Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure

Published by Medknow Publications
Print ISSN: 2213-879X
Publications
Salicylates are a group of phenolic compounds that are found naturally in plants. They exert anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptosis activities. Three salicylates (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA; acetyl salicylate calcium, ASCa and salicylate calcium, SACa) were tested in human fibrosarcoma cells for their apoptotic activities in HT-1080 cells using both biochemical and morphological approaches. Salicylates-treated HT-1080 cells exhibited typical apoptotic features, including membrane blebbing, shrinkage of the cell and fragmentation into apoptotic bodies. The effects of the DNA labelling agent, BrdU, resulted in more rounder smaller and a smooth membrane in HT-1080 cells. These salicylate compounds demonstrated anti-proliferation and reduced the metabolic activities of HT-1080 cells by time- and concentration-dependent manners.
 
Chemical composition of 2507 SDSS (weight %).
Impact energy data for different times of aging at 475 • C.
The relation between room temperature impact toughness and fractal behavior of the fracture surfaces of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel, aged between 0 and 288 h at 475 °C, has been studied. Fractography was performed in a scanning electron microscope and the fractal dimension was determined according to the slit island method. A monotonical decrease in fractal dimension was observed as the time of aging increases from 0 to 288 h. For the entire range of aging times, a complete transition from ductile to brittle behavior was observed as the impact toughness decreases from 284 J (0–24 h) to 43 J (288 h). Ductile fracture occurred by nucleation growth and coalescence of micro-dimples, while the brittle behavior was characterized by the propagation of cleavage cracks in ferrite, controlled by plasticity of the surrounding austenite. Partially based on several previous concepts and relationships well established for brittle materials, a direct linear correlation between impact toughness and fractal dimensional increment has been developed. The concept of critical volume of material is proposed and tentatively related with the unstable crack propagation event, through both, the so called critical length (microstructurally significant distance) and the size of the largest micro-dimple and cleavage facet (structural parameter) developed in ductile and brittle fracture respectively.
 
In a VMS ore at Al Amar gold mine (level 640 FW-E), sulfide minerals are paragenetically ordered as follows: pyrite(I)–sphalerite–chalcopyrite–galena–pyrite(II), deformations vary from brittle to ductile deformation fabrics. Microscopically, the massive sulfides have pyrite porphyoblasts (up to ∼80%) that show evidence of creep dislocation as a result of low-temperature plastic deformation rather than brittle failure, whereas high-temperature annealment is completely lacking. Softer minerals such as chalcopyrite fill into fractures in pyrite as narrow slivers. Needle-shaped or lamellar morphology of chalcopyrite, together with the chemical composition of Fe-poor sphalerite (with maximum 0.99 wt% Fe) suggest a combined replacement–coprecipitation mechanism of chalcopyrite disease formation rather than an exsolution texture. Greenschist facies metamorphism produces an ore with distinct chalcopyrite disease into a stratified ore with microbands of chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Ore microfabrics and uncommon occurrence of epithermal stringers suggest noticeable effect of the Najd tectonics in the studied level. The EMPA analyses indicate that all sulfide minerals in the VMS ore are auriferous and the Au contents are considerable (up to 0.94, 1.31, 0.16 and 1.20 wt%; in sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and pyrite, respectively). Gold in pyrite is “invisible” whereas it occurs as submicroscopic inclusions in sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. The VMS ore of Al Amar deep horizons are characterized by the occurrence of “invisible gold”, Ag-free galena, Fe- and Ni-poor sphalerite, negligible hydrothermal alteration, plastic deformation of pyrite and non-exsolution origin of the chalcopyrite disease intergrowth which are together strong indicators of low-temperature (250–300 °C).
 
Rolipram modulation of T. gondii pathologic impact. (A) Liver of a Toxoplasma-infected mouse showing a heavy peri-sinusoidal mononuclear cell infiltration with marked fatty changes of hepatocytes (100×). (B) Liver of a Toxoplasma-infected, rolipram-treated mouse with mild mononuclear cell infiltration with hepatocytes retain an almost normal appearance (100×). (C) Brain of an infected mouse showing moderate infiltration with a trail of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Dilated and congested blood vessels are also seen (100×). (D) Brain of an infected mouse treated with rolipram showing mild inflammation with few scattered mononuclear cells (100×).
Background Progression to a chronic state after an initial, mostly asymptomatic, acute phase is the normal fate of Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent hosts. The inter-conversion between tachyzoite and bradyzoite life stages is a key to Toxoplasma survival and pathogenesis. Chronic toxoplasmosis is resistant to all commercially available medications. Reactivation of chronic stage has serious complications on immunocompromised hosts including encephalitis and death. Cyclic AMP, TNF-α and Th1 immune response have pivotal roles in establishing chronic disease. Rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, has regulatory roles on these factors. This is the first study to investigate a possible modulatory effect of rolipram on Toxoplasma infection in an experimental murine model. The ability, of this novel regimen to prevent or reverse Toxoplasma-induced pathology was evaluated. Materials and methods Toxoplasma-infected mice received rolipram (10 mg/kg) daily for three weeks. Life expectancy, serum ALT and histopathology of liver and brain were the parameters used to evaluate therapeutic and/or toxic impact of rolipram in comparison with infection and healthy control groups of mice. Results Toxoplasma-induced pathology was never completely cleared by rolipram. However, a significant impact in aborting chronic state and in mitigating pathology was detected. The drug almost normalized Toxoplasma-induced high ALT levels reversing the hepatotoxic effect of the parasite. Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate relative merits of rolipram therapy to toxoplasmosis with illustration of its efficacy and toxicity. It reports a novel approach with potential future benefits using PDE inhibitors to abort resistant latent phases of biologically related infectious agents.
 
Increase of parotid gland tumors relative to other salivary gland tumors in Israel. 
SAM Phantom. The red devices are clamps to hold the cellphone in a specified location. “CTIA” is the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. Source: Speag Phantom Product Flyer. 
An iPad placed within a rattle. Note the device is immediately over the boy’s testicles. 
2-in-1 iPotty with Activity Seat for iPad. 
An iPad for entertaining a baby. 
Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is the only possible way to determine the microwave radiation (MWR) absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed. MWR exposure limits have remained unchanged for 19 years. All manufacturers of smartphones have warnings which describe the minimum distance at which phone must be kept away from users in order to not exceed the present legal limits for exposure to MWR. The exposure limit for laptop computers and tablets is set when devices are tested 20 cm away from the body. Belgium, France, India and other technologically sophisticated governments are passing laws and/or issuing warnings about children's use of wireless devices.
 
A hydroponic experiment was carried out to localize lead accumulation in tobacco roots and leaves. Plants were grown for seven days in Hoagland's solution supplemented with different concentrations of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2]: 0.0 (control), 10 μM, 100 μM, and 500 μM. Growth was inhibited in plants treated with 100 μM, and 500 μM. Light and electron microscopic studies showed that lead accumulated mainly in cell walls and vascular tissues of roots of plants exposed to 100 μM, and 500 μM lead nitrate. In contrast, roots exposed to 10 μM lead nitrate did not show any detectable accumulation of lead in the roots. The TEM images confirmed the presence of lead outside the epidermis of the roots in the form of electron dense clusters of fine needles. No lead was detected in the leaves. However, plants exposed to 100 μM lead nitrate were characterized by the presence of ferritin clusters in the chloroplasts. This suggests a protective mechanism by the plant to prevent oxidative damage caused by Pb. Plants exposed to 500 μM lead nitrate showed mesophyll cells containing altered chloroplasts with disrupted thylakoid systems.
 
