– This paper aims to report an organizational development (OD) exercise carried out in a prominent non‐governmental organization (NGO) that works in the area of rights and advocacy in India.
– The exercise was part of the first author's graduate program, which required the application of behavioral science theory to a live organization under the supervision of her advisor, the second author. The organizational development exercise spread over four months, involved entering an organization, interacting with key participants and stakeholders of the organization both formally and informally, diagnosing issues facing the organization and a mirroring exercise with the management at the end of the intervention to provide feedback.
– Some of the issues and improvement areas that emerged through the exercise are discussed in the paper. It also offers reflections on some of the key lessons learnt during the process of intervention, with implications for OD in developmental organizations.
– The paper offers insights into OD interventions in the developmental sector, posing a different set of challenges than conventional organizations, and also because the organization itself was in a state of flux at the time of the intervention.
This article briefly reviews some of the main contributions which have attempted to define effective organizational learning, particularly those that have had a formative impact on the field, evaluating their theoretical consistency and their practical worth in establishing a useful basis for managerial action and managerial development. Current contributions are found to be suggestive of the need for adaptation and change in organizations but to lack coherence; to be largely unrelated to enterprise strategies and focused on individual learning rather than organizational learning; and to provide an inadequate basis for managerial and corporate development.
– This paper aims to describe the SFAS 109/Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification 740.
– This paper is an overview of a topic.
– SFAS 109 establishes the financial accounting and reporting standards for the effects of federal, state and foreign income taxes.
– The paper is a good discussion for non‐tax financial executives. It is a valuable read for anyone looking for an introductory paper on the subject.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a framework to integrate emergent management theory into graduate coursework using media and film. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents a qualitative and multi-year case study. Findings - Media used to teach management theory must not remain static. It should be updated periodically to remain effective as a pedagogical tool. Research limitations/implications - Further research should be conducted to examine long-term retention rates for information covered. Larger empirical studies should be conducted to verify findings. Practical implications - There appear to be generational differences that suggest trainers, instructors, and professors need to match media-based pedagogical tools to their audience. Originality/value - Few, if any, studies have addressed the need to update media imagery used as part of a comprehensive approach to teaching management theory and concepts.
The purpose of this paper is to determine if business and public administration have distinct identities based on perception of curriculum areas.
PROSCAL, and algorithm for multidimensional scaling was used.
Business and public administration faculties have different identities based on their perceptions of curriculum areas.
Relied on a maximum likelihood probability approach. The study should be replicated using other psychometric techniques, or be extended to other disciplines.
Public administration is empirically validated as distinct from business administration and political science. Care must be taken when borrowing ideas from either field, though results indicate that communicating with business administration would be easier due to the shared space.
It is one of the few (if not the only) papers using PROSCAL. It is one of the first to mathematically determine if groups were understanding and processing stimuli similarly enough to be compared.
Discusses how firms and, indeed, entire industries are likely to attract and reinforce particular skill profiles among their employees. Such biases are an inevitable consequence of distinctive business environments, technologies, market conditions and labour markets. The City has traditionally excelled in its range and depth of technical expertise; but as conditions change so do skill requirements. Given increases in scale, cross-functional dependence and product complexity, the effective exploitation of technical skills at the level of the firm is increasingly reliant on well-developed "managerial" capabilities among large numbers of "professional" staff. Drawing on case study and interview data, provides evidence of a serious shortage of such managerial skills among City firms. Further suggests that firms engaged in international wholesale financial services lag behind those in other sectors in their analysis, assessment and development of high performance management competences. Very strong "entrepreneurial" and "professional" traditions, driven largely by US and UK firms, have contributed to the City's pre-eminence. However, these may also limit the ability of firms to exploit expertise within and between professional teams fully.
This study investigates the relationship of education (level and field) on job satisfaction among Kuwaiti women employees (KWE) in the Kuwaiti public government sector (KGS). This study differs from previous investigations of job satisfaction in two principle ways: in taking into account education (level and field) in the public sector work setting; in using a quantitative test for testing some demographic factors that have not been measured in previous researches and studies, especially in a very important sector which is the KGS in a rapidly industrializing Middle Eastern country. Broader characteristics, especially education field and level, is of substantial importance in predicting and affecting job satisfaction. Implications, limitations and lines of future research are discussed.
