Phimosis, owing to the presence of a preputial fibrotic ring, is surgically treated in 1% of children. During the last decade, however, topical steroid treatment has been proposed for phimosis.
We present a double-blind study comparing 0.1% mometasone furoate topical cream vs moisturizing cream (placebo) for the treatment of phimosis. Children aged from 2 to 13 years (n = 110) presenting with phimosis (Kikiro's classification grade 5) and scheduled for circumcision were included in this trial. The patients were evaluated after 8 weeks of topical treatment with moisturizing cream (n = 54) or steroid cream (n = 56). Nonresponders from both groups received an additional 8 weeks of steroid cream treatment.
In the steroid group, the ring disappeared and glans exposure was obtained in 49 (88%) of 56 patients vs 28 (52%) of 54 patients in the placebo group (P < .05). After a second treatment, in the steroid group, 5 of the 7 patients were finally cured vs 22 of the 26 in the placebo group (P < .05). Two children with persisting phimosis (Kikiro's retractability grade 5 and appearance grade 3) in the steroid group (4%) vs 4 children in the placebo group (7%) ended up receiving postectomy.
The present investigation adds up and supports the effectiveness of phimosis topical corticoid treatment. Nevertheless, hygiene and preputial traction, when appropriately performed, seem to play an important role in the disappearance of the phimotic ring as well. New studies are necessary to confirm if this is true or not.
Hyponatraemia associated with sepsis is known to have an increased morbidity and mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown, but may be related to dilution of the extracellular space with retained exogenous fluid. Fluid and ion redistribution across the cell membrane of striated muscle was investigated in an animal sepsis model and compared with sham controls. The objective was to study the effect of different volumes of fluid replacement with either 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose. Significant shifts of sodium, chloride, and water occurred into the cell in all septic animals but not in controls. This trend was exacerbated by the use of dextrose for intravenous replacement even when the estimated normal fluid requirements had not been exceeded. Hyponatraemia and plasma hypoosmolality were induced only in septic animals, which received 100% of their fluid requirements as dextrose. These animals at the same time had significantly reduced extracellular and increased intracellular volumes compared with controls and the septic animals that received saline replacement. It is concluded that the hyponatraemia and plasma hypoosmolality that occurs in these animals is caused by a combination of intracellular shift of sodium and water, and dilution of the extracellular space, probably on the basis of physiological antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion. Dextrose (and by implication 4% dextrose/0.18% saline) is inappropriate, potentially dangerous, and should be avoided in these circumstances.
The oro-ocular cleft no. 4 according to the Tessier classification is one of the rarest facial cleft, and to this day, few cases have been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 9-month-old girl with a complete bilateral facial cleft. On the right cornea protruded a hard lesion, a corneal staphyloma. We describe the 3 primary surgical steps used to restore the possibility of satisfactory feeding, to promote language acquisition, and to protect vision in the nonaffected eye. The psychological and social aspects of severe facial deformities in developing countries are also tackled.
The authors reported the surgical treatment of a 2-year-old girl with complete duplication of the kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, and the vulva, associated with intestinal duplication and complete duplication of the appendix and colon. Congenital intestinal malrotation also concurred. After a series of preoperative examinations, exploratory operation including reduction of intestinal malrotation, fusion of bladder and colon, obliteration of the duplicated urethra, resection of the intestinal and appendiceal duplications, and cosmetic repair of the vulva was performed. Incontinence of urine and stool disappeared, and she had been followed up for 10 months until this report. Repeat voiding cystourethrography performed recently demonstrated a fused bladder and the disappearance of the duplicated urethra.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) primarily affects premature newborns. Regional and national decreases in the mean birthweight and gestational age of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions prompted a review of NEC in VLBW (very low birth weight, defined as < 1,000 g) infants in our institution over a 25-year period. There were 266 patients treated for NEC during the study interval. We compared 71 VLBW with 195 non-VLBW infants and found that VLBW infants were: fed later (6.4 days v 4.1 days, P = .009), developed NEC later (20.8 days v 13.1 days, P = .002), had significantly lower 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, were more likely to require surgery (51% v 34%, P = .016), more often had panintestinal (defined as > 75% of intestinal length) involvement (10% v 4%, P = .043), and had poorer survival (56% v 72%, P = .013). Overall survival after NEC has improved over the study interval, both in our series and in other reports. However, the increasing number of VLBW infants who have NEC represent a subgroup who appear to be generally more ill, develop NEC later, require surgery with greater frequency than their non-VLBW counterparts, and are less likely to survive.
The frequency of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the extremely premature infant (less than 1,000 g) is still high and it is very difficult for infants weighing less than 1,000 g with NEC perforation to survive. In our institutes, the management protocol for NEC perforation in infants weighing less than 1,000 g includes peritoneal drainage under local anesthesia, administration of coagulating factor XIII, and the usual treatment for septic shock. During the past 3 years, four infants weighing less than 1,000 g with NEC perforation have survived using this protocol without laparotomy. This management protocol is the treatment of choice in infants in very poor condition or infants weighing less than 1,000 g with NEC perforation.
The use of central venous catheters in low birthweight infants has been associated with a high rate of infectious and mechanical-related complications. We reviewed our experience with multipurpose central venous catheters in infants less than 1,000 g to determine the rate of catheter-related sepsis and mechanical catheter malfunction. From October 1981 to August 1984, 20 infants (average weight 778 g) underwent placement of 22 central venous Broviac catheters. In addition to parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, aminophylline, and replacement fluids were infused. Total catheter days were 961, with an average of 44 days per catheter. Primary catheter sepsis occurred with two catheters (9%). Mechanical complications occurred with six catheters (exposed cuff, 1; catheter break, 2; catheter reposition, 1; catheter thrombosis, 1; dehiscence of cutdown site, 1). The incidence of catheter-related sepsis was acceptably low. The high incidence of mechanical catheter malfunction (6/22, 27%) resulted in minimal morbidity to the infant and could have been avoided by better operative technique, proper positioning intraoperatively, and meticulous care of the catheter post-operatively. We conclude that multipurpose long-term central venous access can be safely utilized with the Broviac catheter in infants less than 1,000 g.