Occupational exposure to toxic heavy metals renders the industrial workers with various health problems. Many heavy metals act as endocrine disruptors. Chromium salts are commonly used in industries as asbestos brake lining, cement dust and food additives. Thyroid is a metabolically active important endocrine gland. Little is known about the toxic effects of chromium on thyroid. So, the aim of this study was evaluation of the histological changes induced by chromium on thyrocytes and the possible protective role of vitamin C. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: control group, vitamin C treated group, potassium dichromate treated group and the fourth group co treated with potassium dichromate and vitamin C. Potassium dichromate was given intraperitonially for 2 weeks at a dose 2 mg/kg daily. Vitamin C was given at a dose 120 mg/kg orally daily for the same period. Specimens were processed for light and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated immunohistochemically. Specimens of potassium dichromate group showed disturbance of the normal architecture of the gland with coalescence and degeneration of thyroid follicles and desquamated cells in its lumen. Disruption of the apical and basal membranes of some thyrocytes, flattened hyperchromatic nuclei, dilated RER and swollen degenerated mitochondria were also noted. Immunohistochemically, there were changes in the immune expression of Bcl2 in the cytoplasm of thyrocytes. Vitamin C supplemented group showed partial improvement of the previous changes. So, potassium dichromate induced structural changes in the thyroid follicular cells that were partially improved by vitamin C supplementation.
 
α-Chlorohydrin (ACH) is a well-known food contaminant, has shown anti-fertility activity in males. In this research we studied the histological and immunohistochemical changes in the epididymis of adult albino rat. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into control (group 1) (10 rats) and experimental (groups 2 and 3) (10 rats). The experimental rats received α-chlorohydrin at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. After 6 h (group 2) and 24 h (group 3) of ACH treatment, the specimens were submitted for the light, electron microscopic and β-tubulin immunohistochemical evaluations. Light microscopy after 6 h showed focal separation of lining epithelium, while EM examinations showed dilated rER, and Golgi complex. After 24 h LM demonstrated different stages of cell exfoliation; however, EM proved multilamellar bodies and dilated rER besides the granules. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed decreased reactions in experimental groups. However, the mean total optical density of the β-tubulin immunostaining revealed statistical nonsignificant difference between the three groups. Thus ACH as an undesirable unavoidable food contaminant induced rapid histological alterations on caput epididymis with duration-dependent manner at the level of the cell and tissue, that puts another obstacle on the road of fertility.
 
Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist agent, is mainly used in treatment of malignant tumors and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin A is essential for normal growth and differentiation of epithelial tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methotrexate on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa and to assess the possible protective role of vitamin A. Fifty adult male albino rats divided into three groups; a control, vit A and experimental group subdivided into two groups (B and C), experimental group (B) received 4 mg of methotrexate intraperitoneally as a single dose, and experimental group (C) received methotrexate and 1000 IU of vitamin A given three days before MTX administration and continued until the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were prepared for histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructure examination. Morphometric study was also done and statistical results were analyzed. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed structural alterations in group (B) in the form of disturbance of villus and crypt architecture. Dilatation of RER cisternae, swollen mitochondria with destroyed cristae vacuolation of the cytoplasm and lipid droplets in some cells were observed with widening of the intercellular space. Corrugation and indentation of the nuclear membrane and exfoliation of epithelial cells. PCNA showed a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive nuclei in the crypts of group B. Co-administration of vitamin A with methotrexate (group C) ameliorated these histological changes and there was a increase in the number of PCNA positive nuclei in the crypts. Methotrexate caused mucosal damage improved with vitamin A co-administration.
 
Since its introduction, conventional endoscopy has changed the management framework of a variety of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases and is now considered a fundamental component in the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Histologic analysis of specimens remains the gold standard for the final diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions. However, such workup is time-consuming and labor-intensive. This restricts the endoscopists to immediately determine the necessity for resection during ongoing endoscopies, necessitating the need to repeat the procedure. Furthermore, overtreatment (resection of benign lesions) or undertreatment (biopsy instead of resection for neoplastic tissue) can lead to frustrations, unnecessary risks (e.g., bleeding) for the patients, and delay in definite treatment for the urgent cases. Recently, developments in endoscopic and imaging technologies (narrow-band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, confocal laser endoscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, and endoscopic ultrasound) can provide a wide variety of valuable tools for in vivo cytological diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of GIT, even beyond inner layer of the bowel. Such investigations, may therefore lead to an optimized rapid diagnosis of GIT lesions, providing important implications also for immediate therapy, during ongoing endoscopies (e.g., endoscopic resection of neoplastic tissue). Moreover the possibility to properly investigate in vivo progression of the extraluminal disease (lymph node status) allows reducing, if not eliminating the need of extensive resection just for proper staging. The present review convincingly describes the operating systems of each diagnostic modality, their clinical implications, and future vision of the role of these modern tools in the clinical diagnosis of GIT diseases.
 
Macroscopic view of the oropharyngeal region of the upper jaw: (A) Cartilagenous hard palate; (B) Choana.
Macroscopic view of the oropharyngeal region of the lower jaw: Black arrow indicates a centrally attached lingual apparatus on the floor of the lower jaw; White arrow indicates the lateral ridges.
Lingual apparatus associates structures: (A) and (B) arrows indicate the cushioning position of the sublingual glands. 4×10 objective magnifications. LM; HE. Scale bar=500μm; (C) cartilagenous structure within the lingual apparatus observed under 40×10 objective magnifications. LM; HE. Scale bar=50μm; (D) intrinsic skeletal muscle within the lingual apparatus observed under 40×10 objective magnifications. LM; HE. Scale bar=50μm.
Cross section of the lingual apparatus: (A) epithelium lining; (B), minor salivary glands; (C), cartilagenous structures; (D), intrinsic muscle; arrow indicates orifice or an opening to the surface. LM; HE. 4×10 objective magnifications. Scale bar=500μm.
The Swiftlet, Aerodramus fuciphagus Thunberg, 1812 (A. fuciphagus) is known for its edible nest building ability. The present study was conducted to examine and describe the morphology of lingual apparatus and associated structures which contribute to the nest building ability of the A. fuciphagus. Gross examination was done on the upper and lower jaw of the beak prior to tissue processing and sectioning. Following fixation and embedding, cross-sections of the lower jaw were made and stained with hematoxylineosin (HE) and observed under the light microscope. Microscopy examination revealed various structures within the lingual apparatus, which include stratified squamous epithelial lining, lingual salivary glands, hyaline cartilage and intrinsic skeletal muscle. Paired sublingual salivary glands were also observed. Taken together, these findings may provide some new insights in understanding the role of the lingual apparatus and the salivary glands of the Swiftlet (A. fuciphagus) especially in its unique nest building ability.
 
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-associated dementing disorder, is clincopathologically manifested by progressive cognitive dysfunction concomitant with the accumulation of senile plaques (SP). SP is consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyper-phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein aggregates in the brain of affected individuals. Lipid rafts promote interaction of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the β-secretase enzyme responsible for generation of the Aβ peptides. Fibrillar Aβ oligomers, which have been shown to correlate with the onset and severity of AD, bind preferentially to cells and neurons expressing cellular prion protein (PrPC). The binding of Aβ oligomers to cell surface PrPC, as well as their downstream activation of Fyn kinase, was dependent on the integrity of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. Rafts also regulate cholinergic signaling as well as acetylcholinesterase and Aβ interaction. Such major lipid raft components as cholesterol and ganglioside (GM1) have been directly implicated in pathogenesis of the disease. Perturbation of lipid raft integrity can also affect various signaling pathways leading to cellular death and AD. In this review, I will discuss the more recent findings on the biopathological mechanisms, candidate bio-markers, and therapeutic interventions of the elusive AD.
 
Skin tags (ST) are the most common fibro-epithelial skin tumors. They are tumors of the middle-aged and elderly people. However, in women, the age of 50 is suggested to be the turning point of life at which the development of skin tags comes to a stop. A major event that occurs around this period of life is menopause/andropause, after menopause, estrogen receptors amounts decrease significantly. Estrogen receptors (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) are members of the steroid receptor gene superfamily. Estrogen receptors positivity has been demonstrated in most skin tumors by both histochemical and biochemical assays. This study aimed to assess the role of estrogen and androgen receptors in the development of skin tags by assessment of their immunohistochemical expression. Twenty five patients were included in this study. Snip excision of skin tags was done for each patient, punch biopsy from adjacent sites from skin tags have been taken as perilesional skin biopsy only for twelve patients. Histopathology was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical staining was done to detect ER and AR for skin tags, perilesional skin, and control normal skin. Immunohistochemical staining for ER was positive in 64% of skin tag cases and AR were positive in 60% of them. There was a statistically significant difference in ER and AR staining pattern between skin tags, perilesional skin and normal skin. It could be concluded that ST correlated positively with ER and AR immunohistochemical staining which may implicate a role for them in the pathogenesis of skin tags.
 
