The concept of day surgery is becoming an increasingly important part of elective surgery worldwide. Relentless pressure to cut costs may constrain clinical judgment regarding the most appropriate location for a patient's surgical care. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and quality indicators relating to our experience in orthopedic day durgery, mainly in relation to unplanned overnight admission and readmission rates. Additionally, we focused on describing the main characteristics of the patients that experienced complications, and compared the patient satisfaction rates following ambulatory and non-ambulatory procedures.
We evaluated 10,032 patients who underwent surgical orthopedic procedures according to the protocols of our Ambulatory Surgery Unit. All complications that occurred were noted. A quality-of-life assessment (SF-36 test) was carried out both pre- and postoperatively. Ambulatory substitution rates and quality indicators for orthopedic procedures were also determined.
The major complication rate was minimal, with no mortal cases, and there was a high rate of ambulatory substitution for the procedures studied. Outcomes of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement postoperatively. An unplanned overnight admission rate of 0.14 % was achieved.
Our institution has shown that it is possible to provide good-quality ambulatory orthopedic surgery. There still appears to be the potential to increase the proportion of these procedures. Surgeons and anesthesiologists must strongly adhere to strict patient selection criteria for ambulatory orthopedic surgery in order to reduce complications in the immediate postoperative term.
The Exeter stem was introduced to the Japanese market in 1996. Since then, owing to excellent clinical results, the number of stems used has increased year by year and more than 2000 stems were implanted in 2009. The objective of this study was to prove the efficacy of the Exeter stem for Japanese patients by evaluating the short-term results of four major dedicated hip centers.
We performed a retrospective study of clinical and radiographic results of 1000 primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) performed using the Exeter stem on 881 patients who were followed-up for at least 2 years after surgery. The average age of the patients at operation was 62.3 years (range 23-89 years). Mean postoperative follow-up period was 4.0 (range 2-9) years.
Thirty postoperative complications were observed, including 9 infections, 14 dislocations, 5 cases of deep vein thrombosis, and 2 cases of sciatic nerve palsy. No symptomatic pulmonary embolization or femoral fractures were observed. Re-operations for infection and dislocation were performed in 8 and 6 hips, respectively. According to Barrack's classification, the postoperative cementing grade was judged as A for 735 hips, B for 246 hips, and C for 4 hips. At final follow-up, no radiolucent line was observed at the bone-cement interface. Cortical hypertrophy was observed in 9.5 % of cases in Gruen zones 2-6. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis predicted 100 % survival at 5 years when a radiolucent line at the bone-cement interface of the femur was used as the endpoint, 98.8 % when re-operation was required for any reason.
This study revealed that excellent short-term results were achieved by fixing the Exeter stem with modern cementing techniques for primary THA in Japanese patients.
Lumbar surgery and associated complications are increasing as society is aging. However, definitions of complications after lumbar surgery have not been established and previous reports have varied in the definition of, and focus on, intraoperative or major postoperative complications. We analyzed the frequency and severity of perioperative complications and all minor adverse events in lumbar surgery at a single center.
We retrospectively reviewed all lumbar surgery, including decompression surgery with or without fusion, at Meijo Hospital over a 10-year period. Perioperative complications and all surgery-related adverse events until 1 month postoperatively were reviewed for 1012 operations on 918 patients (average age 54 years old). The incidence of intraoperative complications was compared between junior (<10 years experience of spine surgery) and senior (≥10 years experience) surgeons.
Perioperative complications and adverse events occurred in 159 operations (15.7%) on 127 patients (13.8%). There were a variety of perioperative adverse events, including digestive problems. Of the 159 complications and events, 24 (2.4%) were intraoperative and 135 (13.3%) were postoperative. Incidence of intraoperative complications was not significantly higher for junior surgeons; however, the operations performed by senior surgeons were significantly more invasive. Complications were more frequent in elderly patients (p < 0.01) and in operations that were longer (p < 0.0001), had greater estimated blood loss (p < 0.0001), and involved use of spinal instrumentation (p < 0.0001). Psychotic symptoms occurred significantly more often in older patients (p < 0.001).
