Journal of Organizational Behavior

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1099-1379
Publications
Article
While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees' access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed.
 
Direct and indirect effects of core affect on task behavior
Article
The purpose of this paper was to contribute to understanding of the crucial role of emotion in work motivation by testing a conceptual model developed by Seo, Barrett, and Bartunek (2004) that predicted the impacts of core affect on three behavioral outcomes of work motivation, generative-defensive orientation, effort, and persistence. We tested the model using an Internet-based investment simulation combined with an experience sampling procedure. Consistent with the predictions of the model, pleasantness was positively related to all three of the predicted indices. For the most part, these effects occurred indirectly via its relationships with expectancy, valence, and progress judgment components. Also as predicted by the model, activation was directly and positively related to effort.
 
Article
This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro-macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions. The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes and board task performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Much of the literature on stress and organizational outcomes has focused on organizational factors and has ignored extraorganizational stressors that lead to perceived stress. However, research in other fields and recent studies in management suggests that acute-extraorganizational stressors, such as traumatic events, may have potentially negative and costly implications for organizations. This study tests a theoretical model of traumatic stress and considers the relationship between strain from an acute-extraorganizational stressor, the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, and absenteeism. Using a sample of 108 MBA and MPA students, this study suggests that strain caused by an acute-extraorganizational stressor can have important consequences for organizations. Namely, employees who report more strain from a traumatic life event are more likely to be absent from work in the weeks following the event. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Four broad classes of dependent variables (psychological strain, physical illness symptoms, health-related behaviour and social participation) were associated with eleven categories of stressors and stress moderators from work and family life, using multiple logistic regression analysis for a random sample of 8700 full-time male and female members of T.C.O., a major Swedish white-collar labour federation (covering 25 per cent of the Swedish labour force). Our goal was to find broad patterns of associations by comparing relative magnitudes of effects for (a) stressors and stress moderators; (b) work and family activities, and (c) males and females.
 
Article
We compared the frequency with which 85 Australian organizations espoused nine values (authority, leadership, teamwork, commitment, rewards, normative, participation, performance and affiliation) in 1986–1988 and 1989–1990 through a content analysis of annual reports, internal magazines, and mission statements. We studied value changes both by comparing the frequency of references to single values in the two periods and the frequency with which four, distinctly different values structures (Elite, Leadership, Meritocratic, and Collegial) occurred among organizations in each period. Univariate comparisons over the whole sample revealed only one significant difference—an increase in Commitment references over time. Comparisons based on groups of organizations with different value structures indicated both a preponderance of organizations with Elite values at time one, and that initially Elite organizations showed most evidence of value change. The findings are discussed in terms of the way univariate comparisons of mean shifts in values can mask the presence of significant differences in patterns of value change between organizations, and the utility of content analysis for measuring organizational values unobtrusively. Possible explanations for some of the changes observed are considered.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of employees in Fortune 500 companies who are willing to relocate. The profile was developed on a demographically diverse random sample of 827 employees from 20 Fortune 500 corporations, all of whom had moved at least once for their current employer. Employees who were most willing to relocate were younger, their incomes were lower, their career ambitions higher, and their spouses more willing than those who were less willing to relocate. These employees could be found in sales/marketing and production functions. Their attitudes toward moving were also favorable. The single most important predictor of willingness to relocate was spouse willingness to relocate. This result suggests strongly that in the 1990s, corporations are going to have to address the concerns of spouses, if married employees are going to remain mobile. The study also cautions corporations about the shortsightedness of thinking of spouse and dual career issues as ’women's issues‘ and assuming that females and minorities are unwilling to relocate.
 
