While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees' access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed.
The purpose of this paper was to contribute to understanding of the crucial role of emotion in work motivation by testing a conceptual model developed by Seo, Barrett, and Bartunek (2004) that predicted the impacts of core affect on three behavioral outcomes of work motivation, generative-defensive orientation, effort, and persistence. We tested the model using an Internet-based investment simulation combined with an experience sampling procedure. Consistent with the predictions of the model, pleasantness was positively related to all three of the predicted indices. For the most part, these effects occurred indirectly via its relationships with expectancy, valence, and progress judgment components. Also as predicted by the model, activation was directly and positively related to effort.
Four broad classes of dependent variables (psychological strain, physical illness symptoms, health-related behaviour and social participation) were associated with eleven categories of stressors and stress moderators from work and family life, using multiple logistic regression analysis for a random sample of 8700 full-time male and female members of T.C.O., a major Swedish white-collar labour federation (covering 25 per cent of the Swedish labour force). Our goal was to find broad patterns of associations by comparing relative magnitudes of effects for (a) stressors and stress moderators; (b) work and family activities, and (c) males and females.
We compared the frequency with which 85 Australian organizations espoused nine values (authority, leadership, teamwork, commitment, rewards, normative, participation, performance and affiliation) in 1986–1988 and 1989–1990 through a content analysis of annual reports, internal magazines, and mission statements. We studied value changes both by comparing the frequency of references to single values in the two periods and the frequency with which four, distinctly different values structures (Elite, Leadership, Meritocratic, and Collegial) occurred among organizations in each period. Univariate comparisons over the whole sample revealed only one significant difference—an increase in Commitment references over time. Comparisons based on groups of organizations with different value structures indicated both a preponderance of organizations with Elite values at time one, and that initially Elite organizations showed most evidence of value change. The findings are discussed in terms of the way univariate comparisons of mean shifts in values can mask the presence of significant differences in patterns of value change between organizations, and the utility of content analysis for measuring organizational values unobtrusively. Possible explanations for some of the changes observed are considered.
The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of employees in Fortune 500 companies who are willing to relocate. The profile was developed on a demographically diverse random sample of 827 employees from 20 Fortune 500 corporations, all of whom had moved at least once for their current employer. Employees who were most willing to relocate were younger, their incomes were lower, their career ambitions higher, and their spouses more willing than those who were less willing to relocate. These employees could be found in sales/marketing and production functions. Their attitudes toward moving were also favorable. The single most important predictor of willingness to relocate was spouse willingness to relocate. This result suggests strongly that in the 1990s, corporations are going to have to address the concerns of spouses, if married employees are going to remain mobile. The study also cautions corporations about the shortsightedness of thinking of spouse and dual career issues as ’women's issues‘ and assuming that females and minorities are unwilling to relocate.
Replies to comments by D. M. Rousseau (see record
1999-00235-002) on the author's (see record
1999-00235-001) original article on the utility and meaning of the concept of the psychological contract in organizational psychology. Four issues raised by Rousseau are addressed and clarified. It is suggested that research and theoretical development of the psychological contract continue from a variety of perspectives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The present study provides support for the utility of studying absence as a multi-dimensional criterion. Survey responses were collected from 194 bus drivers and paired with categorized archival absences. Seven absence indices were created and linked with three categories of predictors: (1) affective reactions to the work environment; (2) work-related perceptions; and (3) individual resource characteristis. The relationships between the multiple absence criteria and the three sets of predictors were examined both separately and combined using part canonical, and canonical correlation analyses. Affective responses fully mediated the influence of work perceptions on absence, and partially mediated the influence of individual resource variables. Redundancy coefficients and a rotated structure matrix were employed to identify two significant dimensions labeled, nonwork obligations and stress reactions, that linked the combined predictor sets with the set of absence measures. Together these dimensions accounted for 15 per cent of the variance in absence, with predictors differing in their explanatory power. Implications for the management of employee absence programs were discussed.
