The design and tuning of a three-input fuzzy logic controller for electrical discharge machining (EDM) of diesel injector spray holes are presented. The tuning process is based on the variable type and discretization level to balance the data precision and computational time for servo motion updates in the fuzzy logic controller and is performed to improve the micro-hole EDM drilling time. The type and number of input parameters are studied to select the gap voltage, spark ratio, and change of spark ratio as input parameters for the fuzzy logic controller. A gain scheduling controller is used as the baseline and shows excellent drilling time in drilling a 1.14 mm thick workpiece using a 150 μm diameter wire electrode. The tuned fuzzy logic controller is comparable with the gain scheduling controller in drilling time and demonstrates its advantages on different EDM drilling configurations, including deep-hole and small-diameter micro-hole drilling. Analysis of EDM pulse trains reveals insights for controller design and identifies requirements for further improvement.
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal, widely used for important electro-optic parts, is a typical hard-to-machine material because of its soft, brittle, and anisotropic properties. High quality is usually required for machined surfaces on KDP parts. Reported machining methods for KDP crystal include diamond turning, grinding, magnetorheological finishing, and polishing. Each of these methods has its limitations. Therefore, it is desirable to develop new machining methods for KDP crystal. This paper presents an experimental investigation on surface roughness in rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) of KDP. It was found that the surface roughness obtained when using a tool with a chamfered corner was lower than that obtained using tools with right-angle corners. Other process variables (spindle speed, feedrate, and ultrasonic power) also affected the surface roughness obtained.
In this paper, the effect of silicon powder mixing into the dielectric fluid of EDM on machining characteristics of AISI D2 (a variant of high carbon high chrome) die steel has been studied. Six process parameters, namely peak current, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, concentration of powder, gain, and nozzle flushing have been considered. The process performance is measured in terms of machining rate (MR). The research outcome will identify the important parameters and their effect on MR of AISI D2 in the presence of suspended silicon powder in a kerosene dielectric of EDM. The study indicated that all the selected parameters except nozzle flushing have a significant effect on the mean and variation in MR (S/N ratio). Optimization to maximize MR has also been undertaken using the Taguchi method. The ANOVA analysis indicates that the percentage contribution of peak current and powder concentration toward MR is maximum among all the parameters. The confirmation runs showed that the setting of peak current at a high level (16 A), pulse-on time at a medium level (100 μs), pulse-off time at a low level (15 μs), powder concentration at a high level (4 g/l), and gain at a low level (0.83 mm/s) produced optimum MR from AISI D2 surfaces when machined by silicon powder mixed EDM.
This paper describes the characteristics and the cutting parameters performance of spindle speeds (n, rpm) and feed-rates (f, mm/s) during three interval ranges of machining times (t, minutes) with respect to the surface roughness and burr formation, by using a miniaturized micro-milling machine. Flat end-mill tools that have two-flutes, made of solid carbide with Mega-T coated, with 0.2 mm in diameter were used to cut Aluminum Alloy AA1100. The causal relationship among spindle speeds, feed-rates, and machining times toward the surface roughness was analyzed using a statistical method ANOVA. It is found that the feed-rate (f) and machining time (t) contribute significantly to the surface roughness. Lower feed-rate would produce better surface roughness. However, when machining time is transformed into total cut length, it is known that a higher feed-rate, that consequently giving more productive machining since produce more cut length, would not degrade surface quality and tool life significantly. Burr occurrence on machined work pieces was analyzed using SEM. The average sizes of top burr for each cutting parameter selection were analyzed to find the relation between the cutting parameters and burr formation. In this research, bottom burr was found. It is formed in a longer machining time compare the formation of top burr, entrance burr and exit burr. Burr formation is significantly affected by the tool condition, which is degrading during the machining process. This knowledge of appropriate cutting parameter selection and actual tool condition would be an important consideration when planning a micro-milling process to produce a product with minimum burr.
In the present work, metal-cored arc welding process was used for joining of modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) steel. Metal-cored arc welding process is characterized by high productivity, slag-free process, defect-free weldments that can be produced with ease, and good weldability. Toughness is essential in welds of P91 steel during hydro-testing of vessels. There is a minimum required toughness of 47 J for welds that has to be met as per the EN1557:1997 specification. In the present study, welds were completed using two kinds of shielding gases, each composition being 80% Argon + 20% CO2, and pure argon respectively. Microstructural characterization and toughness evaluation of welds were done in the as – weld, PWHT at 760 °C – 2 h and PWHT at 760 °C – 5 h conditions. The pure argon shielded welds (‘A2’ and ‘B2’) have higher toughness than 80% argon + 20% CO2 shielded welds (‘A1’ and ‘B1’). Pure argon shielded welds show less microinclusion content with low volume fraction of δ-ferrite (<2%) phase. Themo-calc windows (TCW) was used for the prediction of equilibrium critical transformation points for the composition of the welds studied. With increase in post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) duration from 2 h to 5 h, there was increase in toughness of welds above 47 J. Using metal-cored arc welding process, it was possible to achieve the required toughness of more than 47 J after PWHT at 760 °C – 2 h in P91 steel welds.
The 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) is of both good properties austenitic steel and ferritic steel, which applies to the shipbuilding industry usually. In this paper, the OM, XRD and microhardness test methods are used to analyze the variation of submerged arc welded (SAW) joints with and without post weld heat treatment (PWHT). The research results show that the σ phase disappear in the fusion edge zone near heat affect zone (HAZ) and an increase in the welded center zone during the follow-up PWHT, while the amount of γ phase is decreased in the welded center zone with PWHT. A segregation distribution of some second phases is also found in the welded center zone after PWHT. There have two pick values of microhardness arise in the fusion edge zone and the welded center zone separately without PWHT. However, a maximum value of microhardness at the fusion edge zone near HAZ is disappeared and the other is still held at the welded center zone during PWHT. It can be attributed to the changes of second phases, element diffusions and particle segregation during PWHT. A developing mechanism is issued to demonstrate the second phases transferring of the 2205 DSS SAW joints by PWHT.
