Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Published by WB Saunders
Online ISSN: 0882-5963
Publications
Article
Competency is the foundation for safe and quality patient care; therefore, assessment must include evaluation based on defined criteria beyond just following a checklist or grading a posttest. The challenge for nurse educators is devising strategies for the staff to demonstrate skills and critical thinking while accommodating various work schedules and time restrictions. This article will describe an innovative themed program that incorporates communication, teamwork, and fun into competency assessment. This technique allows for the tailoring of validation to the needs of the individual and the team.
 
Article
Unlabelled: A review of patient and family satisfaction measures on one pediatric acute care inpatient unit of 27 beds rated the nurses' promptness in responding to patient call bells in the 40%-50% excellence range. As a process improvement initiative, a wireless telephone system was implemented on the unit for enhancing communications between caregivers. Interventions: During this 6-week trial, each registered nurse (RN) and patient care technician (PCT) was assigned a wireless telephone at the beginning of their shift, thus becoming their communication vehicle for 12 hours. As patient requests came to the nurses' station via the current nurse call system, the health unit coordinator was instructed to call either the RN or PCT on his or her wireless telephone, depending on the patient request. Outcomes: After the 6-week trial, data revealed an increase of 10% to 60% excellence. Both patient and families revealed a faster response time to their need with the implementation of the wireless telephone system pilot.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the anxiety responses of 5- to 11-year-old children (N = 52) during and after hospitalization from their perspective. Change in anxiety over time was examined, as was the relationship between children's anxiety and age, sex, length of hospitalization, previous admission, and parental anxiety. Children demonstrated a decrease in anxiety from admission to discharge, whereas anxiety remained fairly constant from discharge to posthospitalization. Younger children (5 to 7 years), boys, and children not previously admitted were more anxious and did not show a decrease in anxiety over time. Findings of this study have implications for practice and further research.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the anxiety responses of parents (N = 52) of 5- to 11-year-old children during and after the hospitalization of their child. The study assessed the level of parental anxiety and its change over time and it examined the relationship between parental anxiety and their children's anxiety, age, gender, length of hospitalization, and previous admission. The study also examined the feelings reported by the parents. Parents showed a decrease in anxiety from admission to discharge whereas anxiety remained fairly constant from discharge to posthospitalization. There was a positive relationship between parental anxiety and the length of the child's hospitalization. There were both positive and negative relationships between the various measures of parental and child anxiety. No relationship was found between parental anxiety and the children's age, gender, and previous admission. Findings of this study have implications for practice and further research.
 
Article
Parental stress related to having a neonate in a Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) has been well documented in the nursing literature. Yet, as nurses we need to be reminded of strategies that can combat this stress and ease the transition to home.
 
Open Coding 
List of Categories and Subheadings Coded According to the List 
Article
The aim of this study was to describe the present and past experiences of 14 siblings from five families in terms of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation. Personal interviews were conducted with the siblings before their brothers or sisters were moved to a newly opened group home. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis of the transcribed texts. The analysis resulted in seven content categories: precocious responsibility, feeling sorry, exposed to frightening behavior, empathetic feelings, hoping that a group home will be a relief, physical violence made siblings feel unsafe and anxious, and relations with friends were affected negatively. The conclusion is that these siblings' experiences revealed stressful life conditions. Counseling for the family and for siblings is recommended to help them deal with their feelings and problems. For the siblings in these five families, a group home was a relevant alternative as a temporary or permanent placement for the child with autism and mental retardation.
 
Article
Gardasil is the first vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases caused by certain types of genital human papillomavirus in females, but little is known about parental acceptance of this vaccine. The purpose of this study was to test a model that predicts intention to vaccinate that includes constructs from the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action.
 
Article
Nursing has a strong historical precedence in the treatment of health disparities. This article evaluates the public health nurses' (PHNs') role with infant mortality during 1884-1920, specifically how nursing care impacted on conditions of poverty, poor nutrition, poor living conditions, lack of education, and lack of governmental policies that contributed to the poor health of infants a century ago. The historical significance of the early PHNs' role can improve our understanding of nursing practice with childhood health issues today. Suggestions are made for nursing to focus on health disparities in childhood obesity, in areas of environmental and policy changes, and the development of social programs and education for families to support healthier living.
 