This study examined whether an employee's level of absenteeism was affected by age, organizational tenure, perceptions of interactional justice, affective and continuance commitment, and the perceived absence norm in the employees' work unit or department. One hundred and sixty-six nursing and food services employees in a mid-size chronic care hospital provided attitudinal and perceptual data on an employee survey. Absence data (absence frequency and total days absent) were collected during the 12-month period immediately following an employee survey. Hypothesized relations between the various individual- and group-level factors and employee absenteeism were specified in a structural model and tested using LISREL 7 (Joreskog and Sorbom, 1989). General support was found for the study hypotheses.
The aim of the study was to test reciprocal causality hypotheses for absence, investigating self- and supervisor-attitudes and behaviors as consequences, as well as antecedents of absence. Reciprocal relationships were proposed between absence and each of job satisfaction, performance, training achievement, and supervisory style. Questionnaire data on job satisfaction and supervisory style and organizational data on employee performance and absence were collected at time 1 from the 262 apprentices of an electricity authority and a year later at time 2 from the 241 then employed apprentices. The repeated data collection (n = 200) consisted of the time 1 first, second and third year apprentices, who became the second, third and fourth years at time 2. Causal tests indicated that uncertified frequency absence and time lost, but not certified absence, were more likely to lead to lower job satisfaction, training achievement, and supervisor-rated performance and attendance than the reverse. Supervisory style, especially support, led to less uncertified but not certified absence. Absence did not influence supervisory style. The reasons for the direction of the significant causal effects and the alternative explanations for such effects were discussed.
A three component model of organizational commitment was used to study job withdrawal intentions, turnover and absenteeism. Affective commitment emerged as the most consistent predictor of these outcome variables and was the only view of commitment related to turnover and to absenteeism. In contrast, normative commitment was related only to withdrawal intentions while no direct effects for continuance commitment were observed. Continuance commitment, however, interacted with affective commitment in predicting job withdrawal intentions and absenteeism. The form of the interaction was such that high sunk costs tempered relationships between affective commitment and the relevant outcome variables.
Research on life events plays a prominent role in the stress literature. Unfortunately, cumulative life events have been found to positively correlate only weakly with health (Rabkin and Struening, 1976) and academic performance outcomes (Lloyd et al., 1980). The present study of 185 hourly employees examined the relationship of life events, daily hassles, and daily uplifts to general health symptoms, job performance, and absenteeism. Multiple regression analysis revealed that hassle frequency and intensity accounted for a significant portion of the variance in general health symptoms, with life events adding little to the variance explanation. Regression analysis also indicated that uplift frequency and intensity accounted for a significant portion of the variance in job performance and absenteeism. The present results suggest that additional organizational research on hassles and uplifts seems warranted when studying predictors of health symptoms, performance, and absenteeism.
Numerous studies have documented a positive relationship between work-family conflict and both psychological distress and somatic symptoms. Little research, however, has explored the relationship of work-family conflict to alcohol use/abuse. Consequently, this study investigated the relationship of work-family conflict to several indicators of abusive alcohol consumption. In addition, the moderating influence of gender and tension-reduction expectancies was examined. Data were obtained through household interviews with a random sample of 473 employed adults. As hypothesized, work-family conflict was positively related to abusive alcohol consumption. In addition, there was strong support for the moderating influence of tension-reduction expectancies. As anticipated, the positive relationship between work-family conflict and abusive alcohol consumption was found almost exclusively among individuals who believe that alcohol use promotes relaxation and tension reduction. In contrast, the hypothesis that gender moderates the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use/abuse was not supported. Implications for future research and intervention efforts aimed at reducing alcohol abuse in the workforce are discussed.
Data obtained with the aid of structured questionnaires from a Singaporean managerial sample (N = 228) were used to examine receptivity to an expatriate assignment in terms of the cultural similarity or dissimilarity of the country of relocation. Results of a paired t-test indicated that respondents were significantly more receptive to an expatriate assignment in a culturally similar location than in a culturally dissimilar location. Results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed mixed support for the study's propositions and explained only modest amounts of the variance in the culturally similar (R2 = 22 per cent) and dissimilar (R2 = 20 per cent) models. Limitations of the study, directions for future research and implications of the findings are discussed.
