Journal of Multicultural Social Work

Online ISSN: 1042-8224
Publications
Article
This article examines the status of children in selected parts of Southern Africa against the backdrop of current sociopolitical upheavals and weak economies that have kept some of these countries at the periphery of economic development. Given the limitations of international human rights legislations to enforce laws protecting children, without violating the rights of sovereign states and the limited social welfare resources, an ecological approach is used to argue for population control measures that have the efficacy of promoting the well-being of children and ensuring their survival.
 
Article
Unmarried pregnant teenagers comprise the most significant challenge to contemporary US social welfare policy. In 1986, never-married women who first gave birth in adolescence represented 37% of all poor, female-headed families. Education has been widely recognized as both a cause and a consequence of adolescent motherhood. Failure to complete high school is a major predictor of poverty and the duration of receipt of welfare benefits. The pattern is intergenerational: teenagers whose parents have not completed high school are substantially more likely to become pregnant and have an out-of-wedlock birth than are their peers whose parents have at least a secondary education. Even when socioeconomic factors are controlled for, unmarried teenage mothers average two years less education than their peers. More critical, the literature suggests, than the number of years of schooling is performance in and attitudes toward school. An adolescent who is performing below grade level and aware that her occupational choices are limited as a result is more likely to choose to become an unwed mother than to seek abortion or adoption. This finding suggests the importance of identifying teenagers with risk factors for out-of-wedlock birth (e.g., coming from single-parent households, low socioeconomic family status, chronic school underachievement) and providing them with enriched educational and occupational motivation and opportunities.
 
Article
Examines U.S. immigration laws, policies, and attitudes since 1798. Discusses the need to give social work students an understanding of this history to combat unrealistic hopes or cynicism. Proposes an educational approach that uses immigration laws and case records as primary sources. (SV)
 
Article
Outlines sensitizing concepts to prepare students for family-centered multicultural social work practice. Discusses the family "cultural reality" (world view) and value orientations of various ethnic groups and implications for social work with dysfunctional family systems. Contains 25 references. (SV)
 
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--UCLA, 2005. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 269-272).
 
Article
The focus of this study was on the association between family characteristics (e.g., family structure, family cohesion), race/ethnicity and their relationship to violent behaviors in adolescents. Family characteristics represent one piece of a larger ecological model that includes individual, peer, school, and neighborhood/community factors. The current study uses data from the National Study of Adolescent Health (Wave 1). Add Health was a longitudinal study of adolescents in grades 7 through 12. The survey gathered information about the respondent's health and health-related behaviors, emotional well being, and family and school environment. The variables of interest in this study are all self-reported measures of violent behavior: (1) being in a serious physical fight, (2) seriously injuring someone, (3) pulling a knife or gun on someone, and (4) shooting or stabbing someone. Differences between those who reported being involved in violent behaviors are related, at least in part, to family cohesion, family structure, gender, and race/ethnicity. Family cohesion served as a protective factor in all four models of violent behavior regardless of racial/ethnic group. Attention needs to be focused not only on the other domains involved in this ecological model (e.g., individual, family, peer, school, and neighborhood/community) but also on the possible interactive effects of variables both within and across these domains. Future interventions need to focus their efforts on the multiple dimensions of youth violence as well as give consideration to a multi-pronged approach in addressing the needs of youth at risk for violent behaviors.
 
Article
Twenty youth, aged 13-17, adjudicated for acts of violence, displayed some characteristics consistent with Toch's typology of compensatory violence (insecurity or low self-esteem) and narcissism. Areas unaccounted for by Toch's typologies included failed childrearing practices, lack of a role in society, and inordinate concern for respect and reputation. (SV)
 
Article
Students in a graduate social work course on cultural diversity and societal oppression kept a journal during the course and completed questionnaires one year later. Analysis of journal entries and questionnaire responses focused on student self-image and social identity, the process of attitude change and increasing awareness, and influences on the learning environment by professor and other students. (SV)
 
Article
A study examining discipline styles among five midwestern African American families from various socioeconomic backgrounds revealed the interpersonal, social, and cultural aspects of discipline in African American families. Offers social work intervention strategies that reinforce alternative discipline styles and recognize parents' need to teach children to function in both their own and the racist dominant culture. Contains 35 references. (LP)
 
Article
Uses data from eight-state survey to explore types and amount of information provided by child welfare workers and agencies to two African American foster parent types--extended family and those derived from organizational tradition (strangers). The traditional group requested and received more information on policies, services, and foster parent role; recommends some possibilities for amelioration. (RAH)
 
