The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person's movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008-2009 Women's Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in.
The overall objective of our research project is to understand the spatial inequality in health in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We also utilize GIS technology to measure the association of adverse health and mortality outcomes with neighborhood ecology. We approached this in variety of ways, including multivariate analysis of imagery classification and census data. A key element in the research has been to obtain in-person interviews from 3,200 female respondents in the city, and then relate health data obtained from the women to the ecology of the neighborhoods in which they live. Detailed maps are a requirement for these field-based activities. However, commercially available street maps of Accra tend to be highly generalized and not very useful for the kind of health and social science research being undertaken by this project, The purpose of this paper is to describe street maps that were created for the project's office in downtown Accra and used to locate households of respondents. They incorporate satellite imagery with other geographic layers to provide the most important visual interpretation of the linkage between imagery and neighborhoods. Ultimately, through a detailed analysis of spatial disparities in health in Accra, Ghana, we aim to provide a model for the interpretation of urban health inequalities in cities of urbanizing and often poor countries.
The concept of "accessibility" has been coin in the transportation planning field for more than 40 years. Improving accessibility is a common element in the goals section in almost all transportation plans in the US. In this study we compare the changes in levels of accessibility over time in the Minneapolis - St. Paul region using two different modes (auto and transit). The importance of accessibility as a measure of land use and transportation planning performance in the region is revealed by comparing it over time. The longitudinal analysis being conducted shows improvements in most areas in the studied region in terms of the level of accessibility by automobile, and a drop in accessibility by transit over the period 1990 to 2000. The findings are compared to the levels of congestion in the region between the same time periods. This comparison shows the difference between the two measures and strengthens the importance of accessibility measures as a tool for monitoring and evaluating regional land use and transportation planning performance. Journal of Maps (in press).
The Buordakh Massif of the Cherskiy Range of sub-arctic north east Siberia, Russia has a cold continental climate and supports over 80 glaciers. Despite previous research in the region, a georeferenced map of the glaciers has only recently been completed and an enhanced version of it is reproduced in colour here. The mountains of this region reach heights in excess of 3,000 m and the glaciers on their slopes range in size from 0.1 to 10.4 km2. The mapping has been compiled through the interpretation of Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery from August 2001 which has been augmented by data from a field campaign undertaken at the same time. The glaciers of the region are of the cold, ‘firn-less’ continental type and their mass balance relies heavily on the formation of superimposed ice. Moraines which lie in front of the glaciers by up to a few kilometres are believed to date from the Little Ice Age (ca. 1550-1850 AD). Over half of the glaciers mapped have shown marked retreat from these moraines.
Victoria Island lies at the north-western extremity of the region covered by the vast North American Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This area is significant because it linked the interior of the LIS to the Arctic Ocean, probably via a number of ice streams. Victoria Island, however, exhibits a remarkably complex glacial landscape, with several successive generations of ice flow indicators superimposed on top of each other and often at abrupt (90 degrees) angles. This complexity represents a major challenge to those attempting to produce a detailed reconstruction of the glacial history of the region. This paper presents a map of the glacial geomorphology of Victoria Island. The map is based on analysis of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery and contains over 58,000 individual glacial features which include: glacial lineations, moraines (terminal, lateral, subglacial shear margin), hummocky moraine, ribbed moraine, eskers, glaciofluvial deposits, large meltwater channels, and raised shorelines. The glacial features reveal marked changes in ice flow direction and vigour over time. Moreover, the glacial geomorphology indicates a non-steady withdrawal of ice during deglaciation, with rapidly flowing ice streams focussed into the inter-island troughs and several successively younger flow patterns superimposed on older ones. It is hoped that detailed analysis of this map will lead to an improved reconstruction of the glacial history of this area which will provide other important insights, for example, with respect to the interactions between ice streaming, deglaciation and Arctic Ocean meltwater events.
The beds of active ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica are largely inaccessible, hindering a full understanding of the processes that initiate, sustain and inhibit fast ice flow in ice sheets. Detailed mapping of the glacial geomorphology of palaeo-ice stream tracks is, therefore, a valuable tool for exploring the basal processes that control their behaviour. In this paper we present a map that shows detailed glacial geomorphology from a part of the Dubawnt Lake Palaeo-Ice Stream bed on the north-western Canadian Shield (Northwest Territories), which operated at the end of the last glacial cycle. The map (centred on 63 degrees 55 '' 42'N, 102 degrees 29 '' 11'W, approximate scale 1:90,000) was compiled from digital Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus satellite imagery and digital and hard-copy stereo-aerial photographs. The ice stream bed is dominated by parallel mega-scale glacial lineations (MGSL), whose lengths exceed several kilometres but the map also reveals that they have, in places, been superimposed with transverse ridges known as ribbed moraines. The ribbed moraines lie on top of the MSGL and appear to have segmented the individual lineaments. This indicates that formation of the ribbed moraines post-date the formation of the MSGL. The presence of ribbed moraine in the onset zone of another palaeo-ice stream has been linked to oscillations between cold and warm-based ice and/or a patchwork of cold-based areas which led to acceleration and deceleration of ice velocity. Our hypothesis is that the ribbed moraines on the Dubawnt Lake Ice Stream bed are a manifestation of the process that led to ice stream shut-down and may be associated with the process of basal freeze-on. The precise formation of ribbed moraines, however, remains open to debate and field observation of their structure will provide valuable data for formal testing of models of their formation.