Effects of switching over from gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on the quality of joints produced in Hastelloy C-276 material were investigated. Welding was carried out both by autogenous mode and using ERNiCrMo-3 filler wire. Microstructures of weld joints produced with and without current pulsing were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microsegregation occurring in GTAW and PCGTAW joints was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Strength and ductility of weld joints produced with and without pulsing were evaluated. The results show that pulsing results in refined microstructure, reduced microsegregation and improved strength of weld joints. Secondary phase(s) noticed in GTA weldments were found to be absent in PCGTA weldments. Autogenous PCGTA weldments were found to be the best in terms of: (i) freedom from microsegregation, (ii) strength and (iii) freedom from unwanted secondary phases.
The needs of stainless steel 304 micro cups have been increasing tremendously due to the trend of miniaturization in medical and electronic devices, etc. For application purpose, it is highly desired to have stainless steel micro cups with high CH/OD (cup height/outer diameter) ratios. Due to the constraints of the limit draw ratio (LDR) of stainless steel 304 sheets in micro deep drawing, forming a micro cup with high CH/OD ratio at room temperature cannot be achieved by using a single stage deep drawing die. A process consisting of one micro deep drawing and two ironing stages was proposed for achieving this goal; three micro dies were designed, fabricated and used for experimental validation. A series of experiments were conducted by using the stainless steel 304 sheets of 200 μm thickness annealed at four different temperatures to understand the influence of size effects on this process for generating knowledge, know-how and technologies to form high quality stainless steel micro cups with large CH/OD ratio. No lubricant was used in this study. It was proven that the proposed process is a robust process as long as the sheets are annealed at the temperature no less than 900 °C for more than 3 min.
This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations on laser melting of SS grade 316L powder on top of AISI 316L substrate using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The objectives of the present study are to understand the effect of process parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and beam size on geometry characteristics of the melt zone and ball formation. We formulated a moving heat source problem and obtained transient temperature solutions using commercial finite element solver. The geometry characteristics of the melt zone are evaluated from the temperature solutions and compared with experimental results. The effect of laser parameters on the geometry, morphology and homogeneity of single track realization was methodically analyzed by utilizing characterization tools such as laser particle size analyzer, macro and microscopic inspection, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results presented in this paper are beneficial to realize homogenous layer formation in additive manufacturing processes involving powder melting by laser beam.
This paper addresses the weldability of 6 mm thick plates of super-duplex stainless steel by electron beam welding (EBW) process. Microstructure investigations conducted using optical and SE microscopy showed the presence of large ferrite grains with intra- and inter-granular austenite. Ferrite content studies on the weld zone estimated that there is no significant element partitioning between austenite and ferrite phases. Hardness studies portrayed that the weld hardness is found to be greater than the parent metal which is acquainted due to the solid solution strengthening effect. Tensile results corroborated that the joints obtained by EB welding process have better strength than the base metal. A detailed structure–property relationships has also been carried out through point and line mapping EDAX analysis across the weldment to substantiate the discussions.
This paper presents a novel 3D finite element model for the radial forging process with consideration of mandrel. As different with the previous works, the proposed model captures more accurately the features of the radial forging process. The proposed model is validated. With the proposed model, a comprehensive analysis of the deformation for the tube is presented. The contributions of the present work are: (1) a full 3D finite element model which captures more features of the radial forging process than the models in literature, (2) a proof that a full 3D finite element model is needed, (3) a proof of the effectiveness of the spring bar in stabilizing the contact between the hammer die and work-piece, and (4) the spindle speed has little effect on forging load. Finally, this model can be well used for the analysis and comprehensive understanding of the radial forging process and optimization of the process in future.
Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is currently being widely investigated because of its potential to produce ultra-fine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. Considerable research has been reported on finite element analysis (FEA) of this process, assuming 2D plane strain condition. The 2D models do not give details of strain distribution in the work-piece. Reports of all the researches are on effect of one-parameter-at-a-time. Combined effect of all geometric parameters is not reported. This paper aims in fulfilling the gap. In the present work 3D FEA of ECAP process was carried out for different combinations of channel angle, inner and outer corner radii. Results in terms of peak pressure, strain and strain inhomogeneity were obtained and analyzed by analysis of mean (ANOM). Main effects and interaction effect of all geometric parameters were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the analysis it was found that the peak pressure is largely influenced by channel angle. To obtain desired strain the most important factors are channel angle and outer corner radius. Outer corner radius has the largest influence followed by channel angle on the strain inhomogeneity. There exists an optimum outer corner for which strain inhomogeneity is minimum, which depends on the channel angle. Inner corner alone has no influence on the strain inhomogeneity but its interaction with channel angle has some influence.
Additive manufacturing is an emerging manufacturing technology that enables production of patient specific implants, today primarily out of titanium. For optimal functionality and proper integration between the titanium implant and the body tissues surface properties, such as surface oxide thickness is of particular importance, as it is primarily the surface of the material which interacts with the body. Hence, in this study the surface oxidation behavior of titanium parts manufactured by Electron Beam Melting (EBM®) is investigated using the surface sensitive techniques ToF-SIMS and AES. Oxide thicknesses comparable to those found on conventionally machined surfaces are found by both analysis techniques. However, a build height dependency is discovered for different locations of the EBM® manufactured parts due to the presence of trapped moisture in the machine and temperature gradients in the build.