Article
Replies to comments by D. M. Rousseau (see record 1999-00235-002) on the author's (see record 1999-00235-001) original article on the utility and meaning of the concept of the psychological contract in organizational psychology. Four issues raised by Rousseau are addressed and clarified. It is suggested that research and theoretical development of the psychological contract continue from a variety of perspectives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
We develop the concept of latent errors—uncorrected deviations from procedures and policies that have no direct adverse consequences—and examine the complex relationships between organizational antecedents, latent errors, and adverse consequences. Latent errors, with varying levels of frequency, are present in all organizations whereas extreme adverse outcomes are rare. Thus, all organizations become potential objects of study in research on errors. Latent errors enable the design of ex ante studies of errors that avoid sampling on the dependent variable. The basic elements of our framework focus on two critical linkages. First is the role of antecedent factors such as incentives and goals in contributing to the presence of latent errors. Second, we explore how positive and negative feedback systems and external triggers link an acceleration of latent errors with adverse organizational outcomes. We also discuss how variations in context (e.g., whether work activities are co-located or distributed) may affect these factors. Implications for research on high-reliability organizations are discussed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Equity theory proposes that individuals compare ratios of their own outcomes and inputs to the ratios of outcomes and inputs of others. According to this theory, if the ratios are unequal, individuals are motivated to take actions that will restore equity. Although equity theory has received considerable attention from organizational scholars, relatively few studies have investigated the cross-cultural applicability of the theory. In this conceptual paper, the value-orientation model of culture is used to identify the ways in which the cultural context may influence how employees conceptualize inputs and outcomes, their selection of referent others, their equity preferences, and their reactions to inequity. The paper also describes potential avenues for future investigations of equity theory in cross-cultural settings. Finally, some practical implications of this work are discussed as well. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Percentage of males in sample and population by grade
Means, standard deviations and comparison of the sexes using the Mann-Whitney U test.
Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance: illnesses showing significant grade 'gradients' in perceived
Article
This study proposes that the perceived legitimacy of minor illness as a reason for absence varies according to the nature of the illness, sex, job grade/socio-economic status and age. A measure of perceived legitimacy was constructed which incorporated illnesses commonly given as reasons for short-term absence. Thirteen hundred civil servants provided data on an employee survey. Absence frequency data were collected for 115 of these respondents over a 55-month period. General support was found for four of the five study hypotheses. Contrary to one hypothesis, it was found that men legitimize minor illnesses as reasons for absence more than women. Clusters of minor illnesses were identified using a factor analysis. The implications for management responses to absence and for further research into the perception of minor illness are considered. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
This study among 514 security guards examines the relationship between perceptions of unfairness at work and absenteeism during a one-year follow-up. On the basis of previous theoretical work and fragmented empirical evidence, it was hypothesized that distributive unfairness causes absence behavior in a direct or indirect way (through health complaints). Procedural unfairness was hypothesized to cause absence behavior through affective commitment or through health complaints. Results of a series of structural equation modelling analyses offer support for the mediating role of health complaints in the relationship between (distributive and procedural) unfairness at work and absenteeism. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that perceived unfairness contributes to explaining T2-absenteeism over and above the impact of T1-absenteeism and traditional work-related stressors (i.e., work load and low job control). The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an Absenteeism Feedback Intervention (AFI) on employee absenteeism. Three hundred and seventy-one employees working in 14 experimental and 13 control groups in a medium sized hospital participated in the study. Employees working in the experimental groups received absenteeism feedback at three time periods that provided them with information about their own number of absent days and episodes (sequential days counted as a single absence episode) as well as the average of their work and occupational group. Comparisons of absent days and episodes between the AFI and control groups indicate some support for the effectiveness of the intervention. In particular, there was a reduction in absent days and episodes for employees with higher than average absenteeism during the previous year but who were not extreme offenders. The research and practical implications of the AFI for reducing employee absenteeism are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The present study provides support for the utility of studying absence as a multi-dimensional criterion. Survey responses were collected from 194 bus drivers and paired with categorized archival absences. Seven absence indices were created and linked with three categories of predictors: (1) affective reactions to the work environment; (2) work-related perceptions; and (3) individual resource characteristis. The relationships between the multiple absence criteria and the three sets of predictors were examined both separately and combined using part canonical, and canonical correlation analyses. Affective responses fully mediated the influence of work perceptions on absence, and partially mediated the influence of individual resource variables. Redundancy coefficients and a rotated structure matrix were employed to identify two significant dimensions labeled, nonwork obligations and stress reactions, that linked the combined predictor sets with the set of absence measures. Together these dimensions accounted for 15 per cent of the variance in absence, with predictors differing in their explanatory power. Implications for the management of employee absence programs were discussed.
 
Article
This study examined whether an employee's level of absenteeism was affected by age, organizational tenure, perceptions of interactional justice, affective and continuance commitment, and the perceived absence norm in the employees' work unit or department. One hundred and sixty-six nursing and food services employees in a mid-size chronic care hospital provided attitudinal and perceptual data on an employee survey. Absence data (absence frequency and total days absent) were collected during the 12-month period immediately following an employee survey. Hypothesized relations between the various individual- and group-level factors and employee absenteeism were specified in a structural model and tested using LISREL 7 (Joreskog and Sorbom, 1989). General support was found for the study hypotheses.
 