Thorough geomorphological and geophysical investigations rely on high quality digital elevation models (DEM). Many areas in the developed world are covered by DEMs through national ordnance surveys or similar organizations. However, these DEMs are often of quite low resolution and do not allow detailed geomorphological investigations. One way to overcome this problem is to photogrammetically generate a bespoke DEM based on aerial photographs and ground control points. The glacier foreland of the Bødalsbreen glacier, emanating from the Jostedalsbreen icefield in western Norway, is characterized by a set of distinct and morphologically interesting moraine ridges. Existing topographic data of the valley was not of su
We here present a glacial geomorphological map covering 11,800 km2, at a scale of 1:550,000, of the central sector of the last (Main Late Devensian) British-Irish Ice Sheet. The map is based on the 5 m resolution NEXTMap dataset. Six landform types have been mapped; subglacial lineations, hummocky terrain, ribbed moraine, meltwater channels, eskers and glaciofluvial sediment accumulations. The subglacial lineations have been further sub-divided into a series of flow sets based on their morphology, conformity and length. Over 9,000 individual landforms have been
identified within the study area, concentrated predominantly in the lowlands of the Vale of Eden, Solway and over the Tyne and Stainmore Gaps. A palimpsest geomorphic signature characterised by cross-cutting flow-sets is interpreted as evidence that
dynamic, multiphase ice flow occurred throughout the Main Late Devensian (marine isotope stage 2) in response to migrating ice dispersal centres and ice divides. A relative chronology has been constructed and interpreted, based on the complex, cross-cutting flow signatures displayed throughout the region.
This paper presents a new 1:10 000 scale geomorphological map of Cadair Idris, Wales. The geomorphology was mapped by the interpretation of colour aerial photographs (scale 1:10 000) and eld investigations of landform/sediment associations. Digital Elevation Models (horizontal resolution 5 m, vertical resolution 1 m) sourced from NEXTMap Britain were used to supplement the geomorphological mapping, signi cantly enhancing the ability to observe and identify landforms, bedrock structure and landscape composition. The geomorphological map shows the spatial distribution of glacial, periglacial and postglacial landforms such as cirques, end moraines, glacial striations, block elds, tors, meltwater channels, scree slopes and alluvial fans. Some of these features have not previously been identi ed, such as recessional moraines. The mapped landforms are used to make inferences about the glacial history of the area and will thereby give insight into the palaeoglaciology of the central Welsh uplands. The geomorphological mapping will also be used as basis for geoconservation planning by the Countryside Council for Wales and the Welsh Regionally Important Geological / Geomorphological Sites groups.
Researchers of our past have long used historical maps to place events and to uncover the physical form of an area. A series of maps may be employed to understand a region beyond the extent of a single map. However, rarely are these maps included in publications of research findings. At best, a modern cartographic reproduction will be created to depict the research area. Our maps, created for a historical atlas of Sandwich, Ontario, Canada, are noteworthy for their use of original historical maps in a mosaic to recreate the past. Our objective was to overcome the international boundary between Canada and the United States, a borderland that has succumbed to vast generalizations on the part of the cartographers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Through the use of ArcGIS, we georectified and fixed the extent of our maps, creating a series of maps that depict the changing urban growth of Sandwich over 200 years. This methodology can be extended to allow for the cartographic visualization of economic, political, social and spatial relationships that exist beyond a single map.
Please click here to download the map associated with this article.The retreat of chalk cliffs fringing the eastern English Channel contributes shingle to the beaches which helps to protect the cliffs and slow down erosion. Conversely, cliff retreat endangers settlements and infrastructure on the clifftop. Rates of retreat have been calculated by a variety of methods over the past century, but no attempt has been made to provide a complete coverage that allows for a true comparison of retreat rates over the entire coastline. Using historic maps and recent orthophotos, cliff retreat rates have been calculated for consecutive 50 m sections of chalk cliff along the English side of the entire eastern English Channel for a period of ∼ 125 years. The chalk cliffs of East Sussex erode at an average rate of 0.25—0.3 m y while those in Kent at a rate of ∼ 0.1 m y.