Information on potential genetic damage in humans after exposure to waste anaesthetic gases in Egyptian hospitals is scarce. To evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of waste anaesthetic gases, the chromosomal aberrations [CA] and the sister chromatid exchange [SCE] tests, were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes in 26 operating room personnel (exposed group) currently employed at Tanta University hospitals, in comparison to a group of 13 non-exposed persons (control group), matched by age, sex and smoking habits. The results showed a statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in the exposed persons in comparison to controls. Also it suggests that exposure to waste anaesthetic gases has the potential to cause changes in human genome.
 
Clinical characteristics of patients with microvillus inclusion disease (n = 4).
Light microscopic findings. (A) Low power view showing moderate villous blunting with no significant crypt hyperplasia or increased inflammatory cells within the lamina propria (hematoxylin and eosin stain, 4×); (B) there is no intraepithelial lymphocytosis (hematoxylin and eosin stain, 20×); (C) the enterocytes at the villous tips of some cases show subtle vacuolization of their apical cytoplasm (hematoxylin and eosin stain, 40×); (D) PAS stain showing absence of the sharp linear brush border which is replaced by apical cytoplasmic blush. Few PAS positive secretory granules in the apical cytoplasm of mature enterocytes are seen (20×); (E) low power view of CD10 immunostain showing patchy absence of the linear brush border (10×); (F) higher power view of CD10 immunostain showing apical cytoplasmic granules within the enterocytes (40×).
Transmission electron micrographs of enterocytes containing microvillous inclusions indicated by the black arrows. (A) Case 1 – enterocyte with surface microvilli shorter than normal. The inclusion in the cytoplasm at the apical area contains microvilli directed inwards; (B) case 2 – enterocyte showing short microvilli and containing an oval inclusion near the surface. The inclusion contains microvilli; horizontally oriented; (C) case 3 – enterocyte devoid of surface microvilli, the inclusion contains pallisading microvilli with rootlets; (D) case 4 – inclusion containing disorganized microvilli some with rootlets.
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to defective apical surface of the enterocytes presenting with protracted diarrhea from birth. The aim of the study is to describe the pattern of MVID in pediatric population of King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This retrospective cohort study used small intestinal biopsies submitted to the histopathology laboratory of KAUH between January 2002 and December 2011 from infants aged 0–24 months with intractable diarrhea. Histological slides and pathology reports were reviewed. PAS and CD10 were performed if not available along with electron microscopic examination of the cases and review of the patients’ medical charts. Four (10.5%) cases of MVID were found among 38 small intestinal biopsies submitted to the laboratory with the above mentioned criteria. Two (50%) were females. The four presented with intractable diarrhea during their first week of life that required support with parenteral nutrition. All have died of their disease in their infancy. Light microscopy of their small bowel biopsies showed moderate to severe villous atrophy in all of the four cases. PAS and CD10 immunostain showed loss of the sharp staining of the brush border. Ultrastructural examination of the intestinal epithelial lining demonstrated atrophic surface microvilli in the apical portion of the enterocyte cytoplasm characteristic microvillus inclusions. In conclusion, MVID is a rare fatal disorder with no sex predilection. Clinicians and pathologists should consider it in the differential diagnosis of infants presenting with chronic intractable diarrhea.
 
Ore microscopic investigation of core samples from the Bi’r Tawilah gold prospect enables to distinguish three main groups of ore paragenesis from oldest to youngest, namely magmatic, hydrothermal and supergene. The ore minerals are encountered in sheared and mineralized ophiolitic serpentinites and a variety of hydrothermally altered granitic rocks that include quartz–diorite, granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz–feldspar porphyry. Magmatic ore minerals are chromite, magnetite, ilmenite and pyrrhotite. Hydrothermal ore minerals are the most common (>90%) and they follow the paragenetic sequence: rutile, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite (with visible gold and electrum inclusions) and arsenopyrite. Supergene ore minerals are ferric Ca-arsenate and ferric oxyhydroxide (±goethite) which represent the weathering products of pyrite and arsenopyrite, respectively. The non-arsenian nature of pyrite and late formation of arsenopyrite all together suggest mobility of As in the hydrothermal fluids until late stages. There are no remarks of ore metamorphism as all events took place post-orogenically despite zonal arrangement of inclusions in pyrite that can result from paucity of crystallization. Ore textures indicate change from early relatively reducing hydrothermal fluids at low fS2 that crystallize pyrrhotite which is converted into pyrite when the fluid becomes relatively more oxidizing at high fS2 and pH <5. On the other hand, the supergene enrichment zone at the uppermost 40 m is dominated by exclusively oxidizing fluids (pH >7) at low temperature up to ∼75 °C. Supergene ferric Ca-arsenate is a cellular-structured hydrous phase with distinct As5+ ↔ Fe3+ + Ca2+ ionic substitution in three distinct domains.
 
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory findings in the studied groups.
Clinical manifestation of the different studied groups.
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves comparing admission, CRP, PCT and sTREM-1 for prediction of septic meningitis.
of the routine blood and CSF laboratory findings in the studied groups.
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in comparison to procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in early diagnosis of septic meningitis and its usefulness to distinguish between septic and aseptic meningitis. Patients and methods This study included 26 patients with septic meningitis, 32 patients with aseptic meningitis and 15 controls. Besides Gram staining, cultures of blood and CSF and latex agglutination test of CSF, CRP, serum PCT and sTREM-1 measurement were done on admission and after 48–72 h of treatment. Results Septic meningitis was diagnosed in 26 (44.82%) of the studied cases. Patients with septic meningitis had a significant increase in serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels at the time of admission (mean 32.99 ± 19.7 ng/ml and 97.9 ± 86.35 ng/ml, respectively), while patients with aseptic meningitis showed (6.8 ± 5.67 ng/ml and 1.88 ± 1.6 ng/ml, respectively). Control group showed sTREM-1 and PCT levels (6.6 ± 4.6 ng/ml and 0.58 ± 0.36 ng/ml, respectively) (P < 0.05). sTREM-1 demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity (93.7%) and specificity (94.3%) in the early prediction of sepsis with an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.84–0.99) at a cut off value of 12.4 ng/ml. Moreover, sTREM-1 but not PCT or CRP concentration was significantly lower (P < 0.001) at admission in patients with poor outcome than in those with good prognosis. Conclusions Both serum PCT and sTREM-1 are valuable in the early distinguishing of septic from aseptic meningitis in children but with markedly higher diagnostic discriminatory power for sTREM-1. Moreover, sTREM-1 has a significant value in determining the prognosis of cases with septic meningitis.
 
Phylogenetic tree constructed for the isolates using neighbor joining method. 
Morphotypes of crystals and their close association with bacterial cells isolated from the Labit, Mawjymbuin and Mawmluh caves, respectively (bars denote the magnification in the figure). (A) Bacterial prints of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from a stalagmite associated with the precipitated crystal of Labit cave. (B) Spiky crystals of Bacillus cereus isolated from cave wall deposit of Mawjymbuin cave. (C) A filament of calcite formed by Bacillus halodurans isolated from cave wall deposit in Mawmluh cave. 
Morphotypes of crystals and their close association with bacterial cells isolated from the Mawsmai and Mawjymbuin caves (bars denote the magnification in the figure). (A) Spherical crystals of Lysinibacillus macroides isolated from a column of Mawsmai cave. (B) Large aggregate of individual microstone precipitated by Lysinibacillus parviboronicapiens isolated from a column of Mawjymbuin cave. (C) Association of rhombic crystals with new layers of biolith of Acinetobacter johnsonii isolated from cave wall deposit of Mawsmai cave. (D) Spiky crystals of Kocuria rosea isolated from a stalactite of Mawsmai cave. 
The ultrastructural morphology of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals precipitated by eight culturable speleothemic biofilm bacteria associated with not-so-far explored caves of Meghalaya were studied using electron microscopy. The isolated bacteria under in vitro conditions precipitated CaCO3 in the media when supplemented with proper calcium source which was not the case in dead cells suggesting that calcification required metabolic activity in the speleothemic environment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of various polymorphs of calcite distinctly different from inorganic CaCO3 crystals. The polymorphic crystals ranged from filaments and rods associated in large clusters with mineral crystals to spiky needle. The results endorse the hypothesis that the isolated bacterial species contribute to active biogenic influence in the process of cave formations in the hypogean environment.
 
