Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 0143-4632
Publications
Ratio of home language to mother tongue (Ontario and New Brunswick, 1981 and 1991)
This paper analyses and compares the Canadian francophone minorities of Ontario and New Brunswick in order to see how well they have done in preserving their identity and in achieving economic success.
 
We investigate the effect of immigrants' marriage behavior on dropout from education. To identify the causal effect, we exploit a recent Danish policy reform that generated exogenous variation in marriage behavior by a complete abolishment of marriage migration for immigrants below 24 years. The reform influenced immigrants from countries with a high historical rate of marriage migration more than immigrants from country groups with a low rate. We find that the dropout rate for males increases by 25 percentage points as a consequence of marriage to a marriage migrant, whereas the effect for females is small and mostly insignificant. Copyright © The editors of the "Scandinavian Journal of Economics" 2009. .
 
Factors explaining investment in a second language
Variables Used in the Probit Estimations
Determinants of knowing English, Hispanic Americans, 1976 (Dependent variable bilingual = 1, unilingual = 0)
The goal of this paper is to examine, with the help of human capital theory, individual decisions with respect to learning a second language. In the first part of the paper, we examine, in a non‐technical fashion, the human capital theory and how it can be used to examine the decision to become bilingual. In the second part of the paper, we present the survey data on the francophones from Quebec and the Hispanics from the United States used in the study. Finally in the third part of the paper we present our empirical results: they show that family background and environmental variables have an impact on the likelihood of an individual being bilingual or not.
 
Investigates the social importance of the individual's speech style, discussing "linguistic norms" with reference to a variety of cultures and research sources. Endogenous and exogenous factors in speech style are discussed, and a tentative theory to explain speech modification is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its schemas. This may occur in diverse contexts, not only the context of the school. However, Western-based schooling by its nature generally expects students to operate exclusively according to the schemas that underlie the ‘standard’ dialect. An analysis of the discourse of bidialectal Aboriginal children in the South-west of Australia suggests that it exhibits the use of schemas from Aboriginal English (‘something old’), Australian English (‘something new’) as well as parodic uses of Australian English schemas (‘something borrowed’) and schematic blends which may sometimes be dysfunctional (‘something blue’). In this paper, discourse illustrating each of these schema types will be exemplified and discussed in terms of its implications for our understanding of second dialect acquisition and the literacy education of Aboriginal children.
 
The 'Year Abroad' is a requirement of all students of languages inHigher Education in Britain to spend an academic year in a country or countries where the languages they are learning are spoken. This article draws on researchwith a cohort of students during the Year and ten years later to examine the long-term learning involved. The research methodology was based on in-depth interviews and narrative theory. The data were analysed in terms of the development of intercultural competence discernible in the interviews undertaken ten years after the experience. It was found that the participants who profited most from the Yearwere thosewho had a degree of 'tertiary socialisation' before they left, and that this continued to be a significant part of their private and professional lives.
 
In this paper, I propose that we need to develop an appropriate set of conceptual tools for examining motivational issues pertaining to linguistic diversity, mobility and social integration in a rapidly changing and expanding Europe. I begin by drawing on research that has begun to reframe the concept of integrative motivation in the context of theories of self and identity. Expanding the notion of identity, I discuss the contribution of the Council of Europe's European Language Portfolio in promoting a view of motivation as the development of a plurilingual European identity and the enabling of access and mobility across a multilingual Europe. Next, I critically examine the assumption that the individual pursuit of a plurilingual identity is unproblematic, by highlighting the social context in which motivation and identity are constructed and embedded. To illuminate the role of this social context, I explore three inter-related theoretical frameworks: poststructuralist perspectives on language motivation as 'investment'; sociocultural theory; and theories of autonomy in language education. I conclude with the key message that, as with autonomy, language motivation today has an inescapably political dimension of which we need to take greater account in our research and pedagogical practice.
 