From January 1986 through December 1988, we have seen 7 cases of isolated intestinal perforation in 250 infants with birth weights less than 1,000 g (3% incidence) without histological or clinical evidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Patients had a mean birth weight of 670 g, gestational age of 25.1 weeks, and sustained a perforation at a chronological age of 10.4 days. No infants had been fed. A definite, blue-discolored abdomen was the only consistent clinical sign (n = 7). Free intraperitoneal air on radiograms was rarely observed (n = 1). Abdominal ultrasounds (n = 3) and metrizamide contrast studies (n = 3) were not diagnostic. The presence of an umbilical artery catheter (7/7), falling hematocrit (6/7), thrombocytopenia (5/7), and a positive diagnostic paracentesis were most commonly found. In 6 of 7 patients, this perforation was associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal sepsis. Surgical or histological diagnosis showed focal perforation in either the terminal ileum (n = 4) or the transverse and descending colon (n = 3). Survival was 3 of 7; 2 patients died of intracranial hemorrhage and 2 died of Candida sepsis. We conclude that (1) intestinal perforation can occur in the absence of NEC; (2) bluish discoloration of the abdomen is the most reliable clinical finding; and (3) perforation may be associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection.
A clinical classification for undescended testes based on location, size, and mobility of the testis in the inguinal canal was performed. The latter was artificially divided into three sections. The lower portion was considered position I; the mid part, position II; the upper part, position III; and the abdominal (nonpalpable) part, position IV). Normal-size testes were considered as being size A; testes reduced up to 30% in volume, size B; and gonads reduced more than 30% of the estimated normal, size C. According to these criteria, a case of chryptorchidism can then be classified as I, II, III, or IV and A, B, or C and fixed or movable. This classification was used in 1,010 orchidopexies conducted under a uniform surgical technique by the same surgeon and followed annually up to a maximum of 23 years. Retractile testes were excluded from this series. In most cases, the clinical diagnosis matched the surgical findings. Results are presented in two groups, unilateral and bilateral, since the main problem for the latter is fertility, and they should be considered separately in any study. For both groups, the most frequent finding was the normal-sized testis (size A), in location I. For positions II and III, size B was the most common; and in position IV (intraabdominal), size C had a substantially higher incidence. Surgical technique was simpler and the outcome better, as expected, when the testicles were of good size, located in a low position, and operated at an early age. A worthwhile finding was the long-term cosmetic improvement in an important percentage of the surgically descended B-sized testes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The main objectives of this study were to define the clinical patterns and characteristics of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) presented in the first year of life and to study the outcome of different treatment methods.
This is a prospective study of all CMT patients seen in 1 center over a 12-year period with uniform recording system, assessment methods, and treatment protocol.
From a total of 1,086 CMT infants, 3 clinical subgroups of sternomastoid tumor (SMT; 42.7%), muscular torticollis (MT; 30.6%), and postural torticollis (POST; 22.1%) were identified. The SMT group was found to present earlier within the first 3 months and was associated with higher incidence of breech presentation (19.5%), difficult labor (56%), and hip dysplasia (6.81%). Severity of limitation of passive neck rotation range (ROTGp) was found to correlate significantly with the presence of SMT, bigger tumor size, hip dysplasia, degree of head tilt, and craniofacial asymmetry.
A total of 24.5% of the patients with initial deficits of passive rotation of less than 10 degrees showed excellent and good outcome with active home positioning and stimulation program. The remaining cases with rotation deficits of over 10 degrees and treated with manual stretching program showed an overall excellent to good results in 91.1% with 5.1% requiring subsequent surgical treatment. The most important prognostic factors for the necessity of surgical treatment were the clinical subgroup, the ROTGp, and the age at presentation (P < .001).
In an analysis of 1,433 wounds created in 1,094 neonates admitted to a regional neonatal surgical unit during the period April 1975 to December 1987, the mean incidence of infection was 16.6%. During this time there was an increase in the incidence of infection from 12.5% in the first 6 years to 18.8% in the last 7 years (P < .01). Contaminated wounds had an infection rate of 20.7%, whereas the rate in clean wounds was 11.1% (P < .001). Gestational age and birth weight had no influence on the incidence of wound infection. Increasing wound length (P < .001), increasing duration of operation (P < .001), and contamination at operation (P < .001) were all associated with a higher incidence of infection. Staphylococcal species were the most frequently isolated organisms from all categories of infected wounds (clean, potential, and actual contamination).
A 1,100-g infant was found to have a right tension pneumothorax following multiple attempts at endotracheal intubation. Despite the use of high-frequency ventilation, adequate oxygenation was not possible. Bronchoscopy was hazardous, and bronchography of the right lung using propyliodone oil suspension confirmed perforation of the bronchus intermedius. At thoracotomy, while on high-frequency ventilation, the size of the perforation precluded suture repair, and right middle and lower lobectomies were performed. Follow-up at 1 year showed a small, though healthy infant. Review of the surgical literature has not documented successful operative management of bronchial perforation in a neonate. Selective bronchography was precise in identifying the site of perforation and was well tolerated.
The efficacy of peritoneal drainage (PD) as an alternative to laparotomy (LAP) in the management of bowel perforation (PRF) in very low-birth-weight infants (VLBW < or = 1,200 g) remains uncertain. The authors hypothesized that survival of VLBW infants with PRF depends on the severity of illness rather than on the initial surgical approach.
Demographic, clinical, and outcome data on all VLBW infants were abstracted prospectively over a 12(1/2)-year period. Infants with PRF were stratified by PD or by LAP. Illness acuity was compared using the sum of a 7-point scoring system based on the clinical signs determined to be of prognostic significance. The factors associated with adverse outcome and the epidemiology of PRF were also examined.
Of 937 infants, 78 with PRF required surgical intervention, consisting of PD in 32 (41%) and LAP in 46 (59%). Mean birth weight, illness acuity score, and the number of infants with NEC were significantly lower in PD (P =.0005). A higher proportion of PD infants received indomethacin (P =.01). There were no other differences between the 2 groups. Regardless of the choice of procedure, birth weight did not affect mortality rate; however, a shorter interval between PRF identification and surgical intervention was associated with improved survival rate (P =.001). Postoperative liver dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and enteric stricture were more common among LAP. Mortality rate, however, did not differ. When severe thrombocytopenia (P <.03) or neutropenia was present (P <.03), outcome of LAP was better than PD. Rescue LAP for 8 of rapidly deteriorating PD infants saved 5. Regardless of surgical approach, coagulopathy (P <.003), severe thrombocytopenia (P <.005), neutropenia (P <.0001), and multiple organ failure (P <.0001) were all predictive of fatality.
