Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry

Published by The Korean Society of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
Print ISSN: 1226-6396
Publications
Objectives : The oriental medicine Jangwonhwan, a boiled extract of 12 medicinal herbs/mushrooms, has been prescribed to patients with cognitive dysfunction, as originally described in the Korean medical text, DonguiBogam(amnesia chapter). Recently, a modified formula of Jangwonhwan (LMK02-Jangwonhwan) consisting of seven medicinal plants/mushrooms, was shown to reduce the -amyloid deposition in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. The toxicity of LMK02-Jangwonhwan was investigated in SD rats, by a daily oral administration for 13 weeks and NOAEL(No observed adverse effect dose), a definite toxic dose and target organ, as well. Methods : Quality control of the tablet form of LMK02-Jangwonhwan was established by estimating the indicative components, Ginsenoside Rg3 of Red Ginseng and Decursin of Angelicagigas Nakai. The toxicity of LMK02-Jangwonhwan was investigated in 6 week old, specific pathogen free (SPF), Sprageu-Dawley rats by oral administration. Each test group consisted of 10 male and 10 female rats. The groups received doses of 500, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg/day of test substance for 13 weeks. The clinical signs, death rate, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematological and serum biochemistry, organ weight and pathological changes were examined and compared with those of the control group. Results : The 13-week repeated oral treatment doses didn't result in any specific symptoms or death. There were no significant changes in the rat's weight and food consumption. Further, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematological, serum biochemistry test and organ weight revealed no significant differences. Conclusions : The no-observed-adverse-effect level(NOAEL) of LMK02 for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was determined as 2,000mg/kg/day and the target organ wasn't confirmed. Because no significant adverse effects were observed, the target organ could not be determined.
 
A clinical analysis was carried out for 19 patients who was treated in Dept. of Neuropsychiatry of Taejon Oriental Medicine Hospital from I aug. 1997 to 31 Jul. 1998 and was ruled out as anxiety disorder. The results were summarized as follows. 1. In the distribution of the sex, ratio between female and male was 1:2.8, distribution of the age was even each age, and the primary motive of the onset were psychological trauma, question of money, discord of a household. 2. As for the duration in disease, the duration from a week to a month had a majority of all, and the most duration of the addmission-treatment was a week. 3. The most common symptom were palpitation ·anxiety, headache·dizziness, chest discomfort, the cases of generalized anxiety disorder and atypical anxiety disorder was a large number. 4. In the aromatherapy of absorptive method, the sort of many used essential oil were Lavenda and Rosewood, in the massage, that were Peppermint and Rosemary. 5. The most used recipes were BUNSIMKIYEM(分心氣飮) HACHULBOSIMTANG(夏朮補心湯), CHUNGGANSOYOSAN(淸肝逍遙散), BANHABAEKCHUCHUNMATANG(半夏白朮天麻湯), CUIBIONDAMTANG(歸脾溫膽湯) etc. 6. In the judgement of efficacy, 9 cases showed good efficacy, 9 cases showed no change, 1 case showed excellent efficacy.
 
This is 63 cases report of neurotic patient which have gone to Dep. of Neuropsychiatry of Dongshin University sunchun oriental hospital from October, 2002 to October, 2003. Objective : To find out distributional characteristics of neurotic patient Result : 1. The distribution of sex is Female and of age is thirty, fourty is large. 2. The distribution of a history of case is chronic patient is large. 3. The distributional ratio of psychosomatic : musculoskeletal : gastrointestine symptom of chief complain was 48.7: 25.3: 14.9. 4. The distribution of yanghyulansin ondam: soganhaewul gudam : bohyulansin description was 41.3: 15.9: 9.5. Conclusion : This 63 cases report is relatively small cases about analysis and comparison of neurotic patient. So, it's needed to abundant study of this, afterwards.
 
Objective : This investigation was carried out to see psychologic evaluation with SCL-90-R in patients induced seven-emotion. Methods : 27 patients induced seven-emotion were administered SCL-90-R. Results : 1. All subscale scores by sex and age were significantly recognized in patients. 2. Dimension depression were significantly recognized in male patients. 3. All subscale scores by sex weren't significantly recognized in patients. 4. Dimension obsesive-compulsive, anxiety were significantly recognized in patients entered through ER. 5. Dimension phobic anxiety were significantly recognized in patients with psychologic history. Conclusion : we have significant differences on comparisons of Scores by sex, admission route and psychologic history of the Patients.
 
Alzheimer's disease(AD) is a geriatric dementia that is widespread in old age. In the future AD will be the largest problem in public health service. From old times, Much medicines have been used for treatment of dementia, but there is no medicine having obvious effect. AD is one of brain retrogression disease. So We studied on herbal medicine that have a relation of brain retrogression. From old times, In Oriental Medicine, Radix Polygalae and Rhizoma Acori Graminei have been used for disease in relation to brain retrogression. We studied of anti-Alzheimer effect on CT105-induced neuroblastoma cell lines by Radix Polygalae(RP) and Rhizoma Acori Graminei(RAG) water extract. As the result of this study, In RP and RAG group, the apoptosis in the nervous system is inhibited, the repair against the degeneration of Neuroblastoma cells by CT105 expression is induced. These results indicate that In RP and RAG, RAG possess the strongest in inhibitory effect of apoptosis in the nervous system and repair effect against the degeneration of Neuroblastoma cells by CT105 expression.
 
Some oriental medicine turned out to have a significant clinical effect on the cure for dementia. Therefore, thorough scientific tests for physiological effect of oriental medicne are needed. This study is aimed at doing experimental studies on the effects of two medicines, Jowiseungcheongtang and hyungbangjihwangtang, on the cure for dementia.For the demonstration of the effect of the two medicines on aged rats, we perfomed a radial arm medicines on aged rats, water maze task, known for their proper learning paradigm for behavior.Previous studies on aging and dementia show that aged rats displayed significant impariments in the learning of the radial arm maze task compared with younger rats. As in experiment 1, we found that the learning of the radial arm maze task compared with younger rats. As in experiment 1, we found that the learning deficits aged rats exhibit in radial arm maze task were improved with the application of each medicine. The resutls suggest that these two medicine can be effective to patients whose working or shortterm memory is impaired. In experiment 2 we studied the effect of the two medicines on the deficit of the aged rats with the Morris water maze task known for measuring long-tern memory. We did not find significant results between the performance of the ages rats and the younger ones. Considered the different results previous studies have reported, more thorough studies are needed to investigate the effect of the medicines on long-term memory.In conclusion, the results we found in experiment 1 and 2 suggest that Jowisengcheongtang and hyungbangjihwangtang can have useful effects for the cure of age-related memory (especially for short-term memory)deficits. Recent interests in dementia urges researchers concerned to explore the effect of oriental medicine on the disease. As there have been relatively few behavioral or scientific studies on dementia using oriental medicine to date, further studies are expected are expected to continue to elucidate 'what the wisdom of the oriental medicine tells about dementia'.
 