In Experiment I, 54 native Japanese children (ages 3–12) and 24 Japanese adults residing in the USA were required to produce and discriminate the English /r/ and /l/ in a variety of speaking and listening tasks. Children's /r/ and /l/ speaking performances were found to be significantly better than adults’. Three factors ‐ age, sociolinguistic factors, and linguistic factors ‐ emerged as significant predictors of the Japanese children's /r/ and /l/ abilities. No significant predictors were found for Japanese adults’ performances. In Experiment II, 17 of the Japanese subjects received identical, programmed /r/ and /l/ training, followed by repetition of the initial evaluation procedures. Only the Japanese adults improved significantly on all post‐training measures.
 
This paper reports on language variation research carried out in Western Australian primary schools. It addresses differences in the acquisition of vocabulary, in particular the acquisition of colloquial Australian English vocabulary by students from English-speaking backgrounds (ESB) and from a range of non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB). The data show differences which are attributable to a lack of familiarity with terms and the objects that they represent, which promoted strategies such as generic terms of circumlocution and which may have resulted from partial word knowledge. Other differences were attributable to cultural influences and were evident in varied patterns of word usage among the different non-English-speaking background groups. The findings of this paper suggest the importance of knowing a word not only in its semantic sense but also in its pragmatic and sociolinguistic sense.
 
Number of participants and their mean age as a function of country of origin and sex
Age estimates as a function of age group and country
Perceptions of young, middle-aged, and older adults' vitality as a function of country of origin
This paper is the second in a series of empirical applications of the concept of (ethnolinguistic) vitality into the intergenerational arena. It examines young people's assessments of the subjective vitalities of young, middle-aged, and elderly targets in four Western (midwest USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) and seven south and east Asian sites (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, mainland China, The Philippines, and India). The results support earlier findings (in Hong Kong and California) in that, relative to young adult targets, the elderly were rated as having more vitality in the Western than the south and east Asian settings; the middle-aged were seen as having the highest vitality across all nations. Differences in the age vitality profiles between the different nations allowedidentificationof three distinct patterns. The study also provided intriguing cross-cultural data on how respondents construed the onsets of young adulthood, middle age, and old age aswell as the ends of the former two categories. The findings are related to other cross-cultural studies of intergenerationalcommunication and age stereotyping, and future researchdirections are highlighted.
 
In the 1980s, language planning in Catalonia was carried out against a background of general consensus that major language recovery measures were needed in order to improve the linguistic and sociolinguistic situation of Catalan. Demographic and social conditions favoured language reforms aimed at making Catalan the official language of the autonomous region of Catalonia, promoting its use in public and in the education system. Non-Catalans, too, supported these language policies as the use of Castilian (Spanish) was not restricted. This paper discusses the language planning measures resulting from the 1998 Law of Catalan. Catalonia seems to have reached a point where language recovery and language promotion come up against an evolving sociolinguistic situation marked by changed demographic conditions and social attitudes. The debate about the 1998 Law of Catalan demonstrates that popular consensus can no longer be relied upon. Instead, conflicting views are being voiced as the promotion of Catalan above Castilian has come to be seen as an infringement of the language rights of non-Catalans. Public discourse has become more polemical, bipartisan and politicised. The question arises as to how far a region within a multilingual member state of the EU can go in promoting monolingual language policies.
 
Analytical categories and example comments 
Interviewee profiles 
Independent samples t-test for means of cohorts 2007-8 to 2011-12 on taught component, research component and overall degrees GPA on MACC (N = 352) and 
The recent increase in the provision of cross- and intercultural education for sojourners has not been matched by commensurate research into its effects on participants. Evaluation, where undertaken at all, has been largely confined to expatriate business contexts and has tended to be undertaken pre-sojourn. Crucially, evaluation has not engaged with the adaptation, adjustment and performance of sojourners related to their actual lived experience of adjustment, or with any key outcomes of sojourns. In response, this mixed-method, two-stage study explored both the adjustment and adaptation of student sojourners, with a particular focus on those studying cross-cultural communication (CCC). In stage one, analysis of results of ‘international’ postgraduate students (N = 680) at a UK university over a five-year period indicated that those doing a degree in CCC tended to perform significantly better over different measures of academic achievement than a closely comparable peer group following a similar programme which lacked a specific focus on CCC. Stage two tracked longitudinally the academic adjustment experiences of 18 students of CCC over the course of their programmes. Findings provided a fine-grained view of the experience of academic adaptation and adjustment, and hitherto rare indications of how and why CCC education might ‘work’.
 