It is increasingly understood that transport infrastructure and services are critical elements to achieving poverty reduction, gender equality, and sustainable development, but relevant methods to systematically characterize and address differences in mobility and access are lagging. This paper presents a series of maps based on an integrated pilot application of geographical information systems (GIS) and participatory sketch mapping to elicit and evaluate differential mobility and access patterns of villagers in the highlands of rural Lesotho. Fieldwork was carried out in the Senqu and Senqunyane Valleys in southern Lesotho - among the most isolated areas in the country - to link local - level information and perspectives on transport and other services to the enhanced GIS at the Ministry of Public Works and Transport. The resulting cognitive maps and focus group interviews reveal significant gender differences in mobility and access with implications for healthcare, education, and transport planning; they also provide a basis for cross-sectoral participatory decision making through the integrated GIS.
The availability of a bathymetric database that covers about 80% of the Icelandic shelf has made it possible to produce a geomorphological map of the glacial landforms. The digital elevation model of the bathymetry was analyzed as a series of shaded relief images. Trough edges, bulging trough mouths, moraines, eskers, melt water channels, streamlined bedrock and streamlined drift, mostly hitherto unmapped, distributed all around the island have been identified. Moraines are found on the shelf, within troughs and inside fjords. Streamlined landforms are always confined to the bottom of troughs. Troughs appear to have been cut by ice streams draining an ice sheet that likely covered the entire shelf. At the shelf break, most troughs terminate with contours that bulge in a convex-outwards fashion. This suggests that an ice stream eroded, transported and finally deposited large amounts of sediment at the trough mouth. Overall, the glacial morphology of the shelf highlights a radial pattern that indicates a main ice divide near the centre of Iceland.
Please click here to download the map associated with this article.Peat mass movements are relatively common geomorphological phenomena in the uplands of Ireland and parts of northern Britain. Geomorphological mapping of many peat landslides has led to the identification of different types of failures based on repeatedly occurring morphological and geometric characteristics. Furthermore, much of the recently enhanced understanding of mass failures in peat deposits, published in several recent reviews, has been obtained through detailed analysis of the geomorphological maps produced from the new field surveys that are herein presented together for the first time. The map that is the focus of this paper is a composite figure that shows geomorphological maps of the majority of extant bogow and bog slide types of peat mass movements in Ireland, together with two peat ows and a large peat slide that has not previously been described. The paper examines the methodology used to create the maps, and highlights the value of the maps in presenting potentially critical evidence that may not be discernible by field inspection alone. Creating geomorphological maps of peat landslides from field sketches provides highly satisfactory results if selected features are geo-referenced using a hand-held GPS at an average frequency of around once for every 30 m of source area perimeter or other linear component of a landslide. In the case of very large failures and very old and degraded failures, lower frequencies of GPS points can be tolerated because critical morphological evidence appears to scale-up with failure size and smaller-scale morphological details are lost with increasing failure age due to natural degradation of the disrupted peat.
Maps have been central to the research goals of spatial disciplines for over 150 years; to store, analyse and present geographical information. This paper outlines the importance of mapping as a fundamental tool of geographical enquiry yet highlights the subsequent decline in their published form. The Journal of Maps is an attempt to redress the balance and provide an outlet for publication of maps of all types; an antidote to the malaise in map publication. Development of the journal from its initial inception through to the novel approach of the e-only publication model is presented along with details of the operation of the journal and submission procedures.
Please click here to download the map associated with this article.
Mt Etna (3340 m a.s.l.) is the most active volcano in Europe, with more than 500 ka of geological history. In this work, a detailed structural and geological field survey of its West Rift was performed at 1:10,000 scale, by using lithostratigraphic criteria and unconformity-bounded units, in accordance with guidelines suggested by the International Stratigraphic Guide. In the studied area, lithostratigraphic units have been mapped and the eruptive fissure configuration identified. Fieldwork data were improved by highresolution orthoimages and DEM analysis, producing a map with detailed lava flow boundaries.
In order to synthesize the main phases of the West Rift evolution, lithostratigraphic units were grouped into synthems. The volcanic succession starts with the oldest Etna subaerial lava flows (Adrano Synthem), unconformably covered by lavas belonging to Acireale and Concazze Synthems. Mongibello volcanic succession (Il Piano Synthem) widely crops out in the area as several superposed lava flow fields. They are generated by more than 40 eruptive fissures in the past 15,000 years forming the core of the West Rift. The eruptive fissures (strike 245° to 280°) fed several monogenetic cones located in the central sector of the western flank. Some fissures were formed in the last 2,000 years.
The result of this work is a geological map at 1:15,000 scale, highlighting the geological and structural setting of the area and significantly improving the knowledge of West Rift evolution, in order to better assess the entire eruptive history and structural framework of Mt Etna.