Ginseng Radix Alba and Cyperi Rhizoma were investigated for their anti-depressant effects. For this purpose, forced-swimming test, tail suspension test, hot plate test, reserpine-induced hypothermia, aggressive behavior test were performed. In addition, the brain content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(a metabolite of serotonin), the monoamine oxidase activity, anticonvulsant effect, sleep enhancement effect were determined. The results are as follows: In the forced swimming test, Ginseng Radix diminished the duration of immobility by 45.5% compared to the control group, while Cyperi Rhizoma showed weaker effect (12.4% reduction) at 2g/kg. In the tail suspension test, the effect of Ginseng Radix(43.7% reduction) are also better than that of Cyperi Rhizoma(15.6% reduction) at 2g/kg. In the hot plate test, Ginseng Radix showed no difference as compared to control, while Cyperi Rhizoma increased the jump latency time by about 25% after administration for 10 days. In the reserpine-induced hypothermia test, both drugs slowly dropped the body temperature compared to the control group, especially the rate of hypothermia of Ginseng Radix was 24.0% at 1g/kg. In the aggressive behavior test, both drugs delayed the onset time, decreased the duration and frequency, of which effects were better in Cyperi Rhizoma. The content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in mice brain was slightly increased in Ginseng Radix, while Cyperi Rhizoma increased its level almost to the control group. Both drugs inhibited the monoamine oxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, but the effect(51.2%) of Cyperi Rhizoma was more potent than the effect(11.8%) of Ginseng Radix. In the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, Cyperi Rhizoma exhibited no significant difference against the control group, while Ginseng Radix showed about two-fold enhancement at 2g/kg. The anticonvulsant effect of both drugs delayed the onset time, shortened the duration of convulsion and diminished the lethality, but Ginseng Radix were better than Cyperi Rhizoma.
 
Objectives : This study was performed to assess the benefits of Alcoholics anonymous program for anxiety and depression of alcoholics. And we investigate Sasang constitution in Alcoholics Anonymous(A.A.) members to study relation between alcoholic and constitution. Methods : 21 members of A.A. groups in korea who agreed to the purpose of this study were selected. We evaluated anxiety by BAl, depression by BDI-II and sasang constitution by QSCCII+. Results : The research result is as follows. 1. Eighteens of 21 A.A. members are men and the rest are women. First alcohol drinking age(mean) is 15. Getting alcohol drunk age(mean) is 20.9. 2. The duration of alcohol drinking before A.A. participation(mean) is 20.2 years. The duration of giving up drinking after A.A. participation(mean) is 26.5 months. 3. A.A. program significantly reduced anxiety of A.A. members from 10.431.37(meanS.E.)(light anxiety) to 6.861.24(normal). 4. A.A. program significantly reduced depression of A.A. members from 4.141.14(meanS.E)(normal) to 2.330.75(normal) in the statistics, but it does not have the meaning clinically. 5. Sasang constitution classification result was Taeum group 10 people(47.6%), Soyang group 9 people(42.9%), Soeum group 2peopleC9.5%), Taeyang group 0 people(0%), Taeum group and Soyang group were relatively more than Soeum group. Conclusions : Participation in the A.A. program reduce anxiety and depression of A.A. members. This research provide data on positive effect of A.A. program and may prove that the self-help program(A.A.) can help to maintain long term sobriety and improve the quality of life of its members.
 
Object : This study was designed to asses the protective effects of Kunneo tang on cognitive decline of the patients with early DAT. Method : Before administered with Kunneotang, 16 patients with early DAT were measured by auditory ERP, MMSE-K and K-DRS. During 12 months the patients with early DAT were administered with Kunneotang. After 12months the patients were measured by the same examinations again. Result : 1. The total score of MMSE-K decreased but it was not significant. 2. The total score of K-DRS increased but it was not significant. Among the five criteria(attention, memory, initiation/perseveration, construction, conceptualization), Initiation/perseveration score signifcantly decreased and there were no significant differences in the other scores. But, memory mean score had a tendency to increase. 3. The latency of ERP P300 component increased but it was not significant and the amplitude of ERP P300 component showed the significant difference. Conclusion : The results suggest that Kunneotang may have protective effects on cognitive decline in the patients with early DAT.
 
Effects of HBSBS on the coronal section of bA-induced Alzheimer's mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered of HBSBS extract (380 mpk and 95 mpk p.o) (380 mpk ,D p.o ) and Aricept (2 mpk, p.o) for 60 days. Normal C57BL/6 mice was not treated (A). bA-induced Alzheimer's mice (control, B); Aricept (2 mpk, p.o, C). Cerebral infarction is visualized by 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride Normal tissues are stained as strong red color. Infarcted area is not stained as white color which localizies at cerebral cortices and caudoputamen. Infarction is widely distributed through 6-12 mm from frontal pole.
Histological analysis of hippocampal lesions of bA-induced Alzheimer's mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered of HBSBS extract (380 mpk and 95 mpk p.o) or Aricept.HCl and the acquisition taining trial continued once a day for 60 days. C57bl/6 normal (A), Control, bA-induced Alzheimer's mice (B); Aricept (2 mpk, p.o, C); HBSBS (380 mpk, D and 95 mpk, E), they were sacrificed, brain was fixed in 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. The panels are representative photomicrographs of each of these risk at bright microscope (Nikon, ×40)
Objectives : This research investigates the effect of the HBSBS on Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, the effects of the HBSBS extract on (1) the behavior (2) the infarction area of the hippocampus, and brain tissue injury in Alzheimer's disease mice induced with A were investigated. Methods : The effects of the HBSBS extract suppressed the expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNF- and NOS-II mRNA in BV2 microglial cell line treated with LPS plus A were investigated. The effects of the HBSBS extract on the behavior of the memory deficit mice induced by scopolamine were investigated. Results : 1. The HBSBS extract suppressed the expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNF- and NOS-II mRNA in BV2 microglial cell line treated with LPS plus A. 2. The HBSBS extract suppressed the expression of A protein production in BV2 microglial cell line treated with LPS plus A. 3. The HBSBS extract showed significantly inhibitory effect on the scopolamine-induced impairment of memory in the experiment of Morris water maze. 4. The HBSBS group suppressed the over-expression of IL-1 protein, TNF- protein significantly in the mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by A. 5. The HBSBS group reduced the infarction area of hippocampus, and controlled the injury of brain tissue in the mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by A. 6. The HBSBS group reduced tau protein, and GFAP in the brain tissue of the mice with AD induced by A. Conclusions : These results suggest that the HBSBS group may be effective for the treatment of AD. Thus, HBSBS could be considered among the future therapeutic drugs indicated for the treatment of AD.
 