Article
The aim of the study was to test reciprocal causality hypotheses for absence, investigating self- and supervisor-attitudes and behaviors as consequences, as well as antecedents of absence. Reciprocal relationships were proposed between absence and each of job satisfaction, performance, training achievement, and supervisory style. Questionnaire data on job satisfaction and supervisory style and organizational data on employee performance and absence were collected at time 1 from the 262 apprentices of an electricity authority and a year later at time 2 from the 241 then employed apprentices. The repeated data collection (n = 200) consisted of the time 1 first, second and third year apprentices, who became the second, third and fourth years at time 2. Causal tests indicated that uncertified frequency absence and time lost, but not certified absence, were more likely to lead to lower job satisfaction, training achievement, and supervisor-rated performance and attendance than the reverse. Supervisory style, especially support, led to less uncertified but not certified absence. Absence did not influence supervisory style. The reasons for the direction of the significant causal effects and the alternative explanations for such effects were discussed.
 
Article
A three component model of organizational commitment was used to study job withdrawal intentions, turnover and absenteeism. Affective commitment emerged as the most consistent predictor of these outcome variables and was the only view of commitment related to turnover and to absenteeism. In contrast, normative commitment was related only to withdrawal intentions while no direct effects for continuance commitment were observed. Continuance commitment, however, interacted with affective commitment in predicting job withdrawal intentions and absenteeism. The form of the interaction was such that high sunk costs tempered relationships between affective commitment and the relevant outcome variables.
 
Article
Research on life events plays a prominent role in the stress literature. Unfortunately, cumulative life events have been found to positively correlate only weakly with health (Rabkin and Struening, 1976) and academic performance outcomes (Lloyd et al., 1980). The present study of 185 hourly employees examined the relationship of life events, daily hassles, and daily uplifts to general health symptoms, job performance, and absenteeism. Multiple regression analysis revealed that hassle frequency and intensity accounted for a significant portion of the variance in general health symptoms, with life events adding little to the variance explanation. Regression analysis also indicated that uplift frequency and intensity accounted for a significant portion of the variance in job performance and absenteeism. The present results suggest that additional organizational research on hassles and uplifts seems warranted when studying predictors of health symptoms, performance, and absenteeism.
 
Article
The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e., overload, emotional demands, and work-home interference) and decreases in job resources (i.e., social support, autonomy, opportunities to learn, and feedback) predict burnout, (2) increases in job resources predict work engagement, and (3) burnout (positively) and engagement (negatively) predict registered sickness duration (“involuntary” absence) and frequency (“involuntary” absence), respectively. Finally, consistent with predictions results suggest a positive gain spiral: initial work engagement predicts an increase in job resources, which, in its turn, further increases work engagement. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
In our recent paper, we illustrated that despite modest levels of inter-rater reliability at the manuscript/journal level, the reliability of career-level assessments in the organizational sciences is very high because the high frequency of evaluations that accumulates into extremely reliable estimates of true scores over time. This is not a subjective opinion, but rather a straightforward technical issue. Many of the objections raised regarding this conclusion by a response to our work did not deal with the reliability of the career assessments, but rather the difficulty associated with reaching productivity standards that they felt were unreasonable. What constitutes “reasonable” expectations is a subjective opinion that varies across institutions and individuals. We argue that academic institutions and job applicants need to have an open and honest conversation that would allow sound decision making on the part of both parties, and we believe that our previous simulations can help frame such conversations. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
We conducted two studies addressing abstaining from voting in union representation elections. In Study 1 of a faculty representation election, we showed that compared to voters abstainers possessed less extreme work and union attitudes, believed less in the ability of their vote to affect the election outcomes, and were less involved in the election (e.g., less interested, felt less responsibility to vote). To assess the practical utility of these findings, Study 2 used vignettes in a 2 (traditional bread-and-butter issues) × 2 (emerging issues related to fairness) × 2 (voting instrumentality) × 2 (responsibility to vote) experimental manipulation. Results showed that the likelihood of abstaining is reduced when efforts to emphasize the responsibility to vote are presented together with information on both traditional and emerging issues. The two studies show why people abstain from voting in union representation elections, and suggest how abstaining might be reduced. Conceptual implications, practical interventions and research directions raised by the two studies are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Numerous studies have documented a positive relationship between work-family conflict and both psychological distress and somatic symptoms. Little research, however, has explored the relationship of work-family conflict to alcohol use/abuse. Consequently, this study investigated the relationship of work-family conflict to several indicators of abusive alcohol consumption. In addition, the moderating influence of gender and tension-reduction expectancies was examined. Data were obtained through household interviews with a random sample of 473 employed adults. As hypothesized, work-family conflict was positively related to abusive alcohol consumption. In addition, there was strong support for the moderating influence of tension-reduction expectancies. As anticipated, the positive relationship between work-family conflict and abusive alcohol consumption was found almost exclusively among individuals who believe that alcohol use promotes relaxation and tension reduction. In contrast, the hypothesis that gender moderates the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use/abuse was not supported. Implications for future research and intervention efforts aimed at reducing alcohol abuse in the workforce are discussed.
 