Article
Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV prevention strategies targeting Latinos. Contains 52 references. (SAS)
 
Article
Surveyed 154 Native Americans about their knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to AIDS, as a basis for developing a culturally relevant AIDS prevention intervention. Found a generally high level of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention, although some misconceptions exist. Men have less accurate knowledge and more conservative attitudes on the issue. (KS)
 
Article
A case example involving a Native American family referred to a child welfare agency illustrates social work intervention strategies that encourage cultural competence, recognize power differences between cultures, promote understanding of role variations and belief systems, consider alternative approaches for helping clients with drug or alcohol problems, and use appropriate interventions with involuntary clients. Contains 23 references. (LP)
 
Article
Examines biopsychosocial effects of acculturation on the high suicide rate among young Ojibwa males in relation to "pimadaziwin" (health, well-being, and longevity for self and family attained through cultural compliance) and "nissitise" (face-saving suicide following loss of "pimadaziwin"). Case study illustrates how a social constuctivist approach fosters cross-cultural understanding and directs intervention. Contains 63 references. (SAS)
 
Article
Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently replicated across two randomly divided subsamples. Includes survey questions analyzed. (SV)
 
Article
Discusses conceptual and methodological issues in quantitative research studies in social work where subjects come from a variety of cultural backgrounds but where ethnicity is not the main variable under study. Addresses the following aspects of multicultural research: problem definition, methodology, data collection procedure, data analysis, and interpretation. (KS)
 
Article
This study reports on the outcomes of foster home placements of 1,038 African American, Latino, and White infants, prenatally exposed to drugs, removed from their mothers' custody at birth and placed in foster care and the outcomes of a comparison group of 203 infants similarly removed, but not known to have been drug-exposed. Twenty-four months after placement, slightly more than half of the White drug-exposed infants were still under court supervision, and two thirds of the African American and Hispanic infants. A similar situation existed for the comparison group, but the ethnic distributions were reversed. Although African American children predominated in the proportion that were in kinship care, the largest proportion of both Latino and White children were in kinship care. Policy and practice implications are discussed in terms of enhancing placement outcomes for prenatally drug-exposed infants in general and in terms of encouraging placement options that may vary depending upon the ethnicity of the child and the child's kinship ties.
 
Article
Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and Pacific-Islander families are offered. Contains 34 references. (TD)
 
Article
Little is known about consumers' perceptions regarding what services should be offered at Family Resource Centers (FRC) and how these services should be provided. This study reports on ethnic similarities and differences in service utilization, service preferences, and service delivery concerns among 488 Latinos, European Americans, African Americans and Asian Americans who were consumers or potential consumers of FRCs in nine localities in California. Latino and African American consumers were interested in participating in a broader range of services than European American or Asian American consumers. Several service delivery aspects were important to all groups while a convenient neighborhood location and available transportation were salient for all groups but European American consumers. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.
 
Article
Outlines the sparse empirical data on sexual assault among Latinas. Presents a working bicultural model of sexual assault that frames the problem within both traditional Latino and American gender role systems. Discusses implications for providing culturally competent services for Latina victims that draw on supportive aspects of familism and other Hispanic cultural values. (Contains 49 references.) (Author/SV)
 
Article
A survey of 64 educators in graduate social work programs examined mental health issues of American Indians and Alaskan Natives, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans and gathered recommendations relating to ethnic minority faculty and mental health professionals, curriculum development, mental health social work issues and interventions, and funding by NIMH. (SV)
 
Article
Examines issues associated with transracial (black to white) adoption decisions. Discusses racial disparity in supply and demand for adoptable children, the institutional framework, early development of attachment in children, attachment issues in foster care and adoption, the significance of racial identity in early childhood, racial identity development in transracial adoption, and institutional implications and concerns. Contains 41 references. (RAH)
 
Article
Economic restructuring has exacerbated problems of black men such as poverty, unemployment, lowered life expectancy, and low expectations. Power diverted from productive channels is expressed in gang violence, homicide, and suicide. Recommendations include a national agency to eliminate poverty, involve the black community, and increase funding for education. Contains 43 references. (JAT)
 
Article
Examines economic and cultural conflicts between urban African Americans and Korean Americans and the roots of these conflicts in victimization of both groups by Eurocentric racism. Proposes a cultural model of mixed-group dialog based on cultural awareness and sensitivity, respect for each others' stake in society, and commitments to continuous dialog and collaboration on social justice issues. (SV)
 
