Journal of Managerial Psychology

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0268-3946
Publications
Article
Clarifies a confusion existing in the field of consultation and organization development between formal research and data-driven inquiry on the one hand and clinical research and client-driven inquiry on the other. Illustrates the difference between the two approaches by showing the effects of particular approaches to data gathering. Shows how the clinical approach is synonymous with process consultation by being driven by the client′s agenda and argues that the clinical approach is more appropriate for consultation and organization development projects.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this study is two-fold. The first is to relate the negative image of older workers to stereotype threat and to propose that effective retention management should start by replacing this negative image. The second is to assess the needs, perceptions and preferences of older workers regarding their career-ending. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 266 employer questionnaires and 1,290 older worker questionnaires identified the employers' perceptions of older workers and the career-ending needs and preferences of older workers. Findings - The results provide indirect support for the hypothesis that the negative image of older workers forms a self-fulfilling prophecy due to the mechanisms of stereotype threat. Furthermore, the results indicate that job involvement plays a crucial role in the preference for retirement or to keep on working. Research limitations/implications - Stereotype threat promises to be very important when it comes to career-ending measures for older workers. However, the empirical design of the study limits the possibility of drawing direct inferences about the effects of stereotype threat on older workers. Practical implications - Measures and policies aimed at prolonging the participation of older workers at the labor market should be tailored to the specific needs, perceptions and preferences of older workers. Originality/value - The concept of stereotype threat has never been connected with the perceptions of older workers. Further, the assessment of the needs, perceptions and preferences related to the career-ending of older workers has never before been examined in a European study.
 
Article
A self-serving bias occurs when people subconsciously alter their perceptions about what is fair or right in a manner that serves their own interests. Perceptions of what is “a fair day’s work for a fair wage†may well vary according to one’s role in the employment relationship. While it is clear that employee satisfaction affects job performance, and that wage affects employee satisfaction, it is not only the wage per se that determines morale, but also the perceived fairness of the received wage. Thus, it is useful to have agreement between the views of employers and employees. Some evidence from a laboratory experiment indicates these views differ significantly between participant “employers†and participant “employees.†We compare choices (hypothetical in the case of employers) for the amount of costly “effort†to provide in response to a wage that has been determined outside the employment relationship. In the field, managers must be aware of the relationship between fairness in compensation and employee morale as well as their own biases regarding the fairness reference point. Overcoming such biases requires a careful decision-making protocol in compensation decisions.
 
Article
Purpose: Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. In this study, we address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More specifically, we examine how various conceptualizations of the age factor affect the direction and termination of the motivation to continue to work of older workers. Methodology: A literature review of age-related factors and motivation to continue to work. Findings: Results from 24 empirical and 9 conceptual studies indicate that most age-related factors can have a negative impact on the motivation to continue to work of older people. These findings suggest that age-related factors are important in understanding older workers’ motivation to continue to work and that further research is needed to more fully understand the underlying processes that govern how these age-related factors influence the motivation to continue to work. Research limitations / implications: Based on the aforementioned findings, we were able to formulate a research agenda for future research, namely: 1) a need for a meta-analysis on age and motivation to determine the actual effect sizes, 2) additional theoretical attention to the underlying age-related processes, 3) more psychometric studies examining the operationalization and measurement of the age- related variables, and 4) additional empirical research on age-related variables and motivation. Practical implications: Age-related factors identified in this study, such as declining health and career plateaus, should be addressed by HRM policies. HRM practices that could motivate older workers to continue to work include ergonomic adjustments and continuous career development. Originality / value of paper: Research on age and motivation is limited and conceptually diverse. This paper is one of the first studies to explore the relations between di
 
Article
Despite unanimous agreement in the existing literature that morale influences employee performance, no well-defined measure of morale exists. Our study develops a robust measure of morale and focuses on the factors that influence morale among Russian workers. Survey data were collected from Russian employees at two different points in time, 1995 and 2002, in five Russian cities. Among the workers participating in our study, expectation of receiving a desired reward contributes to high morale, with expected monetary rewards having a larger influence than expected non-monetary rewards, but praise for a job well done and a feeling of accomplishment also contribute positively to employee morale. There is a significant correlation between positive attitudes toward work and morale, and a positive correlation between performance assessment and morale. Demographic characteristics (age and gender) have no discernable influence on morale when controls are included for work experience.
 