Article
We investigated the mediating role of the leader–member exchange (LMX) in the association of abusive supervision and employee work behaviors (task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors toward the organization and individuals). Using data collected from 366 supervisor–subordinate dyads, we found that LMX fully mediated the negative effects of abusive supervision on all three work behaviors. In addition, we conducted a supplementary study on the basis of the data collected from 54 supervisor–subordinate dyads from a garment company, and we found that LMX mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and employee objective future performance with interactional justice controlled. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Granting that organizational behavior may be a field with a weak paradigm, this can be viewed as an advantage rather than as a nemesis that makes success in an academic career nearly impossible for neophytes to the field. The weak paradigm allows many niches to emerge. A niche is an identifiable, circumscribed area of scholarly inquiry that can provide a good match with the individual's qualifications, interests, and career aspirations. Within these niches individual scholars can thrive. There a newcomer can find colleagues with similar interests, form partnerships, exchange information, and, in general, derive support for a career. Characteristics of niches are described and examples are provided. How niches evolve and the notion of creating one's own niche are discussed. The implications of the niche composition of organizational behavior for developing a successful academic career, and advice how to go about doing it, are provided. Tyros will fare much better if they adopt a niche strategy rather than seeing themselves as sitting ducks in a shooting gallery due to the role of chance factors in career advancement. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Job crafting, which occurs when individuals proactively make changes to their jobs, can be a useful tool for academics seeking more meaningful careers. We suggest changes to the cognitive, task, and relational aspects of academic jobs that can infuse scholarly work with more personal meaning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
A theory of leader developmental readiness is examined comprised of leaders' motivation and ability to develop. Early theory-building and testing suggests leaders' motivation to develop is promoted through interest and goals, learning goal orientation, and developmental efficacy; while leaders' ability to develop is promoted through self-awareness, self-complexity, and meta-cognitive ability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Data obtained with the aid of structured questionnaires from a Singaporean managerial sample (N = 228) were used to examine receptivity to an expatriate assignment in terms of the cultural similarity or dissimilarity of the country of relocation. Results of a paired t-test indicated that respondents were significantly more receptive to an expatriate assignment in a culturally similar location than in a culturally dissimilar location. Results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed mixed support for the study's propositions and explained only modest amounts of the variance in the culturally similar (R2 = 22 per cent) and dissimilar (R2 = 20 per cent) models. Limitations of the study, directions for future research and implications of the findings are discussed.
 
Article
Previous research on employee willingness to accept mobility opportunities involving geographic relocation has generally not specified characteristics of potential destination communities. However, studies of employee adjustment following relocation suggest that community characteristics are critical to employee satisfaction. In order to better understand the factors that influence employees' acceptance of mobility opportunities, we investigated differences in both levels and antecedents of willingness to accept mobility opportunities involving relocation between similar communities and relocation between dissimilar communities. Results suggest that employees were particularly reluctant to accept moves between dissimilar communities, and that the role of career factors, community attachment, and location preferences as antecedents varied depending on the specific nature of the mobility opportunity. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
 