A 1:30,000 scale map of the snout and proglacial landscape of the surging Icelandic glacier Tungnaarjokull,
based upon aerial photography from 1995, immediately after a surge, allows an assessment of the spatial
variability in landform-sediment imprints of catastrophic glacier advance across upland bedrock ridges.
The ice-margin parallel alignment of the bedrock ridges locally strongly directs proglacial meltwater drainage and initiates strong compression in the ice during surging, resulting in the development of prominent ice-cored hummocky moraine composed of glacifluvial sediment. Diagnostic surge landforms elsewhere on the foreland include thrust block and push moraines, overridden ice-cored thrust block
moraines, crevasse squeeze ridges, long flutings, hummocky moraine and ice-cored, pitted outwash.
Field geological mapping of tropical West Africa is hampered by the variable development of deep regolith and tropical rainforest and this has impeded the progress of geological research. Nevertheless, there are areas in which field geological mapping can be effective. A 1:100,000 scale map of the Paleoproterozoic geology of the West African Craton in the Toumodi area of central Ivory Coast was developed on the basis of five months of independent field geological mapping carried out on foot, and with the aid of a motorised vehicle (Main Map). The field mapping was carried out in 1987 and 1988 using traditional field geological techniques and 1950s 1:50,000 and 1:200,000 topographic base maps published by the Institut Geographique National (Paris). Original field observations and the interpreted geological map were recently compiled using a geographic information system software, which was also used to confirm the positional accuracy of the field mapping using satellite imagery. The field geologica...
The aim of this work is to show a proposal for avalanche susceptibility mapping (scale 1:25.000) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The map to which the article accompanies (Formigal; Sheet 145-I) follows strictly the dimensions of the Spanish Topographic Cartography series at scale 1:25.000. The Formigal-Peyreget area, located in the Central Spanish and French Pyrenees, is one of the Pyrenean regions where avalanche risk is more noticeable. The methodology involves the use of GIS to model avalanche starting zones, including the multi-criteria cateogorisation of four variables: (i) minimum altitude of the regional isotherm of 0 degrees C for the winter months; (ii) slope; (iii) ground cover; (iv) morphology of the slope (curvature). The information presented in the map classifies avalanche start zones susceptibility into four categories: low, moderate, high and very high. This methodology is intended to be used as a reference for the production of future maps of avalanche susceptibility in other regions where the method is deemed appropriate.
This work offers a large-scale approach to the stratigraphy of an area in southern Mexico that includes three different tectono-stratigraphic terranes and displays a great geological diversity. In the attached 1:100,000-scale geological map, the stratigraphic information is grouped according to the occurrence in sedimentary basins. Here, we describe the basement and six basins in turn. In four of the sedimentary basins, thick Mesozoic successions that accumulated on the basement record the evolution from a continental environment during the Triassic–Jurassic, to a marine environment, comprising clastic and calcareous deposits, during the early Cretaceous. Cenozoic ages are recorded in clastic and lacustrine sedimentary successions and in abundant igneous rocks in two of the continental basins. The geodatabase was compiled in GIS format and subsequently imported in vector graphic software to achieve a design similar to the cartographic series 1:100,000 CARTA GEOLÓGICA DE MÉXICO of the Instituto de Geología, UNAM.
The map and temporal scale of the territory known as ‘The Land of Maramureș’ outlines a real heritage treasure, built in historical time and formed of 74 wooden churches. Varying in terms of architecture, dimensions and cult, the wooden churches are indeed heritage objects, 33 of them being on the list of historical monuments in Romania, while 5 are included in the UNESCO world heritage list. An impressive database, which includes the edifices built during 1531–2015 period, is processed, analyzed, synthesized and mapped in this project. By using cartographic methods and specific programs (ArcGis, CorelDRAW), suggestive pictograms are generated, expressing relevant elements for the proposed purpose: spatiality, a series of technical details (height, architectural style, etc.), monument type and oldness. Such a complex material is useful in the process of territorial planning and organization from the point of view of those concerned with issues of urban development and tourism as well as for the general public as well.
The Piuro 1618 landslide is renowned as one of the most catastrophic historical events of the Central Alps. The landscape of the Bregaglia Valley has been successively modified to such an extent to make it difficult to ascertain the source of the landslide, the extent of its deposits and the setting of the ancient village. This study focuses on the identification of the source area of the landslide, its dynamics, the extent of its deposits and the estimation of the involved volumes. The geological map here proposed permitted to reconstruct the relationships between the pre-1618 setting, the 1618 restructuration of the landscape and the post-event changes that occurred owing to erosion by the trunk river, deposition of debris flow fans and slope dynamics. The paper shows how geological mapping may help to unravel landscape evolution of an Alpine valley even at the high-resolution required by historical and archaeological studies.