The absence of a relationship between the experience of the surgeon and incidence of intraoperative complications may be because of the greater effect of invasive surgery. Although age and invasiveness were associated with more perioperative adverse events, we do not conclude that major surgery should be avoided for elderly patients. In contrast, careful focus on the surgical indication and procedure is required for these patients.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the minimum 10-year results of primary total hip arthroplasty using an uncemented, hydroxyapatite-coated tapered stem. Radiological signs of bone remodeling are also presented.
We followed a consecutive series of 105 patients (115 hips), who had had an uncemented, proximally hydroxyapatite-coated Bi-Metric femoral component for a mean of 12.2 years (range 10.0-14.9 years). The average age at operation was 52 years. Detailed clinical and radiological analyses were performed after a minimum of 5 and 10 years. Eight patients (10 hips) had died, and one patient was lost to follow-up, leaving 104 hips for final evaluation. The clinical result was evaluated by the Harris Hip Score, complications, and thigh pain.
All patients still had their femoral components in place at the final follow-up. The average Harris Hip Score after 10 years was 92 (range 50-100) with no deterioration over time. Radiologically, several signs of progressive remodeling were identified, but no stem showed signs of loosening.
The intermediate clinical and radiological results with this stem are encouraging. In the hands of various surgeons, the stem has performed well in a young, high-risk population.
Intra-focal fixation for a displaced distal radius fracture is a surgical option that achieves early functional recovery. We report a retrospective evaluation of the results with various types of distal radius fracture, using various fixation materials in 104 patients (69 women and 35 men; average age, 51.4 years; range, 4-91 years). Fracture types classified according to Frykman were: 14 type I, 15 type II, 6 type III, 16 type IV, 10 type V, 16 type VI, 9 type VII, and 18 type VIII. Fixation materials used were: conventional Kirschner wire in 6 patients, threaded Kirschner wire in 38, arum pins in 38, and conehead wedging screws in 22. The results for patients with Frykman types V-VIII fractures were not as good as those for patients with types I-IV. The arum pin and conehead wedging screw were each superior to either Kirschner wire or threaded Kirschner wire in reducing the fracture and in maintaining fixation. Our evaluation suggested that intra-focal fixation was also suitable for treatment of an intra-articular fracture. In elderly patients, we recommend the arum pin and conehead wedging screw as fixation materials, and suggest short-term postoperative immobilization.
It is well known that carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can occur in a wide range of time periods after distal radius fracture (DRF). Few studies have evaluated in detail the relationship between fracture and electrophysiological finding characteristics and time to onset of CTS after DRF. To clarify the characteristics of CTS after DRF, we classified a large number of clinical cases based on the period from the injury to onset of CTS. These cases were analyzed retrospectively.
We reviewed 105 wrists with CTS following DRF. Patients' ages ranged from 13 to 89 years. These 105 wrists were divided into three groups according to the period of post-fracture onset of CTS. Twenty-eight wrists were classified into the acute onset group (when the symptoms of CTS occurred within 1 week after fracture). Forty-seven wrists were classified into the subacute onset group (when symptoms of CTS occurred from 1 to 12 weeks after fracture). The remaining 30 wrists were classified into the delayed onset group (when symptoms of CTS occurred more than 12 weeks after fracture). Deformity of the distal radius on X-ray films was evaluated and distal motor latency (DML) of the median nerve was recorded to compare values among these three groups.
In the acute onset group, 68% had an AO C-type fracture and 46% were caused by a high-energy injury. The percentage of this fracture pattern and mechanism was significantly higher in the acute onset group than in the other groups (P < 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test). In the subacute onset and delayed onset groups, 79% and 63% had an A-type fracture and more than 90% were caused by a low-energy injury. In the delayed onset group, the incidence of prolonged DML in the contralateral wrists was 71%, which was significantly higher than in the other two onset groups (P < 0.05; Kruskal- Wallis test).
