity of the peptides greatly affects the activity.
 
Article
Six peptides have been isolated and characterized from the dorsal glands of the tree frog Litoria genimaculata. One of these is the known hypotensive peptide caerulein; the others have been named maculatins. The amino acid sequences of the maculatin peptides have been determined using a combination of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and automated Edman sequencing. Four of the maculatin peptides show antibiotic activity, with maculatin 1.1 [GLFGVLAKVAAHVVPAIAEHF(NH2)] showing the most pronounced activity, particularly against gram-positive organisms. Maculatin 1.1 resembles the known caerin 1 antibiotic peptides, except that four of the central amino acid residues (of the caerin 1 system) are missing in maculatin 1.1. A comparison of the antibiotic activity of maculatin 1.1 with those of caerin 1.1 is reported.
 
UV-vis spectra of 3b. This figure is available in colour online at www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/jpepsci.
Scheme 1. Preparation of 4-pyridylporphyrin 1 and its methyl iodide 4.
Article
The synthesis and characterization of three new 4-pyridyl porphyrin-peptidyl-phosphonate compounds, containing a diphenyl 3-pyridylmethyl-phosphonate moiety, is described in this article. Nitrogen atoms in the pyridine rings of the obtained compounds were alkylated using methyl iodide, to give additional three, water soluble derivatives of these peptidyl-porphyrin conjugates. All the synthesized compounds could serve as potential photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) method of tumor therapy and displayed activity as inhibitors of aminopeptidase N.
 
Article
An expressed peptide proved to be useful as a building block for the synthesis of a polypeptide via the thioester method. A partially protected peptide segment, for use as a C-terminal building block, could be prepared from a recombinant protein; its N-terminal amino acid residue was transaminated to an alpha-oxoacyl group, the side-chain amino groups were then protected with t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) groups, and. finally, the alpha-oxoacyl group was removed. On the other hand, an O-phosphoserine-containing peptide thioester was synthesized via a solid-phase method using Boc chemistry. These building blocks were then condensed in the presence of silver ions and an active ester component. During the condensation, epimerization at the condensation site could be suppressed by the use of N,N-dimthylformamide (DMF) as a solvent. Using this strategy, a phosphorylated partial peptide of the p21Max protein, [Ser(PO3H2)2.11]-p21Max(1-101), was successfully synthesized.
 
Article
The purification of large synthetic peptides using conventional separation techniques often results in poor yields and homogeneity due to the accumulation of chromatographically similar deletion and truncated impurities. We have developed a highly effective synthetic strategy and one-step purification procedure that is based on (i) the application of single coupling using HBTU/HOBt activation to reduce incomplete couplings, (ii) the use of N-(2-chlorobenzyloxycarbonyloxy)succinimide as a capping agent to terminate deletion sequences and (iii) the N-terminal derivatization of the complete peptidyl-resin with a reversible Fmoc-based chromatographic probe possessing enhanced physico-chemical properties (i.e. hydrophobicity, charge or affinity label). We report the application of a biotinylated probe, activated as the succinimidyl carbonate, for the purification of a 101 residue chaperonin protein from Rattus norvegicus (rat cpn10), previously synthesized using an optimized synthetic protocol. Biotinylated rat cpn10 was separated from underivatized impurities on an immobilized monomeric avidin column. Free rat cpn10 was released from avidin-agarose column with 5% aqueous triethylamine and after desalting by RP-HPLC gave 9.9% recovery. Characterization and assessment of homogeneity was achieved using ESI-MS, CZE and RP-HPLC.
 
Article
The relationship between the conformation and biological activity of the peptide allosteric modulator of the interleukin-1 receptor 101.10 (D-Arg-D-Tyr-D-Thr-D-Val-D-Glu-D-Leu-D-Ala-NH₂) has been studied using (R)- and (S)-Bgl residues. Twelve Bgl peptides were synthesized using (R)- and (S)-cyclic sulfamidate reagents derived from L- and D-aspartic acid in an optimized Fmoc-compatible protocol for efficient lactam installment onto the supported peptide resin. Examination of these (R)- and (S)-Bgl 101.10 analogs for their potential to inhibit IL-1β-induced thymocyte cell proliferation using a novel fluorescence assay revealed that certain analogs exhibited retained and improved potency relative to the parent peptide 101.10. In light of previous reports that Bgl residues may stabilize type II'β-turn-like conformations in peptides, CD spectroscopy was performed on selected compounds to identify secondary structure necessary for peptide biological activity. Results indicate that the presence of a fold about the central residues of the parent peptide may be important for activity.
 
