Journal of Marketing Management

Published by Westburn Publishers
Online ISSN: 0267-257X
Publications
Article
Brownlie and Saren (this issue) claim that “few innovative papers appear in the top marketing journals.” They attribute this problem to incentive structures. They ask what steps might be taken by the various stakeholders to encourage the development and transmission of useful innovative ideas. Presumably, this means findings that might contribute to better practices in marketing management. I address the first two issues (the problem and why it occurs) by using empirical search by myself and others. 1 then speculate about the third issue-procedures for improving the publication prospects for useful innovations.
 
Article
This paper presents the findings of a survey of UK marketing academics undertaken in 1998/1999. In part it is a follow-up to a survey undertaken by Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch and Neate-Stidson (1992) and, in part, a replication of a survey of members of the Academy of Marketing Science details of which are reported elsewhere in this Journal. While the survey data cannot claim to be representative of the UK marketing academy it is believed to provide a reasonably accurate profile of who we are, what we do, and what are our major interests and concerns. These findings are compared with the earlier 1991 survey and those of Polonsky and Mankelow (2000).
 
Article
This double edition is one of two quite distinct halves. The first is a collection of pieces that have a connection to the first edition of the Journal of Marketing Management, published in the summer of 1985. The connections exist largely through the authors, who appeared in the first edition and who have written again for the 25th Anniversary edition. Many of their themes are also related to those explored in that first edition, as are writing styles, methodologies described and methods used. The second half is a 'regular' edition, comprising five papers which reflect well the current preoccupations of those engaged in research into marketing management.
 
Routes to knowledge exchange between academics and practitioners
Effectiveness of different routes in turning learning into better practice and practice into better learning
Comparison of research approaches in relation to contextual understanding
the criticisms of academics in this regard and demonstrates that these criticisms came as much from the academics in our research as from any of the other two groups.
Article
Marketing management research and teaching has been criticised for some time as being divorced from practice. However, there has been little research into the nature of knowledge exchange between academics and practitioners in the marketing field. In the exploratory research reported in this paper the authors conducted interviews with academics and practitioners. A number of different routes to knowledge exchange are identified and discussed. The effectiveness of the different routes is reviewed in relation to the circular process of turning learning into better practice and turning practice into better learning. Overall four broad factors (individual, institutional, content and relationship) are identified as being of prime importance in creating mutual value in knowledge exchange. A number of implications are then drawn out in order to aid academics, practitioners and policy makers in improving knowledge exchange in the marketing area.
 
Article
This paper examines French marketing academics' perceptions of the most pressing issues for theory, practice and academia. The context is provided by an examination of individual and institutional demographic factors; how academics spend their time and what are their teaching/research interests. An analysis of the perceptions suggests there is a need to develop some new paradigmatical thoughts and that an epistemological debate is strongly missed. One key issue of theory, practice and academia is the link between practice and theory that is strongly asked for by the French respondents.
 
Article
Access to healthy food and its marketing have been asserted as limitations on changing behaviour to improve diet. A retailer survey in Scotland is reported that considered availability and affordability of a basket of indicator healthy food items, termed the Healthy Eating Indicator Shopping Basket (HEISB). It comprised 35 items drawn from 5 major food groups. A census of HEISB availability in 466 stores was undertaken in a sample of locations that varied on dimensions of urban-rural and affluent-deprived. Around half of the supermarkets surveyed stocked all the items. Availability of healthy food items was generally seen to be adequate but there were notable variations in availability for specific items. There were large variations in price for the HEISB items across the stores and the survey areas. The total HEISB median price varied by store type. Basket price tended to rise with deprivation with a caveat of the lowest prices in the most deprived areas. Accessibility to a range of healthy food depends more on the presence of medium and large stores than being in a deprived or affluent area.
 
Article
Some firms are using relationship marketing linked to knowledge management systems to achieve competitive advantage. Limited empirical evidence exists on the contribution that relationship marketing and knowledge management systems can make towards market success. E-commerce provides an opportunity to assess possible relationships that may exist between relationship marketing, knowledge management systems and market performance. A survey of small UK accounting practices suggests that adopting a relationship marketing orientation can enhance market performance. Those practices, which have adopted a relationship marketing orientation, tend to have established knowledge management systems and be involved in e-commerce. The implications of these findings are discussed and proposals made about further research needs.
 