Article
Drawing on a wealth of primary documents, this historical research describes nurses' efforts regarding early 20th century pediatric tuberculosis care in Virginia. Virginia nurses played a leadership role in designing a template for children's care. Ultimately, however, their legacy is a mixed one. They helped forge a system funded by a complicated, poorly coordinated, race- and class-based mix of public and private support that is now delivered through an idiosyncratic web of community, state, and federal programs. However, they also took courageous action, and their efforts improved the lives of many children. By so doing, they helped invent pediatric nursing.
 
Article
The establishment of children's hospitals became one of the most important legacies of the child-saving movement in the early 20th century. As children's hospitals became more focused on acute and curable illnesses, facilities were developed to provide care and support for "crippled" or "incurable" children. The Queen Alexandra Solarium provided long-term care for crippled children in Western Canada and was developed to augment the acute care services of the British Columbia Children's Hospital. The staff of the solarium provided "healing by nature's method"-rest, fresh air and sunshine, nutritious food, and gentle nursing care-in the calming beachside location of Saanich Inlet on Vancouver Island. Examination of available hospital documentation from the years 1927 through 1942 shows that nurses played a key, yet silent role, in the extended care of chronically ill children.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to review and analyze the use of projective techniques in published nursing studies in which children were the subjects. A search of the pediatric nursing research literature revealed 27 studies that were published between 1984 and 1993 in which projective techniques were used to investigate children's responses. The research purposes, characteristics of subjects, projective techniques employed and their validity and reliability, data analysis strategies, and major findings of the studies reviewed are analyzed and summarized. Recommendations for the use of projective techniques in research and clinical practice with children are offered.
 
Article
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The abstract "Evaluation of Product Wastage From Modern Human Growth Hormone Administration Devices," which published in Journal of Pediatric Nursing , vol. 28 (2013), p. 208, has been retracted at the request of the author, as it is related to an internal disagreement at the author's company concerning the submission of this abstract to the Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2013.02.017.
 
Article
As neonatal intensive care nurses face downsizing and/or cross-training, new opportunities are emerging for advanced practice nurses in follow-up care of neonatal intensive care unit graduates, case management, quality improvement, and community hospital care. This article identifies current issues in neonatal nurse practitioner (NNP) education as the model has shifted from hospital-based, certificate programs to graduate degree programs offered by colleges/universities of nursing. Opportunities for increasing NNP role flexibility and recommendations for bridging the transition to a 21st century education model for neonatal advanced practice nurses are also discussed. Despite the turmoil of change and uncertainty, the future for neonatal advanced practice nurses is positive. Successful nurses will master the skills of adaptability, flexibility, self-directed learning, leadership, and the provision of relationship centered care. Neonatal nursing educators must constantly monitor clinical practice and re-evaluate the curriculum to ensure the necessary knowledge and skills for successful practice can be achieved from the educational program. It is critical that faculty are cognizant of emerging trends and changing roles in the practice area. Additional learning opportunities may be required for graduates to successfully move into the next century.
 
Article
This descriptive study compared temporal artery (TA) and rectal temperature measurements, patient comfort during temperature measurements, and nursing time required to obtain temperature measurements. Study participants (n = 40) included children 0-24 months old with fever higher than 38°C, admitted to a freestanding children's hospital in the Midwest. Statistical analysis of 450 paired TA and rectal temperature measurements revealed a 0.776 correlation, mean difference of 0.03°C, and 94.7% of measurements differing by less than 1.0°C. Patient comfort, measured via the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability Scale, was enhanced with TA thermometry compared to rectal. TA thermometry resulted in an 87% savings of nursing time.
 
Article
This study aimed to explore the relationship among the three components of resilience factors, the influence of sex and age on resilience factors, and the relationship among resilience factors, perception of adversities, and academic achievement. The study population was 267 school children whose ages ranged from 9 to 16 years old, who studied 4th to 6th grade in the Thad-Thong subdistrict, Chonbuti, Thailand. The results showed that the three components of resilience factors (the children's external supports and resources, the children's internal strengths, and the children's social and interpersonal skills) were statistical at the 0.001 level.
 