There were three onset patterns of CTS after DRF, and each CTS onset pattern had different etiologic mechanisms and different clinical features of CTS. In the acute onset group, a high-energy fracture pattern was associated with CTS. In the subacute and the delayed onset groups, lowenergy injury in elderly women was associated with CTS. Both deformity of the fracture and preexisting median nerve dysfunction were suggested as predisposing factor for CTS.
We report long-term results of the first clinical trial of hydroxyapatite-coated total hip arthroplasty conducted in Japan. The hemispherical cup and the straight-tapered stem were made of titanium alloy with a grit-blasted, hydroxyapatite-coated surface. The surface roughness before and after hydroxyapatite coating was 1.4 microm and 3.4 microm, respectively. Thirty-three patients (35 hips) were followed prospectively; of these, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, 5 were deceased at the latest follow-up, and 27 were followed for 11 to 14 years. Two cups and one stem (two patients) were revised. Survivorship, with radiological acetabular loosening as the endpoint, was 62.3% at 14 years. At the latest radiological follow-up, stable fixation with bone ongrowth was achieved in 46% of the acetabular cups and 89% of the femoral stems. Acetabular cups with host bone coverage of less than 60% had a high rate of failure. The suboptimal result of the hydroxyapatite-coated smooth cup indicates that porous coatings under the hydroxyapatite coating would be beneficial for hydroxyapatite-coated total hip implants, especially for the acetabular components.
Total hip replacement in developmental dysplasia of the hip is a demanding procedure and usually requires dedicated devices and special surgical techniques. Nevertheless, the described techniques have shown variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the 11-year outcomes of an off-the-shelf modular neck prosthesis in dysplastic patients and to evaluate the ability of the modular neck system to adequately restore femoral offset, abductor muscles lever arm and leg length.
We retrospectively evaluated 61 modular neck prostheses implanted in 47 patients between June 1995 and March 2004. The preoperative diagnosis was developmental dysplasia of the hip in all cases. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the Harris hip score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities score. The femoral offset, abductor muscles lever arm, height and medialization of the hip center of rotation, and differences in leg length were evaluated on postoperative radiographs. Prosthesis survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method considering any reason for revision as failure. The average follow-up was 117.2 months (range 57-162 months).
The cumulative survival at 11 years was 97.5%. One prosthesis failed 5 years after surgery because of a ceramic liner fracture due to an inappropriate obstetric maneuver during labour. At the latest follow-up the mean Harris hip score was 74.7 (range 23-91). Leg length discrepancy was avoided in the majority of cases; femoral offset was almost always restored.
The results of this series support the use of modular neck prostheses as an effective alternative in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. The modularity was very efficient in restoring offset, leg length and maintaining stability with a good mid-long-term follow-up. Unlike other proposed surgical techniques, these good results are achievable by a standard surgical technique and with an off-the-shelf prosthesis.
This study investigated the radiological factors that correlated with progression of collapse and joint space narrowing after transtrochanteric posterior rotational osteotomy (PRO) for osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
This study reviewed 51 hips in 47 patients with a mean follow-up of 11 years (5-20). The subjects included 29 males and 18 females with a mean age of 34 years (12-54) at the time of surgery. The 51 hips were divided into two groups based on the radiological outcome (group I: evidence of progression of collapse and/or joint space narrowing, group II: no evidence of either progression of collapse or joint space narrowing). Both clinical and radiological factors were analyzed by both univariate and multivariable analyses.
Six hips were categorized as group I and 45 hips were categorized as group II. The postoperative intact ratio and preoperative stage were significantly correlated with the radiological outcome in both univariate (P < 0.0001, P = 0.006) and multivariate (P = 0.0014, P = 0.0039) analysis. The cutoff point for the postoperative intact ratio (the minimum ratio required to prevent both progression of collapse and joint space narrowing) was 36.8 %.
The results of this study indicate that the postoperative intact ratio is one of the main influences on progression of collapse and/or joint space narrowing after PRO, and should be at least 36.8 %. An increased awareness of this critical ratio would be useful for planning the optimal use of this procedure.