Article
The asset recognition criteria presented in this paper break free from the narrow definitional and rule based perspective of accounting epistemology to offer an alternative view based on the recognition of artefacts and the related notion of separability. The purpose is to explore the nature of a trademarked brand "asset" currently excluded from disclosure in the accounting domain but included in the marketing domain usually as a constituent part of brand equity. That exclusion is based on the 'uniqueness' of a brand and an inability to separate brand assets from the other assets of a business. However, we show that it is actually 'additivity', or the lack thereof, which is the principle reason for the exclusion of brand assets from financial statements. Whilst the paper is inevitably accounting biased, the subject matter is nevertheless of interest to those marketers who view brands as assets.
 
Article
Over the past two decades, the cognate disciplines of marketing and management accounting have embraced a wider strategic conceptualisation in which customers, customer value and competitive positioning have become common research themes. The market orientation concept exemplifies the extant research within the marketing literature in which a firm's interfunctionally coordinated resources are focused on understanding and competitively responding to customers' needs. Within the management accounting literature, a range of similarly focused techniques, interpreted in this study as market-oriented accounting (MOA), have evolved in which information for decision-making is fashioned by the firm's customers and competitors. The findings of an interfunctional case study highlight a number of factors which potentially moderate the adoption of MOA and reveal a space in conceptual linkages between market orientation and contemporary management accounting techniques. Brand, reliability and informality in information and communication protocols emerge as strong interfunctional themes signalling the potential for future research of interdisciplinary cooperation.
 
Article
Given: one marketing manager and one accounting manager. Finding: poor communication on financial criteria and goals.
 
Article
This paper initially examines three lines of argument on the emergence of the marketing construct: the works of Hotchkiss and of Bartels and the textual monographs that proliferated during the second half of the last century. Each puts forward a different commencement date for marketing and different subsequent periodisations. The paper then considers observations on the marketing construct from postmodernists, critical theorists, anthropologists and historians. These accounts do not share a common definition of the term 'marketing'. Scholarship both within and beyond the marketing domain may be providing deeper and more relevant insights into its origins.
 
Article
Researchers have used the Narver and Slater's construct (1990), hereafter (N&S), to operationalise market orientation (MO). The assumption is that the construct is universally equivalent across cultures, countries and research contexts. We develop a way of testing the invariance of N&S operationalisations as an example of how researchers can establish measure invariance across different cultures, countries or languages. In this particular study we test the N&S operationalisation across Australian and UK samples. The results suggest that the conceptualisation of MO is similar in the two countries at a weak factorial invariance level. Thereafter the operationalisation is different ie intercepts are significantly different and item reliabilities are also different. These results suggest that because measure equivalence is not strong, contextualisation of findings is necessary since generalisability may be limited. The significance of this research is in alerting researchers to the assumptions, rarely tested, that underlay comparisons across qualitatively distinct populations. We suggest researchers test these assumptions before substantive tests of theories are undertaken.
 
Article
It is considered desirable for a brand to have unique associations attached with it in consumer memory. In this research we tested the interaction between unique brand associations, customer usage/preference and brand performance. In our analyses across 94 brands in eight markets we found that the presence of unique associations was not positively related to past usage or a stronger brand preference. A brand's share of unique associations was also poorly correlated with current brand share. This empirical evidence supports more recent calls for brands to focus on meeting or exceeding performance on general category needs as a primary concern, which builds the richness and accessibility of the total brand associative network in consumer memory.
 
Article
Despite the importance of service organisations' ability to rationalise their service ranges and despite the recent calls from academics for more research on service elimination (Avlonitis et al. 2000), the empirically-based knowledge on the elimination decision-making process in service settings in general and in financial service settings in particular remains alarmingly sparse. Responding to this lacuna of knowledge the present paper presents qualitative and quantitative empirical evidence on a) the way in which British financial institutions analyse the deviant performance of financial services, which have been identified as candidates for elimination and b) the remedial actions that they consider in order to restore a deviant performance, when possible and feasible. The evidence showed that the studied British financial institutions follow a largely informal and haphazard analysis procedure for candidates for elimination, even when a definite identification of the real problem behind the symptom of a deviant performance necessitates further and more well thought-out analysis. Moreover, the evidence pointed at the dynamism of the remedial attempts. As such, there is no golden rule that could assign weights to the importance of the remedial actions fitting all financial services and all organisational and environmental circumstances. Instead the relative importance of the identified remedial actions proved to depend upon the method of delivery process of candidates for elimination, the service diversity of financial institutions, the degree of customer orientation, competitor orientation and interfunctional coordination, the legislative requirements, the intensity of market competition and the rhythm of technological change.
 