Previous research on employee willingness to accept mobility opportunities involving geographic relocation has generally not specified characteristics of potential destination communities. However, studies of employee adjustment following relocation suggest that community characteristics are critical to employee satisfaction. In order to better understand the factors that influence employees' acceptance of mobility opportunities, we investigated differences in both levels and antecedents of willingness to accept mobility opportunities involving relocation between similar communities and relocation between dissimilar communities. Results suggest that employees were particularly reluctant to accept moves between dissimilar communities, and that the role of career factors, community attachment, and location preferences as antecedents varied depending on the specific nature of the mobility opportunity. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
An Erratum has been published for this article in Journal of Organizational Behavior 26(7) 2005, 873.
Previous research on the relationship between alternative employment opportunities and cooperation has neglected the distinction between evaluations and restrictions. Thus, one cannot analyze the relationship between attractiveness of alternative employment opportunities and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) under different levels of perceived ease of finding alternative employment. In a pilot study with N = 149 German employees, we confirm the proposed distinction with confirmatory factor analyses. Based on power-dependence theory and rational choice models, we predict that under high ease the relationship between attractiveness and OCB should be more strongly negative than under conditions of low ease. In addition, we hypothesize that the interaction between attractiveness and ease should be greater for OCB than for task performance because task performance is exchanged in a relationship with an enforceable, binding contract, while OCB is voluntarily. Results from moderated multiple regression analysis on N = 86 German professional–supervisor dyads support our prediction for a negative relationship between attractiveness and OCB under high ease. Under low ease, we find a positive relationship between attractiveness and OCB. Moreover, there was no relationship with the interaction and task performance. Implications of the findings both for extra-role and job mobility theory formation and research are discussed. Copyright
Recent models of evaluative information processing suggest that individuals will form differentiated dimensional judgments only if a differentiated set of categories or dimensions is accessible as behavior is observed. If, however, a differentiated set of dimensions is not accessible, individuals will form a more general global evaluation. Subsequent dimensional evaluations will be driven by this ‘overall ’evaluation. The present study supports this and indicates that dimensional performance evaluations will be more accurate if the performance appraisal dimensions are accessible to individual raters. This study demonstrates the importance of the accessibility of dimensions for accurate dimensional performance evaluations.
This study examines the impact of the Three Mile Island accident on nuclear workers (N = 622) at the accident site and a ‘control’ plant in the same general area. Effects of the accident are examined by respondents' plant location, supervisory status, and basic job function. Major accident effects include perceived radiation exposure during the incident, evacuation behaviour, uncertainty and conflict regarding the accident, job related attitudes and tension, symptoms experienced during the accident period, and demoralization. Several of these general outcomes vary according to supervisory status and functional work area.
This study examines the effects of social support on the reactions of nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant and a comparison site to stress during the 1979 crisis. Results show broad main effects of social support on stress, strain, and health outcome variables. Moderating effects of support are highly selective and become less extensive as the hypothesized stress process moves from stress to strain to health outcomes. Findings are compared between the two nuclear plants and with other studies conducted under non-crisis conditions.
This study describes the development and issuance of an independent report on the quality of work life in a Corporation. The theory underlying the report, criteria, definitions, measurement procedures, the properties of the measures, and report itself are presented. A survey indicating a favourable reception to the data by stockholders, financial analysts, and employees is analysed. Recommendations for increased collaboration between accountants and behavioural scientists in the measurement and assessment of the quality of work life are presented in an effort to stimulate further research in the development of standardized measures and in the preparation of independent reports on the quality of work life in organizations.
The present study compared work commitments, overall job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards satisfactions, and organizational and professional turnover intentions of 718 male and female accounting professionals at different career stages. Career stage was measured by professional tenure. The results indicate that there are some differences in work attitudes across career stages for male accounting professionals. Job involvement, organizational commitment, and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards satisfaction are positively related to professional tenure. Organizational turnover intentions are negatively related to professional tenure for male accounting professionals. There are no significant differences in work attitudes across career stages for female accounting professionals. An examination of reasons for differences in work attitude patterns between male and female accountants suggests the need for research to determine whether later career stages (advancement and maintenance) differ for men and women. The results also suggest that future research should consider defining career stage in terms of the overlap between stages defined using alternate career stage measures.