The Geographic Atlas of Spain (AGE) designed by Tomas Lopez in1804 consisted of an anthology of maps of the Spanish regions that was drawn in the second half of the eighteenth century. It was the most ambitious and successfully completed cartographic work undertaken to date. Nowadays there is no study that examines this work as a whole. This paper analyzes the complete cartographic errors of this work in Spain. A total amount of 90 sheets of maps, from 36 kingdoms or provinces of Spain in 1804 have been analyzed. A total of 21,800 settlements or towns have been digitized, which have been linked to the current ones about 75%. Linear error of each settlement has been calculated by comparing the historical mapping coordinates to the current ones. The average linear error obtained for all analyzed settlements was 6.5 km. Linear errors of all settlements have been represented for Spain by GIS. Finally, an inverse relationship between the higher density of settlements and the largest linear error has been found; as well as the communication networks of that time act as corridors that connect areas of lower errors.
The 16th of June 1818, the failure of the Giétro glacier in the Swiss Alps provoked an outburst flood that devastated the Bagnes valley, causing 34 deaths and major damages to buildings, road system, hydraulic infrastructures and crops. This disaster had a major impact on the economy of the valley and created a great movement of solidarity. It remains today a well-known historical natural disaster. In order to reconstruct the course of the wave and to map the flood, we used an interdisciplinary approach by crossing historical and geomorphological data. We first compiled and mapped the large number of historical data available in the local and state archives. These data were then completed by geomorphological observations made on the field and on numerical documents. The resulting map presents the spatial extent of the flood and water depths. This article shows the validity of interdisciplinary approaches for reconstructing past natural disasters.
The aim of the study is to present landscape changes in the nineteenth century in the central part of the Upper Silesian Industrial District, which is the municipality of Katowice (southern Poland). The comparison of changes, particularly components of the geographical environment, is based on two time periods – the year 1827 and 1883. Nineteenth-century maps were georeferenced, digitized and a series of thematic spatial visualizations presenting quantitative changes were generated by means of the Geographic Information System (GIS). The scale of the visualization created is 1:100,000 and the area is 16,400 ha. The spatial visualization of quantitative landscape change shows the development of the anthropogenic pressure in the form of settlement areas, raw materials extraction places, roads, and the decrease of natural environments, such as forests, rivers, and water bodies. These changes were caused mainly by the exploration of underground deposits and the rapidly growing population of Upper Silesia.
Odoardo Beccari (1843–1920) is considered to be one of the more important Italian naturalists of the nineteenth century, in particular for his pioneering explorations of the Malaysian Archipelago. During this period, he collected many thousands of botanical, zoological and ethno-anthropological specimens which are now conserved in natural history museums. Based on this conserved material, hundreds of species new to science have been described. In this study, we accurately reconstruct the travel itineraries of Beccari’s first trip to Borneo (Sarawak, 1865–1868). We link modern locations to the names he used, which were Italian transliteration of the local names of the time. We place these locations in time sequence on up-to-date georeferenced topographic maps. We expect our study to be useful to botanists, zoologists, anthropologists, curators of natural history museums and to nature conservators, as it provides precious information on the fauna and flora of Sarawak in the 1860s.
The aim of the work in the presented paper was the creation and subsequent distribution of a database of Olympic medallists of the modern Summer Olympic Games in the period 1896-2016. We examined historical statistics from the perspective of an individual approach; or more specifically, for each Olympic medallist as an individual athlete awarded with an Olympic medal. The results are presented on a map showing the number of medallists in each country. In total, we recorded 33152 Olympic medals in the database altogether, which were won by a total of 24287 athletes. These represented a total of 149 countries, including those that no longer exist due to geopolitical changes in the last century. All medals awarded at the level of states and individual sports are displayed in a detailed preview on the website, which is an integral part of the submitted paper.
Epidemics and pandemics are geographical in nature and constitute spatial, temporal, and thematic phenomena across large ranges of scales: local infections with a global spread; short-term decisions by governments and institutions with long-term effects; and diverse effects of the disease on many aspects of our lives. Pandemics pose particular challenges to their visual representation by cartographic means. This article briefly summarizes some of these challenges and outlines ways to approach these. We discuss how to use the information usually available for telling the story of an epidemic, illustrated by the example of the 2019–2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The maps attached to this article demonstrate the discussed cartographic means.