Article
Globally, the five countries who have the highest annual advertising expenditure have seen their expenditure almost double in the last 10 years even though some advertisements may be 'unacceptable' (that is, unfair, misleading, deceptive, offensive, false or socially irresponsible) to consumers. We investigated consumer complaint responses specifically within the area of advertising in Australia which has the second highest advertising expenditure as a percentage of GDP in the world. Our findings indicate that complainants can be classified into one of four typologies based on identified underlying factors: Advertising Aficionados; Consumer Activists; Advertising Moral Guardians; and, Advertising Seekers. Further, the predictive model presented is significantly related to enable the elements within the population who would be complainants to be identified.
 
Article
This research consists of a questionnaire survey to the largest UK multinational companies and investigates companies' level of adaptation and standardisation across international marketing tactics. It examines whether multinational companies are adapting or standardising their marketing mix elements when they cross geographical borders and expand their operations to foreign markets. This research identified that both adaptation and standardisation are used at the same time. The level of integration is dependent upon considerations of the relationship between the reasons and elements identified and an understanding of how these are affected by a number of factors. This article proposes a new modelling approach, the AdaptStand Process, which outlines the different stages to be undertaken by multinational companies towards identifying the level of integration across marketing mix elements. Consequently, the results of this research guide marketing practitioners in deciding on implementation of marketing tactics when competing in the international marketing arena.
 
Article
While salespeople are coached and trained to use an adaptive approach to selling, sales training tends to be assumptive about the inclusion of specific selling techniques. Part of this assumptive approach is the belief that the old-tried-and true techniques such as the testimonial form of closing are consistent with an adaptive selling approach. Results of this survey of over 200 industrial buyers' points to the flaws in these assumptions and suggests there are techniques which are not part of adaptive selling. Industrial buyers make distinctions between standard selling techniques – and associate a specific set of techniques with highly adaptive salespeople.
 
Commercials Complained About, by Criterion
Complainants by MOSAIC Type
Geographical Distribution of Complainants
Article
It is argued, on the basis of first principles and a case example, that 'leakage' of advertising messages beyond the target audience can generate negative reactions when 'activists' in an accidentally addressed 'meta-audience' exert 'social pressure' on the advertiser's 'micro and macro-audiences', inflicting 'collateral damage' on the advertiser in various ways. Examination of published data from industry sources shows that activists are a small sub-set of the meta-audience, but it is argued that their potential to reduce the long-term advertising effectiveness of some advertising campaigns is an issue for advertising managers and planners. Analysis of hitherto unpublished data yields a profile of one type of activist: those who complained about television advertising between 1996 and 1998. They belong to homogeneous social sub-groups that are geographically and demographically distinct from the general population, not least in conforming to the notorious north-south divide in Britain. It is proposed that this first-ever research-based profile of complainants offers a factual basis on which prudent advertising planners can predict the risk of collateral damage, and plan to minimise it by avoiding pre-disposing creative tactics or media schedules.
 
Article
In this paper we use a small-scale exploratory study to challenge current interpretations of the potential effects of the portrayals of women in print advertising on young women's self-esteem and body image. We examine how young women's self-perception and self-esteem may be affected depending on their goal for social comparison: self-evaluation, self-improvement and self-enhancement. The results indicate that the goal for social comparison is an important moderating influence on how advertising images are interpreted and consumed. The findings confirm and extend earlier studies; and provide support for challenging prevalent views of women, firstly as passive consumers of advertising messages; secondly, as necessarily susceptible to negative self assessment in response to ideal images in advertising; and thirdly as pursuing only one goal in their consumption of advertising.
 
Article
This paper provides the first empirical study of the relationship between risk and creativity in advertising. Advertising agency creatives and their propensity to take advertising risks are examined in the light of their advertising creativity, as measured by awards won. It is found that risk-taking is linked to higher levels of creativity. Creatives feel that their managers and clients are more reluctant to take risks than they are. Support is given to earlier studies that showed that creatives take bigger risks for smaller clients. Furthermore, the relative risk propensity of different categories of creative staff (e.g. male/female, older/younger) is upheld, with a few notable exceptions. Managerial implications are identified.
 