Split lesions of the peroneus brevis tendon are believed to be rare and have received little attention in populations of Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of split lesions in the Japanese population. The peroneus tendons of 112 ankles from 30 male and 26 female adult human embalmed cadavers with an average age of 76.9 years (range, 55-93) were dissected. The presence of split lesions, determined by either thinning or longitudinal splitting of the peroneus brevis tendon, was examined. Forty-two ankles (37.5%) had split lesions, of which 21 (50%) showed a thinning appearance without splitting, and 12 (28.6%) had well-defined, full-thickness longitudinal tears. The incidence of split lesions of the peroneus brevis tendon in the Japanese population was similar to that in studies of the U.S. population, but the condition of the lesions was less severe. Although the clinical presence is expected to be extremely rare, we must consider a neglected split lesion of the peroneus brevis tendon when residual pain is observed in the retrofibular location.
The aim of this study was to investigate the pain patterns in patients with end-stage hip disease and to assess the response after total hip arthroplasty (THA).
The pain patterns of patients undergoing THA for end-stage hip diseases were prospectively evaluated by requesting them to mark a map of body areas before and after surgery. Patients were excluded if they had coexisting pathology of the knee or spine. The pain measurements were quantified using visual analog scales, and factors that may contribute to different pain patterns were also evaluated.
Among 113 patients (113 hips) enrolled in the study, the groin, anterior thigh, buttock, anterior knee, and greater trochanter were the most common pain locations before THA. Pain over the lower back, shin, and calf areas, which were not generally considered referral pain areas from hip diseases, was present in 21.2, 7.1, and 2.7% patients, respectively. The presence of lower back pain (LBP) was statistically more common in patients with longer duration of hip symptoms. Regardless of the different pain patterns, 97.3% (110 of 113) of patients reported complete pain relief within 12 weeks after THA.
The distribution of pain from end-stage hip diseases is versatile, and presence of pain in areas other than around the hip is not uncommon. LBP was more common in patients with longer duration of symptoms. THA satisfactorily resolves the pain in all areas soon after surgery.
The prevalence of obesity and previous knee injury was assessed in a retrospective study of 115 patients under-going total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis. Obesity was considered a contributing factor in the development of osteoarthritis in 37% of the patients, and 33% of the patients had had an injury to the knee in question. Unilateral osteoarthritis was significantly more frequent than bilateral osteoarthritis among patients with a history of previous knee injury. The association of previous injury to the knee and unilateral osteoarthritis was stronger in men than women. Aggressive treatment of patients with knee injuries seems warranted.
The joint gap is set rectangular at 90 degrees flexion during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the condition of the joint gap in deep knee flexion is obscure.
The method for obtaining a posteroanterior view radiograph of the knee at 90 degrees flexion (the epicondylar view) was modified, and a method to obtain an anteroposterior view radiograph at 120 degrees flexion (deep flexion view) was established. With this method, subjects lie on the radiography table with their thighs placed on a device so their lower legs hang down in neutral rotation with a 1.5-kg weight attached to the ankle. The joint gap angle and medial and lateral joint space widths were measured on epicondylar view and deep flexion view radiographs in 20 normal male subjects, 20 normal female subjects, and 20 subjects after TKA.
The joint gap was almost rectangular at two flexion angles in normal subjects. In the implanted knees, the gap angle was 1.4 degrees varus +/- 3.3 degrees (mean +/- standard deviation), and no significant difference was found between medial and lateral joint space widths at 90 degrees flexion. In contrast, the gap angle was 2.5 degrees varus +/- 2.5 degrees and the lateral joint space width was significantly wider than the medial joint space width at 120 degrees flexion (P < 0.001). The gap angle was more varus with a significant difference in the implanted knees than that in the normal subjects at 120 degrees flexion (P < 0.001).
The joint gap was trapezoidal with a wider lateral side at 120 degrees flexion even though it was almost rectangular at 90 degrees flexion after TKA.