1990s leadership: a paradox  
Article
This paper explores an additional alternative for understanding of organizational leadership, that of the praxis of leadership (Kakabadse, 1991). The argument put forth suggests that leadership acts are the results of each individual's interpretation of what they should or should not do, bounded by the discretion inherent in their roles. Thus, any consideration given to leadership as a construct, must incorporate an analysis of context, which in turn requires analysis of the economic, political and cultural relations of organization and society. Hence, the concept of leadership praxis provides a unifying concept for organizational and leadership understanding.
 
Research framework  
Article
Shows the results of a survey about the antecedents of work-family conflict in a sample of Spanish employees. Analyses and discusses the influence of job-related and non-related factors. The results indicate that both groups of factors are antecedents of work-family conflict. Even though gender is not a significant variable to explain work-family conflict, the empirical study found differences at the time to explain the antecedents of men and women's work-family conflict. A few family-domain and work-domain perceptions had a strong influence on work-family conflict such as the gender roles, importance of family, job flexibility and job mental and physical requirements. Some of these perceptions suggest the influence of a culture where traditional gender roles still prevail and family as an institution is very strong. Functional mobility and educational level are also antecedents of work-family conflict. However, job category level, marital status, and social benefits do not have any influence on work-family conflict in the multivariate analysis, but the bivariate analysis showed that they have indeed an influence on the work-family conflict according to the hypotheses developed in the research framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue which brings together six papers exploring aspects of intercultural competence in the international business arena. Design/methodology/approach - This overarching paper contextualizes the theme and introduces the selected papers which offer both theoretical and empirical insights. Findings - The findings in this paper vary according to the core theme of each of the six contributions. Practical implications - The papers in the special issue call attention to competences required for operating in the intercultural arena and offer a potential platform for developmental interventions. Originality/value - The paper highlights how, combined, the papers explore new avenues of enquiry in the intercultural competence domain and showcase cross national theoretical and empirical work.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to learn how managers make downsizing decisions. Design/methodology/approach - Participants read a created organizational scenario and 25 hypothetical employee profiles and then chose five employees to lay off. Findings - Older and minority applicants were chosen most often. No significance was found for performance. Rater group membership in race, gender, and age were significant predictors of layoff decisions. Research limitations/implications - Because the participants were in a controlled environment they may have disregarded other information often available to decision makers. The majority of the sample was students who may be unrepresentative of managers who make layoff decisions. The inclusion of managers who have made downsizing decisions was designed to help address this limitation. Practical implications - An employer's use of personal characteristics in making downsizing decisions may ultimately affect the aftermath of downsizing. Originality/value - This is one of the first studies to study the decision-making process of layoffs.
 
Article
This paper gives an overview of major issues in trust research, identifying common foundations and multiple constellations of organizational trust. In doing so, the paper also addresses important implications of theory development and empirical research. First, it provides a historical sketch of different approaches to understanding the phenomenon of trust, drawing upon various social science disciplines. Second, it discusses different levels of analysing trust in organizational settings. Third, it deals with important issues of operationalisation and measurement of organizational trust. Finally, it briefly summarises the contents of the five papers that follow this introductory paper in the special issue of JMP on "The micro-foundations of organizational trust".
 
Article
We examine the concepts of stress, distress, and eustress and develop three tenets that are used to relate these concepts to three major theories or models of occupational stress. Selye's concept of eustress or "good stress" appears to be largely ignored in the literature, while the Yerkes Dodson Law is illustrated as a model for management practice. We suggest that the meaning assigned to the word stress has shifted from Selye's original formulation, and that this shift, in conjunction with the use of the Yerkes Dodson Law leads to inappropriate management of stress in organizations. We conclude that the concept that some stress is good and enhances performance should be rejected in favour of more useful and accurate concepts.
 