Olfaction plays a major role in various life activities of fish. The present study describes for the first time the gross morphology, histology, histochemistry, surface architecture and ultrastructure of the olfactory epithelium of Red-tail shark. It possessed a pair olfactory rosette, connected to the external by two nasal openings. The olfactory rosette was oval in shape, consisted of 45,48 lamellae. The lateral surface of olfactory lamella is covered with sensory epithelium, whereas the non-sensory area restricted mainly at the margin of the lamellae. Sensory epithelium contained ciliated, microvillous olfactory receptor cells (ORCs), crypt and rodlet cells. In addition to the presence of basal and microvillous supporting cells. The non-sensory epithelial cells were consisted of rodlet cells and stratified epithelium. The later was divided into ciliated and non-ciliated cells. Neuromasts were found in the apical third of the lamellae. Histochemistry of the olfactory epithelium revealed presence of PAS-positive granules in cytoplasm of rodlet cells were, while the ruptured ones stained strongly with PAS, AB and Sudan black B. The apical portions of supporting cells were stained with PAS and AB. Grimelus Silver method showed positive reaction of ciliated, microvillous ORCs, crypt and rodlet cells. Red tail shark seemed to have an acute sense of smell and depend mainly on the olfactory organ in detection of food and this study is important for future studies on behavior of this species. The functional significance of all olfactory epithelial cells was discussed with special references to stages and role of rodlet cells.
 
Association of HER2, p53 and p63 immunostaining with histopathological parameters.
Strong and diffuse HER2 immunostaining surrounding the entire cell membrane (score 3+) (HER2 400×).
p53 immunohistochemical expression. (A) diffuse nuclear staining of tumor cells (p53 200×). (B) p53 immunostaining in less than 10% of tumor cells (p53 200×).
p63 immunohistochemical expression. (A) strong and diffuse nuclear staining of neoplastic urotlelial cells in low grade tumor (p63 200×). (B) heterogenous immunoreactivity in high grade tumor (p63 200×).
of immunohistochemical HER2 expression with p53 and p63 expression.
This study assessed the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) protein expression in urothelial bladder carcinoma and its relationship with p53 and p63 expression. In 151 patients, paraffin-embedded tissues of transurethral resection or cystectomy were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), using antibodies against HER2, p53 and p63. HER2 overexpression (score 3+), p53 overexpression and decreased expression of p63 were detected in 14 (9.3%), 48 (31.8%) and 58 (38.4%) tumors, respectively. HER2 overexpression, p53 overexpression and decreased expression of p63 were associated with high tumor grade (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0002 and p = 0.046, respectively) and advanced TNM stage (p = 0.017, p = 0.012 and p = 0.001, respectively) of urothelial bladder carcinoma. In univariate analysis HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with decreased expression of p63 (p = 0.037). In multivariate analysis, only tumor grade was correlated with HER2 overexpression (p = 0.006). In this study, HER2 is overexpressed in 9.3% of urothelial bladder carcinomas. HER2 overexpression was strongly correlated with tumor grade but not with TNM stage, p53 and p63. The development of target therapies using anti-HER2 and the identification of patients which who benefit from those therapies need further studies.
 
Histological and topological architectures in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach of Mystus vittatus, Liza parsia and Oreochromis mossambicus were studied. The mucosa of the sac like stomach of M. vittatus was made up of superficial epithelium and gastric epithelium. The superficial epithelium was made up of single layer of columnar epithelial cells while the gastric epithelium was composed of gastric glands. In L. parsia the mucosal epithelium of the gizzard like stomach consisted of single layer of columnar epithelial cells but gastric glands were totally absent. The caecal like stomach of O. mossambicus was made up of superficial columnar epithelial cells and tubular gastric glands. The topological characteristics of the entire mucosa of the stomach of M. vittatus, L. parsia and O. mossambicus were provided with mucosal folds forming empty concavities. However, the concavities were comparatively deeper in O. mossambicus. The mucosal surface of stomach also typified with columnar epithelial cells whose apical surfaces were provided with short and stubby microridges in M. vittatus and L. parsia while in O. mossambicus the microridges were fine and delicate. Physiological functions of the stomach of aforesaid fishes were discussed.
 
The cell block is an ancillary technique used in cytology to increase the diagnostic accuracy in the analysis of effusions and aspirations. In our laboratory, we implemented the routine use of the Thromboplastin-Plasma Cell-Block (TP-CB) technique because it is simple, reproducible and has low cost. The aim of this prospective study was to proof the utility of performing routine cell blocks in non-gynecologic cytology by comparing the diagnostic concordance, cellularity, and contribution to diagnosis from paired TP-CB and Conventional Cytological (CC) preparations. For this, all non-gynecologic specimens including effusions, body fluids and aspirations, were collected for an 8-month period. A total of 179 TP-CBs were prepared from the remaining fluid following CC preparations. Absolute concordance was found in 81.6% cases between both techniques (κ = 0.56). The cell block aided the diagnosis in 28% of cases and ICC studies were done in 12%. The use of routine TP-CB complements and enhances the diagnostic accuracy of CC, allows the performance of ancillary studies and improves the diagnostic approach and treatment.
 
The morphometrical and morphological features of the infundibulum and ampulla of the uterine tubes of adult cattle were studied. The materials used in this study were consisted of 12 pairs of uterine tube of healthy cows at age of 16–36 months, collected from Assiut slaughterhouses. Through observations of the ovaries, follicular and luteal phases of estrous cycle of each cattle were specified. Semithin sections of ampulla and infundibulum at follicular and luteal phases were made and histochemical analysis of the ampulla by use of PAS, Alcian Blue, Sudan Black B was also done. In addition, acid phosphatase activity of the ampullar epithelium was demonstrated. Histological analysis of the epithelium of bovine oviduct revealed that it was consisted of non-ciliated secretory cells, two populations of ciliated cells (CC), basal cells and Peg cells. At the luteal phase, the secretory cells possessed many cytoplasmic protrusions that extended beyond the luminal borders of the ciliated cells and exocytosis of secretory materials was observed. While at the follicular phase, the ciliated cells were predominated. The histochemistry of the ampullar epithelium revealed increase in secretions of neutral, acidic mucopolysaccarides and lipid from the secretory cells at the luteal phase with moderate acid phosphatase activity. Histomorphometric examinations of infundibulum and ampulla indicated that the mean number and height of primary folds as well as the thickness of the epithelium were increased significantly at the follicular phase.
 
Based on their morphological and physiological features, red algae comprise a complex and variable group of multiple genera, including Hypnea. In particular, the genus Hypnea J.V. Lamouroux (Cystocloniaceae, Rhodophyta) consists of approximately 54 species, including Hypnea cervicornis and H. musciformis. Lectins were described for both species; however, the localization of these proteins is still unclear. Therefore, this work aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of Hypnea cervicornis and H. musciformis, as well as localize their lectins at the subcellular level. Samples were collected at Praia do Pacheco (Fortaleza-CE) and processed for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in addition to immunocytochemistry. The studied species presented cortical cell layers, subcortical cells and medullary cells. Based on ultrastructural analysis, these species presented vacuolated cortical cells, with a dense cytoplasm containing chloroplasts. The cell wall consisted of concentric microfibrils embedded in an amorphous matrix. Immunochemistry analysis showed the expression of lectins in the cytoplasm and cell walls. While the structure of the studied algae was similar to the description of other species of the genera under different conditions, this is the first record of algae lectin localization.
 