Contemporary movements of people and resources across rural and urban settings, city locales and national and regional borders produce challenges for familiar ways of studying languages as located and stable systems and of literacies as standardised ways of reading and writing texts. This study contrasts children's digital communicative literacy practices in two homes in Cape Town, South Africa, showing major differences between how suburban middle-class children, on one hand, and urban township children encounter and engage with digital resources at home. Drawing on an understanding of new media as placed resources which operate in specific ways in particular contexts, this study shows these children as material, social and cognitive ‘sites’ where linguistic and sociopolitical norms are engaged with, absorbed and enacted. Rather than democratising resources, this research shows digital media as at least partially complicit in a ‘widening of the gap’ to the extent that the differential uses and availability of resources across social classes produce different imaginings of self, social ambitions and investments, and differing ways with social semiotics. Such differences translate into and contribute to the maintenance of social inequalities in school settings that coincide with language and social class divides.
 
This article is the guest editor's introduction to the special issue of the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development on ‘Multilingual Literacy and Social Change in African Communities’. Norton examines the diverse contributions with reference to the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, formulated in 2000 to ‘make poverty history’ by 2015. Bamgbose argues convincingly that language is central in the struggle for educational progress, gender equality and improved health. Makoe and McKinney, for example, highlight continuities in language practices in post-apartheid South African schools, while Early and Norton address the challenges of teaching through English as medium in Uganda. As discussed by Sherris and colleagues, programmes like School for Life, which validate the local languages of out-of-school Ghanaian youth, are exemplary, and can be contrasted with the troubling pedagogical practices identified by Higgins in her HIV/AIDS educational research in Tanzania. The validation of local knowledge is also a theme in Namazzi and Kendrick, who insightfully address multimodal educational practices in Ugandan child-headed households. Lemphane and Prinsloo provide a window on the future, cautioning that the digital literacy practices of diverse youth can be indexical of social inequalities. The promotion of multilingual literacy remains an urgent priority in African education.
 
In this paper, we address findings from a study conducted in a rural, Ugandan secondary school from August 2009 to May 2011 that explored the challenges and possibilities of developing language and literacy across the curriculum, including digital possibilities for the development of multilingual academic literacy. The central questions we address are: (1) in a rural African context, what educational conditions and language policies impact the use of English as a medium of instruction in secondary schools? and (2) how do teachers across the curriculum navigate these conditions and policies to integrate English language and content? Data collection methods included questionnaires, interviews, observations, policy document analysis and researchers' journal reflections. Central findings highlight the difficulties faced by content teachers in addressing their students' language needs in the context of contemporary policy guidelines; issues related to the pre-service preparation of subject area teachers; and possibilities for developing pedagogy for teaching language/s and literacies across the curriculum. From the findings, we argue that language policies, despite best intentions, might, like other ‘placed resources’ become dysfunctional when moved across distinctly different spaces from relatively well-resourced urban areas to poorly resourced rural communities and from elite to grassroots contexts.
 