Article
On the basis of the X-ray structure and results from structure-activity relationship studies, the following GM-CSF analogue was designed and synthesized by solid-phase methodology: hGM-CSF[13-31]-Gly-Pro-Gly-[103-116]-NH2. This analogue was constructed to comprise helices A and D of the native hGM-CSF, covalently linked in an antiparallel orientation by the tripeptide spacer Gly-Pro-Gly, which is known as a turn-inducing sequence. The conformational analysis of the analogue by CD spectroscopy revealed an essentially random structure in water, while alpha-helix formation was observed upon addition of TFE. In 40% TFE the helix content was approximately 45%. By two-dimensional NMR experiments in 1:1 water/trifluoroethanol mixture two helical sequences were identified comprising the segments corresponding to helix A and helix D. In addition to medium-range NOESY connectivities, a long-range cross-peak was found involving the leucine residues at positions 13 and 35. Based on the experimentally derived data (54 NOEs), the structure was refined by restrained molecular dynamics simulations over 120 ps at various temperatures. A representative conformation derived from the computer simulation is mainly characterized by two helical segments connected by a loop region. The overall three-dimensional structure of the analogue is comparable to the X-ray structure of hGM-CSF in that helices A and D are oriented in an antiparallel fashion, forming a two alpha-helix bundle. Nevertheless, there are small differences in the topology of the helices between the solution structure of the designed analogue and the X-ray structure of hGM-CSF. The possible implications of these conformational features at the effects of biological activity are discussed.
 
Article
The aggregation and structural properties of the synthetic C-terminal half [Ala330, Ala350)270–373; 104-mer)] polypeptide from HIV-1 p24gag were studied. In concentrated solutions the synthetic polypeptide aggregated to tetramers which, upon dilution, gave a mixture of monomeric and dimeric species. These results correlated well with the in vitro aggregation properties of recombinant p24. The tetrameric form of the synthetic polypeptide had a pI which differed by about four units from that of the mixture of monomeric and dimeric species. CD studies indicated that the latter contained, in aqueous solutions, a compact molecule lacking, however, a defined tertiary structure. Addition of MeOH to aqueous solutions of both tetramer and monomer/dimer mixture induced a more defined structure, which was assigned to that of an α+β protein in agreement with secondary structure predictions. A model of the dimeric form of the 104-mer, which takes into account the results presented here and those from a study on the specificity of a set of anti-104-mer MoAbs, is presented. Finally, the results indicated that the structure of the 104-mer in its dimeric form is similar to that adopted by the same sequence when part of full-length p24. © 1997 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The large-scale solid-phase continuous flow synthesis of the bicyclic peptide MEN 10627, a new potent Neurokinin A receptor antagonist, is described using the Fmoc-polyamide method on both macrosorb 125 and Macrosorb 250 resin. A new synthesizer designed in-house was realized by assembling Whitey valves and Waters pump in order to allow small-scale (0.0001 mol; 1 x 10 cm Omnifit columns) synthetic studies which were strongly predictive of the conditions required for large-scale (0.01-0.10 mol; 3.6 or 5.9 x 46 cm Büchi columns) production, performed on the same apparatus.
 
Article
The most challenging target in the design of new antimicrobial agents is the development of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial peptides are good candidates as lead compounds for the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here we propose the sequential substitution of each Ala residue present in a lead peptide with known antimicrobial activity by specific amino acids, rationally chosen, that could enhance the activity of the resultant peptide. Taking the fragment 107-115 of the human lysozyme as lead, two-round screening by sequentially replacing both Ala residues (108 and 111) by distinct amino acids resulted in a novel peptide with 4- and 20-fold increased antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, respectively. These results reinforce the strategy proposed, which, in combination with simple and easy screening tools, will contribute to the rapid development of new therapeutic peptides required by the market.
 
Article
Lantibiotics 97518 and NAI-107, produced by the related genera Planomonospora and Microbispora respectively, are members of a family of nisin-related compounds. They represent promising compounds to treat infections caused by multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens. Despite their similar structure and a similar antibacterial spectrum, the two lantibiotics exhibit significant differences in their potency. To gain an insight into the structure-activity relationships, their conformational properties in solution are determined by NMR. After carrying out an NOE analysis of 2D (1)H NMR spectra, high-resolution 3D structures are determined using molecular dynamics simulations.
 
Article
The crystal structure of the synthetic protected oligopeptide Z-(Aib)11-OtBu was determined by x-ray crystallography. The undecapeptide folds in a regular 3(10)-helix with nine consecutive 4 --> 1 hydrogen bonds. At present, this is the largest available structure of a homopeptide (including homopeptides consisting of standard amino acids) and also the longest observed regular 3(10)-helix at atomic resolution. Z-(Aib)11-OtBu crystallizes readily from hot ethanol-water mixture and is one of the crystals in which no solvent molecule is co-crystallized. In the crystal head-to-tail hydrogen bonded columns are formed in the [1 0 1] direction. Each helical column is surrounded by six others, whereby two are packed in parallel and four in antiparallel fashion. Helical columns are packed via apolar crystal contacts. The crystal structure of Z-(Aib)11-OtBu is compared with the crystal structures of Z-(Aib)10-OtBu and Z-(Aib)9-OtBu. The similarities and differences are analysed.
 