This study was designed and undertaken to identify objectively the degree and relationship of anxiety, depression, & anger which are chief essential elements of emotional status in Hwabyung patients.The subjects in this study were 35 Hwabyung patients and 40 Non-Hwabyung persons, and for the assessment of anxiety, depression, & anger. We used Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS), Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS) & State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory(STAXI).The results of this study are as follows:1. There were significant differences in the 18 items of SAS among 20 items between Hwabyung patients and the control group(p
 
Objectives : This study aimed to evaluate the anti-stress effects of Ansymondam-tang and Gamiondam-tang on the contents of monoamines in the regional brain of mice forced cold swimming stress in water. Methods : The experimental animals were forced cold swimming stress for 3 minutes, and administered of Ansymondam-tang(2.2mg/10g) and Gamiondam-tang(0.83mg/10g) extract for 7 days before stress. The monoamines contents were measured by HPLC method in various part(frontal cortex, hypothalamus, corpus striatum and hippocampus) of mice brain. Results: 1. In frontal cortex, the contents of norepinephrine were increased with statistical significantly in all of the administered group compared to control group. The contents of dopamine and serotonin were increased in Gamiondam-tang administered group has a statistical significance. 2. In hypothalamus, the contents of dopamine were increased with statistical significance in all of the administered group compared to control group. 3. In corpus striatum the contents of norepinephrine were decreased and the contents of dopamine were increased with statistical significance in all of the administered group compared to control group. The contents of serotonin were increased in Gamiondam-tang administered group has a statistical significance. 4. In hippocampus the contents of norepinephrine were decreased with statistical significance in Gamiondam-tang administered group compared to control group. The contents of dopamine were increased in Ansymondam-tang administered group has a statistical significance. Conclusion : This study reaches a conclusion that Ansymondam-tang and Gamiondam-tang has significant effects .on reducing and preventing stress in mice. Especially Gamiondam-tang is more effective in the statistical significance than Ansymondam-tang on the monoamines change in the mice brain.
 
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Sam-Jeong-Hwan(SJH) on the animal model of depression induced immobilization stress. Method: The subject were divided into 4 groups(l. normal 2. saline solution administered during immobilization stress treatment 3. SJH of 100mg/kg administered 4. BKJ of 400mg/kg administered). Immobilization stress was treated for 1 hours on day. During 2 days of immobilization stress treatment, they were executed forced swimming test, passive avoidance test, elevated plus maze test. Corticosterone and ACTH in blood were measured. Results: In forced swimming test, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased immobilization. In passive avoidance test, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed increased learning execution. In EPM test, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased anxiety. In locomotor activity test, SJH groups showed significantly increased locomotor activity. Stress group showed significantly increase in serum level of corticosterone, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased serum level of corticosterone. Stress group showed significantly increase in serum level of ACTH, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased serum level of ACTH. Conclusion: These results suggest that Sam-Jeong-Hwan(SJH) is effective in the treatment of depression.
 
Objectives : A growing body of evidence has suggested that the dysfunction of glutamatergic systems plays a pivotal role in major depressive disorder (MDD). This study was performed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of the ethanolic extract of Gastrodia elata Bl (GE) in mouse models and to investigate the role of -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in producing these antidepressant-like effects. Methods : The forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to investigate GE's behavioral effects in mice. Additional biochemical and behavioral experiments with NBQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist, were undertaken to determine whether the antidepressant-like properties of GE are involved in AMPA receptor throughput. Results : Oral administration of GE extract (1,600 mg/kg) 1h prior to testing significantly reduced the immobility times in the FST and TST. These antidepressant-like effects of GE extract were increased dose-dependently. Pre-treatment with NBQX significantly attenuated the reduction in immobility time induced by the GE extract in the FST and TST. Conclusions : The ethanolic extract of GE may exert antidepressant-like effects with involvement of AMPA receptor.
 
This experiment was done to investigate the effects of GAMIKWYBICHONGTANG(GKCT) on the blood and brain tissues of aged rats. The experimental groups were divided into three groups and treated as follows for ten days before administration of scopolamine ; Non treated group(Normal), Distilled water feeding group (Control), GKCT feeding group(GKCT). After feeding them each, Control and GKCT were injected scopolamine for 5 days.We examined the changes of blood cell(WBC, RBC, platelet), blood serum(BUN, creatinine, glucose, uricacid), erythrocyte hemolysis, the activities of cholinesterase, and measured the amounts of malondialdehyde of the blood serum and checked the activities of catalase, SOD of the brain tissues.The results were as follows;1. GKCT showed significant increase of the number of WBC, but those of RBC and platelet didn't significantly changed in comparison with Control.2. GKCT showed significant decrease of BUN, creatinin, glucose, uric acid in blood serum in comparison with Control.3. Erythrocyte hemolysis were decreased significantly in GKCT in comparison with Control.4. About the activity of cholinesterase of blood serum, GKCT showed no significant increase in comparison with Control.5. In TBA reaction to measure the amount of MDA, oxidant material of blood serum of rats, GKCT showed significant decrease in comparison with Control.6. About the activity of catalase of brain tissue, GKCT showed no significant change in comparison with Control.7. About the activity of SOD of brain tissue, GKCT showed significant increse in comparison with Control.According to the above results, GKCT can reduce the formation of free radical and the accumulation of antioxidant materials, it is suggested that GAMIKWYBICHONGTANG(GKCT) has some effects on antiaging. It is also needed more following studies.
 