Article
This paper aims to explore in detail the issue of advertising intent, with particular reference to the child. The literature review examines the importance of age and cognitive and social development in this field and considers whether or not children can distinguish between television programming and advertising. What the literature review illustrates is that research studies thus far have conflicting viewpoints on these areas. Within the research to date, there are also a number of important issues which do not seem to be addressed. Most notably, there is little research which considers the impact of advertising upon children, from the child's perspective. This paper thus proposes an exploratory framework which aims to consider the established and potential mediating variables in the child's understanding of advertising intent.
 
Response rates by type and decile level of school
Article
Data based on questionnaire measures from parents in New Zealand, the UK, and Sweden on attitudes toward advertising to children is presented. There is cross-national evidence that attitudes in this area are affectively strong and consistent and data is presented on responses to particular attitude statements that support this claim. An exploratory factor analysis on the Swedish and UK data suggests a factor structure in respondents with both positive and negative attitudinal clusters toward advertising to children. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research in order that the international debate on advertising and marketing to children is informed by cross-cultural research.
 
Article
This study investigated the networked relationships between agency parties involved in the process of advertising planning, internal and external to advertising agencies. The study provides a conceptual grounding for understanding the shift from dyadic to multiple relationships in advertising planning. It focuses on the degree of collaboration and integrative relationships inherent. Using a theoretically derived, grounded theory approach, depth interviews were conducted with twenty two practitioners spread across four dominant parties: advertising account management and creatives, independent media planners and researchers. Four core constructs were abstracted from the data forming the conceptual basis for a model. These were shared (agency) purpose and philosophy, personal chemistry between involved parties, power relations between parties with their incumbent conflictual tensions and finally trust between parties. The study provides an important bridgehead, opening up and exploring the increasingly networked foundations for advertising planning.
 
Article
Research on children's response to advertising is dominated by positivistic and quantitative approaches and often addresses children's failure to understand advertising in an adult manner. This paper suggests that reliance on Piaget's theory of child development has restricted research on children and advertising, and calls for more attention to be given to theorists such as Erikson who offer broader accounts incorporating social and cultural issues. The paper builds a case for viewing children as active, socially and culturally situated consumers of advertising by reviewing meaning-based, reader-response and literacy approaches to advertising. It reports on a qualitative study (using photo diaries, individual interviews and small friendship group discussions) which sought a child's eye view of advertising experiences among 10-12 year-olds. The children shared a drive to obtain and demonstrate power in their everyday lives, and this led them to seek mastery, control and critical distance in their dealings with advertising. The study's implications are considered for advertising practitioners, researchers and public policy makers.
 
Article
Over the last three decades, a substantial body of research has accumulated seeking to address how exactly advertising, and in particular television advertising, influences children. Yet, given the diversity of methodologies used and the findings presented, it has been suggested that a common consensus on how exactly advertising affects children has not been reached (Gunter and Furnham 1998). This paper presents a brief overview of the literature addressing children's understanding of advertising with a view to identifying the contributions to date in this area and the accompanying gaps, omissions and under-researched perspectives. Findings are then presented from an exploratory study of eight and nine year old children with a view to providing a description of how they relate to television advertising. This qualitative study is part of an ongoing research project focusing on children of this age group.
 
Article
This work examines whether promoted brands and private labels attract different or similar consumers through psychographics and store image that drive purchase attitudes for these brands. The results using regression analysis demonstrate that these attitudes are driven by differences in psychographics and store image. Attitude toward promoted brands is characterised by positive store image, smart shopper self-perception, need for affiliation, and money attitude regarding power-prestige and anxiety. Private label attitude is characterised by more positive store image, and money attitude regarding retention and distrust. Noticeably, the conclusion of Ailawadi et al. (2001) regarding the indirect effect of demographics on the feasibility of using store brands and national brand promotions via psychographics appears weak, since we conclude that the impacts of demographics on the two types of purchase attitudes are weakly funneled through psychographics.
 
Article
As an attempt to determine levels of benefit in a marketing relationship a model rooted in the biological sciences has been used. The model uses degrees of symbiosis in parasitology to investigate the complicated relationship structure between financial institution, charity and cardholder, found in the case of the affinity credit card. Taking one focal point of this triadic relationship, interviews were conducted with the relationship managers from a sample of UK charities. The results of the qualitative research suggest that where both parties in the relationship were proactive and wanted the relationship to flourish it was perceived to be mutually beneficial. The financial institution is in a win-win situation by gaining access to the charity database, but the charity has to demonstrate matching enthusiasm otherwise the affinity card will not reach its potential for the charity. The research also suggests that the perceptions of the mutuality of the relationships do not always match up to the reality. If, however, both organisations fully understand the implications of the possible degrees of symbiosis within the relationship, then mutuality is possible and the model developed here should help that understanding.
 