Article
Conformational studies of nociceptin (NC-NH2), its fully active fragment, NC(1-13)-NH2, and two significantly less potent fragments, NC(1-13)-OH and NC(1-11)-OH, were conducted in water and TFE solutions by the employment of circular dichroism, and in DMSO-d6 by 2DNMR spectroscopy in conjunction with theoretical conformational analysis. The conformations of all thepeptides studied were calculated taking two approaches. The first assumes multiconformational equilibrium of the peptide studied, which is characterized by a set of conformations (and their statistical weight values)obtained from a global conformational analysis using three methods: the electrostatically driven Monte-Carlo (EDMC) with the ECEPP/3 force field, the simulated annealing (SA) protocols in the AMBER and CHARMM force fields. The second approach incorporates the interproton distance and dihedral angle constraints into the starting conformation. Calculations were performed using the distance geometry and SA protocol in the CHARMM force field implemented in the X-PLOR program. The CD experiments indicated that for the active peptides, hydrophobic solvents induced a significantly higher (compared with those remaining)content order, probably a helical structure. Unfortunately, as a result of the conformational flexibility of thepeptides, the analysis of conformations obtained with both approaches and different force fields did not alllow the selection of any structural elements of the NC peptides that might be connected with their bioactivity. The only common element found in most conformations of the active peptides was a helical character of fragment 8-13, which allowed the side chains of basic amino acid residues to be exposed to the outside of the molecule and probably to interact with the ORL1 receptor.
 
Article
A series of peptide-peptoid hybrids, containing N-substituted glycines, were synthesized based on the H-Aib-Val-Aib-Glu-Ile-Gln-Leu-Nle-His-Gln-Har-NH(2) (Har = Homoarginine) as the parent parathyroid hormone (1-11) analog. The compounds were pharmacologically characterized in their agonistic activity at the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor.
 
Article
A procedure for the synthesis of a(11) C-labeled oligopeptide containing [1-(11) C]1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid ([1-(11) C]Tpi) from the corresponding Trp•HCl-containing peptides has been developed involving a Pictet-Spengler reaction with [(11) C]formaldehyde. The synthesis of [1-(11) C]Tpi from Trp and [(11) C]formaldehyde was examined as a model reaction with the aim of developing a facile and effective method for the labeling of peptides with carbon-11. The Pictet-Spengler reaction of Trp and [(11) C]formaldehyde in acidic media (TsOH or HCl) afforded the desired [1-(11) C]Tpi in a moderate radiochemical yield. Herein, the application of a Pictet-Spengler reaction to an aqueous solution of Trp•HCl gave the desired product with a radiochemical yield of 45.2%. The RGD peptide cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys] was then selected as a substrate for the labeling reaction with [(11) C]formaldehyde. The radiolabeling of a Trp•HCl-containing RGD peptide using the Pictet-Spengler reaction was successful. Furthermore, the remote-controlled synthesis of a [1-(11) C]Tpi-containing RGD peptide was attempted by using an automatic production system to generate [(11) C]CH3 I. The radiochemical yield of the [1-(11) C]Tpi-containing RGD at the end of synthesis (EOS) was 5.9 ± 1.9% (n = 4), for a total synthesis time of about 35 min. The specific activity was 85.7 ± 9.4 GBq/µmol at the EOS. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Aggregation of Abeta peptides is a seminal event in Alzheimer's disease. Detailed understanding of the Abeta assembly process would facilitate the targeting and design of fibrillogenesis inhibitors. Here, conformational studies using FTIR spectroscopy are presented. As a model peptide, the 11-28 fragment of Abeta was used. This model peptide is known to contain the core region responsible for Abeta aggregation. The structural behavior of the peptide during aggregation provoked by the addition of water to Abeta(11-28) solution in hexafluoroisopropanol was compared with the properties of its variants corresponding to natural, clinically relevant mutants at positions 21-23 (A21G, E22K, E22G, E22Q and D23N). The results showed that the aggregation of the peptides proceeds via a helical intermediate, and it is possible that the formation of alpha-helical structures is preceded by creation of 3(10)-helix/3(10)-turn structures.
 