As part of an aircraft fleet fatigue life improvement program, investigation has been carried out into the effect pitting corrosion has on bare 7075-T651 which had undergone split sleeve cold hole expansion. Constant amplitude sinusoidal loading was applied to fatigue test coupons which had pitting corrosion induced upon them by a modified cyclic immersion process using a 3.5% NaCl solution. A pit depth of 39–58 μm was found to significantly reduce the increased fatigue life gains achieved by carrying out cold hole expansion. At 137.9 MPa fatigue life was reduced from achieving run out of ten million cycles to an average 371 × 103 cycles, while at 165.5 MPa average fatigue life was reduced from 810 × 103 to 65 × 103 cycles. The fracture surfaces were analysed under a scanning electron microscope where each displayed an individual crack initiation site located on the material surface within the zone of residual circumferential stress.
The ball-end milling process is widely used for generating three-dimensional sculptured surfaces with definite curvature. In such cases, variation of surface properties along the machined surface curvatures is not well understood. Therefore, this paper reports the effect of machining parameters on the quality of surface obtained in a single-pass of a ball-end milling cutter with varying chip cross-sectional area. This situation is analogous to generation of free form cavities, pockets, and round fillets on mould surfaces. The machined surfaces show formation of distinct bands as a function of instantaneous machining parameters along the periphery of cutting tool edge, chip compression and instantaneous shear angle. A distinct variation is also observed in the measured values of surface roughness and micro-hardness in these regions. The maximum surface roughness is observed near the tool tip region on the machined surface. The minimum surface roughness is obtained in the stable cutting zone and it increases towards the periphery of the cutter. Similar segmentation was observed on the deformed chips, which could be correlated with the width of bands on the machined surfaces. The sub-surface quality analysis in terms of micro-hardness helped define machining affected zone (MAZ). The parametric effects on the machining induced shear and residual stresses have also been evaluated.
A combination of tool force monitoring and post weld assessment has been used to determine effective welding parameters for the production of good quality friction stir welds at the highest possible welding speeds. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve good weld quality at speeds up to 355 mm/min by welding with a scroll shoulder and triflute pin at a rotational speed of 450 rpm. Welds produced at this speed achieved a tensile strength of 93.9% of that of the parent material with relatively good ductility (8.5% tensile elongation) and the presence of no internal or surface defects.
The goal of the research was to determine the limits and conditions in which the sheet hydroforming process provides a significant advantage over stamping in deep drawing of AA5754 aluminum sheets. Specifically, the maximum draw depth achievable by stamping, warm stamping (WF), sheet hydroforming (SHF), and sheet thermo-hydroforming (THF) of AA5754 aluminum alloy were quantified through experimental and computational modeling. A limited number of forming experiments were conducted with AA5754 aluminum sheets using a cylindrical punch and counteracting fluid at different temperatures and pressures. Several parameters, such as force–displacement, hydroforming pressure and temperature, and the maximum draw depth prior to wrinkling or tearing were measured during the forming process to make comparisons with simulations. The computational study included the simulation of stamping, WF, SHF and THF of AA5754 aluminum sheet with the LS-Dyna code, and the Barlat 2000-2d yield function with temperature-dependent coefficients. To predict the onset of wrinkling and tearing, the numerically generated, temperature-dependent forming limit diagrams (FLDs) based on the Barlat 2000-2d yield function were used. It was found that compared with stamping, SHF and THF can achieve more than 100% deeper draw depths with AA5754 aluminum sheet. The stamping simulations were used also to calculate the optimum blank size and die corner radii for the limiting draw ratio (LDR). The LDR was found to be very sensitive to the punch and die corner radii used in the experiments, which represent the curvature of character lines in an actual part. The LDR for AA5754 aluminum sheet was found to be 1.33 and 2.21 for sharp and round die corner radii, respectively. Overall, it was concluded that SHF is most ideal for deep drawing of aluminum sheets with sharp radii features. With the additional drawability provided by SHF, the automotive industry would be able to make difficult-to-form aluminum parts that cannot be stamped without product concessions such as increasing the die radii.
A study was carried out to evaluate how the friction stir spot welding process parameters affect the temperature distribution in the welding region, the welding forces and the mechanical properties of the joints. An experimental campaign was performed by means of a CNC machine tool and FSSW lap joints on AA6060-T6 aluminum alloy plates were obtained. Five thermocouples were inserted into the samples to measure the temperatures during the tool plunging. A set of tests was carried out by varying the process parameters, namely rotational speed, axial feed rate, plunging depth and dwell time. Axial welding forces were measured during the execution of the experiments by means of a piezoelectric load cell. The mechanical properties of the joints were assessed by executing shear tests on the specimens. A correlation between process parameters and joints properties was found.
The collected experimental data were also used to set up and to validate a simulative model of the process. The peculiarity of the developed FEM model is a 2D approach used for the simulation of a 3D problem, in order to guarantee a very simple and practical model able to achieve results in a very short time. The 2D FEM model, based on a specific external routine for the calculation of the developed thermal energy due to the friction between tool and workpiece, was set up using the commercial code Deform 2D. An index for the prediction of the joint shear resistance using FEM simulations was finally proposed and validated.
The surface characteristics of a machined product strongly influence its functional performance. During machining, the grain size of the surface is frequently modified, thus the properties of the machined surface are different to that of the original bulk material. These changes must be taken into account when modeling the surface integrity effects resulting from machining. In the present work, grain size changes induced during turning of AA7075-T651 (160 HV) alloy are modeled using the Finite Element (FE) method and a user subroutine is implemented in the FE code to describe the microstructural change and to simulate the dynamic recrystallization, with the consequent formation of new grains. In particular, a procedure utilizing the Zener–Hollomon and Hall–Petch equations is implemented in the user subroutine to predict the evolution of the material grain size and the surface hardness when varying the cutting speeds (180–720 m/min) and tool nose radii (0.4–1.2 mm). All simulations were performed for dry cutting conditions using uncoated carbide tools. The effectiveness of the proposed FE model was demonstrated through its capability to predict grain size evolution and hardness modification from the bulk material to machined surface. The model is validated by comparing the predicted results with those experimentally observed.