Choice of surgical approach should be based on the underlying illness and not on birth weight. In the presence of clinical indication of necrotic gut, or profound abdominal infection, LAP is a better choice. PD, however, is far less morbid and should be considered for isolated PRF. Rescue LAP must be considered without delay when PD fails.
This study aims to elucidate the clinical presentation, the effectiveness of investigations, and treatment of foreign body ingestion in children and to formulate an algorithm of management.
The records of children admitted to a single institution who had a history of foreign body ingestion over 33 years were reviewed. Symptoms, radiological findings, and endoscopic findings were assessed.
Foreign bodies were detected in 552 (43%) of the 1,265 children admitted. The age of the children ranged from 6 months to 16 years (mean, 5.2 years). The preschool toddlers (mean age, 3.8 years) were most prone to ingest inanimate objects. The most common objects were coins (49%) and nonmetallic sharp objects (NMSO; 31%). Although x-rays could detect all the metallic objects and 86% of glass objects, the sensitivity of fish bone detection is only 26%. Absence of symptoms was common (50% in metallic group and 29% in NMSO group). Forty-one percent of coins and 95% of NMSO were lodged at sites suitable for removal by direct laryngoscopy alone with success rates of 86% and 77%, respectively. There were 3 disease-related complications and 1 mortality. Two of these children were mentally retarded and presented late.
Efforts for prevention of ingestion of inanimate foreign body should focus on the preschool toddler group. Particular attention should be paid to mentally retarded children with vague gastrointestinal symptoms. Absence of symptoms does not preclude presence of foreign body in children. Children with history of NMSO ingestion should undergo direct laryngoscopy despite negative radiological finding, both as a screening procedure or treatment.
The authors present a retrospective analysis of 1,379 pediatric laparoscopic appendectomies. The patients' average age was 10 years (range, 2 to 16 years). On gross examination, 90% of the appendixes appeared inflamed; on microscopic examination, 93% had evidence of acute appendicitis. The incidence of appendiceal peritonitis was 16%. Nonappendiceal lesions were identified in 10% of patients. The incidence of minor intraoperative events was 2.1%, and the postoperative complication rate was 1.5%; 0.7% of patients required a subsequent laparotomy or additional laparoscopic procedure. There were no deaths. The children were discharged after a 2-day (average) hospitalization and returned to unrestricted activities 1 week after surgery. The advantages of laparoscopic appendectomy are its easy and rapid localization of the appendix, the ability to explore the entire abdominal cavity, the ability to lavage completely the contaminated peritoneal cavity, and a reduction in the incidence of intraperitoneal abscesses and postoperative adhesions. Laparoscopic appendectomy offers reduced parietal scarring, a shorter hospital stay, and an earlier return to normal activities, even in cases of complicated acute appendicitis. Our experience confirms that laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and effective in children.
Although a physiologic relationship between intestinal mucosal integrity and hepatic function has been previously described, the effect of primary liver disease on intestinal mucosal homeostasis has not been previously well documented. In the current study, we studied the effects of chronic liver injury as a primary injury on enterocyte turnover (proliferation and apoptosis) in a mouse model.
The liver toxin 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-enriched diet was used to induce chronic cholestatic liver injury in mice. Livers and intestine were harvested after 3 weeks of dietary treatment of histologic analysis and a determination of cell proliferation (immunohistochemistry for Ki67), or apoptosis (immunohistochemistry for caspase-3), as well as a determination of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity.
All DDC-fed animals exhibited histologic evidence of liver damage that was associated with the expansion of atypical ductal proliferation near the periportal areas and increased oxidative stress. In the intestine, DDC-induced liver damage was associated with decreased villus height, decreased enterocyte proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis compared with control animals. There was also evidence for decreased β-catenin expression by immunostaining in crypt and villus cells of DDC-fed mice compared with control animals.
Primary liver injury and cholestasis is associated with intestinal mucosal hypoplasia. Decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis may be responsible for decreased intestinal epithelial cell mass. The observed decrease in cell turnover is accompanied by an alteration in Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Although caudal and spinal blocks are modern and safe techniques, in many centers children still are operated on under general anesthesia (GA), or the blocks are used for postoperative analgesia after GA in infraumbilical operations. The authors aimed to document the results and the complications of 1,554 regional anesthesia cases, thereby assessing their validity.
The analysis of 1,459 caudal and 95 spinal blocks cases collected until January 2001 in children from newborn to 12 years of age are documented retrospectively. The types of anesthesia analyzed in the study were caudal block (CB) only, CB plus GA, GA plus CB, GA plus spinal block, and spinal block only.
There were 1,338 caudal and 95 spinal block cases that clinically were satisfactory. Because the duration of CB was not sufficient in 39 cases, GA was used. Failure to produce a CB occurred in 82 cases (5.57%). There were 257 of 1,338 patients operated on under GA and supported by caudal block for postoperative analgesia.
Caudal anesthesia seems to be an inexpensive, simple, and effective technique not only as a supplement for postoperative analgesia, but also as a single method of anesthesia. and the authors recommend its use in a wider setting of clinical entities in infraumbilical surgical procedures of children.
Currently at our institution more than 90% of the children with end-stage renal disease are managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in preference to hemodialysis until a successful transplant is accomplished. Recent refinements in CAPD catheters and dialysis techniques have greatly added to the many medical, psychological, and economic advantages of CAPD compared with chronic hemodialysis. Ninety-three patients less than 21 years of age underwent insertion of 167 peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters over a 5-year period. A variety of PD catheters were used, including 121 (73%) double-cuff Tenckhoff catheters, 22 (13%) single-cuff, and 24 (14%) column disc catheters (Lifecaths, Physio-Control Corp, Redmond, WA). There were three (3%) noncatheter-related mortalities and minimal significant morbidity during the 1,819 patient-months of catheter use. Exit site infections (61%) and peritonitis (59%) were frequent but minor complications, occasionally requiring catheter replacement. Other noninfectious complications included abdominal hernias (42%), dialysis leaks (14%), distal cuff extrusion (11%), catheter obstruction (7%), and hydrothorax (2%). Forty-five of the 60 hernias (75%) were surgically repaired in patients while receiving CAPD. Persistent or recurrent peritonitis was common with Pseudomonas, Serratia, and fungal infections and often resulted in catheter removal and loss of the peritoneal dialysis membrane. Catheter survival for the double-cuff Tenckhoff was significantly better (P .005) than the single-cuff or Lifecath. Based on this experience we have found that using specific operative techniques for CAPD catheter placement and early surgical management for severe peritonitis reduces the incidence of complications and modality failure.
