Journal of Natural History

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Online ISSN: 1464-5262
Print ISSN: 0022-2933
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Research in evolutionary biology and ecology of all animals; taxonomic descriptions, cladistic analyses, and molecular phylogenetics.

Recent publications
Notogynaphallia urku sp. nov. is here described from the north-east region of Peru, in the Amazonian lowlands. Specimens of the new species are flattened, up to 120 mm long, and characterised by their dorsal colouration consisting of a median band of melon yellow, on which run two irregular longitudinal stripes formed by tiny jet black dots; cephalic region with two para-median stripes forming a ‘V’; two green beige lateral bands with jet black pigment covering a large part of these bands, in the form of large circular or irregular spots that reach the posterior end of the body; marginal stripes with antique pink pigment; ventral surface ivory with antique pink margins, except for the cephalic region, whose margins are jet black. This species represents the second record of Notogynaphallia in Peru and exhibits some similarities regarding external features and internal anatomy to species found in Paraguay and Argentina, with which it is compared.
The gastropod genus Litthabitella Boeters, 1970 Boeters HD. 1970. Die Gattung Microna Clessin, 1890 (Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae). Archiv für Molluskenkunde. 100:113–145. [Google Scholar], type species L. chilodia Westerlund, 1886 Westerlund CA. 1886. Fauna der in der paläarktischen Region (Europa, Kaukasien, Sibirien, Turan, Persien, Kurdistan, Armenien, Mesopotamien, Kleinasien, Syrien, Arabien, Egypten, Tripolis, Tunesien, Algerien und Marocco) lebenden Binnenconchylien. 6. Fam. Ampullaridae, Paludinidae, Hydrobiidae, Melanidae, Valvatidae & Neritidae. Lund: Hakan Ohlsson’s Buchdr. [Google Scholar], inhabits mainly freshwater springs in the coastal regions of the Balkan Peninsula from Greece to Slovenia, southern Italy and the Ionian Islands. These snails are minute and show several synapomorphic character states, such as: broadly ovate osphradium, gonopore deep inside the mantle cavity, thickened circular oviduct, distal termination of the penis wide with a sharp and short lateral filament and two flat, cockscomb-like, four-folded lobes. These characters justify a family rank for the taxon. Three molecular loci – mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, nuclear 18S and histone H3 – also confirm the distinctiveness of the Litthabitellidae fam. nov. Analysis of molecular data indicates an estimated time of origin in the Late Miocene (Tortonian) and supports its position as the sister clade of the Hydrobiidae. The shells, protoconchs, radulae, operculum, some histology, female reproductive organs and penis are herein illustrated and described. Molecular data presented for 10 studied populations, confirmed partly by morphological characters, indicate four distinct taxa of species rank. Three species are described: Litthabitella aquaadcrucem sp. nov., Litthabitella cetinensis sp. nov. and Litthabitella levkadensis sp. nov.
This paper provides a revised faunal checklist for the subfamilies, tribes, subtribes, genera and species of the family Cicadidae (Insecta: Hemiptera) from Mindanao, Philippines, comprising 31 species belonging to 19 genera. A new genus, Neopurana Lee and Marshall gen. nov., and nine new species, Platypleura bella Lee and A. Mohagan sp. nov., Platypleura minima Lee and Marshall sp. nov., Chremistica flavialata Lee and Marshall sp. nov., Oncotympana obesa Lee and Marshall sp. nov., Neopurana bouptera Lee and Marshall sp. nov., Purana mindanaoensis Lee and Marshall sp. nov., Mogannia tenebrosa Lee and Marshall sp. nov., Philipsalta exilis Lee and Marshall sp. nov. and Philipsalta lata Lee and Marshall sp. nov., are described. Platypleura transitiva Lee, 2021 Lee YJ. 2021. A new species of Platypleura Amyot & Audinet-Serville (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Platypleurini) from Mindanao, the Philippines. J Asia Pac Biodivers. 14(2):261–263. doi:10.1016/j.japb.2021.03.003.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar] is newly added to the list of cicadas from Mindanao. Male calling songs are illustrated and described for all new species. Information on the geographic distributions of the 31 Mindanao species is provided.
Four new species of feather mites (Acariformes: Astigmata: Analgoidea) are described from the yellow-rumped cacique, Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758) (Passeriformes: Icteridae), in Brazil: Proctophyllodes truncatilobus sp. nov., Amerodectes gracilisimilis sp. nov., (Proctophyllodidae), Trouessartia cacica sp. nov. (Trouessartiidae), and Mesalgoides brasiliensis sp. nov. (Psoroptoididae).
A new genus of conoidean gastropods of the family Mangeliidae, Notopropebela gen. nov., is herein described to include N. profunda (Castellanos and Landoni, 1993) previously in the genus Propebela Iredale, 1918, and two new species from the deep waters off south-western Atlantic Argentine. This new genus is characterised by small rhomboid shells with axial riblets and spiral cords, absent operculum, and radula of semi-enrolled marginal teeth. Both new species are distinguished from N. profunda by the presence of pustules covering the shell. Notopropebela pustulata sp. nov. was collected at depths ranging from 530 to 2845 m off Argentina within the Mar del Plata Submarine Canyon in the north and Burdwood Bank surroundings in the south. Notopropebela petu sp. nov., distinguished from N. pustulata by a larger spire and subsutural ramp, was described from material collected from 210 m off Buenos Aires province. The radula and details of the shell and protoconch of both new species were studied from material deposited in the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales (MACN) and Museo de La Plata (MLP). We conclude that the genus Propebela is absent from the south-western Atlantic.
Three new species of brush-footed spiders of the genus Tigidia are described: T. jalgaonensis sp. nov. (♀, northern Maharashtra), T. tangerina sp. nov. (♀, eastern Karnataka), and T. fasciata sp. nov. (♀, southern Kerala). The present descriptions constitute the first record of the genus outside the Western Ghats, indicating its wider distribution in peninsular India. The discovery of the new species raises doubts about the validity of the genus Tigidia as the newly discovered species fills a large gap in the allopatric distribution of the genus Tigidia and Diplothele and further shows that most of the diagnostic characters overlap.
Two new species of Metacirolana from Brazil are described herein based on material collected from the continental shelf. Hitherto, only one species of the genus was known from Brazilian waters. So, this study increases the number of species from Brazil to three and the number worldwide to 39. Metacirolana helenae sp. nov. is easily differentiated from M. riobaldoi in lacking denticles on the posterodorsal margin of the pereion and pleon segments, while M. manuelae sp. nov. differs from M. helenae sp. nov. by the pleonite 1 smooth, pleotelson apex more rounded and antenna 1–2 shorter. Also, a key to Metacirolana from the Atlantic Ocean is given.