This study was to investigate the effects of GONGCHENGWHAN(GCW) on the blood and brain tissues of aged rats. For the experiment, the aged rats were divided into three groups : Non treated group (NC), distilled water feeding group(PC), GCW feeding group(GCW).Each group was treated as the procedure for ten days before administration of scopolamine. After this treating, we injected scopolamine to Pc and GCW group their blood cell(WBc, RBC, platelet), blood serum (BUN, creatinine, glucose, uric acid), erythrocyte hemolysis, and the activities of cholinesterase as well as measured the amounts malondialdehysde in the blood serum, catalase, and SOD in the brain tissue.The main results of this investigation are as follows.1. In respect of the number of WBC, GCW group exhibited the administrated incerase in comparison with PC. In respect of the number of RBC· and platelet, however, the changes was not administrated.2. In respect of the number of BUN, creatinine, glucose and uric and the blood, GCW group exhibited the administrated decrease in comparison with PC.3. In respect of erythrocyte hemolysis, GCW group exhibited the administrated repression in comparison with PC.4. In respect of the activity of cholinestease in the blood serum, GCW group exhibited the administrated improvement in comparison with PC.5. In respect of the amounts of malondialdehyde in the blood serum, GCW group exhibited the administrated dexrease in comparison with PC.6. In respect of the activity of catalase in brain tissue, GCW group didn't exhibit the administrated change in comparison with PC7. In respect of the activity of SOD in brain tissue, GCW group exhibited the administrated improvement in comparison with PC.Results of this study indicates that GCW improves the activities of cholinesterase and SOD, but represses the formation of the free radical and the accumulation of the antioxidant materials such as MDA. It implies that GCW has some effects on antiaging.
 
In this study, we evaluated the effects of herbal medicine, acupuncture and language therapy in a patient with fluent aphasia after stroke. We treated the patient with Jihwangumja, special acupuncture points and Language-Oriented Treatment(LOT). The language abilities of the patient in this study was markedly increased in Korean-Western Aphasia Battery(K-WAB) and Communicative Ability in Daily Living Test(CADLT). Aphasia quotient, fluency, comprehension, repetition and naming score of K-WAB were improved in second and third examination compared with those of the first examination. Each item of CADLT was improved in second examination compared with that of the first examination.
 
This study researches the effect of oriental psychotherapy treatments for various somatization symptoms by marital conflict. We treat Acupuncture, Herb-medication and oriental psychotherapy, and follow up the result for 3 times. Through an understanding of marital, The symptoms of the patient decreased. Oriental psychotherapy treatments is effective for Somatoform Disorders by Marital Conflict.
 
Objectives : Korea's average life expectancy is getting longer and longer and the pace of change in society has increased every year as people experience stress more easily. Under this situation, chronic sleep disorder is increasing, but there is no specific program for the treatment of sleep disorder in Korean medicine. Therefore, we studied a Korean medical treatment program for sleep disorder to apply to outpatient clinic patients. Methods : For this study, we evaluated the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), BDI, STAI, FSS on 29 insomnia patients who visited Kyunghee Korean medical hospital from July 2010 to May 2012. Herbal medicine, acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, moxibustion, sleep hygiene, and medical qigong were applied. We compared ISI scores before treatment and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results : ISI score was improved after Korean medical treatment for sleep disorder. Before the treatment ISI score was 18.1, which means clinical insomnia. After the Korean medical treatment, the score was 7.5, which means no clinically significant insomnia. Conclusions : The study showed a significant effect on the Korean medical treatment program for sleep disorder to apply to outpatient clinic patients. ISI score was improved and the patients were satisfied with the treatment, so it would be more helpful to apply in sleep clinics.
 
Purpose: This study was conducted to find out the effects od Sahyangsohapwon on learning and memory of rats.Method: In the experiment, rats were divided two groups. One was control group which was adminstered Sahyangsohapwon and the other was sample group administered placebo. Numbers of each group were 13 rats. 8-arm radial maze task was used in it, and working memory test and retention(reference memory) test were done.Before the beginning of the test, the rats were deprived of water for 24hrs.In the frist test, each of eight arm was baited with water and a rat was permitted to remain on the maze until all eight arms were entered. A working memory error was defined as revisit of any previously entered arm. When a rat made an error not exceeding one time in consecutive 3 days-performance, it was regarded as learning criteria and the test was ended. The reference memory was evaluated with total days which it took rats to pass the learning crtirtia.The second test was performed after 24 hours when the first test was over. When a rat entered 4 arms, the entrance of arm was cut off during 30 seconds.Here the number if errors which was produced during a rat find remaining 4 tracks was regarded as the index of memory.This experiment compared the number of error at the control group with that of the sample group.Result: 1. In the first test, it was shown that the sample group took 7.691.11 days and the control group 9.311.97 days to pass the learning criteria.There was statistically significant reference mernory development at the sample group.2. In the second test, the frequency of errors made by the two groups were 0.921.32 times for the control group and 1.231.59 times for the Sahyangsohapwon group. There was no difference between the groups in frequency of errors.Conclusion: It is suggested that Sahyangsohapwon has effects on the improvement of learning and memory.
 
The effects of Hyungbangjiwhangrang on the enhancement of learning and memory of AD model rats were studied with Morris water maze and radial arm maze. Sample group was electrolytically lesioned on nbM, and then daily treated with the medicine for two months. Control group with nbM lesion, and sham group with the sham operation were treated the vehicle for same duration. The following results were observed.1. As the learning trials of Morris water maze processed repeatedly, sham group achiened 201.6433.13 seconds in 1st trial, 153.1461.80 seconds in 2nd, 106.2146.81 seconds in 3rd, 76.6448.40 seconds in 4th, and 52.2938.25 seconds in 5th. The control group achieved 224.0829.16 in 1st trial, 191.7767.97 seconds in 2nd, 177.7765.44 seconds in 3rd, 140.9268.27 seconds in 4th, and 126.4679.15 seconds in 5th. The sample group achieved 223.3623.33 seconds in 1st trial, 215.8638.93 seconds in 2nd, 190.7951.57 seconds in 3rd, 155.7962.67 seconds in 4th, and 127.9362.11 seconds in 5th. Therefore, these data shows that all three groups were improved in learning capacity as trials were repeated, but the shame group showed prominent improvement in learning compared with the control group(p
 
Purpose : This study has an experiment on finding how Hyangbujapamultang advanced the learning and memory of rat to find the method to improve the failure of memory which is the symptom of dementia.Method : In the experiment, rats were divided the control group (14 rat) which medicate the excipient into the sample group (17 rat) which medicates Hyangbujapalmutang. And the learning ability test and the memorv test was practiced to using the task of radial arm maze.The learning ability test had the presupposition that, when a rat which frequents 8 tracks makes am error not exceeding one time for 3 days without a break, it passes the test.First experiment compared total days when the control group passed the test with total days when the sample group it.The memory test practiced after 24 hours when the learning ability test was over. When a rat frequents 4 tracks, the gates is cut off during 30 seconds. Here the number of error at the control group with that of the sample group.Result: In the learning ability test, the sample group needed 5.820.37 days to pass the test and the control group needed 6.430.67 days. In the memory test, the sample group errored 0.290.37 times and the control group errored 1.860.78 times.Conclusion : In the learning ability test, the sample group passed the test earlier than the control group, but any statistical correlationship couldn't be found in it. In the memory test, the sample group had the pregnant reduction of the number of error in comparison with the control group.
 