The 10-s grip and release (G&R) test and 10-s step test were reported to be useful tools to evaluate the severity of cervical myelopathy quantitatively. The purpose of this study is to establish the standard values of the 10-s G&R test and 10-s step test as quantitative tests for cervical myelopathy and to elucidate the aging variation and gender difference of those values in a large cohort of normal subjects.
A total of 1230 healthy volunteers were enrolled. They included at least 100 men and 100 women in each decade from the 20s to 70s. Three tests were performed: the number of finger grips and releases in 10 s, number of steps in 10 s, and gripping power.
The average number of G&Rs on the weaker side was 21.5 ± 5.5, whereas the average number of steps was 19.7 ± 3.4. The average gripping power on the weaker side was 29.5 ± 9.6 kg. The number of G&Rs and steps in 10 s decreased significantly with age (r = -0.58, -0.43, respectively). The average number of G&Rs on the weaker side was <20 in the 60s and 70s. The number of G&Rs was significantly correlated with the number of steps and gripping power. A significant difference was seen between the genders in all three tests.
The standard values of the 10-s G&R test, 10-s step test, and gripping power were established in this study. When these quantifiable tests are used as screening tests of cervical myelopathy, aging variation and gender difference should be considered.
Long-term clinical results of Harris-Galante type prosthesis in total hip arthroplasty (THA) were evaluated in 27 hip joints of 25 patients (2 men and 23 women). Seventeen joints also received bone grafting on the acetabulum. Mean follow-up period was 11 years and 3 months. Clinical out-come was evaluated using the hip score of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, and the score was good and stable during the monitoring period. Implant stability, bone changes around the implant, and the occupancy rate of the stem in the medullary space were radiologically examined. As a result of stem, there was subsidence in 3 joints and loosening in 6. There were no cases of cup loosening. A pedestal was found in 12 joints, and 4 of them which were associated with a radiopaque line had stem loosening. Among the 21 joints without loosening, 8 had a pedestal but they were not associated with a radiopaque line. The 2 joints which developed osteolysis did not have loosening. Stem loosening was related to the stem occupancy rate in the distal part of the medullary cavity. Postoperative stem occupancy rate could be an important indicator for long-term clinical results. Stems for cementless THA should be designed to have a high occupancy rate in the distal part, and stems should also be carefully chosen to meet individual differences.
Morphological differences of dysplastic hips exist not only on the acetabular side but also on the femoral side. Therefore, for reconstructing the hip joint of these patients, the shape of the proximal femur is problematic for getting adequate "fit and fill" by cementless stems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcomes of anatomically designed prostheses for the treatment of osteoarthritis due to developmental dysplasia of the hip.
A total of 81 consecutive primary cementless total hip arthroplasties using an anatomic hip system were performed in 75 patients (10 men, 65 women). The mean age at the time of the surgery was 59.0 years (range 41-84 years). The average duration of follow-up was 101.4 months (range 72-157 months). Clinical performance was evaluated using the Harris hip score (HHS), and radiographic findings were assessed using the fixation and stability score according to Engh et al.
The average preoperative HHS was 44.5 points, and the most recent average HHS was 87.5 points. Altogether, 66 hips (81%) were deemed excellent (>or=90 points) or good (80-89 points). The mean fixation and stability score was 19.6 +/- 5.2 points. In total, 75 (93%) of the femoral components had bone-ingrown fixation, and 6 (7%) indicated possible ingrowth. There was osteolysis around five femoral components and three acetabular components. No femoral component was revised; however, five cups were revised because of breakage of the polyethylene or massive osteolysis. Dislocation of the hip implant was seen in one hip, but there was no recurrent dislocation. There was no deep infection, deep vein thrombosis, or nerve palsy.
The anatomic stem showed acceptable clinical and radiological results in cases with mild or moderate subluxation of the hip at the intermediate-term follow-up.
The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of subchondral bone in the pathology of osteoarthritis (OA) by investigating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) involved in cartilage degeneration.