Gymnogeophagus is a genus of fish from the family Cichlidae present in freshwaters from Southern South America, and the knowledge on its parasite communities is rather scarce. Therefore, the present study evaluated, for the first time, the parasite community of G. balzanii. Fish were collected in the Pantanal wetlands, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and analysed for metazoan parasites. Ten taxa (larvae and adult) were found including Nematoda (3), Digenea (5), Copepoda (1) and Monogenea (1). All taxa were aggregated within the host population, few showed high prevalence and all had low abundance. The parasite community was composed by few specialists and several generalist and characterised by low richness, diversity and, consequently high dominance of few species and low evenness. These characteristics are typical of isolationist parasite communities. The predominance of larval forms indicates that G. balzanii occupies a lower position within the food chain, acting as an important link for trophic relations. Host length and weight were strong determinants in the parasite community, making fish sex also important since males were significantly longer and heavier than females. Generally, the parasite fauna did not influence host body condition, indicating no apparent debility. Presence of Clinostomum metacercariae is important for human health issues.
This paper presents the first comprehensive revision of the Afrotropical genus Delorhachis Karsch, 1896 Karsch F. 1896. Die äthiopischen Limakodiden des Berliner Museums. Entomologische Nachrichten. 22(17–18):261–283. [Google Scholar]. Through the utilisation of integrative taxonomic methods (external morphology, dissections of genitalia and DNA barcoding), we distinguish five species groups within the genus and herein describe 11 new species and one new subspecies: D. meyi sp. nov., D. nimbaensis sp. nov., D. pallidifascia sp. nov., D. parvinota sp. nov., D. smithi sp. nov., D. wetzelae sp. nov., D. wetzelae shambaa ssp. nov., D. manuelae sp. nov., D. tommasoi sp. nov., D. bakossi sp. nov., D. baaka sp. nov., and D. zambica sp. nov. We also remove D. charopa Bethune-Baker, 1909 Bethune-Baker GT. 1909. Descriptions of new African Lepidoptera. Ann Mag Nat Hist. 8(3):422–437. doi:10.1080/00222930908692603.[Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar] stat. rev. from synonymy with D. viridiplaga Karsch, 1896 Karsch F. 1896. Die äthiopischen Limakodiden des Berliner Museums. Entomologische Nachrichten. 22(17–18):261–283. [Google Scholar]. Several new taxonomic combinations are proposed: Chrysamma syntomoctena Tams, 1929 Tams WHT. 1929. New African Lepidoptera Heterocera. Bull Hill Mus. 3:163–173. [Google Scholar] is transferred to Delorhachis (D. syntomoctena (Tams, 1929 Tams WHT. 1929. New African Lepidoptera Heterocera. Bull Hill Mus. 3:163–173. [Google Scholar]) comb. nov.) and Delorhachis amator Hering, 1928 Hering EM. 1928. Limacodidae, Chrysopolomidae, and Seitz A, editor. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Eine Systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Die Afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer. Vol. 14. Stuttgart: Verlag des Seitzschen Werkes; p. 447–476. [Google Scholar], D. amica Hering, 1928 Hering EM. 1928. Limacodidae, Chrysopolomidae, and Seitz A, editor. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Eine Systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Die Afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer. Vol. 14. Stuttgart: Verlag des Seitzschen Werkes; p. 447–476. [Google Scholar] and D. purpurea Hering, 1928 Hering EM. 1928. Limacodidae, Chrysopolomidae, and Seitz A, editor. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Eine Systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Die Afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer. Vol. 14. Stuttgart: Verlag des Seitzschen Werkes; p. 447–476. [Google Scholar] are transferred to Miresa (M. amator (Hering, 1928 Hering EM. 1928. Limacodidae, Chrysopolomidae, and Seitz A, editor. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Eine Systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Die Afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer. Vol. 14. Stuttgart: Verlag des Seitzschen Werkes; p. 447–476. [Google Scholar]) comb. nov., M. amica (Hering, 1928 Hering EM. 1928. Limacodidae, Chrysopolomidae, and Seitz A, editor. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Eine Systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Die Afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer. Vol. 14. Stuttgart: Verlag des Seitzschen Werkes; p. 447–476. [Google Scholar]) comb. nov., and M. purpurea (Hering, 1928 Hering EM. 1928. Limacodidae, Chrysopolomidae, and Seitz A, editor. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Eine Systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Die Afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer. Vol. 14. Stuttgart: Verlag des Seitzschen Werkes; p. 447–476. [Google Scholar]) comb. nov.). Delorhachis schultzei Aurivillius, 1905 Aurivillius C. 1905. Lieutenant A. Schultzes Sammlung von Lepidopteren aus West-Afrika. Arkiv för Zoologi. 2(12):1–47. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.4542.[Crossref] , [Google Scholar] is synonymised with Hilipoda gravidipes Karsch, 1896 Karsch F. 1896. Die äthiopischen Limakodiden des Berliner Museums. Entomologische Nachrichten. 22(17–18):261–283. [Google Scholar] syn. nov. Miresa strigivena Hampson, 1910 Hampson GF. 1910. Descriptions of new African moths. Ann Mag Nat Hist. 6(8):116–141. doi:10.1080/00222931008692829.[Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar] is synonymised with D. nigrivenosa Karsch, 1896 Karsch F. 1896. Die äthiopischen Limakodiden des Berliner Museums. Entomologische Nachrichten. 22(17–18):261–283. [Google Scholar] syn. nov. Delorhachis denisae Dufrane, 1945 Dufrane A. 1945. Lépidoptères du Kivu (3e note). Bulletin et Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 81:91–143. [Google Scholar] and Chrysamma erythrochrysa Tams, 1929 Tams WHT. 1929. New African Lepidoptera Heterocera. Bull Hill Mus. 3:163–173. [Google Scholar] are synonymised with M. purpurea syn. nov. The females of D. viridiplaga and D. charopa and the male of D. chlorodaedala Tams, 1929 Tams WHT. 1929. New African Lepidoptera Heterocera. Bull Hill Mus. 3:163–173. [Google Scholar] are described and illustrated for the first time. DNA barcodes were obtained for 55 specimens representing 14 taxa, and analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches; a tree resulting from the latter is provided. Pairwise distances of barcodes between taxa are provided where available. The adults and genitalia of all taxa, their habitats and distribution are illustrated in 182 colour figures and five distribution maps.
Papilionidae, swallow-tailed butterflies, attract the attention of biologists for the importance of their ecological and evolutionary study. Papilionidae are peculiar among Lepidoptera for their larvae bearing a Y-shaped eversible osmeterium on the prothorax. However, morphological study of the larvae of Papilionidae, especially in terms of the osmeteria, are far from satisfactory. In this study, larval ultramorphology of Sericinus montela was described using scanning electron microscopy after a novel method of sample preservation. Larvae of S. montela are peculiar for the 15 teeth on the incisor, the triordinal mesoseries plus biordinal lateroseries of crochets on the anal prolegs, the urticating acanthae on secondary setae, and the micro openings and surrounding microtrichia on the osmeterium. The method of sample preservation, larval morphological characters and correlated defensive strategies are compared and briefly discussed.
