Cimicifugeae is one of the rich sources for various active components and the health promoting and therapeutic values of the components have been corroborated by long-term use in folk medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Increasing interest in Cimicifugeae pharmaceutical resources has led to the further discoveries of triterpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds, chromones, and many other compounds in various species of Cimicifugeae, and to the investigations on their chemotaxonomy, molecular phylogeny, and bioactivities. Based on our pharmacophylogenetic studies, the progress in phytochemistry, chemotaxonomy, molecular biology, and phylogeny of Cimicifugeae had been summarized since 2007, especially Cimicifuga L. ex Wernisch. and Actaea L., and their relevance to therapeutic efficacy. An exhaustive literature survey is used to characterize the global scientific effort in the phytochemical and biological studies of Cimicifugeae. More triterpenoid saponins have been found in various species, among which the cimigenol type (type A) is predominant. The versatile bioactivities of saponins and extracts, as well as those of phenolics and other ingredients, were summarized and discussed. The morphology-based five-genus classification of Cimicifugeae is not supported by molecular phylogeny. Molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences tends to merge Cimicifuga Wernisch., Souliea Franch., and Actaea L. into a single genus. It is indispensable to integrate the emerging technologies into Cimicifugeae research for both the sustainable utilization of Cimicifugeae pharmaceutical resources and finding novel compounds with potential clinical utility and less adverse effects. Systems biology and omics technologies would play an increasingly important role in booming pharmaceutical research involving bioactive compounds of Cimicifugeae.
The harmful effects of chemicals and the side effects of chemical drugs on human health have a widely focused global attention on herbal drugs and medicinal plants. The increasing use of medicinal plants in the world is more than enough to show the significance of cultivating and producing such plants. Grains of most medicinal plants have very long dormancy periods, so shortening the dormancy period and increasing sprouting rates through laboratory methods may be effective in the proliferation of medicinal plants. Salvia L. is a member of the family Lamiaceae with more than 900 species all over the world. One of the major standards of seed quality is the 1000 grain weight, which is effective on sprouting, seed potential, seedling growth, and plant performance. Therefore, an experiment was run in the form of completely random blocks in 3 iterations to study the effects of the 1000 grain weight on the sprouting rate and seed potential of Salvia L. Ten different 1000 seed weight treatments were used in a standard sprouting test and accelerated aging test inside a germinating machine. The experiments were run in three iterations, each including 50 seeds based on rules set forth by the International Seed Testing Association. The experiments tended to analyze seed properties such as sprouting percentage, seedling length, and weight of dried seedling. Obtained data was analyzed by SAS software. Results indicated that in the standard sprouting test, the 1000 grain weight had significant effects on growth traits such as length and weight of dry seedling, yet it had no significant effect on sprouting percentage. In addition, in the accelerated aging test the 1000 seed weight had a significant effect on sprouting percentage and dry seedling weight, while there was no significant effect on seedling length.
Neurodegenerative conditions, such as the Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, are associated with the production of reactive oxygen species and resultant oxidative stress. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system and may induce cytotoxicity through persistent activation of glutamate receptors and through oxidative stress mechanisms. On the basis of this information, we established a screening system using N18-RE-105 cells to identify therapeutic agents that can protect cells from glutamate toxicity. During the course of our screening program, we recently isolated an active compound, 8,13-dihydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (PSE-1), from peanut sprouts, which prevents glutamate-induced cell death. The chemical structure of PSE-1 was identified using spectroscopic methods and by comparison with the value in the literature. The antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of PSE-1 were evaluated using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, Comet assay, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay, the lactate dehydrogenase release assay, a morphological assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. The results of the assays demonstrate that PSE-1 has neuroprotective effects and that PSE-1 could be a new potential chemotherapeutic agent against neuronal diseases.
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the level of B3LYP/3-21G carried out on the structure and stability of B 10 N 11 H 7 (Thr) 2 in bulk and different solvent medium. NMR parameters and thermodynamic properties were calculated to obtain chemical shift, stability and solvent effect. It was found that computationally efficient solvent modeling is possible and can reveal fine details of molecular structure, stability and dynamics. The results showed high stability of B 10 N 11 nanocone, it can be the best candidate and much favorable in biological systems and drug delivery. Key words: Molecular dynamics simulations, solvent effect, DFT, B 10 N 11 H 7 (Thr) 2 , nanocone, Monte Carlo.
In this article, we reported the isolation and characterization of Euphorbia factor L1 from Caper Euphorbia seed. The complete 1 H and 13 C NMR signals were assigned with the help of 1D, 2D NMR techniques. In addition, the anticancer activities of Euphorbia factor L1 were investigated. It exhibited potent cytotoxicity to KB, KBv200, MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells with the IC 50 values of 30.83 ± 2.93, 28.11 ± 3.08, 39.47 ± 4.03 and 42.69 ± 4.27 g/ml, respectively.