Article
Earlier studies suggest age is positively associated with job satisfaction, while others use length of service, or tenure, as a predictor of job satisfaction levels. This article examines whether age and tenure are individual determinants of satisfaction, or whether there is an interaction between the two. The results indicate that employee age is not significantly associated with overall job satisfaction level, but that tenure is. There is also significant relationship between tenure and facets of satisfaction (job, pay and fringe benefits), but the effect of tenure on satisfaction is significantly modified by age.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to introduce the special issue that brings together six papers exploring aspects of person‐organization fit. Design/methodology/approach – This overarching paper contextualizes the theme and introduces the selected papers. Findings – The findings in this paper vary according to the core theme of each of the six contributions. Originality/value – Combined the papers explore new avenues of enquiry in the person‐organization (P‐O) fit domain and showcase international theoretical and empirical work on the P‐O fit construct.
 
Article
Redundancy, delayering, downsizing and various other forms of organisational change, often accompanied by the managerial fad of the moment, have become increasingly prevalent over the last ten years. This paper is based on the results of a four-year University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST)-Chartered Management Institute (CMI) research programme (the Quality of Working Life Project) that was designed to explore the changing nature of managerial work in the UK and also to assess the impact of different forms of organisational change on managers' perceptions of the organisations they work within. The analysis reported here indicates clearly that some forms of change (notably redundancy and delayering) have had particularly damaging effects on managers' experiences in the workplace and ultimately on their behaviours within and beyond their organisations. The objectives of this paper are, first, to paint a picture of recent organisational change in the UK based on the responses of members of the CMI, second, to explore how change has affected managers' perceptions of their organisations and their working lives and, third, to explore if different forms of change (particularly redundancy and delayering) have had a differential impact on managers' perceptions of their organisations "as a place to work".
 
Article
Do managers have the creative and innovative ability needed for their organisations to survive in an increasingly competitive environment? A study of 200 managers from eight companies gives an answer to this question. If intuition is an indication of creativity and innovation, we find that almost 25 per cent of all managers were primarily intuitive when solving problems and making decisions. The concept of intuition and other decision functions is based on Jung's typology. Is intuition in managers an important asset to their organisations? An investigation of problem-solving and decision-making styles of 33 managers related to organisational effectiveness throws some light on this question. What is called the "creative-innovative" decision-making style was found in 23 per cent of the managers. This article suggests that intuition as decision-making style appears to be related to organisational effectiveness. Several managers are intuitive. Whether the intuitive managers are more effective than others remains to be seen.
 
Article
Redundancy, delayering and other forms of organizational change have become increasingly prevalent over the last ten years. This paper is based on a five year UMIST-Institute of Management research programme which has been used to explore the impact of redundancy on UK managers' sense of loyalty, motivation, morale and loyalty to the organization. The paper reveals that redundancy is a particularly damaging form of organizational change even on the survivors of redundancy. The research reveals that where redundancy has been used as a means of change surviving managers' perceptions of their organizations are significantly more adversely affected than where change is enacted without the use of delayering or redundancy. The research raises significant questions about how change is managed in organizations.
 
Article
Two-thirds of European organisations are using informal briefings for expatriates. Why should expatriates place a heavy premium on such input, even when given in the stories of complete strangers? This article uses narrative method to examine expatriate experience, considering how stories enable expatriate understanding of novel environments. It considers briefly the importance of surprise in these situations and Weick's seven properties of sensemaking are used as a guideline for placing such expatriate stories in a sensemaking context. It further questions whether such stories might contribute to professional development by helping to bestow meaning for expatriates reflecting on their experiences.
 
Article
Purpose – To identify factors that impede the absorption of management knowledge imported into transition countries, using Belarus as a case, in order to increase efficiency of knowledge transfer. Design/methodology/approach – The findings are based on three sources: the extensive analysis of the academic literature; the results of a detailed survey and interviews; and personal observations and impressions gained by the authors during almost ten years of participation in technical assistance programmes for Belarus universities financed by the British Council. Findings – The study reveals a combination of factors rooted in linguistics, culture, training and ambience that prevent knowledge transfer from fully achieving its objectives as a modernization tool insofar as knowledge gets distorted or missing during the transfer process. Practical implications – The proposed solution is to intensify the knowledge transfer even further through increasing its interactive component by providing channels for direct interaction between educators in the newly independent states and the West. Originality/value – This paper introduces new original data, provides an analysis of an important practical issue and offers a feasible solution to this issue.
 