Ex situ images of Paratypton siebenrocki (RMNH.Crus.D.54440): (A) ovigerous female and (B) male. Dwelling morphology of P. siebenrocki. (C) Dwelling in Acropora arabensis from Farasan Islands (Red Sea) with ventilation pores, host of the specimens shown in a and b; and (D) Acropora cf. verweyi fragment in REEFolution nursery in Kenya, arrow indicates dwelling. Photos (a, b) by Arthur Anker, (c) by Jessica Bouwmeester, (d) by Susanne Bähr.
Phylogeny reconstruction based on 16S and COI mtDNA. Paratypton siebenrocki (in bold) does not show a clear clustering with Anapontonia or Metapontonia in this reduced dataset from Horká et al. (2016). Topology is based on Maximum Likelihood (ML) analyses, support values are ML (UFBoot) on the left and Bayesian Inference (BI) on the right. Only values ≥ 90 are shown; -represents a value below this threshold.
(a) Log egg number vs log carapace length (CL) in Paratypton siebenrocki; (b) box plot showing the egg volume of early and late stage embryos.
Tropical coral reefs offer a wide variety of habitats to countless invertebrate species. Sessile host organisms especially are inhabited by small taxa, of which decapod crustaceans form one of the most diverse communities. Symbiotic palaemonid shrimp species associate with marine invertebrate hosts from multiple phyla, including cnidarians such as stony corals (Scleractinia). The intriguing gall-forming shrimp Paratypton siebenrocki, a symbiont of Acropora corals in the Indo-Pacific, was collected in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, Kenya, and the Maldives. Based on morphology P. siebenrocki has been considered to be most closely related to the genera Anapontonia and Metapontonia; however, no clear clustering with either palaemonid genus was observed in a phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S and COI mtDNA. Here we photo-document the dwellings of P. siebenrocki in Acropora spp. for the first time, and furthermore we report on the reproductive output of this species. The number of eggs ranged from 345 to 909 (n = 6), and embryo volume differed strongly between early-and late-stage embryos. The carapace length ranged from 2.58 to 4.55 mm for the females and 1.51 to 2.5 mm for the males (n = 5). The number and size of the embryos, combined with their specialised, secluded lifestyle, suggest that P. siebenrocki allocates higher energy towards embryo production than free-living confamilials do. ARTICLE HISTORY
Bowie indicus (Gravely, 1931), male (a-e). (a) habitus, dorsal view; (b) left femur IV, retrolateral view showing humps; (c-d) close-up of humps on femur IV; (e) right pedipalp, retrolateral view; (f) left pedipalp of Bowie cochinensis (Gravely, 1931), retrolateral view. Scale bars: a-b, e-f = 2 mm; cd = 0.2 mm.
Bowie indicus (Gravely, 1931), male right pedipalp (drawings have been rotated so as to appear left). (a) ventral view; (b) retrolateral view. Abbreviations: C, conductor; E, embolus; EB, embolic base; MA, median apophysis; ME, membranous extension of embolus; RCP, retrobasal cymbial process; RTA, retrolateral tibial apophysis; SD, sperm duct; ST, subtegulum; T, tegulum; VTA, ventral tibial apophysis. Arrows indicate branches of the tip of RTA (1-4) and membranous triangular process of RTA (5). Scale bars: 1 mm.
The hitherto unknown male of the ctenid spider species Bowie indicus (Gravely, 1931 Gravely FH. 1931. Some Indian spiders of the families Ctenidae, Sparassidae, Selenopidae and Clubionidae. Rec Indian Mus, Calcutta. 33:211–282. [Google Scholar]) is described and illustrated in detail.
The neotropical apoid wasp genus Microstigmus is of particular interest biologically because it represents an origin of eusociality independent of vespid wasps and bees, and is part of the only eusocial lineage among the approximately 10,000 solitary species of apoid wasps. Females construct nests made of silk and the species exhibit an unusual diversity of nesting strategies. However, research is hampered because many species remain undescribed and the basic nesting biology of only a few species is known. I describe three new species from north-west Ecuador related to M. bicolor Richards, including diagnostic morphological characters, altitudinal ranges and molecular data as well as descriptions of their nests and nesting biologies. M. rosae sp. nov. is a mass provisioner that preys on nymphal Thysanoptera, while M. lydiae sp. nov. and M. mirandae sp. nov. are progressive provisioners that prey on nymphal leafhoppers (Cicadellidae). Nests of all three species can contain multiple adult females but more than half of nests contain only a single female.
The resin bee Anthidiellum troodicum (Mavromoustakis, 1949) was originally described from Cyprus as a subspecies of the West Mediterranean Anthidiellum breviusculum (Pérez, 1890). Although the distinctiveness of these two taxa at the species level was recognised by Andreas Müller in 1996, this finding has not found its way into the literature. Examination of new material confirms the distinct taxonomic identity of these two species, with A. troodicum being widely distributed in the eastern and A. breviusculum in the western Mediterranean, with no geographic overlap. Additionally, the geographically separated population in North Africa was found to be a distinct species, described here as A. africanum Kasparek sp. nov. While phenotypic characteristics would place it close to A. troodicum, a phylogenetic tree inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene fragment (658 bp DNA barcodes) indicates that it is closer to A. breviusculum. The clades representing these three taxa are well supported in a bootstrap analysis, with maximum likelihood values between 87 and 100%. The average genetic distance between A. africanum sp. nov. and A. breviusculum is low (at 2.4%), while it is higher between A. troodicum and A. africanum (at 4.7%) and between A. troodicum and A. breviusculum (at 6.2%).
A new species of the genus Cryptolestes Ganglbauer (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea: Laemophloeidae) is described in this paper from specimens collected in Pederneiras, São Paulo state, Brazil. Cryptolestes pederneirensis sp. nov. is diagnosed, illustrated and compared to its most similar congeners with a modified antennal scape. Additional records are also given for four species of the genus, two of which, namely C. spectabilis Thomas and C. thomasi Hauth and Bremer, are recorded for the first time in Brazil. New morphological data is provided by describing the male genitalia of these two species, as well as the hitherto unknown female of C. spectabilis. The pre-existing key to species of Cryptolestes is modified at the first steps to include C. pederneirensis sp. nov., C. robinclarkei Thomas, and C. thomasi.
The chestnut-crowned gnateater (Conopophaga castaneiceps) inhabits the Andean mountains, from Colombia to Peru, between 500 and 2000 m. Our study provides new information on the nesting biology of C. castaneiceps; specifically, we describe hitherto unknown aspects such as eggs, nestling development, incubation and feeding behaviours. Three nests were monitored during two breeding seasons (2014–2015) in Tatamá National Park, Risaralda, Colombia. Cup nests contained a clutch of two creamy eggs with reddish dots scattered throughout the shell. On average, the parents incubated 58% of their time, with similar duration of the off- (77 ± 48.2 min) and on-bouts (73 ± 41.7 min). A few days before nestlings abandoned the nest (11–12-day-old nestlings), parents conducted 6.8 ± 1.6 feeding trips per hour (N = 25 hours) during the daytime. Based on one nest, the nestling period lasted 17 days, with a growth rate (K) of 0.4. The female had a higher investment during the nestling period, more brooding (t10 = 106.48, P < .001) and more feeding trips (t10 = 7.69, P < .001) compared to the male. Both parents conducted night brooding. Our study shows that nesting traits are conserved among Conopophaga species. Our novel information on nestling growth, incubation and feeding behaviour for C. castaneiceps advances our understanding of the gnateater’s poorly known nesting biology and will be key for future comparative studies.