A mathematical model was developed to estimate the weight percent of diamond abrasive particles incorporated in nickel binder matrix during abrasive microtool fabrication by pulse-plating process. The proposed model is based on the hypothesis that, embedment of an inert micro abrasive diamond particle on the substrate will only occur when a few nickel ions from the adsorbed ionic cloud are chemically reduced at the cathode by hydrogen ions present in the diffusion layer. Experimental verification of the model developed was performed by pulse electroplating of diamond abrasive particles on tungsten micro tool shank using an in-house built experimental setup. The predictive model developed was found to estimate diamond abrasive content in nickel binder matrix within 1–7 wt% of experimental results for different pulse-plating conditions.
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is a process in which the work surface is finished by removing the material in the form of micro chips by magnetic abrasive particles (MAPs) in the presence of magnetic field in the finishing zone. During the MAF process, the frictional heat is generated at the workpiece surface due to the rubbing action of magnetic abrasive particles with the work surface. The order of temperature rise is important to study, as finishing mechanism and surface integrity of work materials depend upon it. The measurement of temperature distribution during MAF operation at the interface of work piece and flexible magnetic abrasive brush (FMAB) interface is difficult. In the present analysis, finite element based ANSYS software has been used to model and simulate magnetic field distribution, magnetic pressure and temperature distribution at work-brush interface during the process. In this work the maximum magnetic flux density has been simulated of the order of 0.223 T at 0.91 A of current in electromagnet coil. Magnetic pressure on MAPs due to magnetic field of electromagnetic coil has been calculated to evaluate the frictional heat flux generated at the work-brush interface. Transient thermal analysis of workpiece domain has been performed to predict the temperature rise due to frictional heat flux. The predicted temperature on work-brush interface was found in the range of 34–51 °C. The developed simulation results based on FEA have been validated with experimental findings.
Abrasive slurry jet micro-machining (ASJM) uses a relatively low pressure jet of abrasive slurry to machine features such as holes and channels. This study investigated the effect of alumina particle kinetic energy and jet impact angle on the roughness and erosion rate of channels machined in borosilicate glass using ASJM. A computational fluid dynamics model was used to calculate the local particle impact velocities and angles, and thus the kinetic energies of particles striking the surface. Consistent with earlier work on air-driven abrasive jets, the roughness and erosion rate of the channels machined at perpendicular incidence depended only on the kinetic energy of particles above the apparent cracking threshold of the glass target. Slurry jets of higher kinetic energy produced rougher channels and higher erosion rates since the impacting particles caused larger lateral cracks to form, and thus removed larger chips. The measured erosion rate at various impact angles, and the observed damage due to individual alumina particle impacts, indicated that the dominant mode of material removal was brittle erosion. Two similar analytical brittle-erosion models derived for air-driven abrasive jet micromachining (AJM), were found to predict reasonably well the roughness and the erosion rate of ASJM channels, despite the large differences in the fluid media, flow patterns, and particle trajectories in AJM and ASJM. A key requirement was that the average particle kinetic energy was calculated using the CFD model. With only minor modifications, the models predicted the channel erosion rate and centreline roughness with average errors of 12% and 17%, respectively. In addition, a numerical simulation, previously developed to predict the erosion in AJM of brittle materials, was used to predict the centreline average roughness, shape parameters and depth of ASJM channels for various machining conditions.
The material removal within different machining process can be performed in distinct modalities. One of the modality is based on the erosion phenomena. In this paper, theoretical model of abrasive jet machining based on erosion phenomenon is discussed. The material is removed from the surface due to erosion. In abrasive jet machining process, the output parameter is achieved by controlling various input parameters. This paper discusses the effects of various input parameters in abrasive jet machining (AJM) on the material removal rate (as the output parameter). The results presented in the paper are obtained from a theoretical study carried out with the help of mathematical model and computational technique. Theoretical investigation indicates that magnetic field, electric field and inhomogeneity in DC electric field have significant effect on metal removal by abrasive jet machining process.
Present paper demonstrates the application of double disc magnetic abrasive finishing (DDMAF) process, on planar paramagnetic workpieces (copper alloy and stainless steel) of different mechanical properties like flow stress, hardness, shear modulus, etc. The copper alloy and stainless steel work pieces have been finished using DDMAF process. The experiments were performed based on a response surface methodology. The results obtained after finishing have been analyzed to determine the effect of different process parameters like working gap, rotational speed, percentage weight of abrasive, abrasive mesh size and feed rate for individual work material and to study various interaction effects that may significantly affect the finishing performance of the process. The outcomes of the analysis so obtained for the two different work materials have been critically compared to understand the effect of the considered process parameters based on mechanical properties. The scanning electron microscopy was also conducted on the work piece surface to understand the possible mechanism of material removal and the surface morphology produced.
Anew mass finishing technology, namely drag finishing of brass (Cu-30 wt.%Zn) rings with fluidized abrasives, is reported. A new equipment, which combines the typical features of the drag finishing machines to hold the workpiece with the moving abrasives of fluidized beds, was designed. The equipment was validated by performing several experimental tests varying rotary speed and processing time. The evolution of the surface morphology of the workpieces, their mass loss and dimensional accuracy after processing were assessed after each finishing step. The designed equipments allowed to finish with a high level of accuracy and in short time range the brass rings. Material removals and out-of-tolerances of the workpieces could be limited once the appropriate settings of the process were selected. Low energy requirements, lack of any residuals after processing and facile operations make the fluidized bed assisted drag finishing industrially sustainable and very promising in several manufacturing domains.