Reports on a study of MBA students (N = 362) at a major international business school which looked at the predictors of performance in management education. Considers not only GMAT but also age, gender, language proficiency, marital status and work experience as predictors of performance. Questions the use of individual grades in assessing performance since much work in both business schools and the business community is done in groups. Therefore, an analysis of the performance of students in groups was also carried out. Results support the relationship between GMAT and age, and individual performance, and more importantly show a predictive ability for language proficiency and marital status. Significantly, no predictors of group performance were found. Overall, the performance of groups was better than the performance of individuals. Discusses the implications of these results.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate and address idea gaps to bring improvement and add value to organizations.
A framework for ideas is developed to enhance and extend conventional management theory and practice.
It recognises the essential interaction and progression of ideas so that managers can more comprehensively encourage, promote, integrate, and advance ideas in their organisations.
A breakthrough passage is suggested and constructed.
– The paper seeks to describe the rationale behind the Financial Times business school rankings and some of the problems inherent in developing and publishing them.
– The rationale behind the Financial Times business school rankings is discussed, as are the ways in which business schools use the rankings.
– Business schools have an ambivalent relationship to business schools rankings, openly criticising them but using favourable aspects of the rankings in their schools' marketing.
– Business school rankings are probably here to stay. Most business schools are developing ways of using them for their own purposes.
– The purpose of this paper is to present details of this special issue, that has as its theme: “Business school futures: evaluation and perspectives”.
– The Guest Editors have assembled a set of papers presented at recent AACSB/EFMD meetings to provide further fuel for this important debate.
– Together the papers in this volume provide a set of insights about important themes and perspectives on business schools as we reflect about their future evolution.
– The insights presented in this special issue should provide the fuel for continued critical debate and dialogue as we confront the current turning points in management education and also develop future strategies for the continued success and evolution of the business school in the modern university.
Briefly reviews knowledge management (KM) and its development from concept to core competence. Shows how knowledge management is the tool that really enables organizations to "work smarter." Works through the steps of the KM project lifecycle. Details the KM proposal development process and the elements and method for a truly successful KM project application. Emphasises the importance of knowledge validation. Reviews some organizations that are using KM successfully.
– The aim of this paper is to show the connection between spiritual capital and practical wisdom with moral virtue as the link of both concepts.
– The concept of spiritual capital will be explained using the well known concept of social capital and practical examples for virtues.
– Spiritual capital has an impact on business like other forms of capital.
– The paper discusses the development of the concept of spiritual capital.
– The purpose of this paper is to explore contemporary metaphors used in career literature pertaining to career development in an international context.
– Qualitative interviews with thirty‐seven skilled self‐initiated expatriates in one geographical location were conducted and used for data analysis.
– The metaphor of a “river” more aptly captures the career development directions and influences experienced by skilled self‐initiated expatriates.
– The paper provides an analysis of career development influences which impact on the career direction of self‐initiated expatriates. It provides useful information and recommendations for career (international career) academics and practitioners with regards to career development influences to be considered with regards to skilled self‐initiated expatriates.
– This paper aims to provide an overview of this special issue.
– The guest editorial introduces the papers in this special issue, focusing on practical wisdom for management from the Chinese classical traditions.
– Chinese culture increasingly will permeate international culture and move from peripheral to mainstream status. To ignore this in management education would be a grave oversight.
– The issue offers insights into the value of practical wisdom from Confucianism, the origins of Chinese classical trditions and Daoism, and the various streams of thought within the classical Chinese traditions and their contemporary relevance.