The Asian land snail species Bensonella plicidens (Benson, 1849) is enigmatic due to its extremely disjunct distribution. That is, it has been reported from the Himalaya, in Eastern China and Japan, and one subspecies was described from Taiwan. This distribution type has not been reported in any other land snails. It is also notable that some specimens identified as B. plicidens have ‘normal’ plica-like apertural barriers, while others have hook-like projections in the middle of the interrupted barriers, and the hooks point to the outside of the aperture. We examined several Bensonella samples and arrived at the following conclusions: (1) Bensonella plicidens has normal plica-like apertural barriers without hooks, and the Himalayan species with hook-like barriers is a new species, Bensonella hooki Páll-Gergely sp. nov.; (2) the species with hooked barriers recorded from Japan, Taiwan and eastern China differs from both Himalayan species (i.e. Bensonella plicidens and B. hooki sp. nov.), and the name Bensonella lakainguta Hwang, 2014 is available for it; (3) hooked apertural barriers have evolved repeatedly in the Hypselostomatidae and therefore cannot be used as a distinguishing character for the genus Bensonella. Bifidaria (Bensonella) landourensis Pilsbry, 1915 and Boysidia (Bensonella) qingliangfengensis F. Fang, J. Wang and Y. Chen, 2015 are junior synonyms of B. plicidens and B. lakainguta, respectively. Since the type species of Paraboysidia Pilsbry, 1917 and Bensonella Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1900 are very similar in all important shell characters, we consider the former to be a junior synonym of the latter.
Environmental heterogeneity can affect the diversity of arthropods, resulting in a positive relationship in most studies, including of some Diptera groups. We investigated the diversity patterns of Sarcophagidae fauna in two phytophysiognomies with inferences about the environmental heterogeneity. In our hypothesis, the flesh flies have higher diversity in more heterogeneous environments than in the more homogeneous one. The study was performed in São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, Northeast Brazil. In total, we found 1482 specimens, of which 402 were males, representing six genera and 26 species. Peckia (Euboettcheria) collusor (Curran and Walley) was the most abundant species. The mangrove community was more diverse than the forest community. Species replacement contributes more significantly to the difference in species composition between environments than richness difference does, with higher values of dissimilarity of taxonomic diversity. Our data show that sarcosaprophagous flesh flies have a preference for open and sunny environments, implying greater diversity in mangroves rather than in forested areas. The negative relationship between species richness/abundance and vegetation cover in our study corroborates flesh flies’ preference for open environments. Our data show a tendency to refute the environmental heterogeneity hypothesis. The mangrove fauna, especially Diptera communities, has received less attention. Nevertheless, mangrove has the potential to shelter high species richness, highlighting the need for further studies and conservation plans for these areas.
The first ever survey of the enchytraeid fauna in the Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve (Guizhou, China) yielded a total of eight species, two of them new to science: Xetadrilus prolixglandus sp. nov. and Hemienchytraeus tenuiculus sp. nov. One unidentified and possibly new species of Fridericia and five additional species, Achaeta brevivasa, Enchytraeus buchholzi, Fridericia loretensis, Henlea perpusilla and Hemienchytraeus stephensoni, are recorded and described, based on the collected material. The species records include morphological descriptions and molecular data (the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and the nuclear histone 3 (H3) gene).
Displacement occurs during the movement of an organism and can be defined as a change in spatial position, being influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. Measuring the displacement of organ- isms within their home range is relevant for understanding their use of space and can reveal possible causes and consequences of their movements. During part of the dry season in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, we marked and observed syntopic Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus individuals in a rocky habitat, and compared their locomotive parameters. We also evaluated the existence of relationships between locomotion and morphometry (snout–vent length and body mass) and abiotic factors (air temperature and relative humidity) of these species. A total of 25.33 hours of observations showed that T. semitaeniatus is clearly less sedentary in relation to T. hispidus, in terms of short- term movements. There was a tendency of smaller individuals to perform a greater number of displacement movements per min- ute, and displacement distance per minute increased in accor- dance with an increase in relative humidity for T. semitaeniatus. The movement pattern of the less sedentary T. semitaeniatus may reflect their greater dependence on rocky outcrops and, consequently, they demonstrate better morphological and behavioural adaptations. The surface area–volume relationship, which influences thermoregulatory behaviour, may explain the relationship between morphology and displacement distance in T. semitaeniatus. Furthermore, this species appears to control their movements with the aim of avoiding dehydration caused by restrictions of relative low humidity in their microhabitats. This study has important implications for future research on biomechanics, ecophysiology and modelling of the potential distribution of Tropiduridae lizards under climate change.
A catalogue of the species of Platylabini from the south-eastern United States is presented, with an updated list of the species, a review of their distribution, and the first illustrated key to the genera and species. Cyclolabus gracilicornis gracilicornis (Provancher, 1886) is newly recorded for the province of Nova Scotia (Canada), while eight species are recorded for the first time for the following US states: Amboplisus ornatus (Cresson, 1868) for Georgia; Asthenolabus canadensis (Cresson, 1877) for West Virginia; Linycus exhortator thoracicus (Cresson, 1864) for Virginia, Neolinycus michaelis Heinrich, 1971 for Florida; Platylabus clarus (Cresson, 1867) for Alabama, Virginia and West Virginia; Platylabus opaculus americanus Heinrich, 1962 for North Carolina; Probolus detritus (Brullé, 1846) and Tropicolabus foxi (Davis, 1898) for Florida. Based on newly discovered and already published material, a new subspecies synonym has been recognised: Neolinycus michaelis arkansae Heinrich 1975 is regarded as a junior synonym of Neolinycus michaelis michaelis Heinrich, 1971, and the previous subspecies synonymy that regarded Neolinycus michaelis georgianus Heinrich, 1972 as a junior synonym of the nominate subspecies has been confirmed and explained. The female of Tropicolabus foxi is described for the first time, marking the first record of the species since its original description. Nomenclatural notes and extensive comments for each species are provided, as well as a key to the tribes of Ichneumoninae of North America, and to the genera and species of Platylabini from the south-eastern United States.