Article
Research in marketing has neglected economic scarcity in affluent societies, with a few exceptions. Many affluent states are today facing financial difficulties and a global belief in the market as self-regulating, and in de-regulation have led to a focus on consumer agency. This has also contributed to a widening gap regarding opportunities to consume in affluent societies. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the importance of considering economic scarcity in affluent societies among marketers in studies on consumption by using theoretical concepts from welfare studies such as inclusion and exclusion, participation and inequality. Researchers who ignore the consequences of the lower strata in the income hierarchy disregard the complexity of consumption. It is argued that regardless of income, we are all consumers, but with different opportunities and abilities. The hegemony of free choice needs to be challenged.
 
Article
This paper details the emerging need for relational skills in marketing. The challenges of fostering relational resources within marketing practice and pedagogy are then discussed. Next, the paper explores the value of experiential learning approaches in education and considers different experiential models for fostering relational resources. An African Drumming circle was chosen, because it offers exciting opportunities to explore relational principles both through the actual lived experience as well through the active exploration of the metaphor. The paper concludes that the drumming circle offers an interesting access to experiencing the movement from being an individual actor to collaborating as part of a wider network of actors. Thus, insights are generated at the level of lived experience as well as at a more metaphoric one. The paper therefore serves to foreground the role of pedagogy in Relationship Marketing
 
Article
Over the last quarter of a century, it has become increasingly apparent that the traditionally accepted production based view of the value adding process is no longer realistic. Awareness of the value created through the provision of services and the increasing importance of services in the economic and business environment suggests that value can also be created through the consumption process. For marketers to use the value adding potential of consumption to fulfil the marketing concept, the nature of the process and the value created by it need to be investigated. This paper provides an overview of the changing business environment and its implications for our understanding of the concept of value. It examines the increasing interest in the literature in the concept of experiential value and highlights the problems caused by its very personal, idiosyncratic and situational nature; and, suggests a conceptual model around which research into the topic can be organised. Finally, it suggests a methodology for carrying out research that would provide some insight into the factors that cause consumers' perceptions of experiential value to vary so much.
 
Article
This paper arose from the need to simplify the knowledge of competitiveness in an area marked by growing complexity and an ever-increasing number of competitors. Against this background, it is necessary to demonstrate the existence of competitive groups, based on the perceptions of managers. Having interviewed 211 managers of the eighteen largest competitive automobile manufacturers, we find significant evidence of convergence among competitive structures, identified by using different collecting methods. Also, limited evidence of convergence was found between these structures and those identified using archival data. We conclude that competitive groups, based on perceptions, are a real construct and not a methodological artefact, as is suggested by some authors.
 
Article
Research methods is a key aspect of all degree programmes but is often very unpopular with students – especially marketing students. In this study we explore different learning styles and assess the degree to which these are accommodated by our existing teaching strategies. We utilise a modified Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Styles Scale (1974) because of the scale's ability to closely link learning styles with teaching strategies. We support this quantitative approach with depth interviews to explore issues in detail. Findings from the GRSLSS scale suggest that students learning styles are a mix of independent, dependent and collaborative, with some overall preference for collaborative. However, the qualitative data throws some doubt on the validity of the scale, suggesting much higher preferences for dependent learning. The variety of teaching strategies currently employed seems to accommodate learning styles well – confirming the importance of using a variety of teaching approaches. The research also suggests that strategies that suit dependent styles are needed early in courses in preparation for more independent and collaborative approaches. And there is an identified need to get students to develop more independence in particular. Findings also suggest that collaborative styles might not be effectively accommodated through assessment.
 
Article
The term "brand architecture" refers to an organisation's approach to the design and management of its brand portfolio. In particular, brand architecture decisions are concerned with the number of brands to utilise, the role of specific brands and the relationship between such brands. It has been posited that services organisations tend to adopt a corporate brand approach to the management of their brand architecture, having a propensity to rely, in the main, on one overarching brand. The study reported here investigates this contention in the context of financial services, using a number of semi-structured interviews with senior marketing managers. Findings indicate that although some support for the corporate branded approach was apparent, the dominant strategy is a "multi-corporate" approach, where the brand architecture comprised a family of main brands. The main motivations for such an approach are to maintain strong relationship franchises with different customer groups and/or to signal distinct competencies to the marketplace. As expected, the data shows little support for the approach of branding individual services or the wide-scale use of sub-brands.
 
