Journal of Medicinal Food

Published by Mary Ann Liebert
Online ISSN: 1557-7600
Print ISSN: 1096-620X
D-002 is a natural mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from beeswax that has antioxidant and antiulcer properties. Because the role of lipid peroxidation in gastric damage is well recognized, this work was designed to investigate the possible effect of D-002 on lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa in two experimental models of gastric injury in rats: (1) gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin and (2) mucosal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). The results demonstrated a remarkable protective effect of D-002 on lipid peroxidation in gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin and a moderate protective effect of D-002 on gastric erosions and lipid peroxidation induced by I-R.
D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols purified from beeswax with antioxidant effects. Acute hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 in rats has been related to increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and prevented with some antioxidants. This study investigated whether D-002 could prevent the acute CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were randomly distributed into four groups: a negative control treated orally with the vehicle and three groups injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated orally either with the vehicle (positive control) or with D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg). Eighteen hours after CCl4 dosing, rats were anesthetized, and livers were removed for histopathological studies. Some portions were taken and homogenized for assessing malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Positive, but not negative, controls showed ballooned cells, swollen hepatocytes, and lipid-included hepatocytes, as well as necrotic areas and inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly (P < .01) decreased the frequency of all abnormal liver cell types and increased that of normal hepatocytes compared with the positive controls, not showing necrotic areas or inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 dose-dependently decreased hepatic MDA levels, but only in the highest dose group were these levels significantly lower than in the positive control. In conclusion, D-002 effectively prevented the histological liver disturbances and lowered MDA levels, a marker of cellular lipid peroxidation, in rats treated with CCl4. Since increased liver lipid peroxidation has been postulated as a cause of CCl4-induced liver damage in rats, the preventive effects of D-002 could be due to its antioxidant action, but such a proposal still requires further research.
D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from beeswax, wherein triacontanol is the most abundant alcohol, with antioxidant and anti-ulcer properties. Since compounds with cytoprotective and antioxidant effects can improve healing of gastroduodenal ulcer induced by noxious agents, this work investigated the healing effect of D- 002 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced with indomethacin and acetic acid, respectively, in rats. Acute gastric ulcer was induced with single oral doses of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Treatments with D-002 at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or vehicle were administered 3 hours after ulcer induction. Three hours later, rats were sacrificed, and the stomach was removed for quantifying the lesions. Chronic gastric ulcer was induced by 50 microL of 80% acetic acid application on the anterior serosal surface of the glandular stomach during 20 seconds. Twenty-four hours later D-002 at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or vehicle was administered for 5 days. At the end of the treatment, animals were fasted for 24 hours and sacrificed, the stomachs were removed, and the lesions were quantified. D-002 orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg acutely significantly healed gastric ulcers induced with indomethacin by 39% and 56% compared with positive controls, respectively. Also, D-002 at 200 mg/kg, but not at 50 or 100 mg/kg, administered orally for 5 days after ulcer induction exerted a significant healing effect (65.8% inhibition) in gastric ulcers induced with acetic acid. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that D-002 administered after ulcer induction induced effective healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers provoked by, respectively, indomethacin and acetic acid.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are indicated for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but often induce gastric adverse experiences (AE), including gastric ulcers and complications. Inhibitors of proton pump and H(2) antagonists are very effective for duodenal ulcer; meanwhile, cytoprotective drugs are more effective for gastric ulcer. D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols obtained from beeswax, wherein triacontanol is the most abundant. D-002 induces anti-ulcer effects through a cytoprotective mechanism, being more effective in protecting against ethanol- and NSAID-induced ulcers. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of D-002 on gastric symptoms associated to piroxicam use on patients suffering osteoarthritis. Fifty-nine patients, all taking piroxicam, 20 mg/day, were randomized to placebo or D-002 (40 or 100 mg/day) for 14 days. The primary efficacy variable was the reduction on the frequency of patients with gastric AE compared with placebo. Pain evolution was investigated to discard any influence on D-002 on the analgesic effect of piroxicam. The frequency of patients treated with D-002, 40 and 100 mg/day, reporting acidity [0 of 18 (0%) and 1 of 21 (4.8%), respectively] was lower (P < .05) than in placebo [6 of 20 (30%)]. Also, the frequency of patients treated with 100 mg/day reporting some gastric AE [5 of 21 (23.8%)] was lower (P < .05) than in placebo [13 of 20 (65.0%)]. The analgesic effect of piroxicam was unaffected with D-002. Treatment was well tolerated. Two patients discontinued from the study because of gastrointestinal AE: one in the placebo group and the other treated with D-002, 40 mg/day. Other three patients discontinued because of other AE: mildly uncontrolled hypertension (one in the placebo group, one treated with D-002, 40 mg/day) and headache (one treated with D-200, 100 mg/day). It is concluded that D-002 could be useful for controlling gastric AE of patients treated with NSAIDs, although further studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up are needed for definitive conclusions.
D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols isolated from beeswax that inhibits rat microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo. This study was undertaken to investigate whether D-002 also inhibits lipid peroxidation in older subjects. The free radical theory of aging suggests that progressive defects in the protection against free radical reactions leads to progressive deleterious effects of free radicals on cells and tissues. This free radical damage has been implicated in several pathophysiological processes associated with the chronic degenerative diseases that occur with aging. Forty-eight older subjects were randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to receive placebo or D-002 tablets (50 mg/day) once daily. At baseline, D-002 and placebo groups were well matched regarding several variables. D-002 significantly reduced the susceptibility of nonfractionated plasma samples to copper-mediated lipid peroxidation. It also significantly increased the length of the lag phase (P <.001) and the total antiioxidant status (P <.05) compared with baseline and placebo. In addition, D-002 significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels (expressed in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, P <.001) compared with baseline, but not with placebo. No significant changes on lipid peroxidation parameters were observed in the placebo group. We conclude that D-002 treatment may be useful to prevent or manage certain pathophysiological conditions in the elderly.
D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic acids purified from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum), which inhibits platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of D-003 on cerebral ischemia induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) in Mongolian gerbils. Two experimental series were conducted. The first series investigated the effects of D-003 on cerebral edema, neurological symptoms, and mortality in Mongolian gerbils with cerebral ischemia induced by I-R, while the second series investigated the effects on histological markers of cerebral injury, such as edema intensity (vacuolization) and cerebral necrosis. Animals were randomly distributed in five experimental groups: a sham-operated group experiencing surgical handling except the clamping and orally treated with Tween/water vehicle and four groups subjected to the I-R surgical procedure. One of these groups was treated with the same vehicle, and the other three groups received D-003 at 25, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. All treatments were administered for 14 days. D-003 (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the cerebral edema and clinical symptoms provoked by I-R compared with the positive control group, whereas lower doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) were not effective. Positive control animals showed an injury profile characterized by swelling (tissue vacuolization) and necrosis of neurons in all areas of the brain studied (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum). The results of the histological study were consistent with those observed by determining cerebral edema and symptoms observation. Thus, D-003 at 200 mg/kg significantly reduced histological markers of brain injury (swelling and necrosis) compared with the control group. It is concluded that D-003 administered orally at 200 mg/kg for 14 days protected against cerebral damage caused by bilateral cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils.