The great diversity of social organisation present in the tribe Augochlorini makes these bees prime candidates from which to study the evolution of social behaviour. The Corynura group, sister to all other augochlorines, is comprised by three southern South American genera: Callistochlora, Corynura and Halictillus. The nest architecture and social behaviour of Ca. aureoviridis, Co. ampliata, Co. bruchiana, Co. nahuelita, H. amplilobus and H. reticulatus were studied in Argentina. Conclusive evidence of solitary and semisocial behaviour were found in a group where only communal behaviour had been confirmed. Two species presented socially polymorphic populations. Previous studies are reviewed and all data analysed considering species’ flying periods. The possibility of eusocial behaviour is briefly discussed considering environmental factors. Since some of the species visit crops, these results are useful to develop techniques to manage native bees for pollination.
We report four squat lobster species of the genera Raymunida Macpherson and Machordom, 2000 (Munididae) and Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874 (Munidopsidae) from the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone. The genus Raymunida is recorded for the first time from Indian waters, including a new species R. shraddhanandi sp. nov. and R. vittata Macpherson, 2009 based on material from the Andaman Sea. Raymunida shraddhanandi sp. nov. differs from its closest congener R. formasanus Lin, Chan and Chu, 2004 in the armatures of the anterior branchial carapace region, antennal peduncle and third maxilliped merus, and the length of the fourth pereopod. Two new species of the genus Munidopsis, referred to the Anoplonotus group, are described from the south-western Bay of Bengal and the south-eastern Arabian Sea. Munidopsis bengala sp. nov. and M. kadal sp. nov. are distinguished from all of their allies – M. bruta Macpherson, 2007, M. shulerae Vázquez-Bader, Gracia and Lemaitre, 2014, and M. truculenta Macpherson and Segonzac, 2005 – by the unarmed dorsodistal margin of the third maxilliped merus and the relative length of the antennal peduncle, respectively.
Olivella Swainson, 1831 is a genus of small marine benthic gastropods found worldwide, represented by 117 valid species in 17 subgenera usually defined by conchological features such as colouration, size, shape and shell sculpture. Despite some conchological research on species in the family Olividae Latreille, 1825, the soft anatomy of Olivella species is still poorly studied. The present study aims to describe and compare the morphology of the pallial cavity and its adjacent structures in three species of Olivella from the Brazilian coast: Olivella (Olivella) floralia (Duclos, 1844), Olivella (Olivella) nivea (Gmelin, 1791), and Olivella (Niteoliva) minuta (Link, 1807). We suggest that some conchological (e.g. reabsorption of the columella or not; presence or absence of the operculum) and soft anatomical (e.g. placement of the posterior mantle tentacle, morphology of osphradium and reproductive system) features are useful to better distinguish between the subgenera Olivella and Niteoliva. Such characters have a potential role in taxonomic decisions and hypotheses regarding subgenera and a better understanding of evolutionary relationships within Olivella.
Trimorus (Lochana) nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for the subgenus Trimorus (Neotrimorus) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a junior homonym of Neotrimorus Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). This subgenus has a distinct striated medial mesoscutellar spine as well as basal depressions on the third metasomal sternum. ‘Basal depressions on the third metasomal sternum’, earlier considered to be present only in Xenomerus in Teleasinae, are now found to be shared by Trimorus (Lochana). Two new species, Trimorus (Lochana) karna sp. nov. and T. (L.) satyaki sp. nov., are described and illustrated. The following new combinations are proposed: Trimorus (Lochana) spinostriatus comb. nov.; T. (L.) scutellospinosus comb. nov.; T. (L.) ferrari comb. nov. Keys to the females and males of all species of Trimorus (Lochana) are provided.
Chakra Rajmohana and Veenakumari is represented by two species – C. sarvatra Rajmohana and Veenakumari and C. pachmarhica (Sharma) – in India. Twelve new species are being added to the Indian fauna of Chakra – C. agathachristieae sp. nov., C. alexandra sp. nov., C. bournei sp. nov., C. galathea sp. nov., C. gotamiae sp. nov., C. juturna sp. nov., C. kambani sp. nov., C. parviocula sp. nov., C. pillaiyar sp. nov., C. sanghamittae sp. nov., C. valluvari sp. nov. and C. zvelebili sp. nov. – and Chakra pachmarhica (Sharma) is redescribed. This genus is polymorphic with two species exhibiting brachyptery.
Helicarionid land snails with large shells have been placed in three genera: Malandena, Pravonitor and Elatonitor. These taxa are revised herein using comparative morpho-anatomy and mitochondrial phylogenetics. We demonstrate that these species represent three independent radiations, but this is not reflected in the current generic arrangement. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that these genera do not form a monophyletic group, and we conclude that large shells have evolved multiple times among helicarionids in Queensland, Australia, presumably as an adaptation to moist environments. Species belonging to Pravonitor have a medium-sized to large, glossy shell, often with a peripheral band. Among other traits, they always have a single-chambered, internally pustulose or ridged penis, an epiphallus with a slender flagellum, and a long epiphallic caecum with medial penial retractor muscle attachment. This genus comprises eight species: Pravonitor kreffti, P. ferrugineus, P. insularum, P. annulus, P. aquilonia comb. nov., P. monteithi comb. nov., P. septentrionalis sp. nov. and P. stuarti sp. nov. We describe Geminitor gen. nov. for Geminitor laura comb. nov., G. villaris comb. nov., G. kullaensis sp. nov., G. macveae sp. nov. and G. wenlockensis sp. nov. Geminitor has a small to medium-sized shell, a long, two-chambered penis, an epiphallus with a slender flagellum, and an epiphallic caecum with basal penial retractor muscle attachment. The unavailable genus name Malandena is subsumed under Elatonitor, which now contains Elatonitor montanus and E. suturalis comb. nov. Elatonitor has a large glossy shell with an angulate periphery, a long, narrow, single-chambered penis with longitudinal pilasters, an epiphallus with a broad flagellum, and no epiphallic caecum. While this study has nearly doubled the number of known large helicarionid species in Far North Queensland, there are still knowledge gaps and we recommend further surveys to search for undocumented species, improve our understanding of species distribution and undertake vital conservation assessments.
The Western Ghats, vernacularly known as the ‘Sahyadri’ mountain ranges, constitutes a 1600 km chain of hills spread across 189,611 km2 and reaching an average elevation of 900–1500 m above mean sea level along the south-western coast of India. Falling well within Meyer’s classification as one of the hottest hotspots, the Western Ghats is home to thousands of endemic flora and associated fauna. Here we validate the biodiversity hotspot status of the Ghats with examples of chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), describing with illustrations a new species of Phasgonophora Westwood (P. rubra Binoy, sp. nov.) from southern Western Ghats. The regional species of Phasgonophora are reviewed along with a phylogenetic analysis based on morphology, exploring the possible congruence of morphological data for the newly collected species. Additionally, diagnoses and illustrations are presented for an unnamed species of Megachalcis Cameron based on a male specimen from the southern Western Ghats. Megachalcis kannapuramensis Sureshan and Girish Kumar is redescribed with illustrations based on a female collected from Aaralam Wildlife Sanctuary, also within the Western Ghats. Distribution maps of Indian species of Phasgonophora Westwood and world species of Megachalcis Cameron are also provided.