The study objective was to prepare a quantitative inventory of lakes and to assess their long-term changes. The research area included the Osa river basin (northern Poland), which is located in a lake district. The research was based on historical cartographic materials published in 1900-1947 (German 1:25,000 ‘Messtischblatt’ topographic maps) and modern topographic maps from 2010 (The 1:50,000 Digital Map of the Hydrographic Division of Poland [MPHP]. The number of lakes increased from 173 to 235, while the total surface area of the lakes fell by 107.55 ha. The largest number of lakes belonged to the 1.0-5.0 ha range on both MPHP and Messtischblatt maps. It was in this range that the largest increase in number of lakes and lake area relative to the historical maps was found. A significant reduction in area of lakes was recorded in the group of lakes with an area from 50 to 100 ha.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the history of one of the world's greatest multi-stage bicycle races, the Tour de France, by mapping all the stage finish places from the first race in 1903 to the present. On the one hand, there is a long list of places that the Tour de France has visited just once in its whole history, but on the other, there are also several places that different editions include fairly regularly. Since the Tour de France is one of the most watched sports events on the planet, spatial variability is a good means for promoting the different regions of France and the surrounding countries where individual stages have been held. The organisation of individual editions does not depend on the existence of purpose-built sports stadiums but makes use of the existing infrastructure and settlement structure that have developed over long periods. By showing the finish places, we are able to capture not only the frequency of the inclusion of the places in the race, but also show the success of cyclists from different countries at each stage finish and thus identify the countries that have historically been most successful at winning stages.
Trail maps for winter sports often take the form of highly illustrative landscape paintings, or panorama, overprinted with trails and lifts to allow skiers and snowboarders a mechanism for on-mountain navigation. The character of mountain environments lends itself particularly well to the traditional form of representation which creates aesthetically pleasing maps. These have become the de facto standard for trail mapping in ski resorts. Navigating on mountain is not always easy since conditions, map perspective, orientation and the illustrative form often make reading the map awkward. The map developed here presents an alternative to the traditional trail map by reducing a mountain and its trails to topological primitives. By taking on the style of Harry Beck's famous London Underground schematic map, the network of trails and lifts becomes visible and immediate, thus enhancing a users ability to navigate the mountain. The map illustrates the 176 trails in Breckenridge, Colorado derived from GPS tracklogs and incorporates a range of other contextual datasets. The paper outlines the rationale and design of the map which has been produced entirely using ESRI ArcGIS v9.2 alongside the Network Analyst, Schematics, Spatial Analyst, 3D Analyst, Maplex and ArcScene extensions. It also incorporates a 3D digital panorama of the ski resort rendered across a curved perspective DEM to provide a visual context for the main map.
This article describes the spatial distribution of landslides in Teziutlán, Puebla, Mexico, which has been historically affected by mass movement processes. The most significant disaster associated with landslides in October 1999. Rainfall-triggered landslides and floods caused more than 100 deaths in Teziutlán and economic losses of US$233 million in Sierra Norte de Puebla. A multi-temporal landslide inventory map (1:25,000) for the period 1942–2015 was constructed by means of field observation and the analysis and interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. The inventory map includes 662 landslides and covers 163 km². The total landslide area is in the order of 0.71 km². Taking into account the scarp, channel and depositional area, the mean surface of the landslides is 1075 m². The largest documented area was 17,512 m². The smallest landslide area mapped was 24 m². Most movements can be considered as having been small.
The map of the 1944 lava flow shows the geomorphological characteristics of a sector of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) covered by the products emitted during the last effusive phase. The map has been produced based on the analysis and interpretation of (a) thematic maps (slope, aspect, relative relief) derived from a high resolution (0.33 m pixel) Digital Terrain Model obtained by an Airborne Laser Scanning survey, and (b) a 1 m pixel digital colour orthophoto. Different flow structures and morphologies have been interpreted. The analytical approach proposed here can be used to characterize the smaller scale topographic/geomorphological features of volcanoes and gives constraints on the mechanism of emplacement and modelling strategies of lava flows.
This paper presents a method of development concerning maps of changes in the population distribution in Poland after the Second World War (1946–2012). The phenomenon is presented by means of isolinear maps based of the population density index. The resulting maps illustrate the population distribution in intervals of approximately 10 years. Moreover, the changes themselves are presented in balance maps corresponding to periods between the selected dates. The maps highlight spatial changes in the population distribution in Poland. The key task was to develop a method of preparing maps providing an objective and comparable image of the population distribution. This was obtained by means of the isoline method with the application of a multipoint representation of administrative units (basic fields) differing in terms of area and shape. Comparability was also achieved through the appropriate preparation of standardised map legends (colour scales and isoline interval). The maps were prepared in scales of 1:8,000,000 (state maps) and 1:400,000 (change/balance maps).
This paper provides a brief overview of the preparation of the first ever small-scale map of motor sport companies in Northamptonshire, the UK's 'home of motor sport'. It describes the construction of the map and gives the reader an insight into the perceptual and design choices made in map construction as well as providing an overview of the scope of motor sport in the county.