Studies were performed using 14 C radiolabel to elucidate the extent to which carbon from four sources (CO 2 , sucrose, glucose and acetate) contribute to the primary metabolites and alkaloids produced by the roots, stems and leaves of Catharanthus roseus plant. 14 CO 2 derived metabolites were most preferred for biosynthesis of leaf and root alkaloids. Roots were the major accumulators of metabolites accompanied by higher 14 C content into total alkaloids. 14 C-glucose derived metabolites were the second most preferred substrate for leaf and stem alkaloid accumulation and the stem showed highest incorporation into alkaloids. 14 C-sucrose was the third most preferred carbon source for biosynthesis of leaf, stem and root alkaloids. Among these substrates, 14 C-acetate was the least preferred by the plant for biosynthesis of alkaloids of leaf, stem and root. There were variations in the metabolite mobilization of sugars, amino acids and organic acids between leaf, stem and root when different C sources were supplied. A floating metabolic pool seems to influences the alkaloid biosynthesis occurring in leaf, stem and root. The relative higher incorporation of 14 CO 2, 14 C-sucrose and 14 C-glucose suggests the preferential utilization of metabolites from MEP/terpenoid pathway that contribute to alkaloid accumulation as compared to 14 C acetate suggesting lower contribution by mevalonate/terpenoid pathway derived metabolites.
IC 50 for a novel antibiotic against mouse hepatoma H 22 was determined to be 0.019 μg/mL by MTT assays. In KM mice bearing this kind of tumor that was treated by s.c. injection of antibiotic BS, marked cures were obtained. In terms of tumor weight, the treated/control=0.35. The conclusion is that BS merit further investigation as a potential anti-cancer candidate drug.
Zingiberaceae plants exhibit various biological activities, but scientific knowledge of the plants in antimetastatic aspects is still very limited. The objective of this study is to examine the anti-metastatic potentials of 30 crude extracts from ten selected local Zingiberaceae species on hormone-independent, highly metastatic human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. The Zingiberaceae rhizomes were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol using Soxhlet extractor system. Effects of the 30 extracts on proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. Besides cytotoxicity, it is also vital to determine the potential toxicity of the extract in order to select the most promising extracts for anti-cancer drugs development. Thus, a special parameter–Selectivity Index (SX) was utilized as the selectivity indicator of tested extracts towards tumour cells. The results revealed that petroleum ether extracts of Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia rotunda, and Zingiber zerumbet; as well as chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia rotunda, and Curcuma domestica were screened to possess the most effective anti-proliferation and anti-migration activities against MDA-MB-231 cells. Three most desirable extracts were selected based on both their anti-metastatic potentials and SX, and were subjected for qualitative analysis using thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
At least 15 elements can be considered as an essential nutrients for human health but their toxic concentration should also be considered for preparation of herbal medicines. 24 medicinal plants were selected for metals analysis renowned for their therapeutic medicinal use. The metals analyzed include sodium (Na), potassium (K), lithium (Li), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cupper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) by flame emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was investigated that the level of essential elements was higher as compared to trace elements as Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Cd were not detected, depicting their lesser concentration in selected plants. The highest concentration (ppm) of macro nutrients Na (792), Li (78) were found in Gauzuban (Onosma bracteatum ); and Ca (164), K (180 found in Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ); and that of Mg (11.5) both in Neem ( Azardirachta indica ) and Gainda (Tagetes minuta ). The results also showed that Methi ( Trigonella foenum-graceum ) has highest concentration of Fe (29.8); Gainda ( T. minuta ) has highest concentration of Zn (29.8). Presence of different metals in these medicinal plants was correlated to their medicinal use.
At least 15 elements can be considered as an essential nutrients for human health but their toxic concentration should also be considered for preparation of herbal medicines. 24 medicinal plants were selected for metals analysis renowned for their therapeutic medicinal use. The metals analyzed include sodium (Na), potassium (K), lithium (Li), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cupper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) by flame emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was investigated that the level of essential elements was higher as compared to trace elements as Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Cd were not detected, depicting their lesser concentration in selected plants. The highest concentration (ppm) of macro nutrients Na (792), Li (78) were found in Gauzuban (Onosma bracteatum); and Ca (164), K (180 found in Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale); and that of Mg (11.5) both in Neem (Azardirachta indica) and Gainda (Tagetes minuta). The results also showed that Methi (Trigonella foenum-graceum) has highest concentration of Fe (29.8); Gainda (T. minuta) has highest concentration of Zn (29.8). Presence of different metals in these medicinal plants was correlated to their medicinal use.