This article examines the literacy events in HIV/AIDS education in Tanzania to investigate how they construct social identities for participants and to what extent they provide opportunities for critical health literacies. The projects took place as collaborative research partnerships with local Tanzanian NGOs in an effort to analyse and improve existing educational practices. Within the framework of multiliteracies, critical health literacies have the potential to engage individuals in the deconstruction of texts and the transformation of their social identities and social relations. Through taking an ethnographic approach to literacy events, I document and analyse the ways that educators convey information about HIV/AIDS and explore how target audiences participate in two kinds of literacy events: (1) instruction using written modes of language from official booklets and on blackboards and flipcharts and (2) breakout sessions in groups that the participants were often assigned, which involved writing out answers to key questions posed by the educators. My analysis shows a predominance of functional health literacy and a lack of pedagogical space for more critical engagements with the social and economic barriers to health that draw on the participants' own knowledge and experiences.
 
Quechua, often known as the language of the Incas, remains today a vital language with over 10 million speakers in several Andean republics. Nevertheless, census records and sociolinguistic studies document a continuous cross-generational shift from Quechua monolingualism to Spanish monolingualism in the latter half of the twentieth century, at both individual and community levels. An increasing awareness of the potential threat to the language has led to a variety of new initiatives for Quechua revitalization in the 1990s, initiatives which go beyond earlier experimental bilingual education projects designed primarily to provide mother tongue literacy instruction to indigenous children (in transitional or maintenance programs) to larger or more rooted efforts to extend indigenous language and literacy instruction to new speakers as well. Drawing on documents, interviews, and on-site participant observation, this paper will review and comment on two recent such initiatives: Bolivia’s 1994 national educational reform incorporating the provision of bilingual intercultural education on a national scale; and a community-based effort to incorporate Quichua as a second language instruction in a school of the Ecuadorian highlands.
 
Using the Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching observation scheme (Spada, N., & Frohlich, M., 1995), the second-language learning environments of elementary-level students of French in four submersion & four immersion classrooms in the Montreal area are compared. The database is composed of almost 60 hours of observations during language arts lessons - 28.4 hours in the four submersion classrooms, so named because they are designed for native speakers of French but comprise a large number of minority-language students obliged to attend French-language schools, & 30.5 hours in the four French immersion classrooms, composed of a majority of Anglophone students attending English-language schools. Results indicate clear differences between the two environments. Language arts lessons in the four submersion classrooms are predominantly analytic; the content focus is primarily on language form & most materials entail only minimal discourse. Conversely, language arts lessons in the four immersion classrooms involve a more balanced combination of analytic & experiential orientations, including more variety in classroom organization, content that focuses on both language & other topics, & text that includes more extended discourse.
 
The extent to which ethnic speech styles can be detected, and how they and English R.P. are evaluated, have been problematic issues in the small literature devoted to New Zealand speech varieties. In the present study, samples of spontaneous speech of English, Dutch, Maori and Pakeha speakers (from three status groups) were presented on audiotapes to 120 students. Ratings were made on four Social and four Personal Scales, while an attempt to describe type of accent was invited. The results showed that Maori speakers were the least successfully identified by ethnic group. Prestige ratings were: English, Dutch, and then Maori. English and Pakeha speakers were equally prestigeful, though this effect interacts with occupational class: speech styles approximating R.P. were rated highest. Ethnicity was also used as a cue to attribute a limited number of personal stereotypes.
 
Attitude of peers to languages in the playground (lower numbers = more positive attitudes) 
This study examines the attitudes of 58 bilingual primary-school children towards their first and second languages, and the attitudes they attribute to parents, teachers and peers in the context of the home, the classroom and the playground. It also examines whether students' attitudes to language are moderated by whether or not they were born in Australia, the cultural group to which they belong, whether or not they had received English as a Second Language (ESL) help, and the number of years they have lived in Australia.
 
The effect of communicative anxiety on attitudes.
Overview of the effects of the independent variables on the attitudes towards French and English
The effect of frequency of speaking on attitudes.
An analysis of 100 Flemish high-school students' attitudes towards French and English (both foreign languages) revealed complex links etween personality factors, gender, politicocultural identity, communicative behaviour and foreign language attitudes. Attitudes towards English were found to be much more positive than those towards French, despite the fact that the participants had enjoyed a longer and more intense formal instruction in French (it being their second language). The independent variables were found to have stronger effects for French than for English, with the exception of politicocultural identity of the participant, which had a strong effect on attitudes towards French but not English. Overall, it seems that social factors, including exposure to the foreign languages, are linked with lowerlevel personality dimensions and thus shape attitudes towards these languages.
 