Article
The N-terminal 1-34 fragment of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is fully active in vitro and in vivo and reproduces all biological responses characteristic of the native intact PTH. In order to develop safer and non-parenteral PTH-like bone anabolic agents, we have studied the effect of introducing conformationally constrained dipeptide mimetics into the N-terminal portion of PTH in an effort to generate miniaturized PTH-mimetics. To this end, we have synthesized and conformationally and biologically characterized PTH(1-11) analogues containing 3R-carboxy-6S-amino-7,5-bicyclic thiazolidinlactam (7,5-bTL), a rigidified dipeptide mimetic unit. The wild type sequence of PTH(1-11) is H-Ser-Val-Ser-Glu-Ile-Gln-Leu-Met-His-Asn-Leu-NH(2). The following pseudo-undecapeptides were prepared: [Ala(1), 7,5-bTL(3, 4), Nle(8), Arg(11)]hPTH(1-11)NH(2) (I); [Ala(1), 7,5-bTL(6, 7), Nle(8), Arg(11)]hPTH(1-11)NH(2) (II); [Ala(1), Nle(8), 7,5-bTL(9, 10), Arg(11)]hPTH(1-11)NH(2) (III). In aqueous solution containing 20% TFE, only analogue I exhibited the typical CD pattern of the alpha-helical conformation. NMR experiments and molecular dynamics calculations located the alpha-helical stretch in the sequence Ile(5)-His(9). The dipeptide mimetic unit 7,5-bTL induces a type III beta-turn, occupying the positions i - 1 and i of the turn. Analogue II exhibited an equilibrium between a type I beta-turn and an alpha-helix, and analogue III did not show any ordered structure. Biological tests revealed poor activity for all analogues (EC(50) > 0.1 mM). Apparently, the relative side-chain orientation of Val(2), Ile(5) and Met(8) can be critical for effective analogue-receptor interaction. Considering helicity as an essential property to obtain active PTH agonists, one must decorate the correctly positioned dipeptide mimetic azabicycloalkane scaffold with substitutions corresponding to the displaced amino acids.
 
Article
We had previously predicted successfully the minimal fusion peptides (FPs) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) gp41 and the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) gp30 using an original approach based on the obliquity/fusogenicity relationship of tilted peptides. In this paper, we have used the same method to predict the shortest FP capable of inducing optimal fusion in vitro of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac isolate and of other SIVs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-2) isolates. In each case, the 11-residue-long peptide was predicted as the minimal FP. For the SIV mac isolate, liposome lipid-mixing and leakage assays confirmed that this peptide is the shortest peptide inducing optimal fusion in vitro, being therefore the minimal FP. These results are another piece of evidence that the tilted properties of FPs are important for the fusion process and that our method can be used to predict the minimal FPs of other viruses.
 
Article
With only 14 amino acid residues, the trypsin inhibitor SFTI-1 is the smallest naturally occurring serine proteinase inhibitor. It consists of two cyclic fragments (with head-to-tail cyclization and a disulfide bridge). In our previous paper, we showed that the removal of the disulfide bridge produced 2.4-fold lower activity. Here, we present the total conformational analysis of the [Abu(3, 11)]-SFTI-1 analog by means of 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with theoretical methods. The peptide was synthesized by Fmoc SPPS. It was cyclized with PyBop and DIPEA in DMF. The NMR studies were performed in DMSO-d(6) at 303 K. Conformations of the peptide studied were calculated by the following three approaches: distance geometry (DG), molecular dynamics (MD) and determination of the statistical weights of conformations. The first two algorithms use a CHARMM force field, whereas the last uses an ECEPP/3 force field. Our calculations resulted in three sets of conformers with 7, 9 and 6 representatives, respectively. All our results were compared with published ones. It was found that the peptide has an ill-defined structure. Despite its conformational flexibility, the binding loop (3-11 fragment) displayed geometry similar to the corresponding fragments of the other SFTI-1 analogs and to the inhibitor itself. Furthermore, the peptide bond between the Ile7 and Pro8 residues adopts cis geometry, which is essential for inhibitory activity.
 
Article
We synthesized three different lengths of poly(L-lysine) containing an -SH group at the terminal (PLL(n)-SH, n (polymerization degree) = 4, 10, 30) and adsorbed them on an Au(111) surface. To analyze the formation process and the structure of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectra (FT-IR RAS). At the initial stage of SAM growth, formation of nanosize domains was confirmed by AFM imaging. The alpha-helical PLL(30)-SH exhibited a well-defined SAM structure after adsorption reached equilibrium. The alpha-helical PLL(30)-SH was almost perpendicular to the gold surface and exhibited interesting molecular packing due to the secondary structure of PLL(30)-SH and the underlying Au(111) array. The tilt angle of the helix axis from the substrate normal was estimated to be about 50 degrees (AFM) and 44 degrees (FT-IR RAS) respectively. On the other hand, PLL(4)-SH and PLL(10)-SH formed beta-sheet-type SAMs on the Au(111) surface based on the structure determined by FT-IR RAS spectrum.
 
Article
An efficient synthesis of the cyclic decapeptide MEN 11270 [H-DArg1-Arg2 Pro3-Hyp4-Gly5-Thi6-Dab7-DTic8-Oic9-Arg10 c(7gamma - 10alpha)] was developed. Two three-dimensional orthogonal strategies were applied and compared: Fmoc/Tos/Boc (procedure A) and Fmoc/Pmc/Dde (procedure B). Both resulted in a 23-step strategy comprising the stepwise solid-phase chain assembly of the linear protected peptide, partial deprotection, solution-phase cyclization and final full deprotection. The stepwise assembly of the linear peptide was optimized by double coupling and acylation time prolongation for critical residues (Tic, Dab, Thi, Pro). O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N' tetramethyluronium (HATU) was preferred as coupling reagent for Dab. In the cyclization step, the partial racemization of Arg10 (31% using 1-ethyl-3-(3'-dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide/1-hydroxybenzotriazole (EDC/HOBt) as activation system) was reduced to 3% with HATU. The final deprotection was performed in the presence of dimethylsulfide (procedure A) and thiocresol (procedure B) as scavengers, to avoid the sulfation of Hyp side chain. The final compound and the main by-products were characterized by mass spectroscopy (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and racemization test. Procedure B produced operationally simpler and more efficient results than A (28% overall yield versus 4%).
 