Subchondral bone was obtained from 19 patients diagnosed with knee OA and 4 patients diagnosed with femoral neck fracture. Subchondral bone osteoblasts (SBOs) were isolated, and total RNA was extracted. Messenger RNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and RANKL/RANK/OPG were analyzed using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Real-time RT-PCR showed that mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and RANKL were significantly enhanced in OA SBOs compared to SBOs without OA. The expressions of these genes was greater in patients with severe cartilage damage than in those with mild cartilage damage. A high correlation between mRNA expression of IL-6 and that of MMP-13 was found in OA SBOs.
The increases in IL-6, MMP-13, and RANKL expression in OA SBOs suggest that in subchondral bone OA progression involves abnormal osseous tissue remodeling, which induces mechanical property changes. Cartilage degeneration in OA may also be due, at least in part, to IL-6 and MMP-13 produced by SBOs. Comprehensive research on these pathological features may lead to the development of more effective therapies for OA by administration of molecules that affect bone remodeling and metabolism.
Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in the elderly, and ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy is an important cause of LSCS. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) can degrade fibrillar collagens and elastic microfibrils, and is involved in inflammation and fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of MMP13 in the LF from LSCS patients with diabetes mellitus [DM (+)] with that in the LF from patients without DM [DM (-)] and to analyze the relationship among DM, MMP13 expression, and LF hypertrophy.
LFs from 11 DM (+) and 24 DM (-) LSCS patients were analyzed in this study. Histology analysis using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stain was performed for each LF. The expression of MMP13 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The thickness of LF was measured by CT.
In the LF from DM (+) LSCS patients, the elastic fibers were more disorganized and had lower volumes than in the LF from DM (-) LSCS patients, while more fibrotic tissue was observed in the LF from DM (+) than from DM (-) LSCS patients. MMP13 expression was significantly higher in the LF from DM (+) LSCS patients (0.46 ± 0.61 vs. 0.05 ± 0.09, P = 0.002). The LF from the DM (+) LSCS patients was significantly thicker than that from the DM (-) LSCS patients (5.0 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 0.8 mm, P < 0.01), and the thickness was correlated with the expression of MMP13 (correlation coefficient = 0.43, P = 0.01, Pearson's correlation test).
DM-related MMP13 expression can be one of the factors contributing to fibrosis and hypertrophy of the LF. Further research on the mechanism of this process may lead to new therapies for LF hypertrophy.
Clinical features of upper cervical spinal cord tumors are not clear because there have been too few published reports. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical features of these tumors.
We reviewed 13 patients who underwent surgery for an upper cervical spinal cord tumor. Data regarding age, sex, duration and type of symptoms, levels, topographical locations, surgical results, and histological features were investigated retrospectively.
Of the 13 tumors, 5 were at C1/2, 7 at C2/3 and 1 at C1-3. Topographically, 9 of the 13 tumors were dumbbell shaped, and all 5 at C1/2 had this shape. The initial symptom was occipital pain in three patients, numbness or pain of the extremity in nine, and clumsiness of the upper extremity in one. The average duration from initial symptom to surgery was 14.9 months. There were no major surgical complications, but there were three cases of postoperative cervical kyphosis. These three patients underwent tumorectomy with total laminectomy of C2. Tumor recurrence was seen in three patients for reasons thought to be the same as tumors at other levels, being residual meningiomas lying ventral to the cord and extraforaminal neurinomas.
Spinal cord tumors in the upper cervical region tend to progress as dumbbell tumors. As all the neurinomas had this shape (Eden type 2 or 3) at C1/2, this anatomy might favor progression to the extradural and extraforaminal spaces.However, it also allows total removal of the tumor via a posterior approach. To maintain postoperative cervical alignment, the surgeon should select the least invasive approach to the paraspinal muscles attached to the spinous process of C2.
The overall incidence of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PPF) is between 0.1 and 6 % of all total hip arthroplasties. Locking compression plates (LCP) have been used for the treatment of Vancouver B1 PPFs with variable results. The aim of this study is to examine the literature on locking plate failure rates, mode and reasons for failure.
A literature search was conducted for studies reporting the management of PPF of the femur with LCP fixation. The primary medical search engines used for the study were Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to August 2012.