Article
Researchers and organisational practitioners must become partners in the research effort; both parties must accept the other's knowledge as valid information. A process model is presented, based on applied research, for use in various disciplines of applied research where co-operation between academic and practitioner is paramount, and where both become members of research steering groups. Recommendations are made on how such groups can become effective in operation and for further research.
 
Article
Evidence exists which suggests that organisations may have misinterpreted the intent and letter of the current US law in personnel selection. The flawed response that many organisations have taken as a result of this misinterpretation is described. While “unfair discrimination” is reprehensible, data and logic are presented which suggest that adverse impact in selection can be both acceptable and necessary in a responsible organisation.
 
Article
Whether a change in the composition of top management reflects the magnitude of a company's strategic change, and whether this fit between strategic change and top management change is related to organisational effectiveness are discussed. Data were yielded by a content analysis of 1981-82 Business Week articles on 106 US business organisations. It is suggested by the findings that top management change follows a strategic change when the latter involves a change in both the firm's grand strategy and its strategy-making orientation.
 
Article
Purpose – Rich, interactive media are becoming extremely common in internet recruitment systems. The paper investigates the role of media richness in applicants’ ability to learn information relevant to making an application decision. The authors examine these relationships in the context of two competing theories, namely media richness theory and cognitive load theory, which predict opposite relationships with information acquisition. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Participants ( n =471) either viewed a traditional web site or visited an interactive virtual world that contained information about an organization's culture, benefits, location, and job openings. Culture information was manipulated to either portray a highly teams-oriented culture or a highly individual-oriented culture. Findings – Participants who viewed the low-richness site recalled more factual information about the organization; this effect was mediated by subjective mental workload. Richness was not related to differences in culture-related information acquisition. Practical implications – These findings suggest that richer media (such as interactive virtual environments) may not be as effective as less rich media in conveying information. Specifically, the interactive elements may detract focus away from the information an organization wishes to portray. This may lead to wasted time on the part of applicants and organizations in the form of under- or over-qualified applications or a failure to follow instructions. Originality/value – This study is among the first to use a cognitive load theory framework to suggest that richer media may not always achieve their desired effect.
 
Article
Purpose – An employee’s willingness to share knowledge may be contingent on whether the organization equitably fulfills its reward obligations. This paper seeks to examine how managers and organizations can be vehicles for managing psychological contract perceptions favoring knowledge sharing among current employees, newcomers, and applicants. Design/methodology/approach – The authors propose an integrative model to discuss psychological contract issues within each stage of employment and HRM initiatives that can encourage knowledge-sharing behaviors. Findings – The implicit psychological contracts that often influence knowledge worker attitudes for sharing knowledge are easy to overlook and challenging to manage. Managers must properly assess the nature of psychological contracts maintained by such workers so that knowledge-sharing messages address employees’ key motivators. Different psychological contracts exist at various stages of employment. Several prescriptions for effectively managing each type of psychological contract and reducing perceptions of PC breach were offered. Research limitations/implications – Empirical studies should seek to investigate whether different psychological contracts actually exist within a field setting. In addition, how workers move between transitional, transactional, balanced and relational psychological contracts should be empirically examined. Originality/value – The authors sought to better understand the different psychological contract perceptions of knowledge workers at various stages of employment, which has not been done to date. Such workers are keenly aware of the impact of their knowledge and effective management for sharing rather than hoarding becomes a critical success factor for knowledge-intensive organizations.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the relationships of daily deliberative dissonance acting (DDA) with daily strain and daily work engagement. DDA refers to the deliberate acting of emotions to achieve one's work goals. The authors hypothesized that daily DDA would be positively related to strain through feelings of emotional dissonance. In addition, the authors predicted that DDA would be positively related to daily work engagement via job accomplishment. Design/methodology/approach –The authors applied a five-day quantitative diary design with two measurement occasions per day using a sample of 54 police officers (i.e. 270 measurement occasions). In the multilevel analyses, the authors controlled for previous levels of the dependent variables in order to analyse change. Findings – Multilevel analyses revealed that police officers deliberatively engaged in emotional labor with both detrimental and beneficial consequences, as assessed via their daily reports of strain and work engagement. Practical implications – The results suggest that acting emotions is not inherently harmful, but may also be beneficial for job accomplishment, which fosters work engagement. The training of police officers and possibly other service employees should include the topic of DDA as a form of emotional labor and its consequences for psychological well-being. Social implications – Police officers who accomplish their job tasks by acting the appropriate emotions may not only experience strain, but may also become more engaged in their work. Originality/value – The present study showed that police officers engage in deliberate dissonance acting. The authors showed how this emotion regulation technique is related to strain and engagement – on a daily basis.
 