In this paper a non-layer-based additive manufacturing (AM) process named computer numerically controlled (CNC) accumulation process is presented for applications such as plastic part repairing and modification. To facilitate the CNC accumulation process, a novel three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning system based on a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) device is developed for in situ scanning of inserted components. The integration of the scanning system in the CNC accumulation process enables the building-around-inserts with little human efforts. A point processing method based on the algebraic point set surface (APSS) fitting and layered depth-normal image (LDNI) representation is developed for converting the scanning points into triangular meshes. The newly developed 3D scanning system is compact and has sufficient accuracy for the CNC accumulation process. Based on the constructed surface model, data processing operations including multi-axis tool path planning and motion control are also investigated. Multiple test cases are performed to illustrate the capability of the integrated CNC accumulation process on addressing the requirements of building-around-inserts.
Nanostructured materials are a relatively new class of materials that exhibit advanced mechanical properties, thus improving performance and capabilities of products, with potential applications in the automotive, aerospace and defense industries. Among the severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods currently used for achieving nanoscale structures, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) is the most favorable method to produce grain refinement for continuous production of metallic sheets at a bulk scale.In this article, a model that describes the evolution of material strength due to processing via accumulative roll bonding was developed. ARB experiments were conducted on CP-Ti Grade 2 at a selected set of conditions. The results showed significant grain refinement in the microstructure (down to ∼120 nm) and a two-fold increase in tensile strength as compared to the as-received material. The developed model was validated using the experimental data, and exhibited a good fit over the entire range of ARB processing cycles. To further validate the model and ensure its robustness for a wider array of materials (beyond CP-Ti), a review of efforts on ARB processing was carried out for five other materials with different initial microstructures, mechanical properties, and even crystalline structures. The model was still able to capture the strengthening trends in all considered materials.
The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of metal-working fluid (MWF) concentration on the machining responses including tool life and wear, cutting force, friction coefficient, chip morphology, and surface roughness during the machining of titanium with the use of the ACF spray system. Five different concentrations from 5 to 15% of a water-soluble metalworking fluid (MWF) were applied during turning of a titanium alloy, Ti–6Al–4V. The thermo-physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension and thermal conductivity of these concentrations were also measured. The test results demonstrate that the tool life first extends with the increase in MWF concentration and then drops with further increase. At low concentration (e.g., 5%), a lack of the lubrication effect causes to increase in a higher friction at the tool–chip interface resulting in severe chipping and tool nose/flank wear within a short machining time. On the other hand, at high concentration, the cooling effect is less. This increases cutting temperature and a faster thermal softening/chipping/notching of the tool material and higher friction at the tool–chip–workpiece interaction zones resulting in early tool failure. A good balance between the cooling and the lubrication effects seems to be found at the 10% MWF concentration as it offers the best machining performance. However, machining with flood coolant is observed to perform the best in the range of 5–7%.
Significant amount of work is reported on development of vegetable oil based metalworking fluids (MWFs). Many also report on development and performance evaluation of vegetable based oils. For many of these water-based MWFs with vegetable oils, much effort is focused on stable emulsification of vegetable oil in water using a variety of surfactants. It has been found that surfactant-free stable emulsification of oil in water is possible through ultrasonic vibration. However, emulsification through ultrasonic atomization has not yet been considered, and the feasibility of emulsified metalworking fluids through ultrasonic atomization has not been investigated. In this paper, stable emulsification of vegetable oil in water has been achieved through ultrasonic atomization without using any surfactant. The emulsified vegetable oil in water is directly used to investigate its effectiveness as MWF in milling operations. Lower cutting forces, chip thickness, and burr amount are observed with vegetable oil-in-water emulsion compared to conventional MWF. The experimental results show strong potential for vegetable oil-in-water emulsion obtained through ultrasonic atomization as an effective MWF.
This paper presents the results of wireless data acquisition experiments from embedded micro thin film sensors in cutting inserts for machining. A bluetooth module is used to acquire data and establish communication with a receiver PC over the serial port profile (SPP). A signal conditioning circuit is designed and developed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the embedded micro thin film sensors. Moreover, an averaging filter algorithm is implemented as a software interface. To characterize the wireless data acquisition (DAQ) system, laser heating and turning tests are conducted. Both tests show that the wireless DAQ system is able to provide desirable capabilities as well as the wired one for the embedded thin film sensors in cutting inserts.
A pulsed, laser process has been developed to reduce the permanent strength of photo-activated adhesive joints prior to work-piece de-bonding. The objective of this investigation was to gain insight into the relationships between carbon black content of the adhesive, laser delivery mode, heat transfer, and adhesive degradation. To do so, a variety of experiments were performed to characterize process sensitivity, radiation absorption within the adhesive joint, and thermal decomposition of the adhesive. In addition, heat transfer analysis was conducted to predict adhesive temperatures during the process.
The results of this investigation indicate that the strength diminishment of an adhesive joint occurs after it has absorbed a train of high power pulses in rapid succession. The vast majority of strength diminishment occurs over a very narrow time window and is highly correlated to the rapid emission of gray smoke/vapor from the adhesive joint. For this to occur, the adhesive must contain carbon black. It is also highly correlated to a rapid increase in temperatures throughout the adhesive matrix. Laser pulse parameters that do not lead to this rapid increase, will not initiate adhesive degradation.