This study presents the evolution of travel speeds in the European Core road network, between 1960 and 2030. Speeds are represented in octilinear cartograms which constitutes one of the novelties of this study. Octilinear cartograms have the advantage of simplifying the geographical representation of transport networks, while emphasizing the connections (nodes) and the links between those nodes. The geographical accurateness is no longer important in this type of map; thus, the actual length of links does not correspond to the link's real value, directions are roughly preserved and scale factor is not constant for the entire map. Results show a general improvement of speeds in the Core Network. During the first years of the analysed period, speeds increased in Western European countries, while in the latest years, this improvement was extended to peripheral countries. By 2012, travel speeds presented a more homogeneous pattern all over Europe, generally ranging between 100 and 110 km/h. This evolution goes all along with a strong EU investment in the trans-European transport road network. In 2030, travel speeds are expected to continue increasing due to the foreseen investments planned by the European Commission.
Land-use dynamic is a major challenge for town and country planners especially in developing countries such as Iran. Iran has been under rapid urban expansion and population growth for past three decades which led to lack of resources, environmental deterioration and haphazard landscape development. In this paper, an attempt has been made to map the urbanization dynamics of Tehran in 40 years based on remote sensing imagery and by means of artificial neural networks. The presented scheme could be taken into consideration when planning initiatives aimed at surveying, monitoring, managing and sustainable development of the territory. Moreover, it can serve the experts in the fields of geography, urban studies and planning as a background for number of geographical analyses.
Based on observations on rivers in England over a 30-year period, it was hypothesised that the extent of woody vegetation in riparian areas has increased in many locations. Methods to map and measure changes in vegetation cover from aerial photographs were developed and tested on a 5 km reach of the River Dane in Northwest England. Riparian vegetation was divided into seven classes, and these were mapped from aerial photographs of four dates, 1984, 1996, 2001 and 2007. The results indicate an increase from 9% woody vegetation cover in the river corridor in 1984 to 32% cover in 2007, with a 40-fold increase in areas of mature woody vegetation. The results have implications for river processes, because of effects on bank erosion and sediment supply, and for land management policies, with grazing control hypothesised to be a major cause of the changes.
Population shrinkage has gained attention from academics and policymakers in recent years, due to the long-term implications the phenomenon has for public service delivery and the viability of urban and rural communities. We visualise the socio-temporal evolution of population shrinkage and growth, utilising a spatially rectified dataset containing population data from seven Census of Population covering the 1986–2016 period in the Republic of Ireland. Spatial changes in population distribution are visualised in a map that classifies small administrative units using a spatial typology distinguishing between those experiencing population growth or shrinkage, across the 30-year period. The temporal dimensions of these developments are considered in a sequence of inset maps that apply the same typology to identify the intercensal changes. Overall, the map facilitates the visual communication of long-run population trends, the identification of areas experiencing limited or no growth, and indicates the relative consistency of these trends over time.
Using open-source satellite imagery like Landsat TM, ETM+ and Sentinel 2 can lead to accurate cartographic products. We mapped flood events from Siret and Prut river basins in the last 30 years based on the availability of Landsat data archive. In this area were recorded historical values in flow rates for the entire Romanian territory: 4650 m³/s on the Siret River in 2005 – the maximum value ever recorded for Romania; 4240 m³/s on the Prut in 2008 – second maximum value recorded for Romania. The most powerful floods that took place in Romania in the last years were in 1970, 1975, 1991, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2011. In this study four years are distinguished by particularly characteristics: 1991, 2005, 2008 and 2010. Developing geo-hydrological hazard maps and adequate analysis at an appropriate scale and as quickly as possible is extremely important from an economic and social point of view.
Sierra Nevada, 153,437 ha, has the second and third highest mountains in Mexico and the most conserved coniferous forests of central Mexico. It comprises the Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve, designated by UNESCO in 2010. A map was produced at 1:100,000 scale. Recent changes in forest cover were identified by visual interpretation of orthophotographs from 1994 and Spot 7 images from 2015. Changes were detected in forest cover density (closed, semi-closed, semi-open, open or deforested), together with a non-forest category that includes other land uses. Over the 21 years, 25% of the forest had undergone change: 14% recovery and 11% disturbance. Recovery outweighed disturbance in the Protected Areas, with possible factors being payment for environmental services, periodic reforestation and fire control. Outside this protected area, improvement outweighed degradation, mainly because of forestry programs. Overall in the Sierra Nevada, the trend appears to be forest recovery.
Chinese liquors come from a variety of different regions in China. This diversity can be attributed to the difference in microorganisms, but also to the biophysical environment. The latter constitutes a significant basis for the fermentation of products, but has not been adequately understood. Using spatial statistics analysis, we studied the causes of regional differences of Chinese liquors in the perspective of climatic and socio-economic environment. Temporal changes in the density of Chinese liquor manufacturers in each prefecture-level administrative unit from1995 to 2004 revealed no changes in spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Chinese liquors. Most manufacturers were distributed in moderate climatic regions in both developed areas and less developed areas. Socio-economic factors had a significantly positive impact on the development of the Chinese liquor industry, while the climatic environment plays a crucial role in determining their difference a regional scale. Overall, this study provided scientific evidence for the importance of the biophysical environments, especially climate, to determine the geographical patterns of fermentation products.