Article
Adaptors and innovators exhibit distinct approaches to problem solving and derision making: a finding which has far-reaching implications for managerial psychologists who intervene in business and other organisations.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to confirm predictions that employee reports of psychological climate, appraisals of change and levels of adjustment during a change programme would be more positive for employees in higher status groups (operationalized as hierarchical level in the organization and occupational role). Design/methodology/aproach - Two questionnaire studies were conducted and data were analysed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). Study one examined differences among 669 public sector employees as a function of status (organizational hierarchal level). Study two examined differences among 732 hospital employees as a function of role (occupational group) and status (managerial responsibility). Findings - The results of study one revealed that upper level staff reported more positive attitudes during change, across a range of indicators. The results of study two showed that non-clinical staff reported more negative attitudes during change than other occupational groups. In addition, managers appraised change as more stressful than non-managers, but felt more in control of the situation. Research limitations/implications - A limitation of the paper is the cross sectional and self-report nature of measurement. Future research could utilize a longitudinal design and collect alternative sources of data to indicate the constructs of interest, e.g. supervisor ratings of employee adjustment during change. Practical implications - Together, the results of both studies highlighted the importance of implementing change management interventions that are targeted at the sub-group level. Originality/value - The findings of the paper add empirical evidence to the emerging literature on group differences in adjustment during organizational change. The paper will be of interest to academics and practicing managers, particularly those concerned with the effective management of change programmes.
 
Article
Purpose – This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non-correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part-time working employees, attach more importance to their working hours and, therefore, are less likely to show affective commitment when they experience a mismatch. Design/methodology/approach – Using data from 222 employees of a Dutch Ministry, hypotheses were tested using regression analyses. Findings – It was shown that a mismatch of working more hours was differentially related to the affective commitment of employees who wanted to work more and who wanted to work fewer hours. Moreover, gender and full-time status were found to moderate the negative relationship between a mismatch and the affective commitment of employees who wants to work less. Research limitations/implications – The focus is on affective commitment; however, it is possible that other types of commitment are also associated with perceptions of psychological contract breach. Practical implications – Tailored HRM is needed: assisting employees with a mismatch wanting to work fewer hours can be achieved by allowing them more flexibility in their working schedules. Employees with a mismatch of wanting to work more hours can be assisted with additional support, e.g. shopping services. Originality/value – HRM practices can be tailored to different preferences: the value of this paper is the examination of different types of mismatch for different group of employees.
 
Figure A1 
Article
Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how the uniqueness and ethnicity of first names influence affective reactions to those names and their potential for hire. Design/methodology/approach – In study 1, respondents evaluated 48 names in terms of uniqueness and likeability, allowing us to select names viewed consistently as Common, Russian, African-American, and Unusual. In Study 2 respondents assessed the uniqueness and likeability of the names, and whether they would hire someone with the name. Findings – Results indicated that Common names were seen as least unique, best liked, and most likely to be hired. Unusual names were seen as most unique, least liked, and least likely to be hired. Russian and African-American names were intermediate in terms of uniqueness, likeability and being hired, significantly different from Common and Unique names, but not significantly different from each other. Research limitations/implications – The name an individual carries has a significant impact on how he or she is viewed, and conceivably, whether or not the individual is hired for a job. Practical implications – Human resource professionals need to be aware that there seems to be a clear bias in how people perceive names. When resumés are screened for hiring, names should be left off. Our findings also suggest that when selecting, parents may want to reconsider choosing something distinctive. Originality/value – This study offers original findings in regards to names, combining diverse research from social psychology and labor economics, and offering practical implications.
 