D-003 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax that inhibits platelet aggregation induced ex vivo by addition of agonists to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of rats, guinea pigs, and healthy human volunteers. Because the ex vivo platelet aggregation model does not mimic properly platelet aggregation occurring inside the arteries, since all blood factors regulating the formation of a platelet aggregate or thrombus are not present in PRP, this work was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of different oral doses of D-003 on platelet aggregation induced by collagen in vivo in rats. Effects of single (5, 25, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or repeated doses (1, 5, 25, 100, and 200 mg/kg during 10 days) of D-003 on in vivo platelet aggregation in rats were studied. D-003 (5-200 mg/kg) orally administered as single or repeated doses inhibited significantly and dose-dependently collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rats. The minimal dose investigated effective in both single and repeated administration schemes was 5 mg/kg. The highest dose assessed in both cases was 200 mg/kg, causing inhibitions of 61.5% (single doses) and 74.4% (repeated doses). Thus, the effects of repeated doses were more pronounced than those obtained with single administration. The mean 50% effective dose of D-003 in both schemes was 2.3 mg/kg, which indicates a promising anti-thrombotic potential of D-003.
D-003 is a mixture of high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax with antiplatelet and cholesterol-lowering effects. Cardiac lesions induced by isoproterenol (ISO) are characterized by myocardial necrosis and exudative infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine whether D-003 shows protective effects against ISO-induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Effects of orally administered single doses of D-003 (25-400 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 30 mg/kg), as well as repeated doses of D-003 (5-200 mg/kg), on characteristic markers of ISO-induced myocardial necrosis in rats were investigated. D-003 administered as single doses dose-dependently decreased necrosis area, percent of infarct area, and the presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in myocardial tissue, but only the reductions induced by 200 and 400 mg/kg were significant. Oral acute treatment with ASA also decreased necrosis area and percent of infarct area, but the occurrence of PMNs was unchanged. D-003 administered repeatedly for 10 days also decreased all myocardial necrosis indicators in a dose-dependent manner, with results effective from 25 mg/kg to the highest dose tested, indicating that the repeated dose scheme was more effective to prevent the damage. It is concluded that D-003 shows a protective effect on the myocardial necrosis induced by ISO in rats.
D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax, in which octacosanoic acid is the most abundant component. Previous experimental studies have shown that D-003 not only shows cholesterol-lowering and anti-platelet effects, but also reduces thromboxane B2 and increases prostacyclin levels. It acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. The positioning of a non-occlusive silicone collar around the rabbit carotid artery results in the formation of a neointima. Collars were placed around the left carotid for 15 days. The contralateral artery was sham-operated. We included three experimental groups: A control group received vehicle, and two others received D-003 at 5 and 25 mg/kg until sacrificed. Samples of arteries were examined by light microscopy. To evaluate intimal thickening the cross-sectional areas of intima and media were measured. Neointima was significantly reduced in D-003-treated animals compared with controls. Furthermore, the circulating endothelial cell has been studied in this experimental model with endothelium damage. The results demonstrate the protective effect of D-003 on vascular endothelium of the studied rabbits. It is concluded that the protective effect of D-003 against neointima formation and circulating endothelial cells in this experimental model could represent potential beneficial pleiotropic effects in the anti-atherogenic profile of this substance, beyond its cholesterol-lowering and anti-platelet effects independently demonstrated.
D-003 is a mixture of very-long-chain aliphatic acids with cholesterol-lowering and concomitant anti-platelet effects. The microsomal cytochrome P-450 system comprises a superfamily of proteins present in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues that is responsible for the metabolism of many drugs. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of D-003 on in vivo drug-metabolizing hepatic enzymes. Two experimental series (n = 6 animals/group) were performed. In the first series rats were randomly distributed in one control and two groups treated with D-003 at 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg for 14 days. In the second one they were distributed in one control and three groups treated with D-003 (250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) for 6 months. All treatments were orally administered by gastric gavage. Control rats were orally treated only with acacia gum/water vehicle. The content of microsomal P-450, b (5) cytochromes, total sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of NADPH cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine demethylase, dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation, and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase were assessed. D-003 administered up to 2,000 mg/kg or 1,000 mg/kg during 14 days or 6 months did not affect the activities of the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes investigated. It is concluded that D-003 is not metabolized by the liver cytochrome system and that potential risk derived from drug-to-drug interactions between D-003 and concomitant drugs appears to be low.
D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, wherein octacosanoic acid is the most abundant. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that D-003 lowers cholesterol and prevents plasma lipoprotein peroxidation (LP). D-003 has protected against the histological changes characteristic of CCl4- and paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats, in which LP plays a pivotal role for explaining the resulting hepatotoxicity. Galactosamine induces hepatotoxicity associated with depressed RNA and protein synthesis, not with LP. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether D-003 could prevent hepatoxicity induced by mechanisms others than increased LP. We investigated the effects on galactosamine hepatotoxicity in rats distributed into five groups: a negative control group, a positive control group, and three groups treated with galactosamine and D-003 (5, 25, and 100 mg/kg). To induce liver damage, galactosamine (800 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes after dosing with vehicle or D-003. Twenty-four hours later, rats were sacrificed, and livers were immediately removed for histopathological studies. Livers from positive controls showed the characteristic pattern of galactosamine-induced damage. Galactosamine significantly reduced the percentage of normal hepatocytes, increasing both necrotic or lipid-rich hepatocytes compared with negative controls. D-003, however, did not increase the percentage of normal hepatocytes compared with positive controls, indicating that treatment was not effective for preventing the hepatic injury induced with galactosamine. Likewise, D-003 failed to change the content of necrotic and lipid-rich hepatocytes relative to positive controls. It is concluded that D-003 did not protect against the histological changes of galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity.
D-003 is a mixture of very long chain aliphatic acids purified from sugar cane wax with cholesterol-lowering effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of D-003 using three established assays: bone marrow micronucleus, sperm morphology, and single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. In a first experimental series, CEN/NMRI mice (6-8 animals per sex per group) were administered D-003 by gastric gavage at 5, 50, or 500 mg/kg for 90 days, then sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration. The effects on bone marrow micronucleus were evaluated only in female mice. D-003 (5-500 mg/kg) did not increase the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, nor the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes, compared with the controls. The assessment of the effects on sperm morphology showed that D-003 did not change the sperm count or the frequency of all types of abnormal head shapes, compared with the controls. In a second series, the micronucleus assay was performed in mice of both sexes given 2,000 mg/kg for 6 days. Likewise, in this series, neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were found. Finally, five male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with D-003 (1,250 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 90 days, and Comet assay on liver cells was performed. No single-strand breaks or alkali-labile site induction on DNA was observed. These results indicate that D-003 does not show evidence of cytotoxic or genotoxic activity on either somatic or germ cells in rodents.
D-003 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary acids isolated and purified from sugarcane wax, the main component of which is octacosanoic acid. D-003 exhibits a cholesterol-lowering effect as well as antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects in experimental models. Warfarin is a coumarin derivative with anticoagulant activity that acts as a vitamin K antagonist. Since in clinical practice warfarin and D-003 could be administered together, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the simultaneous administration of both drugs on the bleeding time and the venous thrombosis experimentally induced in rats. The combined therapy of minimally effective doses of D-003 and warfarin produced an antithrombotic effect significantly higher than those produced by each monotherapy. Likewise, the prolongation of bleeding time induced by warfarin was increased by the simultaneous administration with D-003, showing a synergistic effect between both drugs.