Until 1947, Australia was considered one of the most monolingual countries in the world. However, now there are more than a million bilingual Australians who regularly use a language other than English when talking with friends and families, or on religious or social occasions. (SL)
 
Political leaders, the media, business people, trade union leaders and academics continually refer to how globalisation is impacting on our lives. Governments may at times argue that globalisation benefits us, and at others attribute to globalisation many of the major problems we currently face. What do ordinary people make of all this? We do not have a systematic account of their understandings, in terms of the primary associations they make with globalisation, and how they orient to it in terms of resistance or support. 302 respondents (groups from the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand) were asked to note the first five things they associate with the word ‘globalisation’. Their most salient associations centre on issues of economy, culture, power and communication. Differences emerge in the contrasting priorities that the groups give these categories and how they evaluate them in positive or negative terms, with the US respondents holding a comparatively more positive outlook.
 
This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the Ortstafelstreit (‘dispute of topographic signs’), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene by requiring municipalities with a considerable Slovene population to set up bilingual German-Slovene topographic signs marking their municipal boundaries. However, this is juxtaposed with a longstanding decline in use of the Slovene language amongst the autochthonous Slovene population. This qualitative analysis of the LL of three frames, the civic, the commercial and the church, shows a heterogeneous picture, but one that is generally strongly skewed towards monolingual German. It suggests that Slovene is assigned a comparatively low sociosymbolic value. This can be, at least in part, attributed to the selective manner in which municipalities are awarded legal bilingual status, leading to a lack of linguistic cohesion in the area and its LL. A marked exception to this is the church frame, whose LL is characterised by a relatively balanced use of both German and Slovene.
 
Although the number of native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts has increased in recent years with the emergence of English as an international language, only a few studies on NESTs and non-NESTs have extensively and directly examined students' beliefs about these two groups of teachers. To fill this gap, a questionnaire was administered to 125 Korean EFL university students. Findings indicated that Korean students perceived NESTs and Korean English teachers (KETs) as having both strengths and weaknesses and did not uniformly favour one teacher type over the other. Students held differentiated beliefs about the characteristics, specific areas of instructional competence, teaching effectiveness at different learning stages and classroom performance of NESTs and non-NESTs. NESTs were judged more effective in their linguistic competence and status as native speakers. KETs were judged more effective in helping students with psychological aspects of language learning and in having sensitivity to students' needs coming from their shared L1 and experience as language learners. The issue of NESTs' possessing basic knowledge of students' L1 and the possible recent growth in KETs' linguistic abilities and professional development complicate the situation. These findings suggest that students can benefit from being taught by both types of teachers.
 
This study investigated the language development of a Finnish‐English bilingual child, focusing on the relationship between the developmental patterns of language loss in bilingual situations and the variations in input factors, including social, emotional and attitudinal factors. The subject was the researcher's own child at age six. Thirteen one‐hour recordings of speech samples were collected in natural settings during a ten‐month period. Diary notes from the child's first six years were also collected. Anecdotal data from the first six years indicated a relation between the child's language acquisition and the exposure to a larger language community. The speech samples showed no increase or decrease in Finnish language development. Several areas of Finnish grammar were partially mastered but, overall, the findings indicated that the language development in the child's Finnish stagnated. It was argued that this stagnation was due to the lack of broader linguistic input in Finnish, (i.e. the lack of a Finnish community). These findings suggest the importance of linguistic input outside the home.
 