Article
Purpose – This study seeks to examine the association of employee's evaluation of organizational restructuring with the destruction of old social capital, development of new social capital, and the mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS). Design/methodology/approach – Data were used from 419 teachers of Dutch secondary schools using hierarchical regression analyses. Findings – Results show that more positive employees' evaluation of the organizational restructuring are less likely to remain relying on old social capital resources, and score higher on development of new social capital. Moreover, POS mediated the association of employee's evaluation of the organizational restructuring with old and new social capital. Research limitations/implications – Future research, utilizing longitudinal designs and experiments that better lend it to causal inferences, are needed to examine relationships between organizational restructuring, POS, and social capital. Originality/value – The results of this study provide a first step toward outlining the importance of organizational restructuring for social capital theory and how employees cope with transition to different work units. In organizations, having a shared language and narratives may allow team members to more easily integrate knowledge and provide better support to one another. Moreover, a common perspective and understanding among team members may allow employees members to anticipate the behavior of other members, thus promoting organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
 
Article
It has been recently argued that managers do not use creative problem-solving techniques because of concerns about managing the ideas produced. This paper examines five different ways of “closing down” during creative problem solving, and suggests factors which influence the selection of a technique: voting is the preferred choice for consensus-seeking; clustering is a means of transforming data qualitatively; hurdles provide a means of managing data arriving over disparate time periods; weighting is best reserved for standard and quantifiable data; while gut feel can deal best with decision making involving “fuzzy” data. A psychological rationale for the use of the various techniques is proposed, and a contingency model of decision making developed which may give managers confidence to experiment with the creative problem-solving mechanisms for generating options, because of increased knowledge of effective mechanisms subsequently for closing down those options.
 
Article
The training of commercial aircrews in team management is now being recognised as a priority. This article reviews one major intervention with Trans Australia Airlines.
 
Article
Organizations, in their structuring and administrative practices, stimulate and promote certain personality traits and attitudes in the individuals who work in them. Focuses on the contention that a “psychostructure” is developed which can be identified but may also be the source of anxiety, depression and other psychopathologies. Discusses the results of a recent study of anxiety and depression among principals in public schools within the context of the development of a psychostructure which is reflectant of a particular doctrine of public administration.
 
Article
Three manufacturing facilities of an international consumer products company were studied to determine cross-cultural differences in how managers address employee participation. Despite nearly identical products, a common company culture, and other similarities, European managers demonstrated a very different perspective on employee participation than American managers. Implications for American managers are developed from these contrasts.
 
Article
The cultural differences between British and American managers observed while teaching applied psychology to classes of both nationalities are discussed. Each group was taught materials with a dominant cognitive and affective focus in university and management development courses. Two categories of differences are identified: personal perspectives and educational philosophy. Under personal perspectives, the influence of the future orientation of the Americans and the past orientation of the British are considered. These differences may account for the desire of subjective learning experiences on the part of the Americans and objective experiences for the British. The past and future orientation may also account for the interest in Freudian theories applied to management education in Britain and the humanistic school in America. It is concluded that the educational philosophies are very different, with the Americans having a very utilitarian view of education, dating back to the Land Grant colleges and the acceptance of part-time students.
 
Article
This study explores the relationship between the antecedent influences – composed of personal background, educational and occupational experiences, motivations, skills and knowledge, of women entrepreneurs and the growth of their ventures. Findings from this longitudinal study shows experience, business skills, and personal factors do affect the future growth of women-owned enterprises.
 