Article
The variable domain V3 in the outer glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 is a highly important region with respect to immune response during the course of viral infection. Neutralizing antibodies are produced against this domain: in addition, it has been shown to be a functionally active epitope for T helper and cytotoxic T cells. The high degree of amino acid variability in individual HIV-isolates, however, limits the use of the V3-domain in approaches to vaccine development. In order to characterize the residues important for antibody interaction and binding to MHC class I proteins, we constructed a consensus sequence of the V3-domain with broad reactivity [1] and used synthetic peptides derived from this consensus sequence with individual residues altered to alanine. These peptides were used as antigens in ELISA tests to define the amino acids which are important for binding to human and rabbit/anti-peptide immunoglobulins. In addition, we used these alanine-derived peptides in interaction studies with human HLA-A2.1 and mouse H-2Dd by testing their capacity to stabilize the respective MHC class I protein complexes on the surface of mutant cell lines T2 and RMA-S transfected with Dd gene. The experimental tests allowed us to define individual residues involved in antibody and MHC-protein interaction, respectively. In a further approach, we used those results to design interaction models with HLA-A2.1 and H-2Dd. Therefore, a structural model for H-2Dd was built that exhibits an overall similar conformation to the parental crystal structure of HLA-A2.1. The resulting interaction models show V3-peptide bound in an extended beta-conformation with a bulge in its centre for both H-2Dd and HLA-A2.1 complexes. The N- and C-termini of V3 peptide reside in conserved pockets within both MHC-proteins. Anchoring residues could be determined that are crucial for the binding of the respective MHC class I haplotype. The cross-reactivity of V3-peptide in enhancing the expression of two different MHC class I molecules (H-2Dd and HLA-A2.1) is shown to be based on similar peptide binding that induces an almost identical peptide conformation.
 
Article
A new lipopeptide with C12 fatty acid has been isolated from the cell broth of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 by chromatographic methods, which is believed to be the homologue of lipopeptides. The fatty acid portion was methylated and analyzed by GC/MS, ESI Q-TOF MS and 1H-NMR. The peptide portion, of which the amino acid composition was obtained by HPLC combined with a phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) derivatization methods, was analyzed by ESI Q-TOF MS. Comparing the obtained results with surfactin C13 showed that the new lipopeptide has a peptide moiety similar to that of surfactin and the difference exists in the fatty acid portion, which is an iso-C12 beta-hydroxy fatty acid. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of this new homologue is estimated to be 6.27 x 10(-5) mol/l in 10 mmol/l phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 8.0) at 30 degrees C, and the surface tension at CMC (gamma CMC) achieved is as little as 27.71 mN/m. The hemolytic activities of the C12-lipopeptide on 2% human erythrocytes showed a HC50 of 26.5 micromol/l.
 
Article
Human midkine (hMK), a novel heparin-binding neurotrophic factor consisting of 121 amino acid residues with five intramolecular disulphide bonds, was synthesized by solution procedure in order to demonstrate the usefulness of our newly developed solvent system, a mixture of dichloromethane or chloroform and trifluoroethanol. The final protected 121-residue peptide was assembled from two large fully protected intermediates, Boc-(1-59)-OH and H-(60-121)-OBzl, in CHL/TFE(3:1, v/v) using water-soluble carbodiimide in the presence of HOOBt as coupling reagents. After removal of the protecting groups by HF followed by treatment with Hg(OAc)2 in 50% acetic acid, the fully deprotected peptide was subjected to the oxidative folding reaction. The final product was confirmed to have the correct disulphide structure from its tryptic peptide mapping and to possess the same biological activities as those of the natural product. In order to clarify the active region of the hMK molecule, the N-terminal half domains [(1-59) and (60-121)] were also synthesized by the same procedure used for the hMK synthesis. The C-half domain was confirmed to show the full pattern of bioactivities except for the neuronal cell survival activity, while the N-half one showed much less activity in general.
 