Light and electron microscope photomicrograph of dorsal skin of B. melanostictus in Amphibians Ringer Saline (ARS). (a and b) Light micrograph showing: The general organization of the toad skin and the localization of melanophores can be seen. epidermis (E), epidermal gland (G), sub-epidermis (S), dermis (D), melanophores (M) (arrow). 400 × . (c) Transmission electron micrograph of vertical section of dorsal skin melanophores of toad: showing, oval nucleus (N) contains granulated nucleolus (n), surrounded by oval shaped premelanosomes (p) and melanosomes (m) scattered throughout cytoplasm. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remains scattered between melanosomes. 20,000 × . (d) Showing: Low magnification electron micrograph of sub epidermal melanophores. They are actively engaged in the synthesis of melanosomes (m) of various stages of development. 4000 × . 
Transmission electron micrograph of vertical section of a part of dorsal skin melanophores of Bufo melanostictus : (a) Showing, cytoplasm filled with melanosomes (m) of various stage of development, surrounded by endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vesicles (V) in the sub epidermis. 20,000 × . (b) Showing, high magnification electron micrograph of electron-lucent premelanosomes (p) contains fibrillar matrix, electron-dense melanosomes (m) and vesicles (v). 40,000 × . 
Transmission electron micrograph of vertical section of a part of dorsal skin melanophores of Bufo melanostictus showing: (a) Sub-epidermal melanosomes of various stages (I, II, III, IV) of development. 20,000 × . (b) High magnification electron micrograph of dermal melanosomes (m) analogous to sub-epidermal melanosomes. 40,000 × . 
Indian toad, Bufo melanostictus is an amphibian, which is able to change the body color to adapt to its ambient need. This ability is due to specialized skin pigment cells known as melanophores which are excellent animal-cell models to study most of the physiological phenomenon related to color changes. In the present investigation morpho-anatomic details of dorsal skin melanophores of B. melanostictus were studied by means of light and electron microscope to establish their phylogenetic relevance with other vertebrates. Light microscopic observations revealed that toad skin contains dominantly present black pigment cells, the melanophores in its sub epidermis while dermal melanophores are rare. The ultrastructure of the melanophore is characterized by oval nucleus and numerous pigment granules, the melanosomes which remain scattered in the cytoplasm. Other sub-cellular organelles like mitochondria, well-developed tubular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were also found to be present in the remaining cytoplasmic area. Toad melanophore contains four distinct stages of melanosomes which are similar in development pattern to the mammalian melanocytes. These findings indicate that toad melanophores contain phylogenetically significant information of anatomical similarity with lower as well as higher vertebrates which can help to better understand the inter relationships between vertebrate pigment cells and their role in skin dysfunctions.
 
Results of smear layer scores at root canal sections [n (%)].
SEM micrographs of Group 2 after the use of two instruments/files, in the apical (A), middle (B), and cervical (C) thirds. The dentine surface was free of the smear layer and showed open dentinal tubules (2000×).
SEM micrographs of Group 1 after the use of two instrument/file, in the apical (A), middle (B), and cervical (C) thirds. The dentine surface was free of the smear layer and showed open dentinal tubules (2000×).
SEM micrographs of Group 3 after the use of two instruments/files, in the apical (A), middle (B), and cervical (C) thirds. At this stage, the EDTA had not been used (2000×).
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare, by scanning electron microscopy analysis, the cleaning efficacy of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and a 17% ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) solution with the two solutions either applied alternately or mixed together for smear layer removal after the use of each endodontic file in different root thirds. Materials and methods Fifty-four single-rooted human maxillary premolars were used and divided into three groups. Manual instrumentation was performed with K-Flexofiles with the crown-down technique; and divided in Group 1: canal preparation was performed with 2.5% NaOCl mixed with 17% EDTA in the root canal. Group 2: irrigation was performed alternately with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Group 3: only 2.5% NaOCl was used during all instrumentation and EDTA for 3 min at the final. The mean scores for the smear layer by SEM after the use of each file were calculated and analysed. Results A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found among the instrumentation groups between the apical third and the middle and coronal thirds. In the apical third, the canal walls were often contaminated by inorganic debris and smear layer. Conclusions The alternate or mixed use of EDTA during instrumentation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was the most effective form of irrigation for the removal of smear layer on the cervical and middle thirds. No form of irrigation was sufficiently effective to remove the smear layer in the apical third. Clinical relevance The importance of the alternating use of 17% EDTA and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite during root canal instrumentation.
 
Optimal management of synchronous colorectal liver metastases demands a well-organized inter-disciplinary strategy by surgeon, oncologist and radiologist. Over the past decade, advances in management strategies of patient with liver-limited metastases have incredibly improved the overall prognosis. This review discusses the advances made in the management of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. A literature search was performed, using the following databases: PubMed, SCOPUS sciencedirect, EMBASE, and NHS Knowledge Network. The retrieved articles were assessed for relevance for inclusion in this review. The review illustrates that although currently surgery offers the best chance of cure in patients with colorectal liver metastases, the majority of patients are not initially resectable due to the size, anatomic location, extent of disease, inadequate remnant liver volume, or comorbidities. This necessitates other treatment modalities to control or downsize the hepatic lesions before embarking on the surgical intervention. Systemic and regional chemotherapy complements the surgical cure in the majority of patients.
 
Intrinsic and extrinsic cascades of vitamin D-induced apoptosis. 1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2D3] up-regulates the pro-apoptotic protein bak and down-regulates the anti-apoptotic protein bacl-2. Pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic bcl-2 modulate the release of cytochrome c and other pro-apoptotic factors. Cytochrome c integrates with APAF-1 and pro-caspase 9 to form the apoptosome, which stimamulates caspase 3 activation, inducing the cleavage of different substrates in apoptotic cells. Another bcl-2-family member, BID, when cleaved by caspase 8 (tBID), translocates to the mitochondria membrane and triggers the mitochondria-dependent or intrinsic death pathway. BID connects the extrinsic (death-receptor mediated cell death pathway) and the intrinsic death pathways. In cancer cells, 1α,25-(OH)2D3 induces the down-regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP). APAF-1, apoptotic protease activating factor-1; BAK, Bcl-2-antagonist killer; BAX, Bcl-2-associated X protein; tBID, truncated BH3-interacting domain death agonist; BCL-2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 protein; BCL-XL, BCL2-related protein, long isoform; FADD, FAS-associated death domain.
Historically, the predominant function of vitamin D is well recognized in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Recently, plenty of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested the pro-active role of vitamin D in colorectal, prostate, breast, ovarian, and skin cancers. The protective role of vitamin D against cancer has been attributed to its influence on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, DNA repair mechanisms, and inflammation and immune function. Latest research has identified that vitamin D exerts antiproliferative and prodifferentiating effects in many malignant cells, and inhibits the proliferation of malignant cells in animal models raising the possibility of its therapeutic application as an anticancer agent. The developed genomic models of vitamin D receptors clearly illustrate the anti-cancer effects of Vitamin D but till date, the simultaneous hypercalcemic effect of vitamin D could not be removed from these analogs. This review presents various dimensions of anti-cancer actions of vitamin D by elaborating its lead role in preventing colorectal carcinoma, and sets future goals for establishing its therapeutic actions.
 
TEM image of the section microtomed along the thickness direction of the PLA/C60 composite film embedded in frozen sucrose solution.
The sketches for (a) the cyro-pin with film sample fixed on and (b) sucrose solution-adsorbed atop the cryo-pin with film sample fixed on.
In order to study the microstructure along the thickness direction of polylactide acid/C60 (PLA/C60) composite film, the sucrose solution was frozen to embed the PLA/C60 composite film at −70 °C, and the distribution state of C60 in PLA matrix was observed successfully in the obtained ultrathin sections cryomicrotomed along the thickness direction of the embedded film in the frozen sucrose solution bulk by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Compared with the traditional chemical embedding methods of polymer film using resins such as epoxy and polyester, the newly developed method to embed the PLA/C60 composite film physically with frozen sucrose solution was simple, convenient, efficient, and health friendly.
 