Article
As employees find themselves in geographically separated teams, the loss of face-to-face interaction has led to the development of new monitoring technologies that provide availability information for enhancing collaboration. Drawing on diverse literatures in electronic performance monitoring, computer supported cooperative work, privacy, and fairness, a comprehensive theoretical model of monitoring acceptance was developed to examine the effects of being monitored for availability. In the first study, over 600 employees from a large number of organizations responded to one of a variety of monitoring system characteristics. Although the model found strong support overall, results suggest that technical solutions, such as manipulating the characteristics of the awareness system, are not sufficient to ensure fairness and privacy. A second, focus group study, adds support for the theoretical model and provides an explanation for these quantitative results concerning system characteristics. Specifically, the qualitative evidence suggests that these systems can invade employees' psychological barriers - and thus manipulating the technology will only have small effects on fairness and privacy because the technology has already crossed the line from benign to invasive. The paper concludes by presenting theoretical and practical implications for the consideration of psychological boundaries in the design and use of ubiquitous monitoring and communication technologies. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
We investigated feedback acceptance by participants (N = 141) in an operational developmental assessment center (AC). Consistent with predictions based on self-enhancement theory and the Affective Infusion Model, results indicated that higher assessor ratings were associated with higher feedback acceptance, and this relationship was partially mediated by the participant's affective reaction to the feedback session. Participants' self-ratings of their AC performance did not affect this relationship suggesting no support for our prediction based on self-verification theory. We also investigated the role of participants' self-ratings of agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability in feedback acceptance by testing specific moderated mediation hypotheses. Extraversion was related to feedback acceptance through the affective reaction to the feedback session. Agreeableness moderated the affective reaction to the feedback session and feedback acceptance relationship such that there was a strong relationship between affective reaction and feedback acceptance for highly agreeable participants, but no relationship for low agreeable individuals. For low agreeable individuals, there was a positive direct relationship between the assessor ratings and feedback acceptance which was not observed for highly agreeable individuals. The hypothesized role of emotional stability in predicting feedback acceptance was not supported. Implications for the delivery of feedback in developmental ACs are discussed in light of these findings. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
This study examines identity accumulation, others' acceptance of one's aspired self, work role salience, and job-search self-efficacy in relation to job stress. One hundred and eighty insurance agents working in six branches of an international assurance company completed self-report questionnaires. Results indicate that identity accumulation and others' acceptance have direct, significant, and negative relationships with job stress. Job-search self-efficacy is found to be effective in moderating the relationship between work-role salience and job stress. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Part-time professional employees represent an increasingly important social category that challenges traditional assumptions about the relationships between space, time, and professional work. In this article, we examine both the historical emergence of part-time professional work and the dynamics of its integration into contemporary organizations. Professional employment has historically been associated with being continuously available to one's organization, and contemporary professional jobs often bear the burden of that legacy as they are typically structured in ways that assume full-time (and greater) commitments of time to the organization. Because part-time status directly confronts that tradition, professionals wishing to work part-time may face potentially resistant work cultures. The heterogeneity of contemporary work cultures and tasks, however, presents a wide variety of levels and forms of resistance to part-time professionals. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that identifies characteristics of local work contexts that lead to the acceptance or marginalization of part-time professionals. Specifically, we focus on the relationship between a work culture's dominant interaction rituals and their effects on co-workers' and managers' reactions to part-time professionals. We then go on to examine the likely responses of part-time professionals to marginalization, based on their access to organizational resources and their motivation to engage in strategies that challenge the status quo. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Study 1: Summary statistics and zero-order correlations
Study 1: Regression for effect of abusive supervision  authoritarian management style interaction on organizational and interpersonal deviance
Study 2: Summary statistics and zero-order correlations
Article
An Erratum has been published for this article in Journal of Organizational Behavior 26(7) 2005, 873. Previous research on the relationship between alternative employment opportunities and cooperation has neglected the distinction between evaluations and restrictions. Thus, one cannot analyze the relationship between attractiveness of alternative employment opportunities and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) under different levels of perceived ease of finding alternative employment. In a pilot study with N = 149 German employees, we confirm the proposed distinction with confirmatory factor analyses. Based on power-dependence theory and rational choice models, we predict that under high ease the relationship between attractiveness and OCB should be more strongly negative than under conditions of low ease. In addition, we hypothesize that the interaction between attractiveness and ease should be greater for OCB than for task performance because task performance is exchanged in a relationship with an enforceable, binding contract, while OCB is voluntarily. Results from moderated multiple regression analysis on N = 86 German professional–supervisor dyads support our prediction for a negative relationship between attractiveness and OCB under high ease. Under low ease, we find a positive relationship between attractiveness and OCB. Moreover, there was no relationship with the interaction and task performance. Implications of the findings both for extra-role and job mobility theory formation and research are discussed. Copyright
 