This report describes the results of a group study of the Japanese Study Group of Anorectal Anomolies (JSGA) to determine the relative incidence of specific types of anorectal anomaly in Japan, and includes discussion of rectourethral fistula regarding the relationship between the levels of the fistula and blind end of the rectum, low type deformity, rare types, and associated anomalies.
A total of 1,992 patients (1,183 boys and 809 girls) registered from 1976 to 1995 were analyzed.
High-type deformities accounted for 26.0% of cases, intermediate 10.7%, low 57.2%, miscellaneous 4.5% and unclassified 1.8%. The most frequent deformity was male anocutaneous fistula (n = 364), followed by male rectourethral fistula (n = 333), and female anovestibular fistula (n = 241). There were 42 rectovesical fistulas in boys and 93 rectocloacal fistulas in girls. Covered anus complete occurred at the same frequency (10.1% of low deformities) as covered anal stenosis. In rectourethral fistula, the blind end of the rectum lay at or above the level of the P-C line in 40.3% of cases, at or above the M line in 39.6% and at the vicinity of the I line in 20.2%, respectively. There was no parallel relationship between the site of the fistula opening and the level of the rectal pouch. The overall incidence of patients having one or more associated anomalies was 45.2%: 70.6% in high deformity, 60.7% in intermediate, and 31.3% in low. The rate of association of Down's syndrome with deformities without fistula (40.3%) was significantly higher than with deformities with fistula (0.3%).
Rectovesical fistula and covered anus complete were not infrequent deformities in this series. We consider that at least 20% of rectourethral fistula should be categorized as intermediate or low deformity from the viewpoint of the position of the rectal pouch. A significant preponderance of Down's syndrome in the deformities without fistula suggests that further investigation of associated anomalies in comparision with other congenital diseases may provide insights into the pathogenesis of anorectal malformation in the field of molecular genetics.
There have been many changes in the "making of a surgeon". Some of the key aspects that have altered residency/fellow training include work hour restrictions; a decrease in autonomy; and the explosion in knowledge, the change in technology, and the movement of complex cases away from General Surgery. There are a number of opportunities for enhancing current surgical training which include the following: 1) returning to reasonable work hour limits; 2) improving the efficiency of resident/fellow training by promoting early development of operative skills and starting down the path toward competency-based education; 3) increasing autonomy in the General and Pediatric Surgery residencies by developing and implementing structured processes for graded autonomy, further promoting the teaching assistant role, and even incorporating time as an attending into the period of training; and 4) developing a paradigm of uniform core surgery training followed by additional qualifications and training in both General Surgery and the surgical specialties.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Infants with very low birth weight are at increased risk for both intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). IVH often progresses in severity after initial diagnosis and causes severe neurological morbidity and mortality. The authors examined the role of NEC in the progression of IVH in these infants.
The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study using data from the University of Maryland neonatal intensive care unit database between 1991 and 2003. From a cohort of 957 infants with very low birth weight, 53 pairs of infants labeled as IVH progression versus controls were selected and closely matched in respect to their gestational age and birth weight. Charts from these infants were reviewed to identify risk factors contributing to IVH progression.
Infants with IVH progression were significantly more likely to suffer from NEC (odds ratio, 3.6), whereas infants with surgical NEC showed a greater association with IVH progression (odds ratio, 5.33). Association with thrombocytopenia was also seen (odds ratio, 3.33). Sepsis showed trend toward significance (odds ratio, 1.9; P = .095) for progression of IVH.
Surgical NEC showed the greatest risk for IVH progression. NEC and thrombocytopenia also appear to be risk factors for IVH progression.
Gut disruption in very low birth weight follows 1 of 3 clinical pathways: isolated perforation with sudden free air, metabolic derangement (MD) complicated by appearance of free air, or progressive metabolic deterioration without evidence of free air. To refine evidence-based indications for peritoneal drainage (PD) vs laparotomy (LAP), we hypothesized that MD acuity is the determinant of outcome and should dictate choice of PD or LAP.
Very low-birth-weight infants referred for surgical care because of free intraperitoneal air or MD associated with signs of enteritis were evaluated by univariate or multivariate logistic regression to investigate the effect on mortality of MD and initial surgical care (LAP vs PD). Metabolic derangement was scaled by assigning 1 point each for thrombocytopenia, metabolic acidosis, neutropenia, left shift of segmented neutrophils, hyponatremia, bacteremia, or hypotension. Laparotomy and PD were stratified by MD acuity, and odds of mortality were calculated for each surgical option.
From October 1991 to December 2003, 65 very low-birth-weight infants with suspected gut disruption were referred for surgical care. Peritoneal drainage and LAP infants had similar birth weight and gastrointestinal age, neither of which predicted mortality. Despite a higher incidence of isolated perforation with sudden free air in PD infants, the incidence of MD and overall mortality were similar for PD and LAP. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated MD to be the best predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.76; confidence interval [CI], 1.41-16.13, P = .012), which significantly increased with interval between diagnosis to surgical intervention (P < .05). Infants with MD receiving PD had a 4-fold increase in mortality (OR, 4.43; CI, 1.37-14.29; P = .0126). Conversely, those without MD and sudden free air who underwent LAP had a 3-fold increase in mortality (OR, 2.915; CI, 1.107-7.692; P = .03.) Of 5, 3 failed PD were "rescued" by LAP.
The dramatic difference in mortality odds based on surgical option in the presence of MD defines the critical importance of a thorough assessment of physiological status to exclude MD. Absence of MD warrants consideration for PD, especially for sudden intraperitoneal free air. Overwhelming MD may limit options to PD; however, salvage of 3 of 5 infants with failed PD demonstrates the value of LAP, whenever possible, for infants with MD.
The purpose of this 10-year review of data is to verify the effectiveness, safety, and appropriate age group for using a multichannel scope during inguinal herniorrhaphy in pediatric patients with clinical unilateral inguinal hernia to evaluate for contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV).