Article
Families enrolled in a research program examining children's health behaviors and media habits before September 11, 2001 were analyzed to assess the impact of media coverage of the terrorist attacks on children's and mothers' stress levels, coping strategies, and health behaviors. After the attacks, 68% of mothers and 38% of children reported experiencing one or more symptoms of distress. These results indicate that children were more susceptible to experiencing distress symptoms if their families had preexisting relational difficulties and increased television viewing during the days after the attacks. Implications for research and preventive clinical interventions are discussed.
 
Article
In the United States, 47 states have safe-haven laws that allow a mother to relinquish her newborn infant at a hospital emergency department or a manned fire station and maintain her anonymity. In addition to anonymity, immunity from prosecution is given to the mother, provided the relinquished newborn is unharmed and meets the age specified by the state's law. This article describes safe-haven laws and how they developed, barriers to successful use, nursing implications, and the nurse's role in increasing public awareness and influencing legislative policy.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of the postoperative pain experience of Thai children aged 5 to 7 years who had undergone abdominal surgery. A grounded theory approach was used to gain an understanding of the core process. A total of 15 children who had undergone abdominal surgery comprised the study. Data were collected by interviews, observations, and drawing and play interviews. The major task/hypothesis generated in this study was that children were addressing the process of normalizing and that creating an environment that allowed a child to normalize might be expected to greatly contribute to pain reduction.
 
Article
To effectively care for well or ill children, nurses must know something about how children think and what they are capable of comprehending. Nurses have traditionally based assumptions about children's cognitive abilities on a surface knowledge of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Many recent researchers in the field of cognitive development have pointed out limitations in Piaget's theory and offer new ways of conceptualizing the way children think. In this article, I will identify limitations of Piaget's theory as it applies to preschool-aged children. Ideas of researchers using an information processing approach to understanding children's thinking will be described as alternative approaches to the understanding of preschool thought. I prescriptively postulate how research findings concerning cognition have implications for nurses working with young children.
 
Article
A primary purpose of this study was to examine relationships among nurses' knowledge and attitudes about children' pain relief, nurses' abilities to overcome barriers to optimal pain management, nurses' analgesic practices, and pain levels of hospitalized children. Significant positive relationships were found between nurses' (N = 67) analgesic administration and children's pain, and between nurses' years of practice with children and nurses' abilities to overcome barriers to optimal pain management. The children's (N = 132) mean pain level was 1.63 (scale of 0 to 5), with one half of the children reporting moderate to severe pain. Of the 117 children who reported pain, 74% received analgesia. Nurses administered a mean of 37.9% of available morphine and means of 36% to 54% of recommended amounts of morphine, acetaminophen, and codeine.
 
Article
This study examined the agreement between parent and child perceptions of parenting behaviors, the relationship of the behaviors with the child's weight status, and the ability of the parent to correctly identify weight status in 176 parent-child dyads (89 Caucasian and 87 African American). Correlational and regression analyses were used. Findings included moderate to weak correlations in child and parent assessments of parenting behaviors. Caucasian dyads had higher correlations than African American dyads. Most parents correctly identified their own and their child's weight status. Parents of overweight children used increased controlling behaviors, but the number of controlling behaviors decreased when the parent expressed concern with their child's weight.
 
Article
This study examined differences in future time perspective and loneliness between adolescents from single-parent (father-absent) families and adolescents from two-parent families. To control for extraneous variables, 33 single-parent tenth graders were matched with 33 two-parent tenth graders according to sex, age, race, and socioeconomic status. The final sample had responded to the Heimberg Future Time Perspective Inventory and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. Using the t test, one of the two hypotheses were supported. Statistically significant differences were found in future time perspective but not in loneliness between the two groups. Implications for nursing are addressed.
 
Article
This retrospective study examined two distinct parenting dimensions, demandingness and responsiveness, as independent predictors of adolescent sexual risk behavior. The data used to test study hypotheses were from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). In this sample of 2,030 adolescents and their mothers, maternal demandingness [odds ratio (OR)=0.77] and maternal responsiveness (OR=0.89) independently predicted adolescent abstinence from sex. Findings substantiate the use of a dimensional approach to measuring parenting in examining adolescent sexual behavior.
 
Top-cited authors
Kathleen Knafl
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Janet A Deatrick
  • University of Pennsylvania
Margaret Grey
  • Yale University
Marion Broome
  • Duke University
Judith Ritchie
  • McGill University