Twelve studies were identified, reporting overall union rates of 91 % in 135 fractures. Only 7 (5 %) fractures required revision surgery due to plate fracture (5) or pull out (2). Important trends in plate complications included: stress riser at the end of the plate, stress concentration in the fracture area due to rigid fixation, early loading and absence of cortical strut grafting for biological support when needed.
LCP has been used successfully in the management of Vancouver B1 PPF. However, potential areas of improvement include, leaving the fracture site free of locking screws, therefore, not disturbing the soft tissue envelope around the fracture and also reducing plate stiffness. Adding cortical strut allografts to improve stability and bone quality, if needed, may also improve outcome. Limitations in the use of strut grafts or transverse fractures below the tip of the stem that cannot be controlled with single or double plating may require long stem revision to achieve axial stability.
Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive lesion. We analysed a series of GCTs of bone to determine whether there was any variation in the incidence and distribution in an Indian population compared to other populations reported in the literature, as well as treatment options applicable in developing countries, and we report the results here.
A total of 139 patients with histologically proven GCT of bone were treated in our referral centre. Of these, 124 cases had a follow-up of more than 2 years (mean 8.3 years). Demographically, 72 were male, 67 were female, and they had a mean age of 29 years (range 15-59 years). The majority of the cases were of Campanacci grade III (n = 72, 51.1%). A total of 157 oncological procedures were performed.
Incidence of GCT of bone was found to be 20.3% (n = 139/685) among all primary bone tumours. The distal radial involvement amounted to 22.7% (n = 28). There were 14 recurrences (11.1%) and 3 re-recurrences. Functional outcome was evaluated using the MSTS-93 scoring system. Average rating was 89.6% (avg. score 26.9) for upper extremities and 84% (avg. score 25.2) for lower extremities.
The incidence of GCT of bone was found to be high in our population, with surprisingly high involvement of the distal radius. Nonvascularised autogenous fibular graft was found to be an effective option for reconstruction. The Indian population, like their South East Asian neighbours, has a higher incidence of GCT compared to Western populations described in the literature.
Radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used to treat malignant tumors, but it leads to side effects and complications. Postradiation sarcomas developing from a previously irradiated area are especially vicious to deal with, though their occurrence is rare. This article focuses on the clinical manifestations, pathological characteristics, and therapeutic effects concerning postradiation soft tissue sarcomas (PRSTSs). A series of 14 PRSTSs treated between 1979 and 2000 in five hospitals in Japan were analyzed. Their histological types were malignant fibrous histiocytoma (eight cases), extraskeletal osteosarcoma (four cases), fibrosarcoma (one case), and leiomyosarcoma (one case). The primary diagnoses, RT history, latent period, and outcome of treatment were studied retrospectively. The original tumors included uterine cancer (seven cases), breast cancer (four cases), synovial sarcoma (one case), squamous cell carcinoma (one case), and Hodgkin's disease (one case). There were 13 women and 1 man, with ages ranging from 23 to 77 years (mean 58 years) at the time of the appearance of the PRSTS. RT doses ranged from 48 to 91 Gy (mean 62 Gy). The latent period from RT to the occurrence of the PRSTS varied from 4 to 27 years (mean 12.6 years). Altogether, 4 of 13 patients (31%) had recurrence of the sarcoma after resection. Of the 10 patients whose tumors were removed with a wide margin, one had a local recurrence; 3 cases were performed with a marginal margin and all 3 had a local recurrence. One of three who underwent RT and one of five who underwent chemotherapy (CT) responded. Of the 14 patients, 6 (42.9 %) survived continuously disease free, 2 (14.3%) died from other causes, 2 (14.3%) has an unknown outcome, and 4 (28.6 %) died of the disease during the follow-up period of 16-36 months (mean 24 months). The deaths due to other causes included an esophageal cancer and a wound infection. The prognosis of the PRSTS patients was not poor if the tumor could be removed with a wide surgical margin. Because adjuvant therapies including RT and CT had a poor effect on PRSTSs, the primary treatment of PRSTSs should be radical resection with a wide margin.