A new species of Cyrtodactylus is described herein on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic evidence inferred from the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene from Mizoram, Northeast India. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by an adult snout-vent length of 62.6–68.6 mm; 10–11 supralabials; 9–11 infralabials; dorsal tubercles rounded, conical to weakly keeled and in 19–20 longitudinal rows; 32–36 paravertebral tubercles between the level of axilla and groin; 32–39 mid-ventral scale rows across the ventral region; 6 precloacal pores in males and 0–6 precloacal pits in females; 14–18 subdigital lamellae under toe IV; no single row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; indistinct pattern of alternating dark brown blotches on the dorsum of the body. Morphologically and genetically, the new species is recovered as the sister species to C. aaronbaueri, but is genetically distinct by an uncorrected p-distance of 0.099–0.1, and morphologically in the number of precloacal pores, mid-ventral scale rows, paravertebral tubercles on the trunk, dorsal tubercle rows, dorsal spot, and subdigital lamellae on pes.
The genus Obdulia Pritchard and Baker is reported for the first time from Saudi Arabia based on O. neotamaricis sp. nov. collected from galls on Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. (Tamaricaceae). The new species is described and illustrated from the adult female and male specimens. Obdulia daadi Al-Gboory, also collected from T. aphylla leaves, is re-described and illustrated based on both sexes, recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. Both Obdulia species were associated with the predatory mites, Molothrognathus sp. (Caligonellidae) and Paragigagnathus sp. (Phytoseiidae). The geographic distribution, hosts and a key to all known species of Obdulia are also given.
We monitored a recently discovered population of Paratelmatobius mantiqueira for 13 months and gathered new data for the species:external morphology of tadpoles, acoustic repertoire, and life his-tory traits. We also collected unprecedented data on behavioursand interactions of adults and tadpoles observed during monitor-ing. Based on natural markings of P. mantiqueira adults, we esti-mated the effective population size and estimated their homerange. With circular statistics, we tested whether they were season-ally active and evaluated how humidity and temperature influencedthe detectability of the species. We found that tadpoles and adver-tisement calls of P. mantiqueira differed from congeneric species.We also described the release and aggressive calls. We found thatthe species has a small home range, with probable resident females.Temperature and humidity positively influenced the detectability ofP. mantiqueira; encounters varied seasonally. Paratelmatobius man-tiqueira is a strictly forest species, found mainly in leaf litter andassociated with muddy areas in rocky outcrops of highland forests.Our study provides new data about P. mantiqueira, which may helpfuture integrative taxonomy approaches and contribute to theconservation of this species.
Insular regions present peculiar characteristics, including small populations resulting from prolonged evolutionary isolation. Such conditions make these areas sensitive to anthropogenic changes. By consequence, these areas are interesting for studying genetic and adaptative processes. This study had two main goals: to evaluate the demographic structure (distribution, frequency of individuals in size classes, and sex ratio) and to assess the genetic diversity of a freshwater shrimp population of Potimirim brasiliana on the continental São Sebastião Island. Subsequently, population structure (size, abundance, and sex ratio) and genetic analyses (network haplotype and genetic distance of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 – COI) were analysed to compare the spatial distribution and connectivity of individuals along separated areas exposed to different conditions of dispersal. Three different areas were defined along the island (sheltered area – SA, exposed area – EA, and south extremity – SE). We found males and females in all areas except SE. The percentage of males was greater in the EA, that of non-ovigerous females was greater in the SE and that of ovigerous females was greater in the SA. Females were larger than males in all areas. No genetic structural difference was found between the studied areas and no genetic differences were detected in relation to the inland population. The strategy developed by P. brasiliana in the areas of the São Sebastião Island involves a differential occupation among the demographic groups in and maintaining connectivity between different and separated areas of the island by larval dispersal.
The Australian and Oriental genus Formosargus James, 1939 James MT. 1939. New Formosan Stratiomyidae in the collection of the Deutsches Entomologisches Institut. Arbeiten über morphologische und taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem. 6(1):31–37. [Google Scholar] (Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), until recently only known from three described species – F. kerteszi James, 1939, F. melanogrammus Lessard and Woodley, 2020, and F. variegatus James, 1969 – is herein revised. The monotypic sargine genus Amsaria Adisoemarto, 1974 is considered to be a synonym of Formosargus, and examination of material accumulated over the years resulted in the description of five new species to science: F. berezovskiyi sp. nov., F. borneensis sp. nov., F. mangoleensis sp. nov., F. trivittatus sp. nov. and F. woodleyi sp. nov. The genus, which was previously thought to be restricted to the Oriental Region only – known from species from Taiwan and the Philippines, though recently discovered in northern Australia and West Java, Indonesia (F. melanogrammus) – is here shown to be widespread in Southeast Asia. It reaches not only the transition zone between the Oriental and Australian regions and beyond, with first records from Papua New Guinea, but is also reported from the continental portion of Asia, with first records from Malaysia and Thailand. Rare in collections and with virtually no biological information available, Formosargus may have a hidden diversity in the Southeast Asia tropical wet forests, so additional species are expected to be found with future collecting efforts in the area. A key to all the species of Formosargus (which now includes 10 species), detailed descriptions of the species, and a map expanding the geographical distribution of the genus are also presented.
The genus Muricea, a highly speciose gorgonian coral group in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), is commonly found on shallow rocky reefs including Machalilla National Park (MNP), El Pelado Marine Reserve (REMAPE) and Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Here, we report the presence of M. hebes, M. echinata and M. robusta, which have been not previously reported at the REMAPE area and along the Ecuadorian region. These new records for Muricea hebes (Verril, 1864) in Ecuador broaden the known geographical distribution of these species across the tempered waters of California and Mexico, and the Tropical Eastern Pacific, belonging to Panama and Ecuador. Muricea robusta (Verril, 1864) was previously recorded in Mexico and Colombia, whereas M. echinata (Verril, 1866) was only found in Panama. This report contributes to increasing the knowledge of marine diversity in Ecuador, and broadens the previously recorded geographic distribution of the genus Muricea throughout the TEP. ARTICLE HISTORY
The stalked barnacles Minyaspis faroni associated with antipatharians known from the southern Red Sea have been recently recorded in the northern Red Sea. Two genera of oxynaspids, Oxyaspis and Minyaspis, differ morphologically in the coverage of the capitulum. In Oxyaspis, the capitulum is covered by calcified plates, whereas in Minyaspis, the plates are reduced, and there is an uncalcified area between plates. Molecular analyses revealed that species with reduced plates do not cluster in the same clade, whereas species with full coverage and uncalcified capitula are found in the same clade. Our analysis indicates that the reduction of opercular plates in the epibiotic barnacles has occurred more than once in the barnacle evolutionary pathway. The reduction in shell plates’ number, size, shape and thickness is an adaptive character of epibiotic symbiosis. This mode of life, common in thoracican barnacles, leads to adaptive morphological changes. Hence, the morphology of shell plates is not a homologous feature but reflects parallel evolution.