Article
Using four Chinese celebrities as stimuli and 880 Singaporean undergraduates as respondents, this research verifies the factor structure of the celebrity endorsers' credibility scale, which Ohanian (1990) developed from American samples. The results show that the original scale's factor structure fits the Singaporean data well. All indicators are significantly related to their specified factor, and the inter-factor correlation coefficients are moderate and significant. The composite factor reliability, the Cronbach's , and the variance extracted measures are satisfactory.
 
Article
Trends in multinational production have complicated the issue of country of origin (COO) with products now often associated with more than one COO and no longer produced in the same country as where they were designed or where their major components originate. This leads to a new stream of COO studies being termed "hybrid product research".This paper studies the impact of assembly location on Thai consumer perception of automobile quality. While automobiles assembled domestically (CKD) are considerably cheaper, COO studies have reported that consumers prefer automobiles assembled in highly industrialised countries (CBU). Two surveys were conducted with 186 respondents in Bangkok, Thailand. It was found that a brand with a strong quality image could reduce COA bias when evaluating automobiles from a country with a negative quality image. Consumer ethnocentrism was also studied to determine whether it can play a role in consumers' evaluation of domestically assembled automobiles (CKD). The result, as expected, revealed that ethnocentric consumers exhibit their home country bias by championing locally assembled automobiles. As expected, ethnocentric consumers were found to have lower education achievements and live in larger households but age and income were found to have no bearing unlike previous research. Following these findings, conceptual and practical implications were discussed. This study supported previous research findings and provided two new research scales. Meanwhile, practical implications for automakers are that they need to weigh up the benefit of relocating their assembly plants against a very likely reduction in perceived value due to associations with a country's negative quality image.
 
Article
The publication of the 2001 UK HEFCE Research Exercise data provides an opportunity to examine the performance not only of Business and Management HE institutions but also the journals submitted by the research active marketing staff from those institutions. Two measures of journal performance are reported and analysed; frequency of submission and journal "quality". The latter was measured in terms of the concept of RAE Implied Journal Quality (RIJQ) using the link from a journal through the submitting author to the RAE rating of their institution. The frequency results indicate a high degree of publication concentration in the Journal of Marketing Management and the European Journal of Marketing. The RIJQ picture is quite different with US journals dominating the rankings. In both cases results are analysed in terms of possible explanatory factors and the role of the RIJQ as a measure of journal quality is critically assessed.
 
Article
Eighty percent of primary food producers are currently involved in assurance schemes (McDougal 2000), the largest group of which belong to assurance labels sponsored by producer-led groups (e.g. Quality Meat Scotland, English Beef & Lamb Executive). Originally designed to enable producers to provide assurances of meat safety and animal welfare to consumers, this paper evaluates the extent to which producer-led assurance groups have adopted a true market orientation. Both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a postal questionnaire with Scottish meat consumers were carried out. Subsequently, using structural equation modelling techniques, causal influences upon producer-led assurance label purchase behaviour were determined. The results conclude that producer-led logos are the preferred assurance labels to be purchased by consumers and that the most significant influences upon purchase behaviour are attitudes, past behaviour, assurance label knowledge and personal identity traits. Moreover, weaknesses are identified in terms of producer-led groups' marketing communication strategies to consumers. Implications of those weaknesses in relation to improving market orientation are then discussed.
 
Article
This study analyses customer choice criteria in the context of a complex service, more specifically, endowment life assurance policies. The study draws upon previous literature which has suggested that service complexity may have implications for consumer behaviour in general and customer choice criteria in particular. A quantitative study is employed to investigate the relative importance of choice criteria in endowments and differences in importance with respect to various demographic and related factors. Findings indicate that the consumer's choice of institution is most often influenced by use of an existing service with that firm, followed closely by choosing on the basis of recommendation or family relationship. Factors such as performance and charges are shown to be relatively unimportant choice criteria. In addition, differences in the importance of choice criteria with respect to gender, class, household income, educational attainment, age and financial maturity are apparent.
 
Article
The portrayal of women in advertising has received much attention over the past three decades. However, most of the research is focused on U.S. women and lacks a global perspective. Little is known about the attitudes of non-U.S. women toward female role portrayal in advertising. This study, building on previous research conducted by Ford, LaTour and Lundstrom, reports the findings regarding the attitudes of European women, specifically French, towards their sex role portrayal in advertising and its affect on purchase intention. Furthermore, it compares these results to a recent baseline study conducted in the U.S. for the express purpose of illustrating what differences, if any, exist between the cultures of women who live in two different, post-industrial societies.
 