Article
Fusion of the HIV envelope with the target cell membrane is a critical step of the HIV entry into the target cell. Several peptides based on the C-region of HIV gp41 have been used in clinical trials as possible HIV fusion inhibitors. Among these are T-1249 and T-20 (also known as enfurvitide). Despite recent works, a detailed molecular picture of the inhibitory mechanism of these molecules is still lacking. These peptides are usually depicted as alpha-helices by analogy with the structure of the sequence of the gp41 protein with which they are homologous. However, structures like these would be highly unstable in solution and thus would not explain, by themselves, the ability that the two fusion inhibitors have to become solvated by water and also interact effectively with cell membranes. To this effect, extensive molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the structure and conformational behavior of T-1249 and T-20 in water, as well as shorter homologous peptides CTP and 3f5, which show no inhibitory action. We found that the studied inhibitors have no stable structure in solution in the time scale studied. Additionally, the solvent accessible area varies significantly during the simulation. Our findings suggest that these peptides may assume not only one, but several possible sets of structures in solution, some of which more adequate to interact with the solvent, whereas others might be better suited to interact with cell membranes. Interestingly, and in accordance with published experimental studies, we verified that T-1249 displays considerably larger alpha-helical structure than T-20. Taking into account a recent study with design peptides with increased helicity, it is possible that this feature may be related to the increased inhibiting efficiency of T-1249 relative to that of T-20.
 
Article
A photoreactive analogue of human melanin-concentrating hormone was designed, [D-Bpa13,Tyr19-MCH, containing the D-enantiomer of photolabile p-benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) in position 13 and tyrosine for radioiodination in position 19. The linear peptide was synthesized by the continuous-flow solid-phase methodology using Fmoc-strategy and PEG-PS resins, purified to homogeneity and cyclized by iodine oxidation. Radioiodination of [D-Bpa13,Tyr19]-MCH at its Tyr19 residue was carried out enzymatically using solid-phase bound glucose oxidase/lactoperoxidase, followed by purification on a reversed-phase mini-column and HPLC. Saturation binding analysis of [125I]-[D-Bpa13,Tyr19]-MCH with G4F-7 mouse melanoma cells gave a K(D) of 2.2+/-0.2 x 10(-10) mol/l and a B(max) of 1047+/-50 receptors/cell. Competition binding analysis showed that MCH and rANF(1-28) displace [125I]-[D-Bpa13,Tyr19]-MCH from the MCH binding sites on G4F-7 cells whereas alpha-MSH has no effect. Receptor crosslinking by UV-irradiation of G4F-7 cells in the presence of [125I]-[D-Bpa13,Tyr19]-MCH followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography yielded a band of 45-50 kDa. Identical crosslinked bands were also detected in B16-F1 and G4F mouse melanoma cells, in RE and D10 human melanoma cells as well as in COS-7 cells. Weak staining was found in rat PC12 phaeochromocytoma and Chinese hamster ovary cells. No crosslinking was detected in human MP fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that [125I]-[D-Bpa13,Tyr19]-MCH is a versatile photocrosslinking analogue of MCH suitable to identify MCH receptors in different cells and tissues; the MCH receptor in these cells appears to have the size of a G protein-coupled receptor, most likely with a varying degree of glycosylation.
 
Article
The formation of aggregates including amyloid fibrils in the peptide fragment of non-amyloid-beta component (NAC(1-13)) was investigated under a variety of solution conditions. Two types of sample preparation method from neutral and acidic conditions were examined. Electron microscopy observation showed amorphous aggregates in the sample at pH 4.5 adjusted from the neutral condition. The CD and HPLC quantitative analyses indicated that the formation of the amorphous aggregate did not accompany a conformational conversion from a random coil in the sample solution. The analyses of pKa values determined by pH titration experiments in NMR spectroscopy indicated that the protonation of the carboxyl group of the N-terminal glutamic acid triggers the aggregation of NAC(1-13). On the other hand, electron microscopy observation showed that the samples at pH 2.2 and 4.5 adjusted from an initial pH of 2.2 form fibrils. A beta-structure was detected by CD spectroscopy in the 1 mM NAC(1-13) at pH 2.2 immediately after preparation. The CD analyses of samples at different concentrations and temperatures indicated that 1 mM NAC(1-13) immediately after preparation at pH 2.2 was oligomerized. The quantity of the beta-structure was increased depending on the Incubation time. The results strongly suggested that the beta-conformational oligomers play a critical role for the fibril nucleus.
 
Article
The fully extended peptide conformation (2.0(5)-helix) has been investigated for the first time in the solid-state by 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR. The compounds examined are members of a terminally protected, homo-oligopeptide series (from monomer through hexamer) based on Calpha,beta-didehydroalanine.
 