Anthropogenic pressures have caused a substantial decline of global biodiversity and have been further reported to strongly affect the ecological performance of species in their habitat, especially reptiles. Understanding the ecology of species and how species respond to habitat alterations is basic knowledge needed to develop conservation programmes and address issues of biodiversity loss. All five species of tiger geckos (Goniurosaurus) in Vietnam are known to be threatened by extinction due to anthropogenic impacts such as habitat degradation and harvesting for the international pet trade. However, conservation actions have only been initiated for the better-studied species. This study provides detailed basic data on microhabitat use of two allopatric sister species, namely Goniurosaurus huuliensis and G. luii. In total, 145 geckos (including 59 records of G. huuliensis and 86 records of G. luii) were observed during field surveys. All Goniurosaurus individuals were mostly recorded in the forest on karst formations, covered with evergreen broad-leaved woody trees, intermixed with ferns, shrubs and vines. Microhabitats of the two species were relatively similar in other traits, such as high vegetation coverage, high humidity, stable ambient temperature and dry-rock substrates. A multiple factor analysis supported that the ecological niche spaces of the two species highly overlap, even though their distribution ranges are geographically separated. We further found no intraspecific niche segregation in both species. The present data provide baseline knowledge for both in situ and ex situ conservation measures to protect species in the genus Goniurosaurus.
The Tamá small-eared shrew is found in the Andean cloud forests of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and the Tamá paramo in western Venezuela. Few aspects of its biology are known, and all information comes from its original description. In a patch of oak cloud forest, we found a relatively abundant population of the species and studied its abundance, microhabitat preference, diet composition and reproductive features, and their relationship with the rainfall seasonality of the study area. The fieldwork was carried on for two years at altitudinal intervals from 2402 to 2627 m.a.s.l. We caught 44 shrews in microhabitats with dense vegetation cover, abundant litter and fallen trees; their abundance changed significantly through time, varying along with the precipitation of the month before the capture. We found seven groups of arthropods in their diet, the composition of which did not differ significantly between sexes, reproductive stages or seasons. These shrews have a specialised diet, with ants as the most important item. Reproductive males are distinguished externally by the presence of hypertrophic subcutaneous lateral glands. We found adult reproductive males and non-reproductive males throughout the duration of the study, and their abundance did not vary significantly with precipitation. In contrast, we did not capture females in the driest months of the years, and although adult non-reproductive females were also found, we found a significant relationship between the abundance of reproductive females and precipitation. Consequently, adult reproductive males would be a permanent reproductive resource for the females, which appear to adjust their reproductive activity during the rainy seasons.
During a relatively long-term pollution monitoring study between 2015 and 2021 (annually between 2015 and 2019; triennially after 2019), a total of 257 polychaete species belonging to 40 families were identified at 17 soft bottom stations (depth range: 11–89 m) along the Levantine coast of Turkey. Among them, four species belonging to Hesionidae (Oxydromus digitifera sp. nov.), Orbiniidae (Leitoscoloplos mediterranea sp. nov.), Paraonidae (Paraonis lobulata sp. nov.) and Capitellidae (Barantolla cryptogenica sp. nov.) are new to science, two species belonging to Cirratulidae (Chaetozone elakata) and Ampharetidae (Anobothrus amoureuxi) are new additions to the Mediterranean fauna and 28 species are new additions to the marine fauna of Turkey. Among the families, Spionidae (29 species), Syllidae (22 species) and Paraonidae (22 species) accounted for 28% of the total number of species, and Capitellidae, Lumbrineridae and Spionidae comprised 45% of the total number of individuals. The most dominant species in the region were Lumbrineris geldiayi, Notomastus mossambicus and Prionospio saccifera. A total of 20 alien species belonging to 12 families were found in the region, with N. mossambicus and P. saccifera accounting for more than 85% of the total number of individuals of alien species. The new species are described and compared to the closely related species.
The genus Serrasalmus, popularly known as ‘pirambebas’, includes 87 valid species of endemic freshwater fish from the Neotropical region. Amidst this diversity, the parasitic fauna of Serrasalmus brandtii, the unique endemic species in the Caatinga domain, was investigated in the Lima Campos dam, municipality of Icó, Ceará, Brazil. Our objectives were to survey the parasite composition and to analyse the component community of this host. Of the total of 50 hosts examined, 48 (96%) were parasitised by at least one species of parasite. A total of 682 parasite specimens were recovered, representing a mean intensity of 14.20 parasites per fish. Seven parasitic taxa were recorded: two monogeneans, three digeneans and two nematodes. The most prevalent taxa were the monogeneans Anacanthorus serrasalmi (82%) and Amphithecium falcatum (76%), also showing the highest abundance (n = 317 and n = 177, respectively). Metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. revealed the highest mean intensity of infection (7.8). This survey reveals new host records for Serrasalmus brandtii, and new parasitic records for the Jaguaribe river basin. Two of the recovered species, Clinostomum sp. and Contracaecum sp., present a zoonotic potential: to raise awareness regarding the proper handling and preparation of fish for human consumption.
Two species, of the sabellid annelid genera Acromegalomma Gil and Nishi, 2017 and Notaulax Tauber, 1879, are reported associated with dead coral (Acropora sp.) in the Gulf of Mannar, south-eastern coast of India. The record for Acromegalomma quadrioculatum (Willey, 1905) constitutes the first report of this species from the Gulf of Mannar, whereas Notaulax pyrrhogaster (Grube, 1878) constitutes the first record of this species in India.
The family Leeuwenhoekiidae has a worldwide distribution. In Brazil, it is represented by five genera and 10 species parasitising all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Examination of material housed in the Acari Collection of the Instituto Butantan revealed undescribed species belonging to this family. In the present study, we describe a new genus, Caramuruacarus gen. nov., with the type species Caramuruacarus carnavalesca sp. nov. from the Minas Gerais State and a new species for the genus Whartonia, Whartonia parauapebensis sp. nov., from Pará State, both from the soil of Brazilian caves. In addition, a discussion of the genus Whartonia and its subgenera is provided.
The genus Byrsopolis Burmeister, 1844 is revised and six Brazilian species are described as new: Byrsopolis angeloottatii sp. nov. (Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul), B. schmidti sp. nov. (Barreiras, Bahia), B. burmeisteri sp. nov. (Cantareira, São Paulo), B. vazdemelloi sp. nov. (Barra do Bugres, Mato Grosso), B. ohausi sp. nov. (Grão Mogol, Minas Gerais) and B. blanchardi sp. nov. (Encruzilhada, Bahia). Lectotypes are designated for B. castanea Burmeister, 1844, B. laticollis Burmeister, 1855, and B. cribricollis Ohaus, 1912. A new synonym is proposed: Byrsopolis aenescens Ohaus, 1926 = B. chas- saini Soula, 2010 (syn. nov.). The genus is diagnosed, and all the species are illustrated and compared. The previously published key to genera of Areodina has been updated with the new diagnosis after the revision of Bysropolis. Additionally, an identification key to species of Byrsopolis is provided, with similar characters we made species groups to better identify them, as well as an up-to-date checklist of South American Areodina. A distribution map is also provided and the genus is reported from Paraguay for the first time.