Article
Traces the history of race relations in Great Britain. Discusses the recent rise of racism in Europe and the efforts of antiracist groups. Outlines three models of antiracist and multicultural social work education, and recommends continuing education and training for social workers in racism awareness. (SV)
 
Article
Explores confusion over what major ethnic groups call themselves, as well as social, political, and economic implications of changing ethnic terminology. Discusses ramifications of labels for ethnic or racial identity, group solidarity, racial and ethnic relations, and distribution of resources for education and other societal needs. Contains 27 references. (SV)
 
Article
Reports descriptive characteristics of American Indian child welfare programs organized to deal with new tribal responsibilities under the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Develops a profile of tribal program administrators based on 121 survey responses. Offers policy recommendations in areas of tribal politics, government policies and funding practices, and education of administrators and other practitioners. (RAH)
 
Article
This paper discusses the importance of fieldwork in preparing students for practice with clients from diverse cultural backgrounds and the difficulties encountered in rural, culturally homogenous settings. A survey of undergraduate fieldwork coordinators provided information about how minority content is integrated into field seminars and the fieldwork experience. The findings indicated that a variety of methods are used in the seminar and field experience. A discussion of the limitations of these methods and recommendations for alternative approaches are provided.
 
Article
An undergraduate course at an anglophone university in Quebec prepares social work students to work with immigrants, refugees, and minorities, emphasizing experiential learning in classroom and community settings and the development of cultural self-awareness. Describes course objectives, format, and procedures. (SV)
 
Article
Outlines a model that proposes multipronged approaches to the development of ethnic-sensitive social work practice and curriculum. Focuses on the integration of ecological and social systems theory, cultural sensitivity, and a psychodynamic orientation to the client's identity and values. (SV)
 
Article
The problem of attracting minority group students in social work is but one aspect of the larger social problem of racism. This paper therefore defines racism, its influence on the social and psychological processes associated with career identification and selection, and its influence on interpersonal relationships. As a way of illustrating the effects of racism, case studies describing common problems experienced by minority students who decide to enter social work programs are presented. The paper closes with a set of broad recommendations that should enable social work educators to retain minority group students.
 
Article
Reexamines traditional social work values related to client autonomy, confidentiality, paternalism, and antidiscrimination considering the current cultural diversity of social work students. Discusses the social work educator's role in modeling professional values and the impact of culturally different beliefs about family and interpersonal relationships on students' professional behavior. (SV)
 
Article
Ethnic sensitive models of social work practice emphasize cultural norm differences impacting intercultural communication and the helping relationship. This model is extremely useful with refugees and recent immigrants but less useful with U.S. minority groups of color, whose responses to social services are shaped by subordinate class status. (SV)
 
Article
Social work is inadequately focused on an individual deficit view of social problems. Consideration of global social problems such as environmental degradation and poverty requires fundamental shifts in thinking about economics and our cultural history. Possibilities for social work intervention, based on transformational thinking about the future, are proposed. Contains 31 references. (JAT)
 
Article
A national survey of 45 faculty and 75 deans and directors of graduate-level multicultural social work programs found that there was heavy reliance on traditional teaching methods; an increasing number of groups and topics were being covered; coursework was poorly linked to field practicum experience; and teacher attitudes were associated with ethnic and racial background. Contains 80 references. (TD)
 
Article
This article explores the interactions of African-American foster parents with child welfare agencies. Data from the 1980 Survey of Foster Parents in Eight States were used in assessing the information exchange patterns between two groups of foster parents-traditional and extended-and child welfare workers. Findings show that traditional foster parents request and receive more information about general agency policies and services as well as the role of foster parenting than the extended types of foster families. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of recruitment and differences in expectations child welfare workers and foster parents have about the role and function of foster parents and the delivery of services in the child welfare field. Empowerment strategies are recommended to increase the power of foster parents, especially among related foster parents.
 
Percentage Exposed to Specific Types of Violent Events Overseas by Mode of Exposure
Percentage Exposed to Specific Types of Violent Events in the U.S. by Mode of Exposure
Means, (Standard Deviations), and Percentages of Violence Expo- sure and Related O utcomes
Chapter
This cross-sectional survey study examined the relationship between exposure to war traumas and community violence and academic, behavioral, and psychological well-being among Khmer refugee adolescents. The 144 adolescents studied were exposed to high rates of violence. One third had symptoms indicative of PTSD and two thirds had symptoms indicative of clinical depression. The number of violent events they were exposed to significantly predicted their level of PTSD, personal risk behaviors, and GPA, but not their level of depression or behavior problems reported at school. Perceived social support made a difference in the lives of these youth and predicted better outcomes. The implications for research and practice are discussed.
 