The inclusion of carbon black into the adhesive promotes heat absorption and increased temperatures in the adhesive joint. These temperatures are large enough to enable adhesive decomposition. But the time span over which this happens is too small for significant damage to occur. It is currently hypothesized that high temperatures local to the carbon black particles may be the source of adhesive degradation.
Present investigation is to study the “Effect of Activating Fluxes on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Dissimilar Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds”. Effect of current, welding speed, joint gap and electrode diameter on weld bead dimensions on 6 mm thick dissimilar weld between carbon steel to stainless steel, was studied under Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process. During this investigation three different types of oxide powders were used-TiO2, ZnO and MnO2. After welding samples were subject to mechanical testing, in addition to characterization via micro hardness and microstructures of Normal Tungsten Inert Gas Welds and Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Activating fluxes TiO2 and ZnO are effective fluxes for Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of dissimilar weld between CS to SS. Highest depth/width (D/W) ratio reported under TiO2 and ZnO fluxes compare to Normal-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Lowest angular distortion was observed under TiO2 flux compare to Normal-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Mechanical properties, Joint Efficiency of Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds are higher than normal-Normal Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Tensile Test specimens of both the processes failed from the parent metal (carbon steel side). Carbon migration from CS to SS, had occurred which led to failure of weld joints from CS side.
Reconfigurable discrete die tooling is attractive for reducing the lead time, initial costs, and recurring costs associated with stretch forming of sheet metal parts such as aircraft body panels and wing skins as well as automotive and marine components. Current tooling for the stretch forming process requires substantial lead time for fabrication and is inflexible and expensive. To develop discrete die tooling for stretch forming, three different discrete die designs have been proposed, and small-scale prototypes of each have been built. In this paper, the three designs are compared to each other in terms of performance criteria, including pin positioning accuracy and repeatability, setting speed, suitability for a production environment, fabrication costs, manufacturability and maintainability, and maximum forming load capacity. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are also discussed.
An inkjet printing process has been suggested for producing nylon 6 in an additive manufacturing approach and this paper reports on the jettability of molten reactive materials made by caprolactam with activator and catalyst to study the feasibility of the approach in an inkjet system. The materials physical properties which are important for jetting were characterized and then the melt supply behaviour in the system was studied and finally jetting trials were monitored to investigate the effect of parameter settings on the stability of the jet array. It was found that the surface tension and viscosity of all materials were within the suitable range. However, with the catalyst mixtures, microcrystals of the undissolved salt of the catalyst complex were found to influence the melt supply behaviour considerably. The mixtures had a narrower range of parameters where stability occurred compared with caprolactam. Monitoring the jet stability recommended a suitable range of jetting parameters for the deposition stage of researching the new approach. A higher level of instability was observed with the catalyst mixture especially when jetting with multiple nozzles due to the microcrystals.
The conventional additives in metalworking fluids (MWFs) have effects in improving the machining conditions. However, many additives can lead to environmental contamination and health problems. In this paper, lignin obtained from wood is considered as a new “green” additive in MWFs. Lignin has been used as additives in other areas like pasted lead electrodes and polypropylene/coir composites but has never been applied in cutting fluids. In this paper, lignin is dissolved in 5% conventional MWF aqueous solutions in 8 different concentrations through injection and atomization methods. Then, experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of lignin containing MWFs in micro-milling operations. The performance is compared with that of 5% conventional cutting fluid in terms of machining forces, tool wears, and burr formations. The results show that the concentration of 0.015% lignin leads to the least cutting forces, tool wear and burrs. The results also show that an appropriate concentration of lignin in MWFs can help to improve the cooling and lubrication performances during machining. The results of this paper thus indicate that lignin has a potential to be used as an additive in metalworking fluids.
In this paper, laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Fe–TiC composite coating on AISI 1030 carbon steel is investigated using a numerical and experimental method. In order to have a desired result using LAM, it is crucial to understand the effects of the process parameters’ values on the TiC morphology and microstructure. For this purpose, the LAM process is numerically simulated in order to calculate cooling rate and peak temperature. Experimental data and numerical results are in good agreement in terms of the phase development. Results show that cooling rate plays a crucial role in phase transformation in the clad, however, final microstructure strongly depends on the cooling rate and powder's chemical composition. Two main carbide morphologies (i.e. dendritic and particulate) are studied and relevant cooling rates are detected. Based on this paper and developed map, it is possible to control the cooling rate in order to achieve specific carbide morphologies in the clad. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are used to characterize clads’ microstructure.
This paper reports the feasibility of using surface mount adhesives to produce low temperature microchannel arrays in a wide variety of metals. Sheet metal embossing and chemical etching processes have been used to produce sealing bosses that eliminate channel laminae, resulting in approximately 50% material savings over traditional methods. An assembly process using adhesive dispense and cure is outlined to produce leak-free devices. Optimal fill ratios were determined to be between 1.1 and 1.25. Bond strength investigation reveals robustness to surface conditions and a bond strength of 5.5-8.5 MPa using a 3X safety factor. Dimensional characterization reveals a two sigma (95%) post-bonded channel height tolerance under 10% after bonding. Patterning tolerance and surface roughness of the laminae faying surfaces were found to have a significant influence on the final post-bonded channel height. Leakage and burst pressure testing on several samples has established confidence that adhesive bonding can produce leak-free joints. Operating pressures up to 413 kPa have been satisfied equating to tensile pressure on bond joints of 1.9 MPa. Higher operating pressures can be accommodated by increasing the bond area of devices. 10.1016/j.jmapro.2011.01.001 This is the authors’ post-peer review version of the final article. The final published version can be found at: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/620379/description#description.