Article
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1(NDM-1)-carrying isolates, which are resistant to most clinical used antibiotics except for tigecycline and colistin, have been found worldwide. Cathelicidin-BF (BF-30) is found in the venom of the snake Bungarus fasciatus and exhibits broad antimicrobial activity. Cbf-K(16) and Cbf-A(7) A(13) were obtained by mutating Lys(16) , Ala(7) , and Ala(13) of BF-30, respectively. To investigate their antimicrobial activities against NDM-1 carrying bacteria, recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)-NDM-1 with high NDM-1 activity was constructed by inserting the Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM-1 gene (GenBank accession no. HQ328085) into a pET28a vector and transforming it into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The peptides showed effective antimicrobial activities against NDM-1-carrying E. coli, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cbf-K(16) and Cbf-A(7) A(13) were only 4 and 8 µg/ml, whereas those of minimum bactericidal concentrations were 8 and 16 µg/ml, respectively. A time course experiment showed that colony forming unit counts rapidly decreased, and bacteria were thoroughly eliminated within 3 and 6 h by the Cbf-K(16) and Cbf-A(7) A(13) treatments, respectively. The peptides penetrated the bacterial cell membrane and enabled β-galactosidase leakage, and caused the cytoplasmic membrane to become permeable, and finally bound to the DNA. The genomic DNA of E. coli was completely unable to migrate on an agarose gel after Cbf-K(16) treatment (8 µg/ml). These data demonstrated that Cbf-K(16) and Cbf-A(7) A(13) possess effective antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant strains, including NDM-1 carrying E. coli BL21 (DE3)-NDM-1, by binding to DNA after penetrating the cytoplasmic membrane in vitro, which may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of NDM-1-carrying bacterial infections. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
S-Acyl cysteine peptides containing α-, β- or γ-amino acid residues undergo long-range S- to N-acyl transfer to give analogs of native tripeptides and tetrapeptides containing additional carbon atoms in the chain. The ease of intramolecular S → N-acyl transfer relative to intermolecular transacylation is favored increasingly for 9 < 12 < 13 ~ 10-membered cyclic transition states; the observed order is explained on conformational and intermolecular interaction considerations. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The objective of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) targeted to domain II of 23S rRNA on bacterial translation and growth. In this paper, we report that PNA(G1138) or peptide-PNA(G1138) targeted to domain II of 23S rRNA can inhibit both translation in vitro (in a cell-free translation system) and bacterial growth in vivo. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) are 0.15 and 10 microM, respectively. The inhibition effect of PNA(G1138) in vitro is somewhat lower than that of tetracycline (IC50 = 0.12 microM), but the MIC of peptide-PNA(G1138) against Escherichia coli is significantly higher than that of tetracycline (MIC = 4 microM). Further studies based on similar colony-forming unit (CFU) assays showed that peptide-PNA(G1138) at 10 microM is bactericidal, but the bactericidal effect is less effective than that of tetracycline. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that the peptide-PNA(G1138) treatment is bactericidal in a dose- and sequence-dependent manner and that the G1138 site of 23S rRNA is a possible sequence target for designing novel PNA-based antibiotics.
 
Article
Zervamicin IIB is a member of the alpha-aminoisobutyric acid containing peptaibol antibiotics. A new procedure for the biosynthetic preparation of the uniformly 13C- and 15N-enriched peptaibol is described This compound was isolated from the biomass of the fungus-producer Emericellopsis salmosynnemata strain 336 IMI 58330 obtained upon cultivation in the totally 13C, 15N-labelled complete medium. To prepare such a medium the autolysed biomass and the exopolysaccharides of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatus KT were used. This microorganism was grown in totally 13C, 15N-labelled minimal medium containing 13C-methanol and 15N-ammonium chloride as the only carbon and nitrogen sources. Preliminary NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated a high extent of isotope incorporation (> 90%) and led to the complete 13C- and 15N-NMR assignment including the stereospecific assignment of Aib residues methyl groups. The observed pattern of the structurally important secondary chemical shifts of 1H(alpha), 13C=O and 13C(alpha) agrees well with the previously determined structure of zervamicin IIB in methanol solution.
 
Article
A review is given of the literature dealing with the most common protected derivatives of 15N- and/or 13C-labelled amino acids of interest in peptide synthesis. The list contains all such Boc-, Z- and Fmoc-amino acids as well as published methyl, ethyl, t-butyl and benzyl esters.
 
Article
Plantaricin-149 is a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 149 (a LAB isolated from pineapple), which consists of a peptidic chain made up of 22 amino acid residues [Kato et al. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1994; 77: 277-282]. In this work, a synthetic C-terminal amidated peptide analog denoted Pln149a was prepared by SPPS-Fmoc chemistry and the antagonistic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was tested. The secondary structure was studied by circular dichroism (CD) and the vicinity of the tyrosine residue by fluorescence spectroscopy under different conditions. We report the results of the interaction of Pln149a with reverse micelles prepared from the amphiphilic AOT in cyclohexane. Synthetic plantaricin was active against one strain of Staphylococcus aureus and four strains of Listeria genus at pH 5.5 and 7.4 and, like its natural variant, inhibited L. plantarum ATCC 8014. The data derived from spectroscopic measurements in presence of AOT reverse micelles suggest that the secondary structure of the peptide upon interaction is an alpha-helix. In this membrane model, the hydrophobic side of the alpha-helix is inserted into the micelles, leaving the lysines exposed to the solvent and interacting with the polar moieties of AOT. The fluorescence data point out that the N-terminal tyrosine residue is close to the micellar interface.
 