Objective: The ECG which used for this paper, is analysis result from alogrisms of arrythmia, and we have studied that how we could certain Cold(寒)type or Heat(熱) type and that Deficiency(虛) type or Excess(實)type of organs from various special diseases, and we obtained like these results. Method & Conclusion: 1. we depend on our examination about Pulse(脈) because we can't discriminate arrythmia using ECG analysis instruments. 2. We obtained that Cold(寒) type diseases had wave that prolonged above normal baseline and ST wave which had downward aptitude. 3. We obtained that Heat(熱) type diseases had the fibrillation which had shortend wave that compare to normal and had downward aptitude or negative aptitude. 4. We obtained that Respiratory system (肺) diseases had wave that is within normal or is short of normal range and had much fluctuation in potential difference or trans on P wave. 5. The character of EKG which presented about diseases of gastric systems is prolonged above narmal range of wave, and the ECG had represented mixed wave with Heat(熱) type when accompany inflammatory in gastric system. 6. The wave of Blood Stasis(瘀血) type had upward aptitude of QRS wave, and the wave of anemia or blood loss type(少血) had downward aptitude of QRS wave, the wave which had both Cold(寒)) and Heat (熱) represented mixed waves. 7. The Knotted Pulse(結脈) and Intermittent Pulse(代脈)is corresponded with sinus brady cardia, and the Swift Pulsle(疾脈) is corresponded with fibrillation. 8. We pay attention to the relations of formations about pressures pulse from formations of EMD( electromechanical dissociation ). Result : From these results, we will have to study about ECG which using in tests of change of Parkinsons disease.
 
This study was designed to asses the effect of Schultz's Autogenes Training on the pateints diagnosed as depression. We measured the patients' BDI by stage treated by Schultz's Autogenes Training on their adaptation to each stage. In result, BDI of both cases were decreased : the case 1 from 28 to 9 ; the case 2 from 19 to 16. We also recognized that patients' will for recovery is very important to be treated more effectively by Schultz's Autogenes Training: the patients' will of the case 1 was more larger than that of the case 2. After our treatments, Depression and some other symptoms were improved.
 
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to provide information about Maumgongbu to meet the needs of people by analysing the concept of Maumgongbu in group counseling. Methods : This study was conducted using Walker and Avant's Concept Analysis Strategy. Dictionaries, Wonbuddhism's Kyunjions and literatures, and participants' journals were reviewed after enrolling in Onsarm maumgongbu group counseling. Results : The attributes of the Maumgongbu include emotion, object, self-reflection, attribution, and creativity. The antecedents of "Maumgongbu" are the conditions arising from negative emotions. The Maumgongbu helps people find the emotional causality of their inner self by self-reflecting, getting out of false belief, restoring positive emotions, maintaining healthy and warm relationships with oneself, family, friends and society. Above all, the Maumgongbu makes people experience tranquility and true happiness and activate their positive energy or power. Conclusions : If there is a clear indication of linkage to principles, attributions, precedents and consequences, and empirical referents to any of Maumgongbu programs, there is no doubt that our understanding of the human mind and lives will be greatly enriched. Furthermore, self-discipline and steadfast complements give us calmness, peacefulness and better quality of life.
 
Objective : The aim of this study was to categorize tic disorders and introduce the treatments of tic disorders in oriental medicine. This article includes the report of successful treatment with oriental medicine. Methods : The author classifided the terms of oriental medicine in associated with tic disorders based on DSM-IV and then studied symptoms, etiological causes, and treatment through Dong yui bo gam Book . Results and Conclusions : 1. The concept of Tic disorders is similar to Mok-cha (目箚), Gun-chuck-youk-soon, Soon-dong, Mae-hack-gi (梅核氣) and etc, in oriental medical term. 2. In oriental medicine, tic disorders can be classified Gan-poong-nae-dong-zung (肝風內動證) type, Dam-hwa-yo-sin-zung (淡火擾神證) type, Bee-her-gan-wang-zung (脾虛肝旺證) type and Gan-sin-um-her-zung (肝腎陰虛證) type. 3. In oriental medicine, tic disorders are treated by much(so) various therapy such as herb medication, acupuncture and moxibustion, oriental psychotherapy and dirigation (Gi-Gong, 氣功) etc. 4. Tourette’s disorder is not easy to cure. When the treatment of occidental medicine and that of oriental medicine are mutually cooperated, more effective medical care might be expected. Therefore, it is necessary for further study to treat tic disorders by mutually cooperated therapy.
 
This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-stress effect of Soeuminsohabhyangwon on the mice in Cold and Swimming stress.In order to investigate the anti-stress effect of Soeuminsohabhyangwon in Cold and Swimming stressed mice, the serotonin contents were measured by HPLC method in various part of mouse brain The following results were observed. 1. In Cerebral Cortex of Frontal Lobe, the serotonin content was decreased in the Control group as compared with Normal group and the serotonin content was increased in the SHW group as compared with Control group. 2. In hypothalamus, the serotonin content was decreased in the Control group as compared with Normal group and the serotonin content was increased with statistical significance in the SHW group as compared with Control group. 3. In corpus striatum, the serotonin content was decreased in the Control group as compared with Normal group and the serotonin content was increased with statistical significance in the SHW group as compared with Control group. 4. In hippocampus, the serotonin content was decreased in the Control group as compared with Normal group and the serotonin content was increased with statistical significance in the SHW group as compared with control group.Base on the above results, it may be concluded that Soeuminsohabhyangwon are effective to reduce stress.
 