Examines the relationship between managerial innovation (dependentvariable) and sex, age, education, organizational level, and length ofservice as independent variables. The sample of this field surveyincluded 293 managers in the civil service in Jordan. Primary data havebeen collected by means of questionnaires. Among major findings of thisstudy are: (1) Respondents gave significant level of assessment formanagerial innovation. (2) There is a negative yet weak relationshipbetween innovation and age, organizational level, and length of service.(3) There is a positive yet weak relationship between innovation andeducation and sex. (4) The most significant obstacles to innovation arethose related to organizational climate. Recommends wide improvementsin the organizational climate in the civil service in Jordan, follow-upwith up-to-date managerial developments, and carrying out furtherstudies on public service.
The paper sets out to consider the value of coaching to the sensemaking process. It aims to demonstrate how coaching enhances sensemaking and seeks to describe coaching as a sensemaking activity.
The objectives are achieved by exploring the literature of both coaching and sensemaking with the purpose of demonstrating the mutually supportive nature of coaching and sensemaking.
By analysing sensemaking and coaching activities, the paper aims to demonstrate that coaching greatly supports and enhances the quality of the sensemaking activities of the individual.
Coaching as an academic discipline is still in its infancy and lacking in sound empirical research. It would be value for future research activities to focus on the sensemaking the individual engages with during the coaching process.
As mentioned above, sound academic research is necessary in order to understand the nature of coaching. This paper goes some way in exploring both coaching as a sensemaking process and also how coaching fundamentally supports the sensemaking process the individual engages in.
Coaching has not been explored in relation to sensemaking nor the value that coaching brings to sensemaking. Exploring coaching from a sensemaking perspective helps create a deeper understanding of what takes place within the coaching relationship.
The purpose of this research is to empirically test the impact of owner/managers' mentality on enterprise performance .
A mail questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of SMEs in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed to the chief executive of each of the 1,523 firms selected for the survey. The total number of usable responses received was 367, giving a response rate of 24.1 per cent.
The overall results of the study show that when owner/managers of SMEs are more entrepreneurial minded in the introductory and decline stages of growth, their performance tends to be higher, and the same is true for the growth and maturity stages when they are more administrative minded.
Since this research was unique in several respects and the survey was confined to only 367 SMEs in a single country it would be useful to replicate it using larger samples under different country settings.
The research reveals that an enterprise will be better off at the introductory stage if its managers become more entrepreneurial minded through factors such as ambition, enterprising spirit, intuition and innovation. However, as the firm grows managers need to devote more attention to administration.
It provides far reaching implications for managers for achieving higher performance in different stages of a firm's growth.
Reports the results of a survey of UK lecturers involved in teaching strategic management to postgraduate and post-experience students. Identifies the lecturer's objectives in using case studies and evaluates the effectiveness of the case method in achieving those objectives. Finds that the method is successful in achieving participation and in developing communication and interpersonal skills, but less successful in the development of strategic analysis. Finds that a wide range of other methods are used in the teaching of strategic management, and that these methods can be used partly to replace and also to complement the use of case.
In order to be competitive companies must provide customers with
quality products and services in a fast, responsive manner. Innovative,
customer-driven organizations are more likely to succeed. Total quality
management (TQM) is a management approach which requires innovation,
employee participation, and rapid response to meet the changing needs of
the customer. The establishment of the Malcolm Baldrige National Award
in 1987 and Deming's management philosophy have both contributed
significantly to organizations' awareness of the use of TQM as a key
element in strategic planning for competitivemess in the current global
environment. Discusses the Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria and the tools
which management must employ in order to implement TQM.
Some background on General Electric and its executive education operation in the US is provided. The review process and its major findings are described, followed by some of the major recommendations and action taken. Finally, a retrospective evaluation is offered.
The article considers the present trends occurring in the field of management development. One of the biggest problems today is the lack of a systemmatic approach to developmental needs. Practitioners and researchers are now considering the improvement of the design of management development programmes and the influence of organisational culture on their effectiveness. Specifically, they are discovering ways to conduct meaningful evaluation despite the constraints imposed by the typical organisational setting.
Proposes a broader framework for management development which
includes education, training and planned job assignments. Within this
framework, the major challenges confronting management development in
the 1990s are seen as: linking development efforts to the organization's
strategic plan: utilizing job assignments more effectively to build
management skills; improving the transferability of training and
educational experiences to the job, and developing more collaborative
business-university relationships (e.g. consortia) to meet the
development needs of specific industries and organizations better.