Background Nevus depigmentosus is a congenital, non-progressive, hypopigmented macule or patch that is stable in its relative size and distribution throughout life. The lesions are often single but may be multiple, circumscribed and either isolated, dermatomal or in whorls. The lesions are uniformly hypomelanoic but not amelanotic. The aetiopathogenesis of nevus depigmentosus is not yet fully understood. A defect in the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes has been reported. Objective This work aimed at evaluation of the clinical and ultrastructural characteristics of nevus depigmentosus in a trial to understand its pathogenesis. Patients and methods This study included 15 patients having nevus depigmentosus. Ultrastructural study was performed for 5 patients. 2 punch biopsies were taken from each patient, one from the center of the lesion and another from the nearby apparently normal skin as a control. Results The lesions were mostly present before 3 years of age, mostly on the trunk. Six patients (40%) had the isolated type and 9 (60%) had the segmental type. Under Wood's lamp, the lesions exhibited an off-white accentuation without fluorescence. Ultrastructural study showed apparent reduction in melanosomal content of lesional melanocytes and keratinocytes. Immature and aggregated melanosomes were more present in lesional keratinocytes. Electron microscopic DOPA oxidase reaction was decreased in lesional skin compared to control indicating a reduced tyrosinase activity. Conclusion The results of this study support the hypothesis that nevus depigmentosus is caused by functional defect of melanocytes and morphologic abnormalities of melanosomes.
 
Showing many mast cells (arrows) in the stroma of the control group (C) and few mast cells in the diabetic group (D). While, testosterone treatment (D+T) and combined hormonal treatment (D+T+I) showing many mast cells. Insulin (D+I) treatment showing abundant mast cells scattered singly or in groups. L: lumena; S: stroma; BV: blood vessels (toluidine blue ×400).
Histogram A showing measurement of epithelial heights of rat ventral prostate of the experimental groups: (C) control; (D) untreated diabetic; (D+T) diabetic treated with testosterone; (D+I) diabetic treated with insulin; (D+I+T) diabetic treated with insulin plus testosterone. Histogram B shows quantification of mast cells. Histograms C, D and E show quantification of the androgen receptor positive epithelial cells, quantification of active caspase-3 positive epithelial cells (apoptotic index) and quantification of proliferative cell nuclear antigen positive epithelial cells (proliferative index) respectively in all the experimental groups. Different letters indicate significant differences.
Showing localized positive cytoplasmic immunoreactions (arrows) in the glandular epithelial cells in control group (C), accumulation of many positive cells (arrow head) in the lumen of the acini in diabetic group (D), localized positive nuclear immunoreaction (arrows) in some nuclei surrounded by vacuolated cytoplasm (arrow heads) in testosterone treated diabetic rats (D+T), localized positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction (arrows) in the glandular epithelium in insulin treated (D+I) and combined hormonal treated (D+T+I) diabetic rats. L: lumena; S: stroma; BV: blood vessels (active caspase-3 immunostaining ×400).
Showing nuclear localization of PCNA immunostaining in the nuclei of some glandular epithelial cells (green arrow) and positive nuclear immunostaining (blue color) for DAPI in the glandular epithelial cells in control (C), diabetic (D), testosterone treated (D+T), insulin treated (D+I) and combined hormonal treatment (D+T+I). L: lumena; S: stroma (immunofluorescence ×200).
Negative control (N) for AR immunostaining showing no immunoreaction in the cytoplasm or nucleus either in the glandular epithelial cells or stromal cells. Control group (C) shows many positive nuclear immunoreaction (arrows) for AR in the glandular epithelial cells and few immunoreactions in the stromal cells (arrow heads). Diabetic group (D) shows apparent decrease in number of positive immunoreaction (arrows) in the epithelial cells with some positive stromal cells (arrow heads). Testosterone treated group (D+T) shows positive nuclear immunoreaction (arrows) nearly in all epithelial cells with some positive stromal cells (arrow heads). Insulin treated group (D+I) shows many positive immunoreaction (arrows) in epithelial cells with some positive immunoreaction (arrow heads) in the stromal cells. Combined hormonal treatment (D+T+I) shows positive nuclear immunoreaction (arrows) in most of the epithelial cells. L: lumena; S: stroma; BV: blood vessels (AR immunostaining ×400).
Many studies have reported high prevalence of hypogonadism amongst the diabetic patients suggesting the therapeutic benefits of testosterone hormone administration to these patients. The present research was carried out to study the possible role of insulin, testosterone and combined insulin and testosterone therapy on the diabetic rat ventral prostate. Fifty-eight adult male albino rats were used and divided into 2 main groups; the control and the experimentally induced diabetic group that given a single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rats with confirmed DM were subdivided into: diabetic group that kept without treatment, diabetic–testosterone group (100 mg/kg/4 weeks, S.C.), diabetic–insulin group (5 IU/day/rat, S.C.) and diabetic–insulin–testosterone group. After 8 weeks, the ventral prostatic lobes were dissected and processed for paraffin blocks to study the epithelial height, mast cell number, expression of AR, PCNA and active caspase-3. DM induced a significant decrease in mast cells number, epithelial height and androgen receptors (AR) with a significant increase in the apoptotic index. On the other hand, the epithelial cells showed a non-significant change in the proliferation rate compared to the control group. Treatment with testosterone induced a significant increase in the epithelial height, number of mast cells & AR positive epithelial cells and a non-significant increase in PCNA with a significant decrease in the active caspase-3. Treatment with insulin showed abundant mast cells in the stroma with a significant increase in epithelial height & AR with decrease in active caspase-3 positive cells and insignificant changes in PCNA. Combined treatment with both hormones produced similar outcomes to the group treated with insulin alone. It was concluded that diabetes leads to alterations in rat ventral prostate gland. Early insulin treatment attenuates these effects with preserving most of the measured parameters within the normal values. Furthermore, addition of testosterone to insulin did not seem to produce a significant therapeutic add.
 
(a) Rubbing wear, (b) cutting wear, (c) fatigue wear, (d) scuffing wear, (e) corrosive wear, and (f) abrasive wear.
Engine oil is an important and the most essential part of machine system. Oil monitoring is a tool to determine lubricant useful life. It can be either performance testing or oil condition monitoring. Knowledge of the system's failure modes is essential for cost-effective oil monitoring. Contamination occurs by mating contact inside the engine chamber. In the present work used CH415W40 engine oil were monitored under bichromatic microscope to observe the contamination and surfaces wear micrograph. According to the observation, rubbing, cutting, fatigue, corrosion, abrasive and scuffing wear modes were observed.
 
Ezrin is a member of the ezrin–radixin–moesin family of proteins. Overexpression of ezrin protein might play an important role in the process of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer seen in population. The term NMSC can theoretically be applied to all cutaneous cancers excluding melanoma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ezrin expression in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), seborrheic keratosis (SK) and keratoacanthoma (KA). This retrospective study included 76 paraffin blocks classified into: group I (20 paraffin blocks of BCC), group II (20 paraffin blocks of SCC), group III (12 paraffin blocks of SK), group IV (14 paraffin blocks of KA) and group V (10 paraffin blocks of normal healthy skin were used as a control group). All were subjected to the ordinary hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for ezrin. This study revealed a statistically significant difference between ezrin expression in different tumor groups and controls. The expression of ezrin in SCC was higher than in BCC, SK and KA. There was a statistically significant difference of ezrin expression in different tumor groups regarding both membranous and cytoplasmic expression of ezrin. The current study suggested that dysregulation of ezrin may be important in the development of cutaneous epithelial malignancies and tumor grade. Immunohistochemical localization of ezrin may be useful marker in the differentiation between cutaneous SCC and KA.
 