Discussion of multilingual education looks at three European models, each designed for a different population, and compares them with the Canadian immersion model. The models are: (1) trilingual education applied to the entire school population of Luxembourg; (2) multilingual education in the nine-institution, five-city European School network, intended for children of European civil servants; and (3) the Foyer Project in Brussels (Belgium) to enable immigrant populations to benefit from mainstream education in a bilingual city. In each European model, at least three languages are involved. It is concluded that all four models show how different program designs can produce high levels of language proficiency, that such proficiency is tempered by contextual more than program variables, and that the former play a considerable role in determining achievement. Common variables seen as contributing to success include: focus on relevant language input and output; teachers highly proficient in the target language; strong encouragement of parental involvement in and understanding of the specificity of bilingual education; and early emphasis on first-language literacy. A major difference between the Canadian and European models is that in the latter, the target language is taught as a subject prior to its introduction as a medium of instruction, then in parallel. (MSE)
 
Although Anglo-German relations since 1945 have by and large been friendly at the level of the political elite, on a wider scale British perceptions of Germany and the Germans are for the most part negative and still dominated by images of the Third Reich and the Second World War. It has even been suggested that ‘kraut-bashing’ is the only form of racism in Britain which is still considered socially acceptable. Going beyond the simplistic but commonly expressed view which dismisses these negative British perceptions of Germany as envy of Germany's post-war economic revival, this paper will argue that there is a range of other reasons which help to account for the negative perceptions British people hold of Germany and the Germans such as the legacy of the Second World War and post-war challenges to British national identity, the nature of the Holocaust and the way history and languages are taught in Britain.
 
Conceptual elements of the LIFEÁ/ BODYÁ/ HEALTH domain in EUROMETA II
Frequencies of tokens for conceptual elements of LIFE Á/BODY Á/HEALTH source concepts in EUROMETA II
On the basis of a corpus of British and German press coverage of European Union (EU) politics over the 1990s, the paper analyses uses of the geopolitical heart metaphor. Over the course of the 1990s, successive British governments promised to work at the heart of Europe. However, no one ever claimed that Britain was in the heart of Europe, even though other geographically peripheral parts of Europe (e.g. the Balkan peninsula) have been situated there by the British press. Instead, British media and politicians tended to foreground scenarios of heart illness or even heart failure to express scepticism towards further political and economic integration. Conversely, in German public discourse, the heart of europe seems to be most often proudly identified as a German one, with selected places in central Europe (Prague, Vienna, Wroclaw/Breslau) as ‘runners-up’. On the basis of the corpus evidence, it is argued that the heart of europe metaphor plays a central role in EU-related political discourse, which links it to the tradition of body politic concepts.
 
This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual cultural resources at home. Our findings show that children co-construct, re-appropriate and remix stories, songs, riddles and proverbs from their cultural environment in situated ways that are a response to the changing context of their social worlds. The study provides a window onto the unique production and use of multilingual cultural resources in CHHs, and further speaks to the need for educators and policymakers to better understand the critical role of siblings in their own learning of linguistic and cultural knowledge.
 
This study investigated Chinese students' use of language learning strategies, and then interpreted the data from cultural and educational perspectives. Using a Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, the researcher discovered some common features shared by Chinese students in their use of learning strategies. An in-depth analysis of the results revealed that these features could be linked to three factors concerning their cultural and educational background: cultural beliefs and values, traditional Chinese education pattern and English as Foreign Language (EFL) setting. The findings suggest that, as EFL teaching and learning in China is deeply rooted in Chinese culture and education, English teachers should avoid going to extremes in adopting teaching methods in the English classroom, and that Chinese learners of English should diversify their learning strategies so that they can select appropriate learning strategies for various learning tasks. (Contains 4 tables.)
 