The data evaluated are age, sex, negative findings, positive findings, false positives, false negatives, recurrences, date of recurrence, and complications. Patients who clinically had bilateral hernias or were born prematurely were excluded. A 5-mm, 30° multichannel scope was used through the ipsilateral open hernia sac to explore the contralateral internal ring. A Fogarty catheter was used through one of the channels of the scope to probe the contralateral side in instances of questionable patent processus vaginalis.
One thousand one patients were studied, and a total of 237 CPPVs (23%) were identified. The highest incidence of CPPV was found in those patients younger than 1 year (44%). Contralateral patent processus vaginalis was identified and ligated in 34% of patients younger than 2 years, 20% in patients 2 to 8 years old, and 17% of patients 9 to 18 years old. There were no false positives and 6 false negatives (0.6%) of the contralateral side. There were 3 (0.3%) recurrent inguinal hernias of the ipsilateral side and no complications.
The use of a multichannel scope through the ipsilateral open hernia sac during inguinal herniorrhaphy in pediatric patients with clinical unilateral inguinal hernia to evaluate for CPPV proved to be effective, cost-effective, and safe. Our procedure eliminated any additional scars and the cost of trocars and permitted us to probe the contralateral internal ring. Unnecessary open exploration was spared in 56% of children younger than 1 year and proved to be useful in all pediatric patients up to the age of 18 years.
Ovarian pathology, although rare in children, must be included in the differential diagnosis of all girls who present with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass, or precocious puberty.
To improve clinical appreciation of these lesions, the authors reviewed the presentation, evaluation, and outcome of all patients with ovarian pathology surgically treated at their institution since 1985.
One hundred two girls (aged 9.8 +/- 5.5 years; range, 2 days to 20 years) underwent 106 separate ovarian operations (43 salpingo-oophorectomies, 21 oophorectomies, 33 ovarian cystectomies, and 9 ovarian biopsies). Of those presenting with acute abdominal pain (n = 59), 25 (42%) had ovarian torsion (14 associated with a mature teratoma), and only 1 (2%) had a malignant tumor. In contrast, of those presenting with an abdominal mass (n = 23), 6 (26%) had malignancies. There was no age difference between those with benign disease (9.9 +/- 5.6 years; n = 96) and those with malignant tumors (8.6 +/- 3.9 years, n = 10). Nine children had 10 operations for presumed malignant tumors (3 dysgerminomas, 2 immature teratomas with foci of yolk sac tumor, 2 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 yolk sac tumor, and 1 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor). These patients all had unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 4 had chemotherapy, and all are now disease free at 8.4 +/- 4.1 years follow-up.
Ovarian pathology remains a rare indication for surgery in girls less than 20 years of age. Because most of these lesions are benign, ovarian-preserving operations should be performed whenever feasible.
This study sought to summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children to effectively reduce complications and mortality.
The medical records of 1024 pediatric patients admitted to our hospital from January 1997 to September 2011 and diagnosed with clinically suspected tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration were retrospectively analyzed.
Of the 1024 children patients, 674 were boys (65.8%) and 350 girls (34.2%). Two died of respiratory and circulatory failure (foreign bodies detected upon bronchoscopy but not retrieved) before surgery, 65 patients underwent direct bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies due to their critical status, and 957 received chest radiographs and chest fluoroscopy or multidetector spiral computed tomographic scans (941 positive). Foreign bodies were expectorated before surgery in 3 cases. There were 953 cases of bronchoscopically proven airway foreign body aspiration, with a diagnostic accuracy of 94.5%. Ninety-eight foreign bodies were lodged in the main bronchus and/or bilateral bronchi, 506 in the right main bronchus, and 349 in the left main bronchus. Atelectasis was noted in 42 patients, including 11 with pulmonary consolidation, whose lungs were re-expanded by endobronchial lavage and sputum aspiration. In 3 patients with bronchiectasis, conservative treatment following foreign body removal was followed by no improvement, and pulmonary lobectomy was performed. Foreign bodies were successfully extracted at the first bronchoscopic attempt in 948 cases, accounting for 99.7% of the total. However, 3 patients had to undergo another bronchoscopy to remove the foreign bodies. The most common types of foreign bodies were peanuts, melon seeds, and beans.
Timely accurate diagnosis and treatment of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children can avoid delay in treatment and effectively reduce complications and mortality.
Cervical spine (C-spine) injuries occur infrequently in children but may be associated with significant disability and mortality. The purpose of this study was to review the experience of a level 1 pediatric trauma center to determine the epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms, levels, types of injury, comorbid factors, and outcomes associated with these potentially devastating injuries.
A retrospective analysis of 103 consecutive C-spine injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 9(1/2)-year period (January 1991 through August 2000) was performed.
The mean age was 10.3 +/- 5.2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle related (52%), followed by sporting injuries (27%). Football injuries accounted for 29% of all sports-related injuries. Sixty-eight percent of all children sustained injuries to C1 to C4; 25% to C5 to C7; and 7% to both. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) occurred in 38%. Five patients had complete cord lesions involving the lower C-spine (C4 to C7); 4 of these were motor vehicle related, and all 4 patients died. Isolated C-spine injuries occurred in 43%, whereas 38% had associated closed head injuries (CHI). The overall mortality rate was 18.5%, most commonly motor vehicle related (95%), occurring in younger children (mean and median age 5 years) and associated with upper C-spine injuries (74%) and CHI (89%). C1 dislocations occurred in younger children (mean age, 6.6 years), most often as a result of motor vehicle-related trauma (especially pedestrians) and were associated with the highest injury severity score (ISS), longest length of stay (LOS), most CHIs, and the highest mortality rate (50%). C-spine fractures with or without SCI occurred most commonly as a result of falls and dives. Sporting injuries occurred almost exclusively in adolescent boys (mean age, 13.8 years) and were isolated injuries associated with a relatively low ISS and shorter LOS. Interestingly, 75% of sporting injuries showed SCIWORA, and all infants suffering from child abuse had SCIWORA.