A coupled Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed for hot rolling of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) to simulate the microstructure evolution during static recrystallization. The physically based dislocation evolution model has been formulated to study the deformation behaviour of austenite during hot rolling. The model envisages both hardening and softening regimes during deformation. The evolution of dislocation density as a function of strain has been predicted and the deformation stored energy has been calculated. The computed value of the stored energy of the system has been passed to the Monte Carlo model to construct the total energy Hamiltonian of the lattice system. Both the models have been seamlessly coupled to simulate the kinetics of recrystallization, recrystallized grain size and evolution of microstructure at different strains during forming. A continuum microstructure is mapped onto a two dimensional square lattice and high fidelity simulation has been carried out to characterize recrystallization behaviour. The Avrami exponent obtained from the kinetics of recrystallization predicted by coupled Monte Carlo model has been validated with the published literature. The recrystallized grain size and evolution of microstructure predicted by the coupled Monte Carlo model has been verified with the published data for a typical AHSS and found to be in very good agreement.
Coated tools have improved the performance of both traditional and nontraditional machining processes and have resulted in improved machining characteristics. However, a study on the performance of coated tools in micromachining, particularly in ECM, has not yet been adequately conducted. One possible reason is the difficulties associated with the preparation of coated microtools. This paper describes a method of preparation of nickel coated tungsten microtools by electrodeposition and reports on the performance of these tools in microECM experiments. The tungsten microtool was electroplated with nickel with direct and pulse current. The effect of the various input parameters on the coating characteristics was studied and performance of the coated microtool was evaluated in pulse ECM. The coated tool removed more material than the uncoated tool under similar conditions and was more electrochemically stable. It was concluded that nickel coated tungsten microtool can improve the pulse ECM performance.
The paper reports the latest trends in prediction of damage evolution and fracture during metal forming processes. Both uncoupled (e.g. the Oyane law) and coupled (e.g. Continuum Damage Mechanics-based laws) models are outlined and applications of the two approaches are presented. In particular, three application cases, which may be characterized by fracture events, are discussed: (i) a cold forging sequence, where a fracture criterion is utilized in combination with a damage accumulation law; (ii) a hot stamping operation conducted on high strength steel sheets, where the Continuum Damage Mechanics approach is used instead of the conventional one based on Forming Limit Curves; (iii) a hot rolling operation, where the Lemaitre law is modified to take into account the influence of the temperature and initial microstructure.
Increasing use of poly crystalline diamond (PCD) inserts as cutting tools and wear parts is vividly seen in automobile, aerospace, marine and precision engineering applications. The PCD inserts undergo series of manufacturing processes such as: grinding that forms the required shape and polishing that gives a fine finish. These operations are not straight forward as PCD is extremely resistant to grinding and polishing. Single crystal diamond can easily be polished by choosing a direction of easy abrasion, but polishing a PCD imposes serious difficulties as the grains are randomly oriented. Prior research on polishing of PCD inserts includes electro discharge grinding (EDG), dynamic friction polishing and grinding by a vitrified bonded diamond wheel. The surface textures of PCD produced using an EDG process often contains: micro cavities, particle pullout, micro-grooves, chipped edges, cracks and gouch marks. While applying the dynamic friction polishing method the PCD material undergoes phase transformation and hence increased polishing rate was apparently seen. However the phase transformation of PCD deteriorates the strength of the insert. Furthermore the inserts produced using the dynamic polishing method often exhibits cracks, chip off and edge damage while using as a cutting tool. Therefore, a new method “aero-lap polishing” was attempted as it applies controlled amount of impinging force by which the surface damage can be significantly reduced. The study did establish an improvement of surface finish of PCD from Ra = 0.55 μm, Rt = 4.5 μm to Ra = 0.29 μm, Rt = 1.6 μm within 15–25 min of polishing time along with significant reduction in surface defects.
In recent years, demands for miniature components have increased due to their reduced size, weight and energy consumption. In particular, brittle materials such as glass can provide high stiffness, hardness, corrosion resistance and high-temperature strength for various biomedical and high-temperature applications. In this study, cutting properties and the effects of machining parameters on the ductile cutting of soda-lime glass are investigated through the nano-scale scratching process. In order to understand the fundamentals of the material removal mechanism at the atomic scale, such as machined surface quality, cutting forces and the apparent friction, theoretical investigation along with experimental study are needed. Scribing tests have been performed using a single crystal diamond atomic force microscope (AFM) probe as the scratching tool, in order to find the cutting mechanism of soda-lime glass in the nano-scale. The extended lateral force calibration method is proposed to acquire accurate lateral forces. The experimental thrust and cutting forces are obtained and apparent friction coefficients are deduced. The effects of feed rates and the ploughing to shearing transition of soda-lime glass have been investigated.
Press brake bending is a commonly used process for sheet metal part fabrication. It has been observed that the final bend angle, which is the angle achieved upon removal of the punch, is smaller than the initial bend angle. This springback is due to the elastic recovery of the sheet metal. Various theoretical models have been proposed to predict the springback using the tooling geometry and the known properties of the sheet metal. However, in a production environment, the actual properties of any given workpiece may vary from the nominal properties of the lot. This variation causes the actual springback to deviate from the theoretical predictions. This paper presents a practical incremental bending methodology to control punch displacement to achieve more accurate final bend angles. In the proposed approach, workpiece properties are estimated from measured loaded and unloaded bend angles. The estimated properties are used to determine the final punch position required to obtain the desired bend angle after springback. A series of bending experiments was performed. It was found that the proposed method can better predict springback and effectively control the bend angle variation in a production environment.