This article presents the findings of a corpus-based study of the use of English vis-à-vis Cantonese and Putonghua in Hong Kong's Legislative Council in the past four decades. The objective of the study was to track the changing fortunes of the three languages in a key government institution during a period of unprecedented political, economic and social change. This was accomplished by analysing a 91-million-word corpus of Council proceedings derived from Hong Kong Hansard, which is the verbatim record of Council meetings. For the greater part of the colonial era (1842–1997), English was the sole medium of communication in the chamber. It was only in 1972 that Cantonese-speaking members were permitted to use the city's majority language in Council debates. In that year every speech was in English. Forty years later, only 0.38% of the addresses were in the colonial language, the overwhelming majority being in Cantonese (99.45%), with only a handful in Putonghua. This article describes and discusses the rise of Cantonese and the concomitant demise of English since the early 1970s, with a particular focus on the transitional 1990s, and speculates on the roles of Cantonese and Putonghua in the legislature in the years ahead.
 
The present article contributes to attempts to re-conceptualise the top-down perspective on language policy, by analysing the role of local and city governments' agency in language education policy making. Only few studies analyse the role of lower administrative levels in language policy, other than in implementation of governmental policies, why their policy appropriations are seen as policy deviations. Language policy researchers have however recognised that local governments can, due to the regional or local character of some language education problems, also be given a more active role in policy making. My claim is that in order to do so, the analysis has to be based on a conceptual framework that sees language policy developments as part of the general democratisation and decentralisation processes in society. The article therefore also problematises attempts to analyse and make sense of language policy developments separately from political and economic transitions of society. Based on Giddens' structuration theory and language governance studies, I will analyse how two different language policy models in Estonia and Denmark – in terms of allocation of resources and authority – frame local municipalities' opportunity for agency in language education policy matters.
 
More than 25% of the master's degrees in Denmark are taught using English as a medium of instruction (EMI), but not all university lecturers feel they have the appropriate academic English proficiency to meet the standard required. Based on interviews conducted at the Copenhagen Business School (CBS), this article sheds light on the challenges faced by a selection of these lecturers. The interviews formed part of the project Students' Perceptions of the English of Academics, which examines the use of EMI at CBS. Audio recordings were made of 33 lecturers. Questionnaires were distributed to almost 1800 students on a range of issues, including the lecturer's English proficiency. The lecturers themselves also completed a questionnaire. Subsequently, 17 of them were interviewed, five of whom belonged to the group with the weakest skills. Inspired by a categorisation used by Marschan-Piekkari, Welch, and Welch for their recommendations for managing English as a corporate language, the literature review in the present paper discusses university language management under the headings of staff selection, training and development, international assignments and performance appraisal. The insights gained from the interviews address issues such as attitudes to EMI policy, experience with EMI teaching, student evaluations and support.
 
Discusses the assimilation process of the Kven (descendants of Finnish-speaking immigrants from Northern Finland and the Tornio River Valley in Sweden to Northern Norway) and the historical factors and government policies which has lead to their status today as an assimilated group speaking the majority language. (SED)
 
The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was a validated questionnaire which included 19 items and was administered online and by hand. The results of this survey revealed that Iranian English language learners had a moderate level of language identity and there was no significant difference between the language identity of male and female participants. In addition, the results indicated that there were significant differences in the language identity of participants across different age groups (teenagers and adults) and language proficiency levels (low- and high-proficiency learners). Finally, the results showed that 73.3% of the participants preferred American English, followed by British English (23.6%), Persian English (1.6%), Canadian English (1.2%) and Australian English (0.3%) as their favourite varieties of English.
 
Applying Kachru and Nelson’s model of English spread and their categorization into Inner/Outer/Expanding Circles, this content analysis of English as a Foreign Language textbooks used in Japanese junior high schools investigates which countries were introduced and further studies how Japan’s domestic diversity was constructed in those textbooks. Furthermore, to scrutinize representations of Japan’s domestic diversity, this study examines what types of individuals located in Japan were represented in the textbooks. The concepts of race and ethnic relations in a global context will be discussed to understand representations of individuals. Drawing upon the concept of English as a multicultural language (Honna, 2000, 2008), this study suggests that this multicultural perspective would not only promote understanding varieties of English use in Asian contexts but also help educators and students recognize the internal diversity of Japan where multilingual and multicultural communication takes place.
 