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-stress effects of soyosan and chyengansoyosan on the contents cold swimming stress.The experimental animals were forced cold swimming stress for 3 minutes, and administered 4㎎/10g of soyosan and chyengansoyosan extract for 7 days before stress. The monoamines contents were measured by HPLC method in various part of mouse brain. The following results were obtained :1. In frontal cortex, the contenrs of norepinephrine ans dopamine increased significantly in the group administered chyrngansoyosan compared with in the group administered non chyengansoyosan and soyosan(control group) of mice stressed by cold swiming.2. In hypothalamus, the content of norepinephrine increased with statistical significance in the group administered soyosan compared with control group of mice stressed by cold swimming. 3. The content of dopamine increased with statistical significance on the group administered chyenfansoyosan and compared with control group of mice stressed by cold swimming in hypothlaamus and hippocampus.4. The content of serotonin increased with statistical significance in the group administered soyosan and compared with control group of mice stressed by cold swimming in hippocampus and corpus striatum.5. In corpus striatum and hippocampus, the content of norepineohrine decreased with statistical significance in the group administered soyosan and chyengandoyosan compared with control group of mice stressed by cold swimming.Judgding from the above results, this sthdy reaches a conclusion that soyosan or chyengansoyosas has significant effects in reducing stress.
 
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Qigong training after physical training stress in untrained college students For this study, 6 voluntary subjects(male 4, female 2) were chosen in untrained students of K University. they were trained by teachers during 6 weeks and tested just before Qingong training and after 6 weeks. Each subject was performed a treadmill exercise(model Q65, Quinton Co, U.S.A.) to the all-out state. During exercise stress test, electrocardiogram, heart rate were checked by stress test monitor(model Q4500, Quinton Co, U.S.A) and also oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake analyzed continuously by automatic gas analysis(model QMC, Quinton Co, U.S.A). During physical training the serum were collected 3 times, pre-experimental rest time, and serum catecholamine were measured by HPLC.T-test of statistical analysis system was used in every experiment for statistical assessment. The results of T-test on these data were summarized as follow:1.Heart rate change during exercise stress test after Qigong training was shown more decreasing tendency than before training. Especially, heart rate change after Qigong training during resting periods was decreased significantly than before training.2. Oxygen uptake change during exercise stress test after Qigong training was shown more increasing tendency than before training, And also maximal oxygen uptake after Qigong training was shown more increasing tendency than before 6 weeks.3. Epinephrine level of after Qigong training was more decreased significantly than before training in all-out state. And norepinephrine level of after Qigong training was shown more decreasing tendency than before training in all-out state and after 30 minutes rest time. Above results indicate that Qigong training for 6 weeks could be effective to elevate the cardiopulmonary functions and diminish the stress responses of the physical stress.
 
Objectives : This study aims to research the effect of oriental psychotherapy and treatments for reduction of Psychosomatic disorder symptoms caused by maladjustment of interpersonal relationship. Methods : We treat a patient with Oriental medical treatment (acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping and aroma therapy, oriental psychotherapy and Herb-medication) and follow up the changes of stress index for 3 times per 8 days. Results & Conclusions : After oriental psychotherapy and treatments, clinical symptoms of the patient were improved and the patient overcoming psychosomatic disorder can go back to the workplace. It is suggested that oriental psychotherapy and treatments are effective on psychosomatic disorder.
 
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Gamigumguesingi-hwan(Jiaweijinkuishenqi-wan) against urinary frequency. Methods : Gamigumguesingi-hwan(Jiaweijinkuishenqi-wan) is known as a useful herbal medication for urinary fequency. So we treat two patients with Gamigumguesingi-hwan(Jiaweijinkuishenqi-wan) three times a day. By investigating the frequency of urine, we can get some data. Results : One patient's nocturia frequency was counted 10 times to 3 times and voided volume was increased. The other patient's nocturia frequency was counted 10 times to 3~4 times. Conclusions : Gamigumguesingi-hwan(Jiaweijinkuishenqi-wan) is effective in urinary frequency and nocturia.
 
In spite of different traditions, there are similar things between oriental psychotherapy and cognitive therapy. 1. Both of them stress the need of relations between patient and therapist.2. Exposure treatment and relaxation in cognitive behavioral therapy are similar with Qigong therapy and Kyungja-pyungji treatment in oriental psychotherapy.3. Both of them demand to avoid the avarice and stiff thoughts in life.4. Both of them are related to preventive psychiatry.
 
Followings are the results of comparative study between Kyungja-pyungji treatment, and Behavior and Cognitive therapy. 1. It is recognized that Kyungja-pyungji treatment include the factors of Behavior and Cognitive therapy. 2. Kyungja-pyungji treatment has methodological similarity to Flooding of Behavior therapy. 3. Kyungja-pyungji treatment is similar to the Didactic technique of Cognitive therapy.
 
Alzheimer's disease(AD) is a geriatric dementia that is widespread in old ages. In the future AD will be the largest problem in public health service. From old times, much medicines have been used for treatment of dementia, but there is no medicine having obvious effects. AD is one of brain retrogression disease. So we studied on herbal medicine that have a relation for brain retrogression. From old times, in oriental medicine, senile disease such as dementia and AD is treated by exclusion of Tan(痰). But Vascular Dementia(VsD) is due to YuXue(瘀血). So in recent studies, Hua Xue Hua Yu(活血化瘀) medicine is used for precautionary and medical treatment. We studied on the effects for anti-Alzheimer in pCT105-induced neuroblastoma cell lines by Hyeolbuchukeo-tang(HCT). As the results of this study, in HCT group, the apoptosis in the nervous system is inhibited, the repair against the degeneration of Neuroblastoma cells by CT105 expression is promoted. These results indicate that HCT possess strong inhibitory effect of apoptosis in the nervous system and repair effect against the degeneration of neuroblastoma cells by CT105 expression.
 
The Common Symptoms of insomnia are to be hard to sleep, often wake up at night, be easy not to fall asleep again after waking up. In serious conditions, an insomniac can never get to sleep overnight. This is the case that we diagnosed a 49-year-old patient who demonstrates insomnia, palpitation, anxiety, dizziness, distress in the stormach as Deficiency of Yang(陽虛) and treated her. At 1st stage we diagnosed the patient as Insufficiency of both the heart and the spleen(心脾兩虛) and prescribed Gwibi-tang(歸脾湯), and next stage we dispensed bogol-dan(補骨丹) to cure Deficiency of Kidney Yang. As the result of treatment, the patient made a good improvement. We considered that this case report to be a good prcedent of Insomia due to deficiency of Yang.
 