D-003 is a mixture of long-chain fatty acids isolated and purified from sugar cane wax with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects. In order to further characterize the developmental toxicity during the treatment period from late gestation up to weaning of the offspring, pregnant females received 0 (control), 500, and 1,000 mg/kg/day D-003 daily by oral gavage beginning at day 15 of pregnancy and through gestation until day 21 postpartum. Maternal clinical signs, body weight, and food intake were measured at regular intervals during gestation and lactation. Live pups were weighed, sexed, and examined for developmental signs. One female and male of each litter were randomly selected to evaluate the reproductive potential. There were no spontaneous or dose-related maternal deaths during the course of this study. The general health and behavioral condition of offspring was good in all groups. No significant differences among groups were found in comparisons of litter size, survival through the weaning period, sex ratio, and male and female weights. This peri- and postnatal study conducted with D-003 in rats indicated that treatment of the dam during late gestation and lactation did not show adversely effects on reproductive performance or fetal development over two generations.
D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm fruits, consisting of a mixture of free fatty acids, that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. This study investigated the possible alterations due to D-004 of androgen-dependent development after exposure in utero and compared them with those due to finasteride. Rats were randomized into five experimental groups: a control group, three groups treated with D-004 at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively, and a group treated with finasteride (10 mg/kg/day). Male rats were treated 10 weeks before and during mating. Female rats were treated for 15 days prior mating, during mating, during pregnancy, and until lactation (day 21) except for those treated with finasteride, which were only administered the drug on gestational days 12-21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy after postnatal day 90. The results of the present study indicate that D-004 induced no alterations in androgen-dependent development after the exposure in utero. Also, the current study demonstrated a permanent reduction in anogenital distance and retention of nipples in adult male rats exposed to finasteride during late gestation. Significant alterations induced by exposure to finasteride were mainly in tissues dependent on dihydrotestosterone during development.
Colon cancer is the second most common cancer among men and women worldwide. We investigated the effect of red chilli (Capsicum annum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on colon cancer induced in rats by a colon-specific carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Colon cancer was induced by subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight (15 doses, at 1-week intervals). The rats were continued with the standard pellet diet and supplemented red chilli [C. annum L., 0.015% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], cumin seeds [C. cyminum L., 1.25% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], and black pepper (P. nigrum L., 0.5% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet] throughout the experimental period. After the total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization) the incidence and number of tumors in the colon were observed to be significantly higher in the rats administered DMH and/or red chillis, as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. No tumors were observed in the control, cumin + DMH, or black pepper + DMH groups. The levels of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in 24-hour fecal samples were significantly decreased in DMH + chilli-administered rats, while the excretion of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols was significantly increased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-administered rats. In DMH-, chilli-, and chilli + DMH-administered rats the levels of cholesterol, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity were decreased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-treated rats. The phospholipid levels were reduced in the DMH, chilli, and chilli + DMH groups as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. Our results show that chilli supplementation promotes colon carcinogenesis, whereas cumin or black pepper suppresses colon carcinogensis in the presence of the procarcinogen DMH.
We have previously shown that a diet containing a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers reduces the incidence of colon tumors in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The present study examined which of the two main CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10c12) or cis-9,trans-11 CLA (c9t11), decreases colon tumor numbers and the mechanisms for this effect. Six-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intramuscularly injected with 15 mg/kg of DMH twice per week for 6 weeks and fed a control diet, 1% t10c12, or 1% c9t11 for 30 weeks. The experimental diets were initiated simultaneously with DMH injection. The tumor numbers were decreased and the apoptotic index was significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the t10c12 and c9t11 groups, when the results were compared with those of the control group. The protein levels of Bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly decreased, but Bax levels were increased in both of the CLA isomer groups. The thromboxane B(2) levels in colonic mucosa were substantially lower in the two CLA isomer groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the CLA isomer groups. We have demonstrated that diets containing 1% t10c12 and c9t11 were equally effective in reducing tumor numbers and inducing apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of rats treated with DMH. These results indicate that Bcl-2 family protein levels are associated with CLA-induced apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of DMH-treated rats.
Effect of b-sitosterol on (top) GSH, (middle) vitamin C, and (bottom) vitamin E activity in the liver and colon of control and experimental rats. Data are presented as means – SD of 10 rats in each group. abcd Values not sharing a common superscript letter are significantly different (P < .05). *Values are significantly different (P < .01) as compared to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine alone–treated group (Group III).  
Composition of the Diet
Histopathological alterations in experimental and control animals treated with b-sitosterol. For all panels, magnification · 20. (A) Control colon with normal mucosal glands with regular lining of cells. (B) DMH alone. Irregular glands with stratified epithelium with hyperchromatic nuclei. (C) Low-dose treatment with b-sitosterol. Most of the glands appear normal with hyperplastic changes. (D) Medium-dose treatment with b-sitosterol. Most of the glands appear normal with occasional hyperplastic changes. (E) High-dose treatment with b-sitosterol. Most of the glands appear normal with few dysplastic changes.  
Effect of b-Sitosterol on Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation Level (mmol/mg of tissue)
Percentage of b-Sitosterol in Different Foods
Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition in diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, etc. The role that antioxidants play in the process of carcinogenesis has recently gained considerable attention. β-Sitosterol, a naturally occurring sterol molecule, is a relatively mild to moderate antioxidant and exerts beneficial effects in vitro by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species. The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of β-sitosterol in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis. The enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxides in colonic and hepatic tissues were evaluated. Generation of reactive oxygen species, beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant capacity, causes a severe imbalance of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. Elevated levels of liver lipid peroxides by DMH induction were effectively decreased by β-sitosterol supplementation. β-Sitosterol also exhibited a protective action against DMH-induced depletion of antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and reduced glutathione in colonic and hepatic tissues of experimental animals. Supplementation with β-sitosterol restored the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione). Histopathological alterations in DMH-induced animals were restored to near normal in rats treated with β-sitosterol. Thus, β-sitosterol by virtue of its antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce DMH-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats and may be an effective chemopreventive drug for colon carcinogenesis.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by highly pruritic, chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin lesions. Furthermore, therapeutic choices are limited, especially in long-standing cases, despite its increasing prevalence. This study was performed to examine the clinical efficacy and the therapeutic mechanism underlying the effects of Actinidia arguta (hardy kiwi) fruit extract in an animal model of AD. To examine the effects of A. arguta extract on AD, 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene-treated NC/Nga mice were orally administered A. arguta extract (100 mg/kg/day), tacrolimus (1 mg/kg/day), or dexamethasone (3 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Skin severity scores, epidermal thickening, mast cell infiltration and degranulation, total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes (IgE, IgG(1)), and cytokine (interleukin [IL]-4 and interferon [IFN]-gamma) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) (TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9) expressions were examined in each of the study groups. Orally administered A. arguta extract significantly reduced clinical dermatitis severity, epidermal thickness, mast cell dermal infiltration and degranulation, and total levels of serum IgE and IgG(1). Furthermore, this suppression of total serum IgE and IgG(1) levels was accompanied by a decrease in IL-4 and an increase in IFN-gamma expression in skin and splenocytes. Interestingly, TLR-9 expression was increased by oral A. arguta extract. This study confirms that A. arguta extract has potential as a dietary therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD. Furthermore, our findings suggest that its clinical efficacy and mode of action against AD are associated with the modulation of biphasic T-helper (Th) 1/Th2 cytokines, with the inhibition of Th2-mediated IgE overproduction, and possibly with the up-regulation of TLR-9.