Mechanisms of injury are age related, with younger children sustaining C-spine injuries as a result of motor vehicle-related trauma and older adolescents commonly injured during sporting activities. C-spine injuries in children most commonly involve the upper C-spine, but complete lesions of the cord are associated more frequently with lower C-spine injuries. The type of C-spine injury is related to the mechanism of injury: SCIWORA is associated with sporting activities and child abuse, C-spine dislocations most commonly result from motor vehicle-related trauma (especially among pedestrians), and C-spine fractures occur most commonly as a result of falls and dives. Predictors of mortality include younger age, motor vehicle-related mechanism, C1 dislocations, high ISS greater than 25, and associated CHI. A high index of suspicion for SCIWORA is essential when evaluating adolescents with neck trauma associated with sporting injuries or victims of child abuse.
Surgical stress elicits a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that contributes to the development of septic complications. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein released in inflammatory states. To analyze the usefulness of CRP as a marker of infection in surgical pediatric patients, we analyzed its kinetics in these patients in comparison with usual markers, such temperature, leukocytes, or fibrinogen.
One hundred three pediatric patients undergoing major surgery were enrolled consecutively in this observational study. C-reactive protein, leukocytes, neutrophils, platelets, fibrinogen, glycemia, and temperature were determined daily after surgery. Patients were classified as infected or not infected. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, efficiency, precocity, positive likelihood ratio, and number of subjects to be treated were calculated.
Peak in CRP was detected at 48 ± 24 hours. C-reactive protein was higher in the infected group from the first day, with significant differences between groups from the second day. Best cutoff for detecting infection was increases in CRP of 11 mg/dL in 48 hours, with a sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 89%, precocity of 1.7 days (0.82-2.54), number of subjects to be treated of 1.7 (1.4-2.6), and positive likelihood ratio of 7.9. Application of other markers alone or in combination did not surpass the sensitivity, specificity, or precocity for increases in CRP of 11 mg/dL in 48 hours.
Increases of CRP constitute an easy and cheap prognostic alert system and may be used to establish strategies aimed to detect infection in surgical pediatric patients.
Although the prognosis of biliary atresia has greatly advanced, only two thirds of patients are able to survive for a long time. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between liver fibrosis, size of ductuli at porta hepatis, and prognosis in order to determine the indications for the Kasai operation. The results of this study showed that the more severe fibrosis of the liver becomes, the worse will be the postoperative clinical features, and the larger the size of ductuli at porta hepatis, the better the prognosis. Based on these results, we have concluded that it is often possible to predict the prognosis at radical surgery by evaluating frozen sections. Patients can be divided into three groups according to these histological findings: group 1 (correctable, or RI in F1); group 2 (RII in F1, RI or RII in F2); group 3 (RIII, RI, or RII in F3). Although the Kasai operation is definitely indicated for patients in groups 1 and 2, making a stoma should be avoided in group 2, because the possibility of liver transplantation may arise in the future. Meanwhile, there is no indication for the Kasai operation for the patients in Group 3, liver transplantation is recommended.
A personal experience with 105 cloacal malformations is described, showing the wide range of anatomy that can occur with the urogenital sinus, the vagina(s), and the rectum, as well as in the external features of the perineum. Follow-up is presented on 98 patients, excluding 4 who died preoperatively, 2 who are preoperative, and 1 lost to follow-up but never repaired. Fifty-seven patients had vesicoureteral reflux. Data are given on urinary control, bowel control, and sexual function for those who are now adults. Two have had babies. Operation often requires multiple positions, including the posterior sagittal approach, laparotomy, and lithotomy position. Isolated rectal pull-through should never be performed in these patients, because the urogenital aspects of the malformations are the most difficult to repair and are the most life-threatening to the patient. Six recent cases are presented to illustrate the breadth of the cloacal spectrum. In most of these patients a satisfactory functional result can be achieved for urinary and bowel control as well as sexual function.
Neonatal small left colon syndrome (NSLCS) is considered a rare cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction, with few documented cases in the English literature. Maternal diabetes has been reported in 40% to 50% of the published cases of NSLCS. Currently, the incidence of maternal diabetes is increasing, but there has been no study to ascertain the incidence and significance of NSLCS in this population. This review aims to assess the current significance of NSLCS and its association with maternal diabetes.
This was a retrospective review of 105 offspring of diabetic mothers who were admitted during the period 2004 to 2008 to our neonatal unit with special emphasis on associated NSLCS.
There were 6 cases of intestinal obstruction in this group of 105 children. Five children, including a pair of twins, had classic features of NSLCS as demonstrated in the contrast enema with an abrupt transition at the splenic flexure and a narrow left colon. Conservative treatment was successful in all, negating the need for further invasive investigation. The sixth child had rectosigmoid Hirschprung disease. During the study period, there were no other cases of NSLCS in the nondiabetic population.
Neonatal small left colon syndrome is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in offspring of diabetic mothers. Neonatal small left colon syndrome can be confidently diagnosed in this population based on the classic clinical and radiologic findings. The incidence of NSLCS can be expected to increase as the incidence of maternal diabetes increases.
It has previously been shown that neuroblastomas with favorable prognosis often express a high level of nerve growth factor receptor trkA. We performed an expression analysis of trkA in 106 NB samples based on the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reevaluated the prognostic power of trkA.
A total of 106 primary tumors from NB patients treated from 1988 to 2009 were analyzed. MYCN was amplified in 13 cases. TaqMan probe method was used for quantitative PCR. Primers and probes were designed to detect trkA I and trkA II, but not the oncogenic splice variant trkA III.
Expression analysis by real-time PCR revealed a wide range of expression levels of trkA within neuroblastoma tissues. Extremely low levels of trkA that were undetectable by semiquantitative PCR were able to be quantified by this method. trkA was predominantly expressed in tumors with favorable outcome. Further analysis of trkA expression was performed in a cohort excluding mass-screened neuroblastomas. Strikingly, multivariate analysis containing age, MYCN status, and trkA expression identified trkA as the only variable that independently predicts the prognosis of the 44 patients who presented clinically.
High-resolution expression analysis targeting trkA and trkA II may add more statistical power on trkA as a biological marker.
The authors present their experience and results in the treatment of infants with imperforate anus over a 10-year period. Differences between these and previously published western results are noted and discussed.
One hundred eight patients with imperforate anus were treated from June 1988 to July 1998. Of these patients, 66 were boys and 42 were girls. Associated anomalies include congenital heart disease, anomalies of bone and cartilage, and Down's syndrome. Thirty-five patients with a low lesion received a limited posterior sagittal anorectoplasty. Seventy-one patients had a high lesion and received 3-staged operations including colostomy, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty, and takedown of colostomy. All patients underwent follow-up by the author. Postoperative anorectal function was evaluated based on the following criteria: ability to have voluntary bowel movement, soiling, and constipation. The duration of follow-up ranges from 6 months to 10 years.