Article
Purpose - To examine the relative power of four dispositional, self-evaluation traits (adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, generalized self-efficacy, and general self-esteem) versus three situational factors (organizational time demands, potential negative career consequences, and managerial support) in predicting work interference with home (WIH) and home interference with work (HIW). Methodology/Approach - A survey was conducted among 223 UK public sector employees. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis tested main effects of personality and situational characteristics on WIH and HIW. A usefulness analysis determined whether dispositional or situational variables had greater predictive power for the two dependent variables. Findings - Significant, negative main effects of adaptive perfectionism on HIW, and of self-esteem on WIH. Positive relationships were found between maladaptive perfectionism and both WIH and HIW. Situational factors were also significant predictors of WHI: organizational time demands were positively associated with WIH, while managerial support had a negative relationship with WIH. Dispositional variables accounted for 15% of variance in HIW, but only 4% of variance in WIH. Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional design of the study does not permit firm conclusions regarding causality, and the results may be influenced by common method bias. Practical implications - Raising awareness of the role of personality in work-home interference may assist managers in providing more effective support to employees. The danger exists that policy-makers will dismiss HIW as an individual responsibility due to the influence of dispositional factors. Originality/Value - This study indicates that self-evaluation personality characteristics play a key role in predicting HIW, and are more important than traditionally investigated factors associated with the home and workplace environments.
 
Article
Describes the extent to which attending an assessment centre (AC) generates anxiety amongst candidates, and its effects on them. Questionnaires were administered to 70 bank staff before and after attending ACs. Results show candidates experienced rather high levels of anxiety, and that higher anxiety level was associated with lower ratings given by assessors, though the candidates' post-AC self-perceptions of ability tended to be higher for those with higher anxiety. The nature of the anxiety reported seemed to be situation-specific and to be akin to test anxiety and evaluation apprehension. Discusses findings in terms of implications for the quality of the assessments made and the way in which ACs should be run to minimize anxiety effects.
 
Article
Examines how to successfully apply one theoretical model of organizational development (OD) and organizational culture, the cognitive model, through theoretically consistent, i.e. cognitive, interventions to solve the organizational problem of downsizing. Reports a case study on use of a variety of such interventions. Summarizes what can be gained from such an approach. The cognitive model of OD as schemata change found to be a viable and useful approach to organizational downsizing.
 
Article
The objectives of performance appraisal are outlined, and the problems with performance evaluation are examined. Race, age and sex discrimination are discussed in relation to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines. A performance appraisal model is laid down with step by step guidelines. The model is assessed against the key objectives of performance appraisal.
 
Article
Reports on a study which utilized responses from 442 employees working in 23 different Saudi organizations to assess stress levels and their differences with respect to nationality (Saudis, Arabs, Asians and Westerners), age, tenure, type of organization (public, semi-private, private), and organizational size (small, medium, large). The findings suggest that: the main source of stress for employees working in private organizations is the lack of knowledge about their performance evaluation results, while this is not the case for employees working in public organizations; Saudi employees have the highest levels of stress, with Arabs second, Asians third, while Westerners (Europeans and North Americans) registered the lowest levels of stress; employees who are less than 30 years old experience the highest levels of stress; employees with six-to-ten years of experience show the highest levels of stress; and there is a significant inverse relationship between educational level and stress level.
 
Article
Purpose: This paper reports an empirical test of Schneider’s attraction proposition that organizations attract similar types of people. Methodology: The person–people (PP), person–group (PG) and person–organization (PO) fit of applicants to eight utility firms were compared to the similar fits of members of a suitable comparison group. Findings: The results show an effect for person–vocation (PV) fit, but once this is controlled for all significant effects disappear. In other words, the PP, PG and PO fits of applicants to the utilities were no different from those in the comparison group once PV fit was controlled for. Research implications: These results suggest that applicants choose which organization to apply to based on their desire for a particular type of work rather than their attraction for particular companies, which is contrary to Schneider’s attraction proposition. One reason for this might be the nature of graduates who are largely unaware of the organizational environments that they are applying to. Drawing from the interpersonal attraction literature, it is argued that applicants need familiarity, proximity and exposure to the organization for Schneider’s attraction proposition to appear. Practical implications: These results suggest graduates choose vocations over organizations and that if organizations wish to attract people who share their values, they need to put more effort into their recruitment efforts than those described in this study. The absence of an attraction effect suggests that when applicants make attraction decisions based on their perceived fit, they may not be supported by an actual congruence.
 