Identifies and discusses nine issues the author believes will
dominate management development programmes in the immediate future:
learning (including “maintenance learning”, “shock
learning” and “anticipatory learning”); the power of
teams; time as a competitive weapon; dramatic leadership; globalization
and transnationalization; flexibility and resilience; customer
responsiveness, service or quality; technology and information systems;
and systems thinking. Concludes by pointing out that while these themes
should not be included in management development programmes simply
because they are popular, few become popular without meeting an
What is the underlying trend in IT structures? Why have individual
businesses taken different stands with regard to their IT structures?
There has been an ongoing debate concerning these questions with limited
resolution. The issues surrounding IT structures are analysed in order
to prepare managers to cope with the above two questions throughout the
1990s. Owing to the continuing progress in hardware and software
technology, decentralised IT structures will continue to become more
accessible and attractive in the 1990s. As a result, the users of IT
services will assume an increasing share of responsibilities for
producing their locally needed IT services. Generally speaking, the
responsibilities of central IT departments will continue to decrease
during the 1990s. Meanwhile owing to differences among businesses with
respect to their organisational context variables, individual businesses
will continue to subscribe to different IT structures ranging from
relatively centralised to relatively decentralised.
Are sales consistent with your forecast? Did you exceed budget? These are reasonable and important questions. They are standard fare for performance appraisals or quarterly or monthly reviews. They deal, as the experts say they should, with results that presumably are more or less under the manager's control. But I believe these are the wrong questions for the times. They are tangential to the main event. We should be asking something more fundamental: “What, precisely, exactly, unequivocally, have you changed - today?” and: “Are you sure?” And: “What's next?” And: “Exactly what bold goal does the change support?” The questions are deceptively simple. Most often they go unasked. Yet I firmly believe they are far and away the most crucial questions for all today's managers, at all levels.
Management development programmes (MDPs) are crucial to developing
Pacific island countries. Programme designers must understand the region
which comprises thousands of islands spread many miles apart. These
countries are influenced by their history of colonial occupation and
protection by the British, Germans and Americans. Fiji is unique, being
an independent republic and the largest, wealthiest and most influential
South Pacific country. Native languages are many, but English is
commonly used throughout for government and business – except in
French Polynesia. The native population is mainly Polynesian and
Melanesian, with a significant minority being Micronesian. Each society
has distinct customs, languages and behaviours modified by its national
affiliation and geographical location. Early MDPs were modelled on
western practices. In the 1990s, MDPs conform to the objectives of
aid-granting agencies, their content is oriented towards practical
application of management skills, and instruction is conducted observing
cultural behaviours and norms
Developing people in an international context is a difficult and
expensive activity to manage. It is important that organizations
analyse carefully the requirements they have, and formulate a strategy
accordingly. Examines the factors to be taken into account, and the
types of international development that can meet business needs.
Describes the case of ICL with respect to its alliance with Nokia Data:
the reasons to merge, the integration process in creating a
“merged” culture and the implications for management development.
As a result of the many changes which have taken place in the field
of management development since the 1960s, a scenario presenting the
probable appearance of the discipline in the year 2000 is presented,
with evidence from the past and present to support it.
A review of the literature defining managerial skill draws the conclusion that the key to future management development lies in identifying the competencies required for individual managers' jobs and developing programmes to meet these, within the context of organisational goals and politics. Female managers face special stresses in addition to those identified for male counterparts. An attempt is under way to abstract key components of the self-assessment programme for use in longitudinal research and development activities.
To explore the perceived usefulness to participants of a particular 360 degree leadership survey process to assist an understanding of how ratees receive and respond to360 degree feedback.
The study included a sample of eight new and emergent leaders at one university in Australia who had completed a 360 degree feedback survey. Through semi-structured interviews, they were asked to report on their learning as a result of undertaking the 360 exercise. A constant comparison method of data analysis was used to analyse the participants’ responses.