To examine anti-adipogenic activity of 2-carbomethoxy-2,3-epoxy-3-prenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (CMEP-NQ) isolated from the roots of Rubia cordifolia L., its effects on cell viability, apoptosis, and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were investigated. The inhibitory effect of CMEP-NQ on cell viability was more significant in differentiated mature adipocytes than in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In 3T3-L1 cells, the cytotoxicity of CMEP-NQ (20-40 μM) was accompanied by apoptotic events such as mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-meidated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Although the presence of 10 μM CMEP-NQ during induced adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells for 6 days failed to influence the cell viability, it did reduce the differentiation-associated accumulation of intracellular lipid by approximately 48.5%. A similar level of inhibition was observed when 10 μM CMEP-NQ was present during the early stage (Days 0-2) of the differentiation period. At the same time, the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2, and adiponectin were down-regulated. However, the presence of 10 μM CMEP-NQ during either the middle (Days 2-4) or late (Days 4-6) stage of the differentiation period caused the inhibition to a lesser extent. These results indicated that CMEP-NQ at high concentrations (20-40 μM) exerted cytotoxicity via inducing apoptosis, whereas CMEP-NQ at a low concentration (10 μM) suppressed adipocytic differentiation without exerting cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
Abstract In the present study, the pharmacological effects of 2,8-dihydroxy-1,6-dimethoxyxanthone from the bark of Haploclathra paniculata were investigated in mice using in vivo inflammation and nociception models. Acetic acid-induced writhing, paw licking induced by formalin, hot plate, and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the xanthone compound. Xanthone, at both doses, inhibited abdominal writhing and the formalin test. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, the time of reaction to the hot plate increased, and significant effects were observed after 30, 60 and 90 min of treatment. At doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg p.o., the 2,8-dihydroxy-1,6-dimethoxyxanthone significantly reduced paw edema at 3 h after the stimulus. The tests also showed no acute toxicity of the xanthone compound in mice. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability was also studied and confirmed the antioxidant activity of the xanthone. To propose the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory activity of the xanthone, a molecular docking was performed using the isoenzymes cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 and the results indicate that the molecule is capable of inhibiting both the enzymes. Therefore, it can be concluded that 2,8-dihydroxy-1,6-dimethoxyxanthone from H. paniculata demonstrates analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities.
The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LV dP/dt, (-) LV dP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.
(a) Representative photographs showing control cells and cells treated with different concentrations of bromelain after 24 hours of incubation. (b) Dose–response graph showing GI-101A cell death following a 24-hour treatment with various concentrations of bromelain as determined by the trypan blue dye exclusion method. Data are mean – SD values of four or more experiments. **P < .01 for comparison with respective controls.  
Activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in GI-101A cells following a 24-hour bromelain treatment. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities were measured using the synthetic tetrapeptide substrates acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-p-nitroaniline and acetyl-Leu-Glu-His-Aspp-nitroaniline , respectively. Data are mean – SD values of four or more experiments. **P < .01 for comparison with respective controls.  
M30-Apoptosense levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the GI-101A cell line following a 24-hour bromelain treatment . Data are mean – SD values of four or more experiments.  
A representative photograph of the agarose gel showing DNA fragmentation following bromelain treatment: lane 1, DNA marker; lane 2, DNA from control cells; and lanes 3–5, DNA from bromelain-treated cells, 5, 10, and 20 lg/mL respectively. The DNA was separated by electrophoresis using 1.5% agarose gel. DNA fragments stained with ethidium bromide were visualized using a UVP image analyzer.  
Representative photographs of control and bromelain (5, 10, and 20 lg/ mL)-treated GI-101A cells stained with 4,6 0 -diamino-2-phenylindole after 24 hours of treatment: (a) control; (b) 5 lg/ mL; (c) 10 lg/mL; and (d) 20 lg/mL. Arrows indicate chromosome condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Magnification used was · 100 in an Olympus DP70 microscope system.  
Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stems and the immature fruits of pineapple that was found to be antitumorigenic in different in vitro models. Bromelain has been reported to promote apoptosis, particularly in breast cancer cells, with the up-regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase. Our study was designed to determine if bromelain could induce apoptosis in GI-101A breast cancer cells. GI-101A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of bromelain for 24 hours. The effect of bromelain for inducing cell death via activation of the apoptosis mechanism in GI-101A cells was further determined by using caspase-9 and caspase-3 assays along with the M30-Apoptosense assay to measure cytokeratin 18 (CK18) levels in the cytoplasm of the cultured cancer cells. A dose-dependent increase in the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 coinciding with elevation of CK18 levels was found in bromelain-treated cells compared with control cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis induction by bromelain was confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and 4,6'-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride fluorescence staining of the nucleus. Our results indicate an increase in apoptosis-related cell death in breast cancer cells with increasing concentrations of bromelain.
This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P < .05) crude protein than raw soybeans and soybean meals. The essential amino acid profile was unchanged after fermentation. Fermentation eliminated (P < .05) most of the trypsin inhibitor from both soybeans and soybean meals. Fermentation increased the amount of small-size peptides (<20 kDa) (P < .05) compared with raw soybeans, while significantly decreasing large-size peptides (>60 kDa) (P < .05). Fermented soybean meal contained more (P < .01) small-size peptides (<20 kDa) than soybean meal. Fermented soybean meal did not contain large-size peptides (>60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.
Abstract Bamboo salt is a traditional food widely used in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of this salt were evaluated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A 1% salt concentration of bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) inhibited the growth of HCT-116 cells by 53%, which was higher than salt baked three times (3×) or once (1×; 44% and 41%, respectively) and much higher than solar sea salt (Korean sea salt) and purified salt (22% and 18%, respectively). To elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of the salt samples in cancer cells, expression of genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and metastasis was measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Bamboo salt (9×) significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells (P<.05) by upregulating Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and downregulating Bcl-2. The expression of genes associated with inflammation (NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) was significantly downregulated (P<.05) by 9× bamboo salt, demonstrating its anti-inflammatory properties. The 9× bamboo salt also exerted a greater anti-metastatic effect on cancer cells than the other salts as demonstrated by decreased mRNA expression of MMP genes and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which was confirmed by the inhibition of tumor metastasis induced in colon 26-M3.1 cells in BALB/c mice. In contrast, purified and solar salts increased metastasis in the mice. Our results demonstrated that 9× bamboo salt had the most potent in vitro anticancer effect, induced apoptosis, had anti-inflammatory activities, and exerted in vivo anti-metastatic effects. Additionally, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects of the 1× and 3× bamboo salts were stronger than those of the purified and solar salts.