Article
Consumers are at the focal point of marketers' attention. However, while extensive research is devoted to understanding consumers' motivations, attitudes and behaviour, surprisingly little attention is given to the consumers' views of marketing itself. This paper explores consumers' attitudes towards marketing and their perceptions of it, reflecting critically upon their views. Since much criticism of marketing focuses on its role in promoting consumption, we also consider perceptions of current levels of consumption and the extent to which marketing is held responsible for them. Based on 29 in-depth interviews we find evidence suggesting the prevalence of negative attitudes towards marketing, especially associated with deceptive or dishonest campaigns, although marketing's informative role is acknowledged. Importantly, findings reveal a limited understanding of the discipline, suggesting a gap between the concept of marketing and consumers' perceptions of it. This paper sends marketers important messages from consumers and offers grounds for further debate.
 
Article
The growth of the Internet for shopping has led to an increasing interest in tools for assisting consumers with decision-making, efficiently using the vast quantity of widely dispersed information. Online product recommendation agents gather information from consumers and then match these consumer preferences with their database of products to recommend the best product. Two approaches can be taken for gathering information from consumers on their preferences – conjoint-type full-profile ratings or self-explicated ratings. That is, organizations may infer consumers' preferences for attributes and levels on the basis of their ratings of several alternative products or may simply directly ask them their evaluations of various attributes and levels. We compare these two approaches and find that, in general, they do not result in the same conclusions. In this paper we examine the differences in the approaches to making recommendations and discuss the implications of these differences. Our results show that there is a closer match between the methods for products closer to the extremes of consumer preference. Also, our study shows that a recommendation agent should offer more than one recommendation in order to match the needs of the system user.
 
Article
The concept of the augmented product is an established part of marketing theory and practice. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the perceived benefits and barriers of deploying an augmented product, and to determine whether they differ depending on the stage companies have reached in introducing the augmented product. The retailing industry is used as the basis for analysis, and the introduction of financial services as the example of an augmented product. The respondents suggest that financial services do not support the core product and in many ways distract retailers in their marketing efforts. In many other ways, though, retailers did see the utilisation of financial services as desirable. The results also show that the perceived benefits and barriers to the introduction of the augmented product differ considerably depending on the stage companies have reached in the introduction of the product and their objectives in using the augmented product.
 
Article
A significant number of studies have examined aspects of consumer responses towards genetically modified foods (GMFs). However, much of this effort has resulted in somewhat mixed findings which have not added real value in terms of providing viable directions for international and national organisations concerned with the labelling of GMFs. This is particularly true in an environment where labelling regulation is increasingly inconsistent and may therefore present real barriers to international trade and the marketing and sales of these food products.The aim of this article therefore is to shed light on the extent to which the labelling impositions on genetically modified foods would impact on the overall viability of the GMF industry particularly from an international and firm perspective. To this end, a selection of literatures that cover labelling issues in Europe, USA, Canada and Australasia were distilled in order to better understand the pros and cons of labelling disclosures globally and from these present a platform for future marketing and implementation scenarios in Australia.On the basis of this literature synthesis, we propose that the success of the GMF imperative is contingent on two levels of compliance. First, at the global level, there is need for greater international consensus regarding uniformity of standards of regulation that would allow for fair trade particularly through such bodies as the World Trade Organisation. By implication, Australia would require to adopt levels of compliance that are comparable to the stringent European Union requirements in order to be able to access those markets and any others. Second, we note that at the firm level, whilst production costs in developing appropriate labelling disclosures can be expected to rise on account of higher standards of compliance, these would be more than offset by the increase in consumer confidence as a consequence of the opportunity to make more informed choices. This in turn would generate positive Word of Mouth most likely resulting in increased uptake and adoption of GMFs generally thus allowing for disclosure costs to fall over time.
 
Article
The paper uses a series of focus discussion groups to examine the circumstances under which consumers of financial services perceive a benefit from having a banking relationship. Specifically, it attempts to understand what motivates consumers to form relationships with banks and to what extent this is determined by the decision making environment. To achieve this objective the paper draws upon the interaction and relationship marketing literature and examines banker-customer interactions when purchasing a range of financial services. The importance of the paper stems from the fact that it sheds light on the interaction mode and increased customer participation and, therefore, examines the opportunities for marketing, enhancing quality and improving customer retention.
 