Polishing by laser beam radiation is a novel manufacturing process to modify the initial surface topography in order to achieve a desired level of surface finish. The performance of laser polishing (LP) is determined by an optimum combination of several key process parameters. In this regard, the overlap between two successive laser beam tracks is one of the important LP process parameters, which has a significant effect over the final surface quality. In the current study, influence of overlap between the laser beam tracks on surface quality was experimentally investigated during the laser polishing of AISI H13 tool steel. Surface areas were polished by using four different overlap percentages (e.g. 80%, 90%, 95%, and 97.5%) while applying the same energy density. The improvement of surface quality was estimated through the analysis of line profiling surface roughness Ra, areal topography surface roughness Sa, and material ratio function. Also, individual components of the surface quality, e.g. waviness and roughness, and their evolution during LP were statistically analyzed using the power spectral density and the transfer functions. Finally, as an example of the best achieved LP result, flat surface area was polished using optimum set of the process parameters improving surface quality by 86.7% through the reduction of an areal topography surface roughness Sa from 1.35 μm to 0.18 μm.
Residual stress profile in a component is often considered as the critical characteristic as it directly affects the fatigue life of a machined component. This work presents an analytical model for the prediction of residual stresses in orthogonal machining of AISI4340 steel. The novelty of the model lies in the physics-based approach focusing on the nature of contact stresses in various machining zones and the effect of machining temperature. The model incorporates: (i) stresses in three contact regions viz. shear, tool-nose-work piece and tool flank and machined surface, (ii) machining temperature, (iii) strain, strain rate and temperature dependent work material properties, (iv) plastic stresses evaluation by two algorithms, S-J and hybrid, (v) relaxation procedure and (iv) cutting conditions. The model benchmarking shows (86–88%) agreement between the experimental and predicted residual stresses in the X- and Y-directions. On the machined surface, the tensile residual stresses decrease with an increase the edge radius and increase with an increase the cutting speed. However, below the surface, the compressive residual stresses increase with an increase the depth of cut. Further, it is observed that the proposed model with hybrid algorithm gives better results at a lower feed rate, whereas with the S-J algorithm, at a higher feed rate.
Stellite alloys, which have been widely used in the aerospace, automotive and chemical industries, are hard-to-cut cobalt-based materials. This study investigates the machinability of stellite 12 alloys with uncoated carbide cutting tool grades YG610 (K01-K10) and YT726 (K05-K10/M20) and SANDVIK coated carbide tool SNMG150612-SM1105 under dry cutting conditions. Both wear mechanisms and failure modes of the uncoated and coated tools were investigated with turning experiments. The results show that the coated tool SM1105 remarkably outperforms the uncoated tools; and the cutting tool YG610 generally outperforms YT726 under all cutting conditions. Built-up edge was found with YG610 in some cutting conditions and with SM1105 at cutting speed of 16 m/min. Tool surface burning marks were observed on YT726 at relatively higher cutting speeds. Wear develops slowly with coated tools SM1105 until VB reaches 0.2 mm at most conditions (except at v = 43 m/min, f = 0.25 mm/r). Excessive tool flank typically resulted in tool breakage at the cutting edge for uncoated tools. Abrasive and adhesive wear of cutting tools were observed at low cutting speeds while diffusion and chemical wear occurred at higher cutting speeds.
In this study, an attempt is being made to determine the feasibility of Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt (MIAB) welding process for joining alloy steel tubes in pressure parts. In view of this, a specially made state of art MIAB welding unit (MD1) available at WRI, BHEL, Tiruchirappalli has been employed and adequate number of welding trials is conducted to weld alloy steel tubes of 6–7 mm thickness for boiler applications. The combination of a set of values provided as input is varied for each trial. The welding current and the welding time are divided into three and four stages respectively. For each trial, either the current in stage II is varied or the time for stage III is varied while maintaining the other input parameters constant. These trials are carried out mainly to develop an optimum window (working range) for the process parameters. Further, the strength of MIAB welded specimens are examined by subjecting the welded specimens to various destructive tests. It is observed that the weld region is stronger than the base metal in most of the cases.In the next part of the study, the characteristics of MIAB welded joints for T11 steel tubes are compared with those using flash butt welding and induction pressure welding that is presently employed for alloy steel tube joining in pressure parts. It is found that the manufacturing time and incurred cost per weld drastically reduces while simultaneously increasing the productivity. Hence, the feasibility of MIAB welding process for pressure part is established.
The Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) process is a promising technique for imparting large plastic deformation to materials without a resultant decrease in cross-sectional area. The die consists of two channels of equal cross section intersecting at an angle; the workpiece is placed in one channel and extruded into the other using a punch. In the present study, the suitability of this technique for processing of tubular specimen geometries has been investigated. Tubular specimens of an aluminum alloy were extruded to three passes through two processing routes using sand as a mandrel. The pressures required for extrusion were measured, and the mechanical properties of the extruded material were evaluated. The low extrusion pressures during ECAE of tubular specimens are due to the movement of the mandrel (sand) along with the specimen (drag friction acts in the same direction as the main punch force). On processing to three passes of ECAE (by inducing a strain of 0.9), the tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness are improved, and elongation to failure (percent) decreased as expected. The process requires low forming loads while ensuring retention of specimen shape. It is also possible to impart further deformation to the specimen using the same die. It is concluded that ECAE is a promising technique for improving properties of tubular specimens.
The present study investigates the effect of tool shoulder profile on the mechanical and tribological properties of friction stir processed AZ31B magnesium alloy. The tool rotational speed and feed rate are the chosen process parameters. The experiments were conducted with 3 level 2 factors full factorial design. The recorded responses were tensile strength, wear losses and corrosion rate. The results were analyzed with the help microstructures of the processed samples. The study reveals that, for concave shoulder tool, the strain hardening effect was playing a major role in determining the properties of the processed materials and for the step shoulder tool, the grain size plays a major role in determining the properties of the processed materials.