We experienced a 71year-old man who had a traumatic subdural hemorrhage as well as delirium, and whose condition was improved through oriental medical treatment. Herbal medicine Hwaeo-jeon is administered three times a day. We did Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean(MMSE-K) and Korean-Dementia Rating Scale(K-DRS). After being treated, the patient showed that symptoms of delirium(diminished or altered state of consciousness, impairment of cognitive abilities or physical function) was improved considerably. This result suggests that Hwaeo-jeon has good effects on delirium with Traumatic Subdural Hemorrhage.
 
Objective : This is a case report of the patient diagnosed as the depressive episode mixed with organic depressive disorder. Method : We treat the patient with herbal medication and gave acupuncture treatment about 5 weeks, the symptom of the patient improved. The herbal medication and acupuncture treatment which we gave patient was based on Oriental medical diagnosis. Results : The patient had been taken the western medical treatment for 2 months, the symptom of the patient was not improved. But after the Oriental medical treatment, the patient is on the improving state. Conclusion : In the treatment of the depressive disorder which is mixed with organic depressive disorder, we found that the Herbal medication and Acupuncture based on correct 'Byonjung(辦證)' help the care of depressive episode which is mixed with organic depressive disorder.
 
This study is designed to assess the effect of hypnosis on the pain disorder patient. We treated a patient by using hypnosis as well as traditional oriental therapy-acupuncture, herbal medicine, Chu-Na therapy. We divide the pain into four parts and then we checked the intensities of them comparing with those of the first treatment. The pain worsened by psychic factor was decreased after treatment. Especially, after hypnosis, the intensity of the pain is highly changed. Psychotherapy in oriental medicine can be helpful to treat patients who have psychic and physical disorders.
 
Objectives : This study explores perspectives, reasons, functions of dreams in order to develop a treatment model. Methods : We searched CNKI, KISS, NDSL. Papers published since 2002, which are classified in categories. Results : 1. The Recognitions about the dream of Oriental Medicine is based on "Hwangjenaegyeong Eumsabalmong(黃帝內經 淫邪發夢)". 2. By each era, There are a variety of etiological causes, stages. 3. Dreams are generated by the internal stimuli Physiological activities of the Jangbu(臟腑),Deficiencies of yin and yang(陰陽), Pathological changes in the Jangbu(臟腑), Pathology products, external stimuli Yukeum(六淫), Eumsiksang(飮食傷), and unusual feelings. 4. Spirit(神) comes from brain(腦), not heart(心). So what we call brain spirit(腦神) is right. Dreams are the mental activity related to the brain. 5. Dreams are the reflection of the pathological changes of the human body. And it shows the development, changes and prognosis of disease. Dreams sometimes illustrate the incidence of the disease Conclusions : We organized perspectives, Causes and Functions of dreams mentioned in Oriental Medicine Literatures. Health is closely related to the dream. Therefore, we propose that the dream is worth for the diagnosis and treatment in oriental medicine.
 
Objectives : To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the essential oil from Sohaphwangwon (SH), a Chinese traditional medicinal prescription in a Parkinson's disease mouse model. Methods : 1. The neuroprotective effect of SH on primary neuronal cells was examined by using 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). 2. The neuroprotective effect of SH was examined in a Parkinson's disease mouse model. C57BL/6 mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 30 mg/kg/day), intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 5 days. SH inhalation was applied before MPTP treatment for 7 days and continued until 12 days after the first MPTP treatment. 3. To find out the intracellular target signal molecule(s) regarding the neuroprotective effect of SH essential oil, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and synaptic protein SNAP25 were examined by Western blot analysis. Results : 1. MPP+ induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability. However, in the presence of 3 and 5 ug/ml of SH, MPP+-induced cell death was significantly reduced. 2. SH inhalation in MPTP mice led to the restoration of behavioral impairment and rescued tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. 3. In SH / MPTP mice, BDNF and SNAP25 increased. Conclusions : This experiment suggests that the neuroprotective effect of SH essential oil is mediated by the expression of BDNF. Furthermore, SH essential oil may serve as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent regarding Parkinson's disease.
 
Tension headache is one of the most common form of headache. It may occur at any age, but is most common in adults and adolescents. One cause of this muscle contraction is a response to stress that induces changes and imbalance on autonomic nerve system. And it is not easy to classify the type of tension headache simply in oriental medicine. In this case, we described a 25-year old woman who diagnosed as tension headache. She complained headache with nausea and vomiting, and her condition was improved through oriental medical treatment.
 
Object : The purpose of this study is difference between western medicine and oriental medicine in tension headache. Methods : A literature study on the tension headache was performed. The cause, symptoms, relationship with other diseases, pathology and treatment of oriental and western medicine were investigated. Conclusion : In western medicine, tension headache is mainly caused by emotional stress, tension of head and neck musculatures. Treatments include medication, psychologic care, alteration of habits and biofeedback. Removal of muscle tension is of main interest in western medicine. In oriental medicine, tension headache is classified into internal and external problem. The imbalance of organs of spleen, liver and kidney causes headache. Hyperactivity of liver chi and deficiency of kidney yin are main source of headache. On the treatment, relieve of muscle tension and correction of bad habit are emphasized in western medicine while promotion of harmony among the internal organs is main target in oriental medicine.
 
Objectives : This study was performed to develop Hwabyung clinical guideline. Acupuncture, moxibustion, negative therapy and psychotherapy were selected, and herbal therapy was excluded in this study. Methods : 27 questions were composed to investigate nonherbal therapy of Hwabyung. They were answered by the experts. They are the professors of oriental neuropsychiatry in Korea. Results and Conclusions : Most experts use acupuncture mainly in treating Hwabyung. They think that acupuncture therapy is needed by all means. Moxibustion, negative therapy and psychotherapy are also utilized mainly or partially to treat Hwabyung, Moxibustion and negative therapy are usually done for somatic symptoms, and psychotherapy is for mental symptoms.
 