One patient died of multiple congenital anomalies after colostomy. One patient died of hyaline membranous disease. All except 2 patients had voluntary bowel movement. Three patients had soiling, and 19 suffered from constipation after operation. The constipation improved with medical treatment and time. Four patients who received the first operation at another hospital (3 underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty and 1 had cutback anoplasty) had problems with soiling. In these patients, soiling improved after redo posterior sagittal anorectoplasty.
Utilizing the posterior sagittal operation described by Peña, most patients were continent and able to have voluntary bowel movements. Constipation occurred in a substantial number of patients with high-type lesions, but few of these patients needed medication or enemas. There were significantly fewer sacral and urogenital anomalies than have been reported in most western series. This may explain the excellent results.
Current management of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) typically involves staged therapy, which necessitates multiple hospital admissions and associated costs. The authors therefore investigated the course and outcome of treating such children using a single-staged (SS) approach, and compared them with those treated via multiple-staged (MS) therapy. The cases of one hundred nine consecutive patients who presented with HD from 1991 to 1996 were reviewed. Four patients were excluded (two unrelated deaths, two with small intestinal aganglionosis). Twenty-one of the remaining 105 patients underwent SS repair. Both groups were similar in gender, age at diagnosis, and frequency of comorbidities. Repair was possible in 100% of the SS patients. Complications, including enterocolitis, occurred in 63% of patients, and did not significantly differ between groups. The outcome in SS patients was unaffected by whether the repair was performed before or after 30 days of life. The outcome was unaffected by operative weight in either group. By contrast, the number of hospital admissions and total length of stay was significantly higher in the MS group, which resulted in a twofold increase in total costs associated with MS repair compared with SS repair. These data indicate that primary repair of HD is efficacious (even in the newborn), with morbidity equal to MS repair, and requires fewer hospital admissions. The significant savings to the patient and the health care system suggest that SS repair may be an improved strategy for treating HD.
Columnar epithelium-lined esophagus is an acquired phenomenon arising secondarily to chronic mucosal injury from gastroesophageal reflux. This report documents 11 children with complications of reflux and the histologic finding of gastric mucosa in the esophagus. Five children had strictures, one requiring esophageal replacement and four treated by antireflux surgery followed by sleeve-resection of a short fibrotic stricture. Specimens from two patients showed mild dysplasia and from six others slight nuclear atypia. Intestinal metaplasia was apparent in one case on routine histology and was revealed in six other cases by mucin histochemical strains. The significance of the histopathologic findings is discussed in the context of possible malignant potential.
Adenocarcinoma of ampulla of Vater causing obstructive jaundice in an 11-year-old boy is reported. He first underwent pylorus-preserving duodenectomy, which later necessitated classical Whipple operation because of the microscopical evidence of the disease beyond surgical margins. This child is the youngest case of adenocarcinoma of ampulla of Vater in the English-language literature.
Laryngotracheal separation (LTS) with or without end-to-side laryngoesophagostomy was performed as an antiaspiration procedure for intractable aspiration pneumonia in 11 children. The effectiveness of LTS for preventing aspiration was investigated.
Eleven children aged from 9 months to 16 years with intractable aspiration pneumonia underwent LTS with (n = 8) or without (n = 3) laryngoesophagostomy at our institution over the last 2 years. Of these 11 patients, 7 underwent fundoplication with or without gastrostomy for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) before LTS (n = 5) or concurrently with LTS (n = 2). The effectiveness of LTS was evaluated by chart review and follow-up phone questionnaires.
LTS decreased the frequency of performing suction from an average of once every 30 minutes to once every 4.5 hours in all patients. In 5 patients who underwent fundoplication with gastrostomy before LTS, aspiration pneumonia remained unless they underwent LTS. Two patients who underwent LTS with or without laryngoesophagostomy tolerated oral feeding postoperatively. All parents rated LTS as excellent or good in terms of improving the quality of life.
LTS can be recommended for neurologically impaired children with intractable aspiration as a primary surgical intervention. If patients show impaired swallowing and GER, LTS could be performed simultaneously with fundoplication and gastrostomy.
Currarino et al, in 1981, described an association of a congenital anorectal stenosis, or another type of low anorectal malformation, an anterior sacral defect, and presacral mass. Eleven patients with this anomaly were treated at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital from 1984 to 1995. Among these patients, low-type imperforate anus (IA) was seen in three cases and anorectal stenosis was present in eight cases. Presacral masses included seven teratomas, two meningoceles, one dermoid cyst, and one enteric cyst with dermoid cyst. All had a deformed sacrum. Among the eight with anorectal stenoses, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) with diverting colostomy was performed in seven cases, and repeated rectal dilatation was performed in one case. Among the three low-type IA, anoplasty was performed in two cases and PSARP was performed in one case. Although PSARP is a safe and satisfactory method facilitating the excision of the presacral mass, in meningoceles the repair should be performed before correction of anorectal malformation because of the risk of meningitis that can occur when surgeries are done simultaneously. In two cases, untethering of a tethered spinal cord was performed. All patients are continent. Because the incidence of Currarino triad is high when there is an anorectal stenosis (38% in the present series), the Currarino triad should be suspected in anorectal stenosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is a preferred diagnostic method because the incidence of association of tethered cord in this triad is high (18% in the present series).
Phyllodes tumor is uncommon in children, and the malignant form is rare. There have only been a few cases of benign phyllodes tumor reported in peripubertal children and only one malignant case. We report the second case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a premenarchal 11-year-old girl.
Blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injury in children is very rare. Open surgical repair is the definitive treatment. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for trauma has been performed in adults with good outcomes. Its use has been adopted in pediatric population, and its role is evolving. We report a successful TEVAR in a critically injured 11-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient to be successfully treated with TEVAR.
The aim of this study was to perform a population-based study evaluating the trend in management of pediatric blunt splenic injuries in a rural state and assess differences in the management of those injuries at a level I pediatric trauma center (PTC) and regional hospitals (RH) from 1985 through 1995.
ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes for children (age less than 19) discharged from all hospitals in a rural state with splenic injuries from 1985 through 1995 were reviewed. Hospital charges, age, and nonoperative management (NOM) rates were calculated for PTC and RH and compared using chi2 and linear regression. (P < .05 is statistically significant.) Patients were divided into 2 groups; G1, 1985 through 1989 (127 children); G2, 1990 through 1995 (140 children).
The overall NOM rate increased from 21% (G1) to 64.2% (G2), P < .001. A total of 114 patients were treated at PTC and 153 patients received care at RH. PTC had a NOM rate of 54.3% versus 35.9% at RH (P = .003). There was no statistical difference in ages or ISS within the groups or between PTC and RH. NOM in RH rose from 7.7% in G1 to 56.9% in G2 (P < .000), and from 35.5% in G1 to 76.9% in G2 (P < .001) for PTC. Hospital charges were lower for patients receiving NOM versus those with surgical treatment of their injury, $8,094 versus $10,862 (P = .018). However, a higher percentage of children were treated at RH than PTC in G2 versus G1 (68.2% v 51.2%, P = .0541).
Over the 10-year period studied, the NOM rate for splenic injuries significantly decreased. This trend was seen at both the PTC and RH, but the PTC maintained a higher rate of NOM. Unfortunately, more children were treated at RH in G2. Educational programs increased NOM in RH but not to a level equal to PTC. These programs had the negative effect of allowing more children to be treated at RH, actually increasing the splenic operation rate for this population.
We experienced the case of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed as having type 1 neurofibromatosis with intraabdominal and pelvic masses. On physical examination, there were multiple café-au-lait spots larger than 15 mm in diameter scattered over the patient's entire body and axillary freckling, but no cutaneous neurofibromas were present. Lisch nodules were detected in the iris by a slit lamp. A large, firm mobile mass was palpated in the lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomographic scan showed the hypodense masses in the lower abdomen and pelvic cavity. At laparotomy, a 16 x 9-cm, firm nodular mass along the mesentery of the terminal ileum and ascending colon was found. The mesenteric mass was encasing the superior mesenteric vessels and extending into the serosa of the intestine. The mass was incompletely excised together with affected intestine. However, resection of the rectum could not be performed because of the extensive involvement of the entire mesorectum. Histopathologic study revealed a plexiform neurofibroma involving the mesentery and intestine without evidence of malignant transformation. The postoperative course was uneventful. Ten months after the operation, a magnetic resonance imaging showed no interval change of the mesorectal mass.
Testicular nodules or tumors have been well described in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and usually associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The authors report on a 11-hydroxylase--deficient patient presenting bilateral testicular enlargement and review the literature. Testicular biopsy was not very helpful to make differential diagnosis between adrenal rest hyperplasia and Leydig cell tumor. The size of testes regressed after steroid replacement therapy, and this observation was suggestive for adrenal rest hyperplasia. These findings suggest that bilateral testicular enlargement in patients with CAH may occur after excessive adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation of cells differentiated from unknown origin. Orchiectomy is not required but bilateral testicular biopsy must be performed.
Since 1980 the authors have treated 12 infants with cloacal exstrophy (10 classical and 2 variants). Eleven patients had repair, and are all surviving. The initial phases of management that led to improved survival have previously been reported. Quality of life is now a major focus for the cloacal exstrophy patient. During the past 10 years, nine of the 11 patients had lower urinary tract reconstructive procedures. This review evaluates experience with reconstructive efforts to achieve bowel and bladder control and to improve the quality of life in this complex group of patients.
Through review of patient charts and by patient interviews, data were collected to evaluate the ability to provide urinary and bowel control. A continence score was applied to provide a measure of success: voluntary control, 3; control with an enema program or intermittent catheterization, 2; incontinence with a well-functioning stoma, 1; and incontinence without a stoma, 0. The best continence score is 6 (genitourinary and gastrointestinal). Surgical complications, urodynamic and metabolic sequelae of continent urinary diversion were reviewed.
At the time of the authors' previous report, eight of 11 patients had a continence score of 2 or less. Currently, eight of 11 patients have a score of 3 or better (five with enteric stoma and continent urinary diversion, two with enema program and continent urinary diversion, and one with enema program and continent bladder). Urinary-diversion procedures have included two gastric augmentations and five gastric reservoirs, two of which have required subsequent bowel augmentation. Gastric augmentations carry a definite risk of metabolic problems with three of our patients demonstrating significant episodes of metabolic alkalosis. In addition, results of urodynamic monitoring suggests that gastric reservoirs may be less compliant than reservoirs formed using other bowel segments.
Modern principles of continent urinary diversion have been successfully applied to the cloacal exstrophy patient further improving their quality of life. Use of gastric flaps with preservation of intestinal length has been central to urologic reconstructive efforts. Use of stomach alone for formation of urinary reservoirs may produce suboptimal compliance, and composite ileogastric construction should be considered if the gastric flap is of marginal size.
A full term girl survived nonresected, subtotal small-bowel gangrene. The length of the small-bowel remnant (only jejunum) measured 11 cm. Anastomosis was performed with insertion of a 3-cm-long antiperistaltic segment. The ileocecal valve remained intact. The jejunal remnant showed an increase in length of at least 1 m. The resorptive functions of the bowel residue recovered incompletely, particularly the ileal functions. Disturbances of calcium and phosphorus metabolism are now in the foreground; nevertheless, the child now manages to live without parenteral feeding.
Over an 11-year period, 333 patients aged 6 months to 13 years were investigated for suspected blunt renal trauma. Ninety-one renal injuries were demonstrated. All patients who had preexisting pathology sustained major (ie, grade III or IV) injuries and all those who required surgery presented with 4+ or macroscopic hematuria with or without loin signs. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) showed no injury in 140 (89%) of 157 patients who had 0 to 3+ microscopic hematuria, and did not influence management in the remaining 17 patients. Seventy-eight (84%) patients were treated nonoperatively, with one death and few complications. Thirteen (14%) patients underwent early laparotomy, with a nephrectomy rate of 92%. No patient with a renal pedicle injury was considered suitable for vascular reconstruction. We conclude that (1) contrast studies are of little value in pediatric patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria after blunt trauma; (2) IVP remains the most cost-effective means of investigating renal injuries; and (3) laparotomy is only indicated for ongoing hemorrhage from the severely injured kidney and in a few selected patients with renal pedicle injuries.