The last 20 years of sociodemographic history in Spain cannot be interpreted without considering the impact of foreign immigration, numerous publications have shown. The aim of this article is to contribute a clear spatial representation of migrants in Spain by combining statistical and mapping methods. Maps showing the rate of variation of immigrant populations point to the existence of an uneven distribution around Spain, during both the period of economic growth and the years when migratory flows waned. On the other hand, the immigrant clusters show that certain geographic areas in Spain attract specific groups; the extent of their presence can be seen on density maps based on location coefficients. In short, this article provides an understanding of foreign immigration in Spain, which other approaches have not achieved.
UAVs have become a useful tool for natural hazard monitoring. In volcanic areas, they allow wider observations of the eruptive behaviour, with no risk for the operator. The SfM technique enables obtaining orthoimages of lava flows and a DEM in a short time. These data are also useful to estimate lava flow volumes and the mass output rate characterizing an eruption. We present the results of ten UAV surveys made during and after the 30 May – 6 June 2019 eruption of Etna volcano, projecting the data in a time context back until 1999. Orthoimages taken on different days allowed monitoring the morpho-structural evolution of the fissures, capturing the lava flows propagation and the accumulation of pyroclastic deposits. From 1999 to 2018, there were nine flank-eruptions and dozens of summit-eruptions, which for graphic simplicity have been grouped by year in the map. The resulting map represents the most updated of the recent lava flows of Etna.
Here we present a 1:1,000,000 geological map of the Ariadnes basin (31–38° S, 170–179° E) (Mars), which is one of the topographic depressions located between Terra Sirenum and Terra Cimmeria in the Martian highlands. This basin is diverse, both in terms of morphology and mineralogy, and it is a site of major interest to study the chronological boundary between the Noachian and Hesperian periods (∼3.71 Ga). However, a detailed map of the area has not yet been published. The map described in this paper was produced through the analysis of recent images and topographic data that allow the definition of the geologic units with unprecedented detail. We distinguished eight units and diverse tectonic and geomorphic features. We also examined the regional stratigraphy by age determination using crater counting in order to constrain the geological history of the Ariadnes basin. The map provides a basis for which later analyses can build understanding of the regional paleoenvironment.
The Mt. Argentario promontory (southern Tuscany, Italy) is a protected area hosting habitats and species of European importance. The Mt. Argentario Natura 2000 habitat map (1:10,000) was compiled from photo-interpretation and field surveys, integrated with data from past cartographic and phytosociological studies. Conventional geographical information system procedures were used to select and manage spatial information, and delimit the map polygons. The following attributes were assigned to each map polygon: (i) habitat type name, with Natura 2000 code and (ii) percentage cover of the habitat type. Where multiple habitat types were associated in a mosaic attributed to the same polygon, the percentage cover of each habitat type was estimated. The survey allowed to identify and map a total of 13 Natura 2000 habitat types covering more than 40% of the study area. Presence and conservation importance of the detected habitat types are discussed, together with the usefulness of this kind of maps for monitoring and managing purposes.
The present paper describes a procedure for mapping the distribution of Natura 2000 terrestrial habitats (Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC) at the regional scale (Lombardy, Northern Italy) by means of open-source software (QGIS and R). The habitat map within Natura 2000 sites was used for modelling the regional distribution of three selected habitats, by applying classification trees on freely available and fine-scale resolution environmental layers. Land use and forest type maps were combined to refine the regional distribution of selected habitats. The statistical validation showed a fairly substantial overall accuracy of predicted habitat distribution, which was used to determine the regional extent of the habitats and to evaluate the regional effectiveness of Natura 2000 network. We provide an easy and inexpensive procedure, replicable in other contexts in which just basic information on Natura 2000 terrestrial habitats are available, and usable for habitats monitoring according to the Habitats Directive.
The main map Shifting Patterns of Suburban Dominance: The Case of Chicago from 2000 to 2010 depicts the dramatic outward shift in population from Chicago's old industrial suburbs to the region's new economy suburbs. In a prior study, a rank mobility index (RMI) was applied to Chicago's suburbs and mapped using a graduated symbol map to show dramatic changes in the suburban hierarchy from 1990 to 2000. This paper updates the earlier study with results from the 2010 census so as to explore changes in Chicago's suburban hierarchy during the 2000–2010 period. We use a Getis-Ord Gi approach to geo-visualize the regional difference and change for these rank shifts. The resulting map reveals a contemporary urban development pattern consistent with those depicted in early twentieth-century models of Chicago's growth.