Yearly analysis of clinical trials for insomnia. CAM: Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
The number of participants for clinical trials. CAM: Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Clinical trials period under observation. CAM: Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Intervention method for clinical trials. CAM: Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Objectives : To review the recent trend of randomized controlled clinical trials on insomnia and to provide information for future clinical trials. Methods : A total of 667 pieces of literature were searched using the key words 'insomnia' and 'randomized controlled trial' and using the title 'insomnia' with the topic 'trial or trials', published from 2008 to 2012 through Web of Science. Studies including randomized controlled clinical trials were sorted from the search result and finally 104 pieces of the literature were selected and examined. Results : Besides 104 clinical trials, 14 trials related to CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) were also reviewed. On average, 20 trials were annually conducted and they showed a growing trend. Participants were between 31 and 90 (34.6%), and were observed for less than 30 days (28.8%) in most trials. As intervention methods for clinical trials, non-pharmaceutical methods were used in 59 studies (56.7%), pharmaceutical drug in 43 studies (41.3%) and combinations in 2 studies (1.9%). In 60 studies, only insomnia without any underlying diseases was examined and other 44 studies involved other diseases. As diagnosis assessment tools, Sleep diary and Polysomnography were used. Conclusions : Randomized controlled trials relevant to insomnia were on the increase, but only a small number of clinical trials on Oriental Medicine have been performed. Larger scientific and well-founded randomized controlled trials are required for developing Oriental Medicine and establishing high-quality guideline going forward.
 
Objectives : This study was aimed to review the trend of clinical studies in Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry since 2001 to 2010. Methods : We collected 260 clinical studies and analyzed them for publish year, sorts of disease or symptoms, pattern identification diagnosis, and classification of clinical studies. Among them, we selected 46 clinical experimental studies and these studies were further analyzed for publish year, research institution, sort of disease or symptoms, sorts of treatments, number of subject, and pattern identification diagnosis. Results : The number of clinical studies in Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry have increased since the year of 2001. There were 62 kinds of diseases and symptoms and Hwa-Byung had the highest number of studies followed by depression, headache, insomnia and so on. The clinical experimental studies, which took up 17% of the clinical studies, have increased since 2001 and was varied with year. There were 13 reserch institutions for clinical experimental studies and they studied about stress, dementia, Hwa-Byung, and so on. Most of studies researched treatment about acupuncture, herb medicine, and meditation treatment for persons under 144. There are only 22% of studies using pattern identification diagnosis. Conclusions : For the development of oriental medicine for psychiatric disease, we need more qualifying clinical studies like RCT. We hope more researchers for psychiatry disease of oriental medicine will be interested in the publication of clinical studies and this will serve to produce advance of oriental medicine as evidence based medecine.
 
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to obtain some knowledge concerning the scalp acupuncture treatment on patients with dementia for the future practice and research from clinical studies in China. Methods : The literatures were searched using the data base-China Academic Journals(CAJ) (2001-2011). Results : We found out 1 case study, and 17 randomized controlled trials(RCT) which met the inclusion criteria in most studies. There were 3 types of scalp acupuncture-applying method, cho-si scalp acupuncture(焦氏頭鍼法), combination of using ordinary acupoints(正經鍼) and extraordinary acupoints(經外寄穴), standard method of scalp acupuncture(標準頭鍼法). The often used acupoints are Yundongqu(運動區), Ganjuequ(感覺區), Yuntingqu(暈聽區), Zuyunganqu(足運感區), Sishencong (HN23), Baihui(GV20), Shenting(GV24), Fengchi(GB20), Dingnieqianxiexian(MS6), and Dingniehouxiexian(MS7). Conclusions : There were significant improvements on the scalp acupuncture-treated groups, compared to the control groups(western medication group or other acupuncture treatment group). Results of this study could be used for future studies concerning the scalp acupuncture for dementia.
 
Objectives: The purpose of this research is to investigate correlationship between Hwa-Byung and various factors, including Sasang Constitution. Methods: The research about Hwa-Byung, various factors and Sasang Constitution were carried out for 649 Participants, male was 272 and female was 377. Hwa-Byung diagnosed by Hwa-Byung Diagnostic Interview Schedule(HBDIS). Sasang Constitution was diagnosed by a Sasang Constitutional specialist with recorded voices, face pictures, tongue pictures and researched data about Sasang Constitution. Collected data were analyzed by the qui-square test and t-test. Results: 1. The prevalence of Hwa-Byung in Taeeumin and Soeumin were higher than that of Soyangin but it was not significant. 2. In the case of meeting frequency of friends, Hwa-Byung group was higher than none Hwa-Byung group and it was significant. 3. In the case of existence of negative influencing people, the rate of Hwa-Byung group was higher than that of none Hwa-Byung group. Among them, Interfere, Blame, Discomfort and Indifferent were significant. Conclusions: Hwa-Byung may have correlationship with Sasang Constitution, meeting frequency of friends and existence of negative influencing people.
 
Objective: The purpose of this study is investigation of relationship between HRV(Heart Rate Variability) and Hwa-Byung in general population. Methods: HBDIS(Hwa-Byung Diagnostic Interview Schedule) was carried out for 658 participants in Wonju Cohort study that include short term electrode HRV test. We also classified whole participants into sex. Collected data was analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Result: SDNN(Standard Deviation of NN interval) was significant different in HRV between Normal and Hwa-Byung of male participants. Conclusion: In the findings of this study, Hwa-Byung is not closely related to the autonomic nerve system.
 
Objectives : The objective of this study is to investigate various factors concerning Hwa-byung Methods : The research for various factors of Hwa-Byung was carried out for 686 female Participants. Hwa-Byung was diagnosed by Hwa-Byung Diagnostic Interview Schedule (HBDIS). Results : The rate of Past History about Chronic Bronchitis, Peptic Ulcer, Chronic Hepatitis/Hepatic Cirrhosis, Allergy, Arthritis, Hyperlipidemia is high in the Hwa-Byung group compared with the Control group. In the study of external environments, Hwa-Byung has tendency diagnosed in monthly income under 2,000,000 won, doing regular occupation, marriage, below graduation from high school. In the study of personal relationship, Hwa-Byung has tendency more influenced by negative influencing people than by positive influencing people. In the study of personal factors, Hwa-Byung has a short sleeping time, does not exercise regularly, feels more overburdened, and understimates their own condition to do easy tasks. Conclusions : According to the below results, in the study of Past History, the rate of Chronic Bronchitis, Peptic Ulcer, Chronic Hepatitis/Hepatic Cirrhosis, Allergy, Arthritis, and Hyperlipidemia is high in the Hwa-Byung group compared with the Control. Hwa-Byung has a tendency to be diagnosed by various factors such as the external environment, personal relationships, and personal factors.
 
Top-cited authors
Hyung-Sik Seo
  • Pusan National University
Jong-Woo Kim
  • Kyung Hee University
Byung-Soo Koo
  • Dongguk University
Inchul Jung
  • Daejeon University
Han Chae
  • Pusan National University