The genus Pliacanthopus Giglio-Tos previously included two subgenera and five species, among which one species P. (Malayamantis) bimaculatus (Wang, 1993) is distributed in south-western China, and the other four are distributed in south-eastern Asia. Here, the identification of this genus is reviewed, P. (M.) bimaculatus is redescribed in detail, and one new species, P. (M.) tricolor Wu and Liu sp. nov., is described from the Himalayas. A key to the species of Pliacanthopus, necessary illustrations and life images of Pliacanthopus species are presented. The updated distribution of the genus Pliacanthopus is mapped.
Tetrastemma parallelos sp. nov., holotype ICHUM 8300: (a) anaesthetised specimen, dorsal view; (b) anaesthetised specimen, ventral view; (c) magnification of the head, squeezed specimen, dorsal view; (d) magnified stylet apparatus. Scale bars: a, b = 1 mm; c, d = 50 µm.
Conditions of the bottom surface where Tetrastemma parallelos sp. nov. was collected.
Rooted Bayesian phylogenetic tree showing the position of Tetrastemma parallelos sp. nov. within the Tetrastemma Asian-Australian Pacific subclade (Chernyshev et al. 2021) based on concatenated sequences of five gene markers (16S, 18S, 28S, COI and H3). Numbers near each node indicate Bayesian posterior probability (PP)/RAxML maximum-likelihood bootstrap value (BS)/IQTree maximum-likelihood ultrafast bootstrap value (UFBoot). Solid circles indicate full support (1.00 PP/ 100% BS/100% UFBoot). Open circles indicate 1.00 PP.
List of Tetrastemma species included in the phylogenetic analysis, GenBank accession numbers for 16S, 18S, 28S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and histone H3 gene markers, and their references.
We report a histology-free description of the eumonostiliferous hoplonemertean Tetrastemma parallelos sp. nov. based on a single specimen dredged from a depth between 11 and 18 m off Kouyatsu, Tateyama, Chiba, Japan. Dorsally, T. parallelos sp. nov. is characterised by the presence of two orange-pigmented parallel lines in addition to a reddish cephalic patch. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of 16S, 18S, 28S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and histone H3 gene markers along with sequences of 20 Tetrastemma species available in public databases confirmed that our species belongs to a clade recently proposed as the Asian–Australian Pacific subclade of the genus.
In this work we describe five new species of Hyalella: Hyalella sarukhani sp. nov. from Mexico City, Mexico; H. alvarezi sp. nov., H. garyi sp. nov., H. villalobosi sp. nov., and H. viviannae sp. nov. from Veracruz, Mexico. Since the four species from Veracruz belong to the H. azteca complex due to the form of the telson, here we present a morphological comparison using scanning electron microscopy images to address the variations within the species.
Leafhoppers (family: Cicadellidae) are among the most common plant sap-sucking pests, causing damage to wild and agronomic plants worldwide. The current paper aims to assess the zoogeography, diversity and population dynamics of the leafhopper species in an agricultural land converted ecosystem. Twenty species (two identified only to the genus level) belonging to 17 genera, 10 tribes, and three subfamilies were collected from Toshka Region, Aswan Governorate, Egypt, in 2020. The most common cicadellid species was Orosius albicinctus, representing 46.7% of the total catch. Low values of species richness and diversity were measured for leafhopper species as compared with those reported in our recent study carried out in Alexandria and Qena governorates. In sum, conversion of any natural ecosystem to agricultural land uses may cause declines in insect diversity. However, desert conversion may increase the diversity pattern of some insect pests. Analysis of the zoogeographic affinities of the leafhopper species from Toshka Region indicated a closer affiliation to the Palaearctic Region (35%) than any other region. Most leafhopper populations exhibited a unimodal seasonal pattern and were abundant in hot and dry months (May–September). The abundance of some leafhopper species correlated positively with temperature (seven species) and negatively with relative humidity (nine species). Six of these species correlated with both variables. This study is the first to investigate leafhopper communities in a converted ecosystem of Toshka Depression, Western Desert.
The new zodariid genus Spinozodium gen. nov. is described, comprising two species from Tajikistan: the type species S. denisi (Spassky, 1938) comb. nov. (ex. Zodarion Walckenaer, 1826) and the new species S. khatlonicum sp. nov.; the female of the type species, displaying highly reduced receptacles, is described for the first time. Both species are illustrated and their distributions are mapped, and keys to the Middle Asian zodariid subfamilies and genera are provided.
Nothotrioza is a small genus of jumping plant lice comprising three described species in Brazil and one in the USA (Florida) that induce galls on the leaves of their myrtaceous hosts. The galls of the Brazilian species are globoid and associated with Psidium spp.; those from Florida are pouch galls on Mosiera. Here we describe two new species from Brazil, Nothotrioza acuminata Burckhardt sp. nov. from Psidium laruotteanum and N. camptyla Burckhardt sp. nov. from P. rufum. Both species induce globoid galls similar to those of the other Brazilian species. The new taxa are diagnosed and illustrated, and identification keys for adults and the last-instar immatures are provided for all known species. The presence of mummies in the material of the new species suggests that they are as heavily parasitised as reported for the Brazilian species N. cattleiani Burckhardt and N. myrtoidis Burckhardt. Our data suggest that Nothotrioza species are monophagous with narrow geographical ranges.
Taeniogonalos Schulz is reviewed from India with Taeniogonalos ayyari Binoy, van Achterberg and Girish Kumar, sp. nov. and Taeniogonalos latae Polaszek and Binoy, sp. nov. newly described and illustrated from South India (Tamil Nadu). New synonymy is proposed for Taeniogonalos kerala Ayyar, 1919 (= Poecilogonalos henicospili Rohwer, 1929). A key to species occurring in India and a distribution map of species occurring in South India are also provided.
It is difficult to assess the population status of large terrestrial carnivores due to their low density. Recently adopted camera-trap techniques allow us to investigate many aspects of animal ecology and conservation and are widely used in wildlife population estimation. In this study, we applied the random encounter model (REM) to estimate the density of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in Shirakawa Village, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from May to October 2018. We installed 24 sensor cameras in the study area. Movement speeds of seven global positioning system (GPS)-collared bears were tracked from 2008 to 2018. The population density of bears in Shirakawa Village was estimated to be 0.55 bears/km². To apply the REM method to Asiatic black bears, we recommend (1) installing more than 30 or 40 sensor cameras and implementing the REM method in a period of 3 weeks before the late summer season (i.e. late August), after the completion of the hibernation period and when a closed population is easily maintained; and (2) correcting the distance moved by the target animal species when using GPS telemetry with a low fixed interval.
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Daniel Burckhardt
  • Natural History Museum Basel
Hendrik H. Segers
  • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Melih Ertan Çinar
  • Ege University
Yves Basset
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Rony Huys
  • Natural History Museum, London