Article
There has been an influx of Southeast Asian refugees to the United States over the past 20 years, many of whom have experienced severe trauma. In their new country they face the formidable task of acculturation into a new, unfamiliar culture, often separated from their families and ethnic groups. This study sought to answer the question of whether the severity of trauma endured prior to and during migration affects the level of acculturative stress in a community sample of Cambodian refugees. Two major variables, the experience of trauma and acculturative stress, were examined through a cross-sectional research design which employed multiple regression statistical techniques to analyze the data. The results of the present study established that Cambodian refugees who experienced severe trauma prior to resettlement in the United States had significantly higher levels of acculturative stress than did those with less severe trauma histories.
 
Article
Despite the controversy surrounding transracial adoptions, they continue to occur. Social workers in adoptions services must have a keen sense of the theoretical and practice issues that confront them and the consequent mandate to enable prospective non-minority parents to address the racial-cultural identity needs of the minority child they are adopting. An ecological framework elucidates these issues. The paper outlines examples of how adopting parents must comprehend and address the unique needs of their minority child.
 
Article
Increasing attention must be given to the psychosocial needs of families with HIV-infected mothers, especially as it relates to permanency planning for children who survive their infected parent(s). Since these families are disproportionately African-American, developing culturally-appropriate services is paramount. Norwood (1988) projected between 52,272 and 72,000 uninfected children will be orphaned in New York City. In Michigan, to understand this problem better, a retrospective chart review utilizing Norwood's model was performed of the families of the 83 infants whose cord blood was positive for maternal HIV antibodies or who were congenitally infected with HIV.
 
Article
A sample of 289 Chinese American and 138 White students from a university campus was recruited from social science courses to complete a survey on perceptions of and experiences with dating violence and gender role beliefs. White students were more likely to define dating violence as physical and sexual aggression compared to the Chinese American students. Although the majority of students from both ethnic groups did not agree that dating violence is justified under various circumstances, the Chinese American students were more likely to provide a contextual justification for the use of dating violence. Findings also indicated that 20% of Chinese American students and 31.3% of the White students have experienced some form of physical dating violence since they started dating. For both the Chinese American and White students, those who were more likely to agree that various acts of physical aggression are considered dating violence were less likely to perpetrate physical dating violence in the last 12 months. The sociocultural context of dating violence and implications for practice and research are discussed.
 
Article
Social work research and practice has relatively little, if any, empirical literature oe the worldviews of Filipino Americans. Using a probability sample design, this study explored the locus of control of 216 Filipino Americans. The findings indicate that Filipino Americans are characterized by both an internal and external orientation. Sociodemographic variables were found to be significantly related to locus of control. Information on Filipino American history2 culture, and sociopolitical factors is offered to examine and explain statistical findings.
 
Article
This paper outlines key concerns for social sendee agencies working toward the establishment of an anti-racist organization. The spectrum of barriers at the individual, client-professional, organizational and community levels will be presented. These issues will be surfaced for the purpose of alerting professionals and administrators to both the discrete and concomitant sets of multicultural issues that can affect an organization's functioning. Moving towards an anti-racist stance requires: (1) awareness of those issues impacting the agency's capacity for serviceability, psychological safety and a value added environment for the worker, the consumer and the neighboring community; and (2) a willingness to seek out expert consultation and information about a needed process of sustained diversity intervention.
 
Article
This study compares the practice significance of two distinct models of traditional helping: a religiously inspired Protestant approach in late nineteenth century Toronto, Canada; and the Dervish, a religiously imbued traditional helper in a contemporary Bedouin Muslim community in the Negev, Israel Among major similarities are gender inclusiveness, the lack of explicit restrictions on the basis of age or education, the enabling of women as helpers to overcome predominant social constructions of gender, and a religious basis of the helping process itself. Differences were found in the acquisition of social status, and in methodologies of helping. One way for social work to be more sensitive to traditional populations is to realize the commonalities which exist among “modem” and “traditional” helping models.
 
Article
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Top-cited authors
Ailee Moon
  • University of California, Los Angeles
S. Megan Berthold
  • University of Connecticut
Frank F. Montalvo
  • Our Lady of the Lake University at San Antonio
Ruth Mcroy
  • Boston College, USA
Donna Benton
  • University of Southern California