Article
Recent models of evaluative information processing suggest that individuals will form differentiated dimensional judgments only if a differentiated set of categories or dimensions is accessible as behavior is observed. If, however, a differentiated set of dimensions is not accessible, individuals will form a more general global evaluation. Subsequent dimensional evaluations will be driven by this ‘overall ’evaluation. The present study supports this and indicates that dimensional performance evaluations will be more accurate if the performance appraisal dimensions are accessible to individual raters. This study demonstrates the importance of the accessibility of dimensions for accurate dimensional performance evaluations.
 
Article
This study examines the impact of the Three Mile Island accident on nuclear workers (N = 622) at the accident site and a ‘control’ plant in the same general area. Effects of the accident are examined by respondents' plant location, supervisory status, and basic job function. Major accident effects include perceived radiation exposure during the incident, evacuation behaviour, uncertainty and conflict regarding the accident, job related attitudes and tension, symptoms experienced during the accident period, and demoralization. Several of these general outcomes vary according to supervisory status and functional work area.
 
Article
This study examines the effects of social support on the reactions of nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant and a comparison site to stress during the 1979 crisis. Results show broad main effects of social support on stress, strain, and health outcome variables. Moderating effects of support are highly selective and become less extensive as the hypothesized stress process moves from stress to strain to health outcomes. Findings are compared between the two nuclear plants and with other studies conducted under non-crisis conditions.
 
Article
Research on corporate governance has been increased in recent years, reflecting growing concern about the future of global capitalism. Much of this research has been under socialized. Lubatkin and colleagues attempt to address this serious shortcomings of past research. While making an important and informative contribution to research, I believe these authors overlook the questionable assumptions of agency models of governance. Lubatkin and colleagues also key issues resulting from the internationalization of corporate governance. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
A framework for collective cognition in the workplace is developed to provide guidance to groups, their leaders, and researchers interested in understanding and improving cognitive processes. First, phases of the process and elements essential at each phase are identified based on prior research. Next, a series of catalysts are proposed which help bring about potential movement through the phases. Propositions regarding these catalysts are suggested to demonstrate the verifiability of the framework and guide future research and practice. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Procedural influences on peer-rater distortion and delay were investigated in a field experiment. Employees (N=123) of a business information firm were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (upward accountability versus no accountability) by 2 (administrative purpose versus research purpose) experimental design. Results revealed evidence for an accountability by purpose interaction on rater delay. Specifically, raters delayed rating their peers when the purpose was research-only and they had to explain their ratings to a supervisor. When the rating purpose was administrative, no differences in delay due to accountability were obtained. We found no effects for upward accountability and rating purpose on peer-rater inflation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Survey measures of work and work environment
Article
This study describes the development and issuance of an independent report on the quality of work life in a Corporation. The theory underlying the report, criteria, definitions, measurement procedures, the properties of the measures, and report itself are presented. A survey indicating a favourable reception to the data by stockholders, financial analysts, and employees is analysed. Recommendations for increased collaboration between accountants and behavioural scientists in the measurement and assessment of the quality of work life are presented in an effort to stimulate further research in the development of standardized measures and in the preparation of independent reports on the quality of work life in organizations.
 
Article
The present study compared work commitments, overall job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards satisfactions, and organizational and professional turnover intentions of 718 male and female accounting professionals at different career stages. Career stage was measured by professional tenure. The results indicate that there are some differences in work attitudes across career stages for male accounting professionals. Job involvement, organizational commitment, and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards satisfaction are positively related to professional tenure. Organizational turnover intentions are negatively related to professional tenure for male accounting professionals. There are no significant differences in work attitudes across career stages for female accounting professionals. An examination of reasons for differences in work attitude patterns between male and female accountants suggests the need for research to determine whether later career stages (advancement and maintenance) differ for men and women. The results also suggest that future research should consider defining career stage in terms of the overlap between stages defined using alternate career stage measures.
 
Top-cited authors
Christina Maslach
  • University of California, Berkeley
Wilmar B Schaufeli
Susan E. Jackson
  • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Fred Luthans
  • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Blake E Ashforth
  • Arizona State University