Article
The characteristics of cross-cultural negotiation in the Asian context are reviewed. Findings are presented concerning an exercise in negotiation in an executive development programme in which participants were to develop a strategy of marketing a computer system to a bank. The two basic strategies of negotiation – instrumental and collaborative – are compared.
 
Article
This article has no abstract
 
Article
A two-year qualitative study with business leaders identified salient dimensions of organisational culture (OC) which were then operationalised into a multiscale survey. The Survey of Organisational Culture (SOC) was then employed in ten empirical studies to assess: reliability, validity, perceived usefulness to professional managers and the overall feasibility and adequacy of objective assessments of OC. The results indicate that reliable and meaningful information can be obtained that will be useful to managers.
 
Article
Personal problems of employees impair their productivity. These may be family, emotional, alcohol or other drugs, or just living problems. Employee assistance is an action-oriented programme designed to recognise symptoms of problem employees before they become costly to the employee as well as to the company. Several studies are reviewed, those by government, as well as many private agencies, concerning the effectiveness of establishing employee assistance programmes as opposed to firing and replacing employees who have personal problems that may impair their productivity and performance.
 
Extended model of organizational spontaneity
Path-analytical model of leadership influences on cooperative support
Article
Purpose – To analyze the particular influence of leadership styles on voluntary collaboration between members of project groups. Design/methodology/approach – Uses a field-study approach to gather data of 24 project groups in an academic learning context. Takes measures of different leadership styles, affective variables (mood, group atmosphere), and pro-social work behavior. Findings – Supports theoretical assumptions about mediating influences of mood and group atmosphere. Shows that leaders of project groups may enhance cooperative support by considering the emotional impact of their behavior. Research limitations/implications – The field context (academic learning setting, students as project group members) may set limitations to the generalizability of obtained findings. Practical implications – Helps personnel managers to look at project group leadership from a different point of view. Originality/value – Provides evidence about an emotionality link between leadership and cooperation.
 
Article
This article discusses the place of the survey as one approach to human resource strategic planning. Viewed as a simple, efficient and effective approach to be used in the overall strategic planning process, the survey may produce desirable results that would be acceptable to all involved. It also provides opportunities to many individuals in the organisation to become directly or indirectly involved in the planning process, a phenomenon that is increasing in importance to management and non-management people.
 
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A study of employee involvement in the management and ownership of NVC Australia Pty Ltd indicated high levels of work satisfaction, job security, decision influence, productivity, communication, commitment and involvement. Although only one organisation has been analysed, it is clear that employee ownership and participation provide interesting alternatives for organisations to face the challenges of the present social and economic situations.
 
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An investigation of the attitudinal differences between employees performing part-time and full-time work is reported. The study was designed specifically to control for the influence of extraneous factors such as job type. In contrast with earlier research the part-time employees studied had positive feelings about their jobs – this may relate to the nature of the work involved in this case.
 
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Presents an analysis of Austrian top managers and top management teams based on data gathered from Austrian managers in 301 separate organizations. Through the data collected, builds and presents a comprehensive picture of the current state of Austrian management. Also gives a profile of how Austrian managers compare in certain key competence areas with managers from some of the other European countries in which similar research has been conducted. Shows that in general, Austrian management teams have few interpersonal or value-based interaction difficulties, but that their key problems, and the key development issues facing them, lie in their ability to understand and manage the structure of their organizations, long-term issues, and the increasingly competitive and global markets and environments into which their companies are entering. Shows that it is these key areas which are the major sources of conflict, sensitivity, and difficulty within Austrian top management teams. Based on these findings, presents some management development recommendations for Austrian managers to assist in broadening their management competences and thus enhancing their personal, organizational, and business success.
 
Top-cited authors
Evangelia Demerouti
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
Alan M. Saks
  • University of Toronto
Cary Cooper
  • The University of Manchester
Christopher P. Neck
  • Arizona State University
Susan Cartwright
  • Lancaster University