Article
The transmembrane segments of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (SNARE) proteins or viral envelope proteins drive membrane fusion, which suggests that simple synthetic biology constructs for fusion exist and can be evaluated. We describe the high-yield synthesis of a set of de novo designed fusogenic peptides for use in functional investigations, which are highly enriched in 13C and 15N using three equivalents of labelled amino acids and optimized reaction conditions minimizing aggregation. The biomimetic peptides have a high purity >90% and show reproducible and fusogenic activity that correlates well with the intended functional design characteristics, from strongly fusogenic to almost non-fusogenic.
 
Article
The protected 11 amino acid segment (6-16) of the peptaibol zervamicin II-2 was synthesized by using the 'azirine/oxazolone method' for the introduction of all Aib residues. Whereas a 2,2-dimethyl-2H-azirin-3-amine was used as the building block for Aib(7), methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-azirine-3-prolinate and -3-(3-hydroxyprolinate) proved to be ideally suited as dipeptide synthons for the introduction of Aib-Pro and Aib-Hyp, respectively. The coupling of Z-protected amino acids or peptide acids with the 2H-azirin-3-amines were performed in 75% to quantitative yield.
 
Article
Natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1), an integral membrane protein with 12 predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), is a divalent cation transporter associated with infectious and autoimmune diseases. A naturally occurring mutation G169D within TM4 of Nramp1 leads to the loss of function, suggesting potential importance of TM4 for the biological function of the protein. In this study, we determine the three-dimensional structure and topology of a synthetic peptide, del(T178), corresponding to Nramp1(164-191) (basically consisting of the putative TM4 of Nramp1) with Thr178 deletion in TFE and SDS micelles using NMR and CD spectroscopic techniques, and compare the results with those of the wildtype peptide. Similarly to the wildtype peptide, the del(T178) peptide still forms an amphiphilic-like alpha-helical structure in both membrane mimics and is embedded in SDS micelles. Differently, whereas the wild-type peptide forms a helix bundle with the hydrophilic side facing the interior of the bundle, the del(T178) peptide exists as a monomer in the membrane mimics and the hydrophilic side of the helix is located near the interface of SDS micelles. Moreover, a strongly cooperative protonation occurs between intramolecular Asp residues for the del(T178) peptide in SDS micelles, while the cooperative proton binding between intermolecular Asp residues was observed for the wildtype peptide. The difference in the results of the two peptides suggests that the deletion of Thr178 impairs intermolecular interaction of the peptide.
 
Article
HMG-17 is a nucleosomal protein which is an immune target of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases. Autoantibody production in SLE is believed to result from autoantigen specific immune stimulation and subsequently, it is expected that antigenic determinants recognized by SLE autoantibodies and induced antibodies by immunization are quite similar. To examine this issue, rabbits were immunized with purified HMG-17. The produced antiserum showed cross reactivity on blots and in inhibition ELISA with histone H1, even after its affinity purification with immobilized HMG-17. Finally, purification of the antiserum over H1 absorbed on nitrocellulose membrane produced specific anti-HMG-17 antibodies in the supernatant and anti-HMG-17/H1 antibodies that were bound to H1. SLE sera positive for HMG-17 had also cross reactivity with H1, and following the same procedure as before we received HMG-17 specific SLE autoantibodies and anti-HMG-17/H1 autoantibodies. Using the multipin epitope mapping technology, 19 overlapping 15-mer HMG-17 peptides and six 15-peptides, corresponding to known epitopes of histone H1, were synthesized. Four major epitopes were identified on the HMG-17 molecule, reactive with induced anti-HMG-17 antibodies, and these were the same as major autoepitopes In SLE. The sequence 25-51 of HMG-17, part of its DNA-binding domain, was recognized by the anti-HMG-17/H1 antibodies that were bound to H1. These antibodies recognized also defined epitopes of H1. Our results show that SLE autoantibodies can be directed against the same or similar epitopes as do IgGs evoked during the active immunization of animals, and provide additional evidence that autosensitization with an autoantigen might be operative. The possibility that the same or similar epitopes are found on different molecules (in this study HMG-17 and H1) supports the fact that there are rules by which nature selects the most dominant immunodeterminant to a given protein, which often represents functional or structural sites in the autoantigen.
 
Article
Dynorphin A, the endogenous agonist for the kappa opioid receptor, has been studied by NMR spectroscopy in methanol, acetonitrile, DMSO and in mixtures of hexafluoroacetone/water and DMSO/water. NMR data in the DMSO/water cryomixture at 278 K are consistent with a conformer in which the N-terminal part, like the corresponding message domain of enkephalins, is poorly ordered, whereas the C-terminal part is folded in a loop centred around Pro10. The folded structure of the C-terminal part (address moiety) may shed light on the role of the essential residues Arg7, Lys11 and Lys13.
 
Top-cited authors
Fernando Albericio
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal
PD White
Ian W Hamley
  • University of Reading
Song Yub Shin
  • Chosun University
Yoonkyung Park
  • Chosun University