Caco-2 and HCT-116 cells were used to access growth-inhibition and anti-invasion activity of recombinant cystatin C expressed in Pichia pastoris X33, G12W/H86V. The mutant G12W/H86V prepared by a pilot plant production system showed more than 10% growth inhibition of Caco-2 cells at 0.56-56 nM concentrations. Growth-inhibited cells had lower cathepsin L activity than the control cells that were not treated with the inhibitor. Conversely, the cathepsin B activity was not changed by treatment with G12W/H86V. The in vitro anti-invasion test using HCT-116 cells showed that G12W/H86V suppressed the cell invasion by 15%, while its wild-type cystatin, aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor III did not suppress cell invasion. These results indicate that the recombinant cystatin C with higher protease inhibitory activity effectively retards the growth and invasiveness of human colon carcinoma cells.
Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity. We isolated only the SNL glycoprotein from SNL and found that it was cytotoxic at low concentration. With respect to cytotoxicity, we investigated whether purified SNL glycoprotein is able to regulate protein kinase C (PKC) alpha activation and nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB activities in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor promotion, and whether it has an apoptosis-inducing effect in MCF-7 cells using western blot analysis. In addition, to elucidate the relationship between PKCalpha and NF-kappaB, inhibitory studies were performed with staurosporine (an inhibitor of phospholipid/calcium-dependent protein kinase) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation). To verify induction of apoptosis by the SNL glycoprotein, we performed DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining assays using ethidium bromide and bisbenzamide H33342. The results in this study indicated that SNL glycoprotein induces apoptosis through modulation of PKCalpha and NF-kappaB activity in MCF-7 cells. In fact, SNL glycoprotein interfered with PKCalpha membrane translocation and inhibited NF-kappaB (p50) protein activity in MCF-7 cells stimulated with TPA (61.68 ng/mL, 100 nM) dose-dependently. Regarding the apoptotic-inducing effect, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining by SNL glycoprotein in MCF-7 cells were shown. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SNL glycoprotein is a potential natural anticancer agent because of its ability to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
In this study the activity of 13 honeys, including three commercial antibacterial honeys, against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. Antibacterial activity of the honeys was assayed using standard well diffusion methods. All honeys, and an artificial honey, were tested at four concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%, and 1% wt/vol) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and zones of inhibition were measured. All honeys tested had an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and P. aeruginosa, with one honey still having activity against E. coli and three having activity against P. aeruginosa at 2.5%. No honey was active at 1% concentrations. E. coli was more susceptible to inhibition by the honeys used in this study than was P. aeruginosa. In this study we have demonstrated that several honeys, in addition to commercial antibacterial honeys, can inhibit E. coli and P. aeruginosa and may have potential as therapeutic honeys.
Pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies of phytoestrogens of the isoflavone class have been hampered by the lack of suitable stable-isotope-labeled analogs. A method for preparation of a [(13)C]-labeled analog of daidzein is described. [2-(13)C]Daidzein was synthesized by reaction of [(13)C]diethoxydimethylaminomethane with 2,4-dihydroxybenzoin. The final product was purified to more than 99% by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and structural analysis confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Because [2-(13)C]daidzein is analytically and metabolically stable, it is a suitable analog for use as an internal standard for quantifying daidzein in biological fluids using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This nonradioactive tracer is also ideal for investigating the pharmacokinetics of daidzein in humans because it is biologically indistinguishable from the unlabeled form.
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PITC) reduces nitric oxide secretion and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)stimulated Raw264.7 cells. (A) Cells were plated, serum-deprived, and treated for 24 hours with various concentrations of PITC in the absence or presence of 100 mg=L LPS. The nitrite content in the conditioned media was then determined using the Griess reagent. Each bar represents the mean AE SEM (n ¼ 4). (B) Western blotting was conducted using an anti-iNOS or b-actin antibody with cell lysates. (C) Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted using total RNAs. bp, base pairs. Photographs of chemiluminescent detection of the blots (B) or the ethidium bromide-stained gels (C), which were representative of three independent experiments, are shown. The abundance of each band relative to its own b-actin was quantified, and the LPS control levels (100 mg=L LPS þ 0 mmol=L PITC) were set at 100%. The adjusted mean AE SEM (n ¼ 3) of each band is shown above each blot. (D) Cells were cotransfected with the murine iNOS reporter gene construct and pCMVb-galactosidase control plasmid, and the transfected cells were plated in six-well plates at 2Â10 5 cells per well. After serum deprivation, the cells were treated with the indicated concentrations of PITC in the absence or presence of LPS, as described in Materials and Methods. Luciferase activity was normalized with that of b-galactosidase . Each bar represents the mean AE SEM (n ¼ 3). Means without a common letter differ significantly, P < .05.  
PITC reduces the mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in LPS-activated Raw264.7 cells. Cells were treated with LPS and PITC as described in Figure 2. (A) To estimate the secretion of cytokines, media conditioned for 24 hours were collected. (B) To determine the mRNA levels of the cytokines, total RNA was isolated and reverse-transcribed, and real time-PCR was performed. The mRNA levels were normalized with those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Each bar represents the mean AE SEM (n ¼ 3). Means without a common letter differ significantly, P < .05.  
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PITC) is the hydrolysis product of the glucosinolate gluconasturtiin in cruciferous vegetables. This study was conducted to determine whether PITC inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in the mouse ear. Topical application of 5 nmol of TPA to mouse ears markedly increased the ear weight, expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein, and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 and reduced IκBα protein levels. Pretreatment with PITC (150-450 nmol) significantly suppressed these TPA-induced inflammatory responses. We also determined whether low concentrations of PITC (0.5-5 μmol/L) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in Raw264.7 cells. PITC dose-dependently reduced the LPS-induced secretion of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E(2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as COX-2 and iNOS protein expression. PITC also attenuated LPS-induced increases in iNOS, COX-2, IL- 6, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA levels, as well as the promoter-dependent transcriptional activation of the genes for iNOS and COX-2. PITC inhibited LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation and degradation and subsequently reduced LPS-induced p65 nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which was accompanied by a reduction in ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. The results of this study demonstrated that PITC effectively inhibits inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro, which may be mediated via the inhibition of AKT and ERK1/2 activation, leading to subsequent inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB.
Grape polyphenols confer potential health benefits, including prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. To determine the absorption and tissue distribution of the complex grape polyphenol mixture, (14)C-labeled polyphenols were biosynthesized by grape cell suspension cultures, during co-incubation with radioisotopically labeled sucrose, and fractionated into polyphenolic subfractions. The pharmacokinetics and distribution of grape polyphenols into blood, brain, and peripheral interstitial fluid were determined by tracking the (14)C label. The blood peak (14)C concentration of the fractions ranged from 15 minutes to 4 hours. Absorption and tissue distribution varied greatly between fractions. Concentrations in interstitial fluid were lower than in blood. The amount of residual label in the brain at 24 hours ranged from 0.1% to 1.7% of the dose, depending on the fraction. (14)C label found in the brain tissue and brain microdialysate indicated that grape polyphenols or their metabolites are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Using (14)C-labeled plant polyphenols it is possible to track the compounds or their metabolic products into any tissue and determine distribution patterns in spite of low concentrations. A central question regarding the potential role of dietary polyphenolics in neurodegenerative research is whether they are bioavailable in the brain. Our observations indicate that some grape-derived polyphenolics do reach the brain, which suggests their potential value for applications in neurodegenerative disorders.
Various Capsicum fruits collected from different places in Nepal. 
Capsaicin Content of Varieties of Capsicum Fruits Collected from Different Places in Nepal
A typical HPLC chromatogram of (A) standard capsaicin and (B) a representative chromatogram of Capsicum fruit extract. HPLC conditions were as follows: column, Fluofix (4.6Â150 mm); column temperature, 308C; mobile phase, 0.1% phosphoric acid= acetonitrile (3:2 vol=vol); detector, ultraviolet at 281 nm; flow rate, 0.8 mL=minute; chart speed, 5 mm=minute.
Capsicum fruit, a popular spice as chili pepper, is an important ingredient of the formulations used in traditional medicines. Moreover, Capsicum fruit is listed as an official drug in several pharmacopoeias. Capsaicin, the most abundant component in Capsicum fruit, exhibits its therapeutic and adverse effects in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the known capsaicin content is the prerequisite for optimizing any formulation based on Capsicum fruit as a crude drug. We studied 16 samples of Capsicum fruits grown at different altitudes in Nepal and determined their capsaicin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. The capsaicin content was found to range from 2.19 to 19.73 mg/g of dry weight of Capsicum fruits. Capsaicin content in pericarp was found to be higher than in seeds. No correlation was found between the shape or size of the fruits and its capsaicin content. Our findings indicate that many of the formulations prepared from Capsicum fruit, even as described in pharmacopoeias, may vary in their strength, therapeutic activity, and possible side effects if the capsaicin content in Capsicum fruit is not standardized.
The ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of 16 Ballota species (Family Lamiaceae)-Ballota acetabulosa, Ballota antalyanse, Ballota cristata, Ballota glandulosissima, Ballota inaequidens, Ballota larendana, Ballota latibracteolata, Ballota macrodonta, Ballota nigra ssp. anatolica, B. nigra ssp. foetida, B. nigra ssp. nigra, B. nigra ssp. uncinata, Ballota pseudodictamnus ssp. lycia, Ballota rotundifolia, Ballota saxatilis ssp. brachyodonta, and B. saxatilis subsp. saxatilis-were screened for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical quenching, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion-chelating capacity at 1mg/mL. Hispanolone, a major diterpene found in the Ballota genus, was also tested in the same manner. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and AlCl(3) reagents, respectively. The extracts showed insignificant quenching activity against DPPH radical, but they had moderate antioxidant activity (0.597 ± 0.03 to 1.342 ± 0.01) in the ferric-reducing test compared to chlorogenic acid (the reference compound) (3.618 ± 0.01). All of the extracts (ranging from 65.1 ± 0.64% to 96.3 ± 0.09%) and hispanolone (97.31 ± 0.30%) exerted a remarkable ferrous ion-chelating effect. The highest total phenol (gallic acid equivalent) and flavonoid (quercetin equivalent) contents were found in the ethyl acetate extract of B. glandulosissima (393.7 ± 3.03 and 140.6 ± 1.97 mg/g of extract, respectively). Therefore, Ballota species could be a good source of natural preservatives in foodstuffs.
The biological activities of garlic may be affected by different processing methods. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate potential anticancer effects of different type of processed garlic extracts on WEHI-164 tumor cells in inbred BALB/c mice and correlate the tumor growth rates with some garlic constituents. In a preclinical trial 60 BALB/c mice were injected with WEHI-164 tumor cells and divided into six groups of 10 animals. Group 1 mice received 200 μL of saline, and groups 2-6 were injected intraperitoneally with fresh, microwaved, 3-month-old, leaves, and boiled garlic extracts, respectively, at 20 mg/kg/0.2 mL. Three weeks following tumor inoculation, the mean tumor size in garlic extract-treated groups was reduced with significant reductions observed in the fresh and microwaved extract groups compared with the control group (P<.05). The antioxidant capacity and the amounts of allicin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in differentially processed garlic were evaluated and correlated with their anticancer activities. There was a linear correlation between the amounts of allicin, flavonoids, or phenolic components derived from fresh, microwaved, 3-month-old, leaves, and boiled garlic and cancer growth prevention. In conclusion, garlic has anticancer activity against WEHI-164 tumor cells, and processing such as heating reduces its effect dramatically. The anticancer activities of different kinds of garlic are related to the level of allicin, flavonoids, and phenolic components. Therefore, fresh garlic has the highest content of bioactive components and the greatest anticancer efficacy.
Chemical structure of SG-168. 
Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death in PC12 cells. (A) Morphological analysis in H 2 O 2-treated PC12 cells for 2 hours: (a) control, (b) 0.1 mM H 2 O 2 , (c) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 , and (d) 1 mM H 2 O 2. Photographs were taken with a phase-contrast microscope at Â100 magnification. (B) Apoptosis analysis in H 2 O 2-treated PC12 cells for 2 hours: (a) control, (b) 0.1 mM H 2 O 2 , (c) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 , and (d) 1 mM H 2 O 2. Photographs were taken with a fluorescence microscope at Â400 magnification. Fixed cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 (10 mM). Arrows indicate apoptotic cells. (C) Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay with 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 for 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. ***P < .001 compared with the control. 
Effect of SG-168 on H 2 O 2-induced morphological alterations of PC12 cells for 2 hours: (a) control, (b) 5 mg=mL SG-168, (c) 10 mg=mL SG-168, (d) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 , (e) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 þ 5 mg=mL SG-168, and (f) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 þ 10 mg=mL SG168. Photographs were taken with a phase-contrast microscope at Â100 magnification.
Effects of SG-168 on cell viability of H 2 O 2-challenged PC12 cells: (A) MTT reduction assay and (B) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. PC12 cells were pretreated for 30 minutes with various concentrations of SG-168. The cells were then treated with 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 for 2 hours. The normal growth condition was untreated with 0.5 mM H 2 O 2. After the MTT assay, the MTT reduction rates were calculated by comparing with control survivals. As for the results of LDH release assay, data were normalized to the activity of LDH released from vehicle-treated cells (100%) and expressed as percentages of the control. Data are mean AE SD values of triplicate determinations and are representative of at least three independent experiments. ***P < .001 compared with the H 2 O 2-treated control.
SG-168 inhibition of H 2 O 2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. (A) Hoechst 33342 staining: (a) control, (b) 5 mg=mL SG-168, (c) 10 mg=mL SG-168, (d) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 , (e) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 þ 5 mg=mL SG-168, and (f) 0.5 mM H 2 O 2 10 mg=mL SG-168. Fixed cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 (10 mM) and examined by fluorescence microscopy at  400 magnification. The arrows indicate apoptotic cells. (B) Flow cytometric analysis in H 2 O 2-treated PC12 cells for 2 hours. The cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometric analysis of the DNA content after staining with propidium iodide. Data are relative values AE SD of three independent experiments. ***P < .001 compared with the H 2 O 2-treated control. 
Postmortem examinations of tissues of humans and rodents with a host of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, have identified oxidative damage in proteins, lipids, and DNA. The aim of this study was to better understand the cellular mechanisms of neuronal cell degeneration induced via oxidative stress and the protective roles of bioactive substance. In order to achieve this aim, we established a screening program to discover therapeutic agents that exhibit preferential neuroprotective activity in H(2)O(2)-treated PC12 cells. During the course of our screening program, we isolated an active compound, SG-168, from Dendrobium nobile Lindley and identified it as a neuroprotective agent. SG-168 was identified as a compound with an acetal skeleton, a prototypical compound, by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis and various nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods. The protective effect of SG-168 in PC12 cells with H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage was investigated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. As expected, incubation with H(2)O(2) for 2 hours resulted in cell viability of 31.8% compared to the control, while pretreatment of SG-168 increased cell viability by 15-50% compared to the H(2)O(2)-stressed control cells. These results showed that SG-168 inhibits H(2)O(2)-induced apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis showed that H(2)O(2)-treated PC12 cells incubated with SG-168 exhibited greatly suppressed apoptosis. In summation, the results of this study suggest that SG-168 has potential as a new antioxidant agent against neuronal diseases.
Various types of dietary supplements (DS) are popularly taken by young individuals. We surveyed 1,190 Korean senior high school third grade students for their DS use, motivational factors for this use, and potential dietary consequences of vitamin/mineral supplement (VMS) use. The use prevalence of DS-including VMS, tonic medicines, manufactured health food supplements, cordial food supplements, and drink rehabilitators-was 54%. VMS were taken most frequently, followed by tonic medicines and manufactured health food supplements. VMS use was highest in individuals who had a significant concern for their overall health and in those from families with a high socioeconomic level and with parental use of DS. Total daily study time of DS users was only slightly longer than that of nonusers. The VMS most frequently used were vitamin C and multivitamins. More than 46% of other DS users, and 58% of VMS users, had increased their intake of supplements during third grade relative to the previous year. VMS users had a more positive view of the potential health benefit of VMS than did nonusers. Vitamin and mineral intakes from VMS occurred over a wide range, with mean intakes typically exceeding the Korean and Canadian-U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances. For a significant number of individuals, intakes of vitamin A, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Given the widespread use of DS by older teenagers, the contribution of these supplements to their overall health and well-being is a subject that clearly merits additional study.
Effect of the concentrations (g/L) of (NH4)2SO4 and yeast extract on the exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentration (g/L). 
Profiles of biomass growth: X (dashed line,-, ,), glucose consumption: S (continuous line, C, B), and exopolysaccharide concentration: EPS (dotted line, :, 6) with time (h) at pH 4.0. The open and closed symbols represent data from duplicate tests. 
Initial Concentrations of Culture Medium Components for Each Experiment, and the Respective Concentration of Exopolysaccharides Obtained 
Profiles of biomass growth: X (dashed line,-, ,), glucose consumption: S (continuous line, C, B), and exopolysaccharide concentration: EPS (dotted line, :, 6) with time (h) at spontaneous pH. The open and closed symbols represent data from duplicate tests. 
Tumor mass (g) and tumor inhibition rate (%) for animals inoculated with Sarcoma 180 and treated with the following substances: (A) exopolysaccharide precipitate (PE1); (B) intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) precipitate (PM1); (C) IPS extract (lipid free) (PM2). The columns indicate the mean-standard error. Significant differences are indicated in comparison to *the positive control group (CP) and **the other groups, using Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. 
Abstract This work studied the influence of culture medium composition and pH on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Pleurotus sajor-caju and validates the antitumor activity of the produced EPSs and of the mycelial biomass (intracellular polysaccharides [IPSs]) against Sarcoma 180 (S180) cells. The effect of the initial concentrations of (NH4)2SO4, yeast extract and soy peptone on EPS production by P. sajor-caju was studied in shake flasks. A bioreactor was used to evaluate the pH values and the initial CaCO3 and glucose concentrations. Extracts of EPSs (PE1) and IPSs obtained through two different separation processes (PM1 and PM2) were tested on mice inoculated with S180 cells. A medium containing 2.5, 1.0, and 1.0 g/L of (NH4)2SO4, yeast extract and soy peptone, respectively, provided the highest EPS concentration (0.6 g/L). The use of pH 4.0, 1.0 g/L CaCO3 and 20 g/L initial glucose concentration enhanced EPS productivity (3.84 g/L per hour). The PE1 extract promoted the highest reduction of S180 growth (86%), followed by the PM2 extract (80%); growth reduction was dose-independent for both substances. This work provides information about culture medium and conditions that enhanced the production of extracellular polysaccharides by P. sajor-caju. The results can contribute to the search for new bioactive products bringing novel aspects to the medical and pharmaceutical areas.
Korean traditional table setting (three chup bansang) (a) and model of table setting used in this study (b). Shaded items are: dishes included in the counting of chup. 
Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score and Risk of Diseases from 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data I-KDPS quartile 
Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score and Risk of Diseases from 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data I-KDPS quartile 
Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score and Risk of Diseases from 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data I-KDPS quartile 
Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score and Risk of Diseases from 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data I-KDPS quartile 
Abstract The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.
Abstract Obesity-induced inflammation is characterized by recruitment of adipose tissue macrophages that release inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3), a CC chemokine, induces monocyte/macrophage infiltration and thus is implicated in obesity-induced adipose inflammation. Quercetin has been shown to modulate obesity-induced inflammation, but the mechanism of its action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that quercetin decreases MIP-1α release from adipocytes and macrophages and from cocultured adipocytes/macrophages; it also opposes MIP-1α-induced macrophage infiltration and activation. The inhibitory action of quercetin on the MIP-1α-induced inflammatory responses of macrophages is mediated by downregulation of CCR1/CCR5, and inhibition of activation of JNK, p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK), and IKK as well as IκBα degradation. These findings suggest that quercetin may be a useful agent against obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.
The stems with hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla have been used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic, antihypertensive, and anticonvulsant in China and Korea. In this study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of U. rhynchophylla in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The aqueous extract of U. rhynchophylla inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, U. rhynchophylla suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, phosphorylation, and degradation of inhibitory protein IκB (IκB)-α, phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest that U. rhynchophylla has the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO and IL-1β production in macrophages through blockade in the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases, following IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation.
A water extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae) was investigated for protective effects against oxidative stress induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats were orally administered A. capillaris water extract (ACWE; 7.5 g/kg) for 7 days before AAPH treatment (60 mg/kg). AAPH intoxication significantly elevated enzyme markers of liver injury (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase). The pre-administration of ACWE significantly reduced the liver-damaging effects of AAPH as indicated by the low levels of these enzymes. Moreover, the ACWE administration significantly attenuated the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in both plasma and liver tissues compared with those of rats administered AAPH alone. Furthermore, ACWE administration slightly improved the liver reduced glutathione levels and enhanced the production of antioxidant enzymes like catalase. A. capillaris contained 10.1 mg of catechin in 100 g of dried sample; the high-performance liquid chromatography results showed catechin composition in the ACWE to be 28% (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, 49% (-)- epigallocatechin, and 23% other catechins. These observations clearly indicate that ACWE contains antioxidant catechins capable of ameliorating the AAPH-induced hepatic injury by virtue of its antioxidant activity.
The present study was carried out to investigate the protective role of garlic (Allium sativum) ethanol extract (GE) in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced hepatic and testicular toxicity. A total of 60 male rats (Sprague-Dawley, weighing 200 +/- 10 g) were divided into six equal groups. The normal control group (NC) received vehicle (intraperitoneally) and saline (perorally). A predetermined dosage of TCDD (40 microg/kg of body weight, i.p.) was administered to single TCDD-treated (TT) and test (GE) groups. GE was administered (perorally) at daily doses of 5 (GE5), 10 (GE10), 20 (GE 20), or 40 (GE40) mg/kg of body weight for 5 weeks, starting 1 week before the TCDD exposure. Decreases in body weight gain (P < .01) and testicular weight (P < .01) induced by TCDD were greatly attenuated by GE (P < .05-.01). TCDD-induced decreases in spermatogenesis-related panels--Johnsen's score, seminiferous tubular size, ratio of tubules with sperm, and sperm count/tubule--were greatly improved by GE treatment in a dose-dependent manner in the rats. TCDD-induced increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and glutamic oxaloacetate activity were also suppressed by GE (P < .05-.01). These results indicate that administration of garlic to TCDD-exposed rats attenuates testicular and hepatic damage, suggesting that garlic might be a useful agent that can protect human health from toxic responses induced by environmental pollutants.
Abstract In this study, the protective effect of sweet potato extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity on the pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) was investigated. The active component of the sweet potato extract was purified and determined to be 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. The antioxidant capacity of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol was measured by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical. To examine the effects of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol on amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ1-42)-induced learning and memory impairment in mice, in vivo behavioral tests were performed. Administration of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol increased alternation behavior in mice injected with Aβ1-42. These results suggest that sweet potato extract could be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its constituent, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol.
We investigated the antidiabetic properties of 2,5-dihydroxy-4,3-di(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-trans-stilbene (DGTS) isolated from Morus bombycis Koidzumi in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The DGTS prevented the increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in serum of diabetic rats. At doses of 200-800 mg/kg, DGTS improved hyperglycemia in the rats, and the hypoglycemic effect of DGTS was comparable to that of tolbutamide. The histological observations showed that DGTS prevented atrophy of pancreatic beta-cells and vascular degenerative changes in the islets. DGTS reversed STZ-induced diabetes and had antioxidant activity in assays of FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in the rats. Levels of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA, as measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were lower in the livers of the DGTS-treated rats than those of the control group. These results suggest that DGTS might be beneficial in the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, the steamed root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, has been widely used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Oriental medicines. In this study we evaluated the effects of 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) isolated from Rehmanniae Radix Preparata on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of DHAP on the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6. DHAP significantly inhibited NO production via the suppression of iNOS expression and significantly decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 via the down-regulation of their mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. DHAP potently inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in LPS-stimulated cells. These results indicate that DHAP inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in activated macrophages by blocking the ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our results suggest that DHAP from Rehmanniae Radix Preparata has anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophages, raising the possibility that this compound has a therapeutic potential for inflammatory conditions.
Demographic Features According to the Presence of Asthma in Korean Adults Aged 19-64 Years
Daily Food Intake According to the Presence of Asthma in Korean Adults Aged 19-64 Years
Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for Asthma and FEV1/FVC ( < 0.7) According to Kimchi Intake by Korean Adults Aged 19-64 Years
Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19-64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40-79.9 g), 2 to <3 servings (80-119.9 g), and ≥3 servings (≥120 g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40 g): 0.726 (0.534-0.987), 0.506 (0.348-0.736), and 0.678 (0.502-0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma.
Over the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in using flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in diet in order to improve nutritional and health status. Lignans are major components of flaxseed. Therefore an extraction procedure for lignans from flaxseed has been optimized. The influence of some parameters was investigated: first the preliminary extraction step with alcoholic solvent, and then the solvent polarity and pH of the extract. All these conditions affected the total lignan content, but the most critical variables were preliminary extraction and solvent polarity. The optimized procedure, consisting of a direct hydrolysis in hydrochloric acid (1 M) at 100 degrees C for 1 hour followed by an extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate/hexane (90:10 vol/vol), was applied to 340 g of defatted flaxseed and resulted in the isolation of secoisolariciresinol and anhydrosecoisolariciresinol with a purity of 97% and 98%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ability of these two compounds and that of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside to modulate the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was assessed. Our results show that lignans modulate development of breast cancer cells. The most intense effect was observed for anhydrosecoisolariciresinol, which significantly decreased cell growth at 50 and 100 microM.
In vivo toxicity assay in different groups. Values are expressed as mean-SEM, n = 6. 
Medicinal Uses of Oxalis Corniculata (Oxalidaceae) 
Effect of simultaneous addition of extract (E) of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) and bacterial inoculum on colonization ability of Shigella flexineri 2a (2457T) and Shigella dysenteri 1 (NT4907). Control Group: (Simultaneous addition of PBS + Bacteria). Experimental group: (Simultaneous addition of E + Bacteria). * a Control group versus exp. group C.F.U. of Shigella flexneri (P < .05). * b Control group versus exp. group C.F.U. of Shigella dysenteriae (P < .05). * c exp. group versus exp. group C.F.U. of S. flexneri and S. dysenteriae (P < .05). Values are expressed as mean-SEM n = 6. 
Effect of supplementation of extract (E) of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) after 3 h of bacterial inoculation on colonization ability of Shigella flexineri 2a (2457T) and Shigella dysenteri 1 (NT4907). Control Group: (Bacteria + PBS after 3 h). Experimental group: (Bacteria + E after 3 h). * a Control group versus exp. group C.F.U. of S. flexneri (P < .05). * b Control group versus exp. group C.F.U. of S. dysenteriae (P < .05). * c exp. group versus exp. group C.F.U. of S. flexneri and S. dysenteriae (P < .05). Values are expressed as mean-SEM n = 6. 
Abstract In this study, the extract of a green leafy vegetable Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) was evaluated for its in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti colonizing effect against common intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Methanolic extract (80%) of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) leaf contained a polyphenol content of 910 mg Gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight and the yield was 8%. The flavonoid content was 2.353 g quercetin equivalent per 100 g of the extract. In vitro studies indicated that the extract inhibited numerous pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25922), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25923), Shigella dysenteriae 1 (NT4907), Shigella flexneri 2a (2457T), Shigella boydii 4 (BCH612), and Shigella sonnie phase I (IDH00968). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against E. coli (ATCC 25923) was minimal (0.08 mg/mL), whereas MIC against S. flexneri 2a (2457T) was higher (0.13 mg/mL). A suckling mouse model was developed which involved challenging the mice intragastrically with S. flexneri 2a (2457T) and S. dysenteriae 1 (NT4907) to study the anticolonization activity. It was revealed that the extract was more potent against S. dysenteriae 1 (NT4907) as compared to S. flexneri 2a (2457T). It was also found that simultaneous administration of extract along with bacterial inoculums promoted good anticolonization activity. Significant activity was observed even when treated after 3 h of bacterial inoculation.
Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc, which is classified into the dogwood family of Cornaceae. Corni fructus has antineoplastic, antioxidative, and antidiabetic effects, but its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects are unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract of corni fructus using murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. For this study, we used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, western blot analysis, prostaglandin (PG) E(2) immunoassay, and nitric oxide (NO) detection. In addition, the analgesic effect of corni fructus was assessed by the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. The aqueous extract of corni fructus suppressed PGE(2) synthesis and NO production by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The extract also suppressed increases in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) levels in the nucleus. In vivo study showed that the extract suppressed the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. The aqueous extract of corni fructus exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects by suppressing COX-2 and iNOS expression through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity.
Top-cited authors
Maria Inés Genovese
  • University of São Paulo
Sara Bastida
  • Complutense University of Madrid
S.E. Atawodi
  • Federal University Lokoja
Young-Eun Lee
  • Wonkwang University
A. Bocanegra De Juana
  • Complutense University of Madrid