The Hebrew University academic staff, 1948, according to the last place of higher education
Jerusalem graduates among the Hebrew University academic staff, 1948
New faculty members who finished their PhD studies between 1949 and 1962, according to the last place of higher education (PhD)
The Faculty of Humanities academic staff, 1948 and 1963, according to the last place of higher education (MA or PhD) 1948 1963
Israeli scientific and semi-scientific periodicals in English, established between 1948 and 1963
This paper presents sociological analysis of the linguistic and cultural identity of two of the Israeli most influential and high-ranked universities during their formative years, that were de facto also the formative years of the Israeli state-in-the-making (1924-1948). We argue that the influence of external universal factors on a nation-state was sometimes crucial long before the period characterized by social scientists as an era of globalization. Influenced by European nationalism, the leaders of the Zionist movement emphasized the importance of the restoration of Hebrew as a national language. In various European national movements the universities played a central role in the revival or creation of a national culture: the language, the national epic, the folklore were all cultivated and nurtured by the universities. This was not the case in the Jewish renaissance: the cultural revolution took place outside the academia. The most cardinal phenomenon in this context - the revival of the Hebrew language - had almost no connection whatsoever with academic bodies. The phenomenon discussed in this essay should not be underestimated by historians and sociologists, especially providing the fact that Israel is traditionally perceived as one of the most successful and impressive instances of nation-building in the XXth century.
 
This study is part of a larger investigation into Japanese students’ use of English and friendship buildup inside and outside Canadian English as a second language (ESL) institutes. Both qualitative and quantitative data were garnered primarily from formal in-depth interviews with nine Japanese students and questionnaire surveys with 216 students. Based on the data, the present study explores Japanese students’ friendship with Korean students, large numbers of whom are enrolled in ESL schools in English-speaking countries. The study provides evidence of the frequent opportunities for members of these two groups to communicate with each other, which sometimes leads to Japanese students’ overgeneralised positive perceptions of Koreans as a whole. Also documented are the varying impacts of Korean students’ references to Japan’s war-time invasion of Korea upon Japanese students, ranging from appreciation of this new knowledge to the development of negative perceptions of Korean students. Furthermore, the study reveals that the combination of quantity and quality contact can cause the formation and consolidation of bonding between Japanese and Korean students, which then opens up a historically sensitive dialogue without jeopardising their long-term relationship. http://www.multilingual-matters.net/jmmd/027/jmmd0270181.htm
 
This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family members (the children's father, his sister and brother) occasionally participate in this Gaelic-centred FLP; however, at the same time, these speakers also participate in language shift by maintaining English as their peer group language and replying in English when addressed in Gaelic. The paper argues that these linguistic practices socialise the children into the norms of language shift, resulting in the children's low use of Gaelic. The paper also discusses the possible negative impact of the father's use of Gaelic in disciplining his children.
 
Sociocultural and socio-economic conditions (e.g. subsistence family farming needs) as well as the absence of nearby public schools result in Ghanaian youth, primarily from rural areas, not receiving formal schooling. Because of this, children may never learn to read and write. One solution is a complementary education programme (CEP) that provides basic literacy skills at the end of each workday. School for Life, a Ghanaian CEP, promises basic literacy, increases the confidence of children to enrol in school as late starters and potentially impacts the cultural and linguistic identity of Ghanaians by developing literacy in local languages as well as contributing to the maintenance of linguistic diversity. The purpose of this study is to identify the value of a CEP for key stakeholders including School for Life learners, para-educators, leaders, CEP administrators and collaborators and to demonstrate how shared local values reflect and constitute the programme's identity in two villages.
 
Top-cited authors
Howard NOTE:  SCOtton is not the co-author Giles
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
Jean-Marc Dewaele
  • Birkbeck, University of London
John Schumann
  • University of California, Los Angeles
Richard Y. Bourhis
  • Université du Québec à Montréal
Wei Li
  • University College London