Manifestations of PCO in term of clinical and menstrual abnormalities in the study (N = 108).
Ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in the study (N = 108).
Another patient showing enlarged ovary with bright echogenic stroma and peripheral distribution of follicles more than 12 in number seen on a single sonographic plane.
(A and B): Transabdominal scan of right ovary showing more than 12 peripherally distributed follicles all measuring around 4mm in diameter with echogenic central ovarian stroma, while in B, ovarian volume of 19.4cm3 is calculated.
The distribution of ultrasound criteria of PCOS in the study (N=108).
Polycystic ovary (PCO) is a highly variable condition with a wide array of presentations. The polycystic ovary syndrome should meet at least two of the following three criteria: oligo- or anovulation; clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism; polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. The prevalence of PCO is largely unknown in Saudi Arabia. This study presents the prevalence of PCO in young unmarried female students of Taibah University Almadinah Almunawwarah, presenting with menstrual irregularities. The agreed ultrasound features of PCO i.e. presence of 12 or more 2–9 mm ovarian follicles; a peripheral distribution of ovarian follicles; an ovarian volume of more than 10 cm3 and a highly echogenic ovarian stroma were analyzed in all 108 patients. The criteria of 12 or more 2–9 mm ovarian follicles were found to have highest sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis of PCO.
 
Background: Neural protection of the olfactory epithelium against pathogenic invasion is still hardly addressed in fish chemosensory research. Aims and objectives: The ultrastructural detail on the rodlet cell and macrophage has been studied within the olfactory neuroepithelium of Pseudapocryptes lanceolatus to correlate their role in the neural protection of the chemosensory system. Materials and methods: The cellular structures were examined under light microscope (LM: Primo Star; Carl Zeiss Microscopy, GmbH, Germany) and transmission electron microscope (Morgagni 268D). Results: Three distinct stages of the rodlet cell (viz., immature, mature, and degenerative) and macrophages have been characterized at the various depths of the olfactory neuroepithelium in P. lanceolatus. The cytoarchitecture of degenerative rodlet cell indicates holocrine mode of secretion against pathogenic invasion into the nasal cavity. Macrophages possess prominent pseudopodia, extending toward invading pathogens. The interaction between macrophage and invading pathogens implicates the role of macrophage as a scavenger to eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis from the neuroepithelial system. Conclusion: This study denotes a significant difference in the mode of action of rodlet cell and macrophages, but they are commonly involved in cell-mediated nonspecific immune response against the invading pathogens.
 
The structure of accessory glands (AG) in the male sesarmid crab, Parasesarma plicatum, is described by light and transmission electron microscopy. Adult males of carapace of width 1.6cm to 2.2cm were collected from along the estuarine regions of Kanyakumari District, India. Posteriorly, the male reproductive system receives a number of sac-like structures, referred to as accessory glands (AG). Histologically, AG is internally lined by cuboidal epithelium and the lumen encloses eosinophilic vesicular secretions, apparently glycopreoteinaceous in nature. Ultra structurally, the epithelium shows the signs of typical infrastructure for synthetic activity evidenced by the prolific presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, and Golgi complex. The cytoplasm manifested with electron dense, lucent and medium dense secretory vesicles and the mode of release into the lumen is both merocrine and apocrine. Within the lumen these secretory vesicles coalesce and aggregate into large heterogeneous masses of varying sizes, which may play an important role in post copulation within the female duct.
 
Histological sections of extract-treated Rhipicephalus sanguineus ovary. (a-u) H and E staining. (a, e, j, n, and r) Control I and II group. (b, f, k, o, and s) Group III (25 mg/ml). (c, g, l, p, and t) Group IV (33 mg/ml). (d, h, i, m, q, and u) Group V (40 mg/ml). I: Oocyte I; II: Oocyte II; III: Oocyte III; IV: Oocyte IV; V: Oocyte V; ch: Chorium; ep: Ovary epithelium; gv: Germ vesicle; nu: Nucleolus; p: Pedicel; pm: Plasmic membrane; yg: Yolk granules, v: Vacuoles. Bars (a-q) 50 um, (r-u) 100 um
Histological sections of extract-treated Rhipicephalus sanguineus midgut. (a-p) H and E staining. (a-c) Control I and II group. (d-g) Group III (25 mg/ml). (h-j) Group IV (33 mg/ml). (k-p) Group V (40 mg/ml). sdc: Sessile digest cells; rdc: Residual sessile digest cells; ddc: Detached digest cells; l: Lumen; m: Muscular tissue; stc: Stem cells; n: Nuclei; pm: Plasmic membrane; v: Vacuoles. Bars (a, d, e, h, l, and o) 50 um; (b, c, f, g, i, j, m, and p) 20 um; (k and n) 100 um
Histological sections of extract-treated Rhipicephalus sanguineus midgut. (a-h) PAS staining. (a) Control I and II group. (b and c) Group III (25 mg/ml). (d and e) Group IV (33 mg/ml). (f-h) Group V (40 mg/ml). (i-p) Bromophenol blue staining. (i) Control I and II Group. (j) Group III (25 mg/ml). (k and l) Group IV (33 mg/ml). (m-p) Group V (40 mg/ml). sdc: Sessile digest cells; rdc: Residual Sessile digest cells; ddc: Detached digest cells; l: Lumen; m: Muscular tissue; stc: Stem cells; n: Nuclei; pm: Plasmic membrane; v: Vacuoles. Bars (a, d and o) 100 um; (b, c, e-n and p) 50 um
The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Acmella oleracea extract on the germinative cells and digestive processes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females. For this experiment, 150 ticks were divided into five groups (30 individuals each). The animals were immersed for 5 min in different concentrations of the extract, distilled water, or ethanol 50%/DMSO 1%, dried, and kept in biological oxygen demand incubator for 7 days. The alterations were associated with the size of germinative cells and yolk granules; presence, size, and location of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of germinative cells; nuclear modifications in the germinative cells; damages to the nucleus and cytoplasm of the midgut generative cells; size of digestive cells; number of captured blood elements; accumulated digestive residues and digestive vacuoles in the digestive cells cytoplasm; and the number and distribution of proteins and polysaccharides in all the cells of both organs. The concentrations used in this study prevented an efficient and complete blood digestion by the midgut epithelial cells of the treated animals, resulting in the absence of the necessary nutrients to maintain the physiological events in the ectoparasites. In advanced stages, This can lead the ectoparasite to death. The germinative cells were highly impaired and probably not able to advance developmental stages (I–V) or complete vitellogenesis to be released during ovulation, which would prevent the females from originating a new individual. Thus, it can be concluded that the effects of A. oleracea are similar to those caused by chemical products widely recognized as effective to control ticks.
 
Fig. S1
Macrochlamys indica is a hermaphrodite terrestrial pulmonate mollusk. Transmission electron microscope studies were done on the ovotestis of young and adult (older) M. indica which are elaborated in this paper. The ovotestis contains numerous lobes each of which contains many ovoid shaped acini which are occupied by stages of spermatogenesis and a single oocyte. In younger snails, the acini contain stages of developing spermatogenesis, whereas each acinus of older snails is composed of single large oocyte and few stags of spermatogenesis. The number of Sertoli cells is high in the acini of younger snails than in older snails. Details of the cellular organization of the Sertoli cell are described. Some long thin threads extend from the acinar boundary to acinar lumen. The anterior end of these threads is either free or directly connected to the developing cells of spermatogenesis. There are two types of cells in the interacinar space of the ovotestis in both younger and older snails. One cell is small oval interstitial cell and other is thin elongated periacinar cell. The acinar boundary contains secretory cells with deeply stained nucleus. In the acinus of older snails, the Sertoli cells do not form any barrier between oocyte and spermatogenic cells. Functions of the periacinar cell and interacinar cell are discussed. It is found that the spermatogenesis is highly active in younger snails with single dormant oocyte while process of oogenesis predominates in the older snails. The reproductive strategy of this pulmonate species thus depends on the individual's body size and their maturity.
 