Article
During the 1990s the introduction of new technology, and in particular of low cost delivery channels, has accelerated the pace of innovation taking place within the UK financial services industry and has created a need for a more strategic approach to the study of innovation within this industry. In this paper, the case study of telephone banking is used to describe the main aspects of strategies adopted by the first and second movers, when implementing this delivery channel. It shows that the successful innovator – First Direct – adopted the logic of 'value-innovation', whilst the second movers have followed the 'conventional' logic. In contrast with previous studies, the strategic approach applied in this case study also reveals that differentiation in the financial market place is not achieved with the implementation of distribution channels or just technology, but bringing to the market 'unprecedented value'. Finally, the implications for the general theory of innovation in relation to financial services organisations are highlighted.
 
Article
One of the most significant developments in bank marketing in recent years has been the use of technology in creating new channels through which customers can transact their accounts and interact with their bank. The literature shows how e-banking has developed rapidly and become a mainstream channel, but concerns have been raised about the ability of banks to manage customer relationships effectively through this new channel. The case studies presented in this paper are chosen to exemplify two approaches to e-banking: integration into an existing operation and separation (through a standalone operation). Analysis of these case studies shows how a market oriented approach to customer service can be implemented particularly effectively at an operational level in the standalone case. However, while the need to manage customers far more holistically is recognised in the integrated case this has not yet been achieved in practice. The reasons for this highlight challenges for marketing in the banking sector.
 
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This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study carried out in the UK retail-bank sector on the implementation of Internal Marketing (IM). While the overall aim of Internal Marketing is the creation of a unified culture around the values of customer service, employee empowerment and service quality, the evidence suggests that Internal Marketing is perceived and enacted in ways that at times contradict such managerial rhetoric. The paper sheds light on what internal marketing is (its underlying principles within the organisations studied), the ways in which the banks studied use it in order to change their organisational culture as well as the difficulties encountered in implementing IM as a culture change agent. It concludes that the implementation of Internal Marketing in the banks under the study is problematic and does not result into a unified organisation culture. Indeed, implementing Internal Marketing is a process fraught with difficulty, which at times leads to divisions, ruptures and ambiguity in the newly created organisational culture.
 
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The article sheds light on the relationship between internal marketing rhetoric and its practice within the UK retail bank sector and addresses a deficiency in the current internal marketing literature particularly in terms of implementation. A practitioner view is explored through data generated by in-depth qualitative interviews with thirty-five branch managers and twenty-one employees. The study produced some interesting findings structured in the form of relationships which highlighted the distinct nature of the internal marketing practice within the specific sector. This article sheds light on the six emergent relationships. The examination of the relationship between the rhetoric and practice of internal marketing within the UK retail bank industry raises some criticisms regarding the motives behind the adoption of internal marketing and the current implementation approach adopted by these organisations. The study's conclusions can be used as an outline agenda for future research aimed at strengthening internal marketing's legitimacy in the academic literature and highlighting its contribution to practitioners.
 
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Faced with rapidly changing markets and deregulations, most commercial banks are increasingly relying on new product development for growth and profitability. However, the success of a new product may depend on choosing the right mix of new product strategy and the development process. Extant literature has examined these two key factors individually rather than investigating their interrelationships. Likewise, the focus of the literature has been on the overall financial services rather than banking services alone. This study addresses these gaps in the literature by conducting a survey of 138 product managers of the major commercial banks and proposing that a bank's choice of new product strategy and product development process are interrelated as are the impacts of those choices on new product performance. The findings reveal that the moderately innovative products are likely to be more successful than highly innovative and low innovative products. Idea generation and screening efforts, forming a cross-functional team and proficiency in commercialisation activities are essential to the success of a banking product.
 
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This commentary applauds the growing body work in critical marketing and encourages its engagement with community development. Such work might usefully leverage critical marketing concepts and research methods to foster the inclusion of social differences defined in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and disability in market development. Theoretically, such work will flourish in better understanding how meanings-based assets, like cultural and social capital not valued in financial markets are valued in other social domains, such as organisations and communities, and how particular sets of meanings-based assets that are valued in financial and consumer markets draw from and reinforce social relations.
 
Top-cited authors
Christian Grönroos
  • Hanken School of Economics
Linda D. Hollebeek
  • Vilnius University/Tallinn University of Technology (Adj.)
B. Zafer Erdogan
  • Anadolu University
Sally Dibb
  • Coventry University
Caroline Tynan
  • University of Nottingham