The research study found from the group undertaking the 360 degree feedback process that, in equal proportion, participants reported receiving (i) no surprising feedback but reinforcement and affirmation, and (ii) new insights, with developmental strategies identified to effect change as a result of feedback. The paper argues, from findings of the literature and the study, the importance of a measure of institutional support for the feedback process including sound facilitation. The results of the semi-structured conversations held with the small sample attested to the importance of self-efficacy (belief of capacity to learn and develop) on the part of ratees to act on feedback gained, and of the organisation’s role in assisting self-efficacy in 360 programs. The findings support an incremental theory approach in that participants saw the feedback exercise as an opportunity to improve their capabilities and pursue learning goals over time by acting on development items suggested by the feedback. It is posited that support received by participants in undertaking the feedback activity as part of a program of development contributed to the positive response. The paper concludes by providing some guidelines for conducting effective 360 feedback discussions.
Originality/value of paper:
There is a reasonable body of literature about 360 degree feedback processes from a theoretical standpoint. This qualitative study addresses a relative gap in the literature to explore how participants describe their experience of undertaking a facilitated 360 degree feedback exercise, including whether they gained new knowledge, or no new knowledge. The paper also suggests some principles that might be employed in facilitating 360 feedback to maximise benefit from the process.
People in many walks of life are becoming increasingly aware that the environment in which they work and live is turbulent. The days of certainty and predictability seem to have vanished. Things happen which significantly affect us but over which we appear to have little or no control: things which are “out there” in the environment; changes in society; the world economic situation; the state of the competition, or as a result of government policy.
The UK's Teaching Company Scheme, established in 1975, has been
responsible for setting up almost 1,000 collaborative projects between
academics and businesses, all with the primary aim of effecting
organizational change. The interest which the scheme has aroused has
usually centred on its effectiveness as an investment of government
money in industry, and on the effectiveness of academic/business
collaborations. The potential of the scheme to act as a
“laboratory” in which to study organizational change
processes has gone almost unnoticed. By studying projects completed
within four different companies, attempts to analyse the effectiveness
of Teaching Companies as an organizational change process, and to
develop a case for the scheme as a potentially valuable source of future
The emerging global economic environment has produced a new and critical human resource demand, one that will become even more important in the decades ahead — the international manager. At present, two primary international training approaches exist: organisational and academic. Differences between the two are indicated, and an attempt is made to show how both are necessary, but not in themselves sufficient, in developing the international manager of tomorrow.
Activity and self-confidence are key elements of management success. High achievers are recognisably more open to choices and search for more efficient ways of doing things. True winners project their success, they look like winners. This article examines the psychology of winners and their patterns of success, including theories of self-expectancy, self-motivation, self-discipline and self-projection. This all adds up to a practical guide to goal achievement.
The curriculum at many business schools is in a period of ferment as overhauls are contemplated for a variety of reasons. One of the most compelling needs is for integration across disciplines. The Dynamic Capabilities Framework, one of the dominant paradigms in management studies, can serve this unifying function by providing guidance for integrating the curriculum across disciplines and between theory and practice. Implementation along the lines proposed will give students more of what they want and improve the contribution of business schools to the conception and pursuit of managerial goals.
What does it take to be an effective management educator? To find out, the author asked three management faculty recognised for their skill in the classroom with diverse audiences. Specifically, the author sought to learn how these successful educators prepared for, organised, conducted, and evaluated their teaching. The three management faculty selected to provide advice included John Slocum, O. Paul Corley Professor of Organizational Behavior, Southern Methodist University; Kenneth Thompson, Chairman, Department of Management, DePaul University, and Debra Arvanites, Assistant Professor of Management, Villanova University.
More and more firms view the acquisition of foreign firms as an
important component of their internationalization strategy. An important
but frequently overlooked condition for the successful implementation of
such a strategy is the consistent and appropriate integration of human
resource management into the overall internationalization strategy
(global, multilocal, hybrid). Offers guidelines on the significance and
contents of human resource management practices in this context. The
emphasis is on the strategically appropriate integration of the target
organization with the acquiring corporation.
Examines the underlying assumptions that companies make about the role of women in international management. Based on numerous studies, explodes some of the traditional