Histological sections of the salivary glands of semi-engorged Amblyomma triste female ticks. (A–F) Bromophenol blue staining to detect proteins. (A) Acini I. (B). Acini I and II. (C, D and E.) Acini II. (F) Acini III. (G–L) Von Kossa staining to detect calcium. (G) Acini I. (H, I, J) Acini II. (K) L. Acini III. n=nuclei; dt=duct; a, c1–c5, d, e, f=glandular cells. Scale bars: 20μm.
Histological sections of the salivary glands of semi-engorged Amblyomma triste female ticks. (A–H) PAS staining to detect polysaccharides. (A) Acini I. (B–G) Acini II. (H) Acini III. dt=duct; a, c1–c5, d, e, f=glandular cells. Scale bars: 20μm.
Histological sections of the salivary glands of semi-engorged Amblyomma triste female ticks. (A–E) Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. (A) Acini I and II. (B and C) Acini II. (D) Acini II and III. (E) Acini III. (F–K) Nile blue staining to detect lipids. (F) Acini I and II. (G–J) Acini II. (K) Acini III. n=nuclei; dt=duct; a, c1–c5, d, e, f=glandular cells. Scale bars: 20μm.
This study presents the morphological and physiological characterization of the salivary glands of semi-engorged Amblyomma triste females. Unfed individuals were placed on New Zealand White rabbits for feeding and the females, after 4 days, were collected, dissected and the salivary glands were submitted to the application of histological (hematoxylin–eosin technique) and histochemical tests for the detection of protein (bromophenol blue technique, polysaccharides (periodic acid–Schiff technique), lipid (Nile blue technique) and calcium (von Kossa technique). The histological results show that the glandular tissue is composed by a system of ducts and three types of acini (I, II and III). The acini I are formed by a large central cell surrounded by several smaller agranular peripheral cells. Acini II are formed by cells a, c1, c2, c3 and c5, which are full of secretion granules. Acini III are constituted by cells d, e and f; the former two contain secretion granules, the latter is agranular. The glandular histochemical composition was also verified. Data obtained here will certainly help in the understanding of the cellular morphology and of the general physiology of these organs in this specie, providing important information for the creation of scientific bases which will contribute for the development of more specific and efficient methods of control.
 
Background: The portunid crab Charybdis hellerii is an economically critical aquatic species in the Mediterranean region. Several investigators have reported scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations on some crustacean's eggs' morphology. Going through the previous studies, knowledge regarding the morphology of C. hellerii. vitellogenic oocytes and spawned egg membranes are not available. Aims and objectives: In the present study, an attempt has been made to describe the morphology and the structure of the membranes of vitellogenic oocytes and the newly spawned eggs to provide necessary information for further studies on the reproductive and evolutionary biology of the crab C. hellerii. Materials and methods: Samples of ripe pinkish orange ovaries of non-ovigarous females and the spawned incubated eggs of ovigerous females with orange and grey spawns were processed for scanning electron microscopy. The prepared samples were examined in a Zeiss DSM 940 scanning electron microscope. Results: The present SEM study revealed that, vitellogenic oocytes are highly packed with yolk inclusions, which appear to be embedded in a definite acellular matrix and surrounded by a distinct chorion, which is pierced by several pores. The follicle cells appear polygonal in shape and interconnected through thin lateral projections and strongly associated with vitellogenic oocytes. The brooded fertilized eggs are attached through a marked stalk (funiculus) and surrounded by three distinct envelopes, which showed specific ornamentations and variations in their surface topography. The outer envelope coarsely wrinkled, while the middle envelope showed finely wrinkled ornamentation, and the inner envelope appeared with its characteristic spongy, porous appearance. Conclusions: This study denotes a significant difference between mature vitellogenic oocytes inside the ripe ovary and the spawned ova. The differences have been shown in the structure and external ornamentation of their surrounding membranes. Unlike the vitellogenic oocytes, the spawned ova were surrounded by three distinct layers, which are differ in their surface architecture. Such membrane architecture is species specific characteristic and has been thought to be an adaptive feature for brooded fertilized eggs to survive from stressful environmental conditions.
 
Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been widely investigated for the treatment of COVID-19. Although it is rare, several case reports of acute toxicity of HCQ due to overdose have been reported during the last two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the management options of acute HCQ toxicity. Methods: A literature review that was conducted using an electronic search in the Google Scholar search engine. The inclusion criteria include any patient over 12 years old presenting with HCQ intoxication symptoms from January 1999 to January 2020. Results: Sixteen cases were found that have the inclusion criteria of this study. Most patients presented with altered mental status, electrocardiogram abnormalities, visual disturbance, and decrease cardiac output. Activated charcoal was the first line of management in nearly two-thirds of patients whereas 93.8% received fluid resuscitation and 81.3% of the patients need at least one type of vasopressor agent. Furthermore, potassium is given for 93.8% of the patient while 75% of the patients need sodium bicarbonate and intubation, lipid emulsion was used in three patients only and 13 patients survived. Conclusion: The acute HCQ toxicity may result during the treatment period of COVID-19. The most common options can use in this situation include included gastric lavage and decontamination, IV fluid resuscitation, potassium replacement, sodium bicarbonate, intravenous lipid emulsion, and extracorporeal circulation membrane oxygenation. The role of diazepam is not clear but can be used in the significant toxicity while hyperkalemia associated with severe ingestions.
 
Many challenges had faced medical schools worldwide after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. From these challenges, training of the next generation of physicians and academic staff. Adoption of online education and training with getting the benefit of technology had introduced. Egypt has another special challenge, which is the adoption of a new undergraduate competency-based program since September 2018. Hence, there is a necessity to complete the ongoing capacity building of the academic staff regarding the development of all domains of medical education. Here is a case report of interactive training assessment online courses, which proved promising. Although there is fear about the rapid, unexpected transformation, in fact, it may lead to the emergence of a new model for teaching and learning, which is a mixture between the regular and electronic methods.
 
Artificial intelligence has found its way into numerous fields of medicine in the past decade, spurred by the availability of big data and powerful processors. For the COVID‑19 pandemic, aside from predicting its onset, artificial intelligence has been used to track disease spread, detect pulmonary involvement in computed tomography scans, risk-stratify patients, and model virtual protein structure and potential therapeutic agents. This mini‑review briefly discusses the potential applications of artificial intelligence in COVID‑19 microscopy.
 
Review Article Work Stress, Dysbiosis, and Immune Dysregulation: The Interconnected Triad in COVID‑19 Infection in the Medical Staff
The COVID‑19 pandemic has hit most of the communities around the globe. Earlier researches have reported the psychological effects of pandemics either on the general populations or on specific communities such as students and health professionals. A scanty number of papers have focused on the interaction among complex factors underlying the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we aimed to integrate the accessible data about the possible mechanistic processes predisposing to COVID‑19 infection in the health professions. We summarized these factors as “stress, microbiota, and immunity triad.” We utilized the PubMed database, Google, and Google Scholar search engines to search the literature related to combinations of these keywords: “pandemics, COVID‑19, coronavirus, SARS‑CoV2;” “gut microbiota, gut‑lung axis, dysbiosis, nutrition;” “work stress, workload, health workers, health professions, and medical team;” and “immunity, cytokine storm, and viral load.” We detected no discussions combining the suggested triad concerning the medical team personnel. We cast light, for the first time to our knowledge, on the potential pathogenic role of “stress, microbiota, and immunity triad” in COVID‑19‑infected health workers. Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID‑19, cytokine storm, dysbiosis, immunity, microbiota, work stress
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted dental education and research activities, creating challenges for students, educators, and health-care professionals. The unfolding crisis has shed the light on how technology can facilitate not only the delivery of dental education and improving access to dental care but also new and ongoing research. While dental schools worldwide have re-structured their policies and curricula in terms of incorporating appropriate methods of distance learning, this now needs to be applied to dental research where appropriate. By conducting a 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats' analysis and describing the authors' experiences, here we discuss the impact of the pandemic on various aspects of dental research to provide a timely perspective on dental research activity in academic institutions to help achieve research outcomes despite the pandemic's impact. © 2021 Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
 
The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its pharmacological modulators in the susceptibility and outcomes of SARS CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19) has been much discussed recently. Angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) has attracted much attention and debate in relevance to COVID-19. It not only acts as the receptor to which the SARS CoV-2 virus binds to be introduced into cells but also balances the effects of angiotensin II offering anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic protective actions to different organs. This mini-review aims to shed some light on the possible involvement of ACE2 and RAS alternate pathways in the comorbidities and clinical findings observed in COVID-19 patients.
 
Top-cited authors
SR Joshi
  • North Eastern Hill University
Kıymet Kübra Yurt
  • Kastamonu Üniversitesi
Gamze Altun
  • Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi
Salman Yousuf Guraya
  • University of Sharjah
Elfide Gizem Kıvrak
  • Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi