One of the renewable energy sources that is presently being developed in Indonesia is the technology that converts solar energy into electrical energy using solar cells or PV panels. The power output of a solar panel is influenced by several factors, including solar radiation intensity, panel surface temperature, shading, and the angle of solar incidence. One factor that can influence the efficiency of a solar panel is the temperature of the solar module. The efficiency of a solar panel decreases as its temperature increases. Installing a Peltier TEC1-12706 on a PV panel will have an impact on heat absorption on the surface of the PV panel, thereby optimizing the power output of the PV panel. This study utilizes three monocrystalline solar panels with a power rating of 50 Wp, which are installed under three conditions: the first solar panel without a Peltier device, the second solar panel with twenty Peltier devices connected in series beside the solar panel, and the third solar panel with twenty Peltier devices connected in series both beside and beneath the solar panel. The output of these solar panels is remotely monitored using IoT as a connection to facilitate the monitoring and control of measured variables, including ambient temperature, solar panel surface temperature, voltage, current, solar panel output power, and efficiency. The data is collected at a height of approximately 12 meters in an outdoor laboratory at the Telecommunications Department of the Electrical Engineering Polytechnic of Sriwijaya Palembang. The measurements are collected between approximately 07:00 to 17:00 local time. The research results reveal that the monocrystalline PV panel with Peltier devices connected in series beneath and beside the solar panel has a higher absorption temperature compared to the solar panel without a Peltier device. Irradiance and ambient temperature have an influence on the voltage and current of the PV panel. The measured irradiance is directly influenced by the ambient temperature. The PV panel, with the addition of Peltier devices beneath and beside it, has an output voltage of 0.3 volts, a higher current value of 0.37 amperes, an increase in output power of 8.9 watts, and an overall average efficiency enhancement of 32.6% compared to the PV panel without a Peltier device.
The aircraft, with type Boeing 737-300 freighter, Serial Number: 28567, Flight number: TMG-918, with a flight route from Hanoi International (HAN) to Bangkok International airport (BKK) on the date of 12 April 2021, with a take-off time of 22.00 UTC and landing time 22.25 UTC, is operated by PT XYX Airlines on a non-schedule flight. After taking off from Hanoi to Bangkok (HAN – BKK), with an altitude of nearly 10.000 ft flight level, the aircraft got a problem with the pressurization system in auto mode (auto system), and the cabin altitude indicator was shown 10.000 ft; cabin rate altitude indication at 2000 – 300 ft/minute (in normal rate 200 – 300 ft/minute). The pilot was unable to control the pressurization system in the auto system; in this condition, the Pilot followed the procedure for selecting the pressurization system from auto mode to manual mode, and after that, the cabin altitude indicator suddenly was shown fluctuated or became unstable. After the pressurization system operates in Manual mode and all conditions control by the flight crew, the captain makes the decision to aircraft return to base (RTB) flight back to Hanoi International airport (HAN) and land safely at 22.25 UTC. The author wants to analyse the root cause of the pressurization system problem by using several methods, as per 5 whys, fishbone diagrams, and fault tree analysis. Then the author compares the root cause results of each method to take corrective and preventive actions to solve the problems. All these cases were in Reference to SDR Report Control Number: 012/SDR-YGH/TMG/IV/2021. The report submitted by PT.Tri M.G. Intra Asia Airlines on 12 April 2021 and the Flight Log Manual (FML) Page No: 03232, dated 12 April 2021. The purpose of this research is to identify the problem and determine the root cause of the problem's inability to control the pressurization system and make a plan for corrective action and preventive action; then, the team will implement the corrective action and preventive action. Quality Division will check and monitor the effectiveness of corrective and preventive action in three months. After that, the team & Quality Division create the procedure and policy for the company standard. The author and team used the methodology 5 why (cause and effect diagram), Fishbone diagram (Ishikawa Diagram), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and from each method will be found the root cause analysis. Then the author combines all root cause analyses to identify the problem and create problem-solving. The main result of this research was that the company was able to determine and implement the corrective action and preventive action for the uncontrollable problem pressurization system. The problem of the pressurization system that cannot be controlled causes the aircraft to return to base or cancel a flight to be expected not to happen again in all aircraft operated by PT. XYX company in the future.
In the 3D printing of polymeric parts, the annealing cycle is a post-process method that allows different polymeric materials to enhance their mechanical and thermal properties and also eliminate their residual stresses. However, annealing has some drawbacks, such as producing induced shrinkage to the treated parts. In this study, a new technique named “cyclic annealing” is proposed to reduce shrinkage due to annealing treatment. By subsequent increasing and reduction of the temperature over and below the glass transition temperature instead of suddenly increasing the temperature to the target annealing temperature, a significant reduction of shrinkage was observed for the printed PLA parts. Various cylindrical shape samples with different infill densities (30%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) were examined at 70°C, 90°C, and 110°C annealing temperatures. Considerable reduction of shrinkage by up to 50% and improvement of the material strength were observed, which confirms the applicability of the proposed cyclic annealing method as an alternative to traditional polymer annealing for 3D printed materials.
This paper deals with the study of beryl, its variety, petrographic, and gemological specifications in the Bahr-e-Abad area of Jalalabad city. Beryl is a relatively rare silicate mineral, cyclo-silicate, with a chemical composition of Be3Al2 (Si6O18) and a hexagonal crystal shape. It is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks in many parts of the world. In order to achieve the aim of this paper, three methods, namely; library work, fieldwork, and lab work, were conducted, and about 20 specimens were collected from the above-mentioned area and taken to the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) for making the thin sections and spectrometry analysis. Bahr-e-Abad area is related to the tectonic zone of Jalalabad. Jalalabad zone is located in the eastern part of Afghanistan and southeast of the Nuristan zone. Correspondingly, this zone is related to the upper Cambrian or younger Cambrian. In this area, the age of rocks is related to Archean- Middle Proterozoic AR-PR2. Beryl mineral is mostly found in Europe, Norway, Austria, Germany, Sweden, Ireland, Russia, Brazil, the US, Colombia, and Pakistan. Afghanistan is counted as one of the world’s leading countries in having rare-metal pegmatites, which are present in Afghanistan’s pegmatite belts in Afghanistan. This mineral is widely available in the pegmatite veins of Nuristan, Sistan, Panjshir, and Laghman. All pegmatite groups of Afghanistan are related to intrusive rocks. This study found that the rocks which are situated within pegmatite veins, besides beryl mineral, generally have the same composition and contain plagioclase, feldspar alkali (sodium-potassium), and mica (phlogopite and biotite) minerals. This is a microcline – albite type.
Construction Projects are a work sector that has a high level of work accident risk. This is due to the lack of awareness of the importance of implementing a good Construction Safety Management System (SMKK) following applicable laws and regulations, often the application of the Construction Safety Management System on a project is considered only as a costly expense, not as an investment to prevent work accidents but only is considered to provide a level of loss from the project itself. But, in the construction of the Main Market of City X, there was a work accident; an analysis was carried out using the Failure Mode And analysis method, several works with a high-risk level, namely formwork demolition work, installation work and WF steel assembly work with each value of 48 risk priority numbers with a risk map value of 19, ceiling frame assembly work with a value of 36 risk priority number with a risk map value of 17, Pile head bore work, ceiling material transportation work from storage, test commissioning work with each value of 32 risk priority numbers with a risk map value of 19.
The depletion of fossil energy reserves and the emission of fossil energy which is not environmentally friendly causes the need to use renewable energy as an alternative. Biopellet is a biomass-based renewable energy in Indonesia. Bio-pellets are produced from a large biomass base. Thus, bio-pellets have the potential and promise to continue to be used as fuel by humans. The literature review covers the characteristics of rice husk bio-pellets and the application of bio-pellets as fuel with the addition of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) as an additive to rice husk bio-pellets. Bio-pellets can be made by mixing biomass with an adhesive with a concentration of 15% (w/w), then stirring until homogeneous and put into a pellet mill to be printed. The pellets were dried in the oven for 30 minutes. Characteristically, bio-pellets meet SNI 8021-2014 for the parameters of ash content, fixed carbon content, calorific value, moisture content, and volatile matter content. Applying bio-pellets as a furnace also shows good performance of heat, efficiency, and emission parameters. In conclusion, biopellet is a biomass-based renewable energy fuel with current and promising potential.
This research deals with the study of geochemical, petrographic and mineralogical properties of Wolay Nephrite Occurrences in Kunar Province. Nephrite is a relatively silicate mineral, Cyclosilicate, with a chemical composition of Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2 and has a monocline crystal shape. It is found in metamorphic rocks in many parts of the world. Wolay nephrite area is related to the tectonic zone of Jalalabad. Jalalabad zone is located in the eastern part of Afghanistan and south-east of the Nuristan zone. Correspondingly, this zone is related to the upper Cambrian or younger Cambrian. In this area, the age of rocks is related to Archean- Middle Proterozoic AR-PR2. This contribution presents the first systematic mineralogical and geochemical studies on the Wolay nephrite deposit. Electron probe microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to measure the mineralogy, bulk-rock chemistry, and stable (O and H) isotopes characteristics of samples from Kunar. Field investigation shows that the Kunar nephrite ore body occurs in the dolomitic marble near the intruding granitoids. Petrographic studies indicate that the nephrite is mainly composed of fine-grained actinolite with Schist and dolomite. Geochemical studies show that all nephrite samples have low bulk-rock Fe/(FeO + MgO) values (4.72–21.34%), as well as SiO2 (72.75%), Al2O3 (2.01), CaO (14.58%) and NiO (0.05%) contents. The chemical data analysis and interpretation of F=Mg/Mg+Fe percentages show that the Nephrites type is actinolite. The deposit of nephrite mineral has been formed in hydrothermally veins and lens shape in contact with serpentinite and carbonate (dolomite marble) rock in the under study area. The color and its clarity have a direct effect on the economy and its price. The Nephrite from the Khas Konur district is found in green color due to the existence of iron elements.
Compressive strength and flexural strength are two important parameters in the concrete job mix formula. Both parameters are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the constituent aggregates. This study aims to obtain the relationship between the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete mixtures using local aggregates for construction projects around the province of South Kalimantan. The experimental mechanism was carried out by examining aggregates and designing concrete proportions using type V Portland cement with an initial setting time of 80 minutes and a final setting time of 150 minutes. Meanwhile, coarse aggregate from Katunun and fine aggregate from Barito are used in the concrete job mix formula. In this case, the results of the analysis show that there is a correlation value (K) for f'c 30 MPa and f'c 35 MPa, which are 0.84 and 0.78, respectively.
The use of neighborhood search techniques to address a practical issue faced by agricultural investors is examined in this study. The problem is named as agricultural land investment problem with precedence constraints and it has an essential impact on agriculture issues. The tackled problem can be viewed as a variant of the well-known classical 0-1 knapsack problem where precedence constraints are imposed on pairs of items. Precedence constraints take into account a precedence relation between items. This paper first simulates the considered problem as precedence constraints knapsack problem and presents a mathematical representation model. Then, an iterative three-stage neighborhood search method is proposed for optimizing the problem. The proposed method consists of three stages. First stage applies a greedy procedure in order to construct a feasible solution. Second stage applies local search procedures in order to enhance the quality of the solutions at hand. Third and last, in order to broaden the search space, a random neighborhood destruction approach is introduced. Finally, the effectiveness of the suggested approach is assessed and contrasted with the outcomes obtained by greedy and local search techniques. The presented method is competitive and efficient since it produces excellent solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
Due to the rapid development of technology, the use of numerically controlled machines in the industry is increasing. The main idea behind this paper is computer-aided design (CAD) based low-cost computer numerical control 2D drawing robot that can accurately draw complex circuits, diagrams, logos, etc. The system is created using open-source hardware and software, which makes it available at a low cost. The open-source LibreCAD application has been used for computer-aided design. Geometric data of a CAD model is converted to coordinate points using the python-based F-Engrave application. This system uses the Arduino UNO board as a signal generator of the universal g-code sender without compromising the performance. The proposed drawing robot is designed as a low-cost robot for educational purposes and aims to increase the student's interest in robotics and computer-aided design (CAD) skills to the next level. The drawing robot structure has been developed, and it meets the requirements of low cost with satisfactory experimental results.
Energy needs are increasing every year in line with the increase in population, economic growth, and high energy consumption. Indonesia's fossil energy reserves continue to decline; therefore, it is necessary to increase the non-fossil energy used. Indonesia, which has an abundant supply of renewable energy sources, is a major force in this clean energy revolution. As a renewable energy source, wind energy is a good form of energy that can be developed using wind turbines. The wind source to drive the wind turbine can come from natural wind sources or exhaust wind from equipment. In addition to utilizing natural wind energy, there is also artificial wind, which is the result of waste energy from exhaust fans, as an alternative energy source option for wind power plants. In this study, the idea emerged to conduct an experimental analysis of AC exhaust fans as a wind source for horizontal wind turbines to understand the concept of wind-based DC power generation and optimize low wind speeds in horizontal axis wind turbines with a different number of blades. The numbers were 2, 3, and 5, so the effect of the resulting voltage change could be known. The final result of testing on a horizontal turbine with 5 blades was that the wind speed was 3.63 m/s, the blade rotation was 1170.8 rpm, and the turbine was able to generate a voltage of 23.50 V.
As the urbanization process in developing countries continues to accelerate, although my country has achieved significant results in planning and construction, there are still many problems. For example, the rate of urban green space decreases with the continuous increase of urban buildings. Therefore, the domestic urban underground civil air defence Engineering construction is in a very important position at this stage, and our development goals must be shifted from above ground to underground. This article analyzes the general situation of the domestic civil air defence engineering system, expounds on the current situation and existing problems of my country's urban civil air defence engineering system, which has an important influence on the development of my country's cities. Functional departments must take into account the various functions of civil air defence projects and put people's safety first. At the same time, firefighters should also improve their professionalism, leadership and organizational skills, and evacuate people when encountering danger and arrange for them to take refuge in designated locations. The technicians in the relevant departments in the city need to use scientific and technological means to mix the urban network system in series and parallel so that the various structures of the urban network system are unified and interact with each other. When a disaster strikes, it can protect the safety of the people and reduce the economic loss of the city. Reduce to the lowest level to maximize benefits.
Prognostic and health management (PHM) in the aviation industry is expanding because of its effect on economic and human safety. Advanced maintenance shall be applied to this industry to inform aircraft engine conditions. PdM (Predictive Maintenance) is an advanced maintenance technique that can be applied to the aviation industry because of its high-precision prediction. Combining PdM as a technique to calculate the RUL (Remaining Useful Lifetime ) and ML (Machine Learning) as a tool to make high-accuracy predictions is mixed together that accurately forecasts the state of aircraft machine condition and on the best time to get the maintenance or service. In this work, we use the NASA Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS) data set. This work proposes GRU to determine RUL on aircraft engines to implement a Predictive maintenance strategy. For the training parameters tested in this study, we used a batch size of 512, a learning rate with Adam optimizer of 0.001, then epochs of 200. The essence of the results of this experiment is to obtain a new method with a simpler calculation process and the epoch value and a faster prediction process compared to other methods used, and the results obtained can approach the original value from an economic point of view and the RUL prediction process using the GRU.
After the Covid-19 pandemic, the manufacturing industry was faced with the challenge of continuing to create the highest quality products at the lowest possible cost and in the shortest possible time. PT also experiences this. Trias Indra Saputra is a manufacturer of Aluminum Cable Ladder located in Kabupaten Tangerang, Indonesia. Lean manufacturing is one method that can be used to identify and reduce waste in the production process. The existence of waste in the production process can lead to increased cost and processing time for a product. Value Stream Mapping (VSM), as an approach in Lean Manufacturing, can be used to find problems in the flow of products and information. Identification of waste begins with describing the current state of VSM and then analyzing the waste into 7 categories. After obtaining the waste category, continue conducting a Root Cause Analysis before designing and taking action to improve the process. By implementing Lean manufacturing PT. Trias Indra Saputra can reduce production time by 52%, Man Power by 70%, and production cost by 34% with the same quality even better than before.
Predictive maintenance is currently preferred over reactive maintenance because it’s very effective in reducing the costs incurred for unplanned breakdown stalling of a machine or equipment while production is running. In a production process at a Cement factory, the Milling station process is very important and becomes the main process. So, if something goes wrong in this process, the production line can be stopped, and the losses due to this are very big. Condition monitoring is a significant part of predictive maintenance because the application of condition monitoring allows the scheduled maintenance and precautions to be taken to prevent further failures and possible unplanned downtimes at a later date. By measuring the value of the vibration level, we can know whether the bearings and gear teeth on the machine are suitable for use or not. Based on this analysis, we can conclude that there is no sign of defect both on bearing in each gear teeth and the gear teeth inside the gearbox.
Risk assessment for the dams in West Java Province with a method of Modified Andersen and Modified ICOLD (DOISP-2) have been done; the assessment is part of the activities of Dam Operation Improvement Safety Project-2 (DOISP-2) at Central Project Implementation Unit (CPIU), Ministry of Public Works and Housing. Dams were studied to analyse the risks of the deficiency of the structure due to the load under normal operating conditions, flood conditions, and earthquake conditions. This article summarizes the risk assessment process, assessment results, conclusions and recommendations for both risk index methods. The document also includes an assessment of the risk assessment process and policy recommendations for the operation and maintenance of dams. The results are risk rankings between the two methods give different sequences; this is due to differences in the risk assessment approach of both methods. Modified Andersen focused on structural deficiencies, especially visually, and modification ICOLD Method (DOISP-2) focused on design flaws and risks downstream of the dam. Although both methods have different approaches, both methods can be used in risk analysis of the dam’s adjusted purposes of risk index assessment.
Designing a machine relates to the human factor. The size of the human body and machine can cause problems due to mismatch. So that, size of the human body into consideration in the design of the machine is very important. The shape and size of the machine that is not suitable will cause difficulties for the operator in carrying out their activities. The purpose of this research was to design propellant cutting machine sizes based on anthropometry. The research method is based on the anthropometry of Indonesia. Anthropometry tools obtained the size of the minimum height of the machine, the maximum width of the machine, and also the maximum height of the table. The Result dimension of the height of the machine was 1792 mm and the width of the machine was 300 mm while the height of the machine table was 932 mm. The position of the operator control was 95mm from the floor.
The campus buildings carry the reading time and historical stories, while the dormitories carry the memories and dreams of college students. This article takes the Wushan Dormitory of SCAU University as an example. By digging into the main narrative elements of the internal space of the Wushan Dormitory, the relationship between its space and events is analyzed. Based on the perspective of narratology, the convex space analysis method using Depthmap software technology under the space syntax theory is used to analyze the dormitory narrative space from the three main levels of the bedroom space, corridor space and staircase space. Analyze and explore the connection value of the horizon and the depth of the vision so as to effectively and reasonably combine the qualitative theory of narratology with the quantitative analysis of space syntax. By observing the logical relationship between the internal space and space of the dormitory building, the relationship between the dormitory building and the campus, it is theoretically and systematically explained, and people’s understanding of the space narrative theory is deepened. Reference suggestions are given for the activation and protection of the inner and outer spaces of the Wushan Dormitory in the future.
The Gurson – Tvergaard – Needleman (GTN) mechanical model is widely used to predict the failure of materials based on laboratory specimens, direct identification of Gurson – Tvergaard – Needleman parameters is not easy and time-consuming, and the most used method to determine them is the combination between the experimental results and those of the finite elements, the process consists of repeating the simulations several times until the simulation data matches the experimental data obtained at the specimen level.This article aims to find GTN parameters for the Compact Tension (CT) and Single Edge Tensile Test (SENT) specimen based on the Notch Specimen (NT) using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. . This work presents how the ANN could help us determine the parameters of GTN in a very short period of time. The results obtained show that ANN is an excellent tool for determining GTN parameters.
The research conducted in the study of converting used cooking oil into biofuel is done using the catalytic cracking technology process. Used cooking oil, a byproduct of household cooking oil waste, has the potential to be turned into energy. However, its utilization is not yet optimal, and it often just becomes household waste. Therefore, in this study, used cooking oil is used to produce biofuel. The CoMo/Bottom ash catalyst is used to accelerate the biofuel production process. The characteristics of the used cooking oil were analyzed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method, which revealed that the oil contained 2.50% linoleic acid, 0.54% myristic acid, and 22.11% palmitic acid, which are some of the main ingredients for making biofuel. The physical properties of the used cooking oil were found to be a viscosity of 3.81 mPa.s, a density of 0.93 g/ml, a refractive index of 1.43, and a flash point of 241°C. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the coal bottom ash used as a catalyst were analyzed using the X-Ray Fluorescence or X-ray diffraction method. It was found to contain 48.61% silicon dioxide (SiO2), 13.97% aluminum oxide (Al2O3), 4.40% iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), 2.92% calcium oxide (CaO), 0.82% magnesium oxide (MgO), and 0.48% potassium oxide (K2O). The characteristics of the used cooking oil and the coal bottom ash that were analyzed show that used cooking oil can be used as raw material for biofuel production, while coal bottom ash can be used as a catalyst.
Education during the pandemic experiences many obstacles that hinder all learning processes. Learning in ecology courses, in particular, has problems because it has one of the activities students have to go to the environment to make observations. The environment referred to here is the Brantas River. Brantas River is the largest river in East Java. However, the river is polluted due to human activities around the river. This phenomenon is intended to be presented as a lesson material for students to be able to improve environmental attitudes. Augmented reality assistance is useful for moving the environment that will be the subject of student observation during virtual learning.
The existence of reliable public transportation services will be able to reduce public dependence on the use of private vehicles. This goal will be achieved if public transport service quality improves. The Trans Metro Dewata bus is here in Bali with the Buy The Service program. This program is to buy urban mass transportation services to operators based on the services carried out according to the kilometres travelled. The operator operates 105 buses to serve 4 corridors. Technical and operational performance shows that the indicators of travel time, headway time, waiting time, stopping time, and travel speed follow the minimum service standards and technical guidelines for urban public transport. In contrast, the circulation time in corridors 1 and 4 exceeds the standard. Likewise, the load factor level of 2.40 – 32.65% is not following the performance standards of public transportation, which should be at least 70%. This is due to route accessibility factors, route effectiveness, feeder transportation availability, the bus stop's feasibility, and the lack of socialization and information to attract people to switch to public transportation. Analysis of the balance of the number of fleets shows an oversupply of around 14.86%-33.62%. However, this condition dramatically supports bus operational performance to meet minimum service standards. So the action that must be taken to maintain operational performance and balance the number of fleets is to increase demand or the number of passengers so that the load factor reaches a minimum of 70%.
The classification of banana species is still done manually by banana farmers. This identification process has the disadvantage that it requires more manpower to sort, the level of perception of the type of fruit produced can be different because humans can experience fatigue, are not always consistent, and human judgments are also subjective. Thus, a tool is needed that can identify the type of banana fruit precisely and accurately. One of them is by creating a computer-based system using the statistical feature extraction method of digital images. By performing color feature extraction using Color Moments (RGBHSVYCbCr), then texture extraction using Gray-Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM), and using the Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) method for classification of banana species. LS-SVM is a modification of SVM, which is used to improve classification performance. In the SVM algorithm, there is quadratic programming that is used to obtain the optimal solution in determining the Lagrange function; from the Lagrange function, it will be used in calculating the value of the weight and bias parameters. Quadratic programming is not efficient when applied to higher spatial dimensions because the computation will be very complex and very long. LS-SVM is better than standard SVM in terms of the calculation process, faster convergence, and higher precision. At the end of the experiment, the LS-SVM method succeeded in detecting the type of banana with a test accuracy value of 90%.
Space syntax is one of the important methods of city analysis and calculation. Based on the theory of space syntax, this research takes two important commercial and financial buildings of Bank of China Tower and Edificio Comercial Si Toi in Macau as examples to analyze their internal spatial structure and import Depthmap for calculation. Combining with related topological calculation methods, by analyzing the topological values of the overall integration degree, local integration degree, global depth and selectivity of the space, quantitatively explore the structure of the space, understand the relationship between the overall space and local space of commercial buildings, and discover the spatial structure And proposed corresponding optimization strategies to provide a reference for the future reconstruction of the typical commercial building space in Macau from the 1980s to the 1990s.
The rapid and unpredictable growth of the population, the development of cultivation, and the lack of surface and underground water management have caused problems in the irrigation and hydrological system in Kalafgan city. In this region, the lack of sufficient water diversion dams and the canalization system, at the same time as the rapid development of cultivation and agriculture, have caused problems for the residents of this city. To solve the water shortage, there is a need to increase the number of water diversion dams, manage surface water, and determine and identify water sources and drainage patterns. Determining and stabilizing the location construction of suitable dams and channels in the regional study is determined by using a geographic information system. One of the effective sciences in the field of earth and environmental science studies is the use of geographic information systems, which is very useful in the accurate estimation of hydrometric parameters of watersheds. In this research, as an example of hydrometric studies of the water basins of Kalafgan city in the geographic information system, the digital elevation model (DEM) has been used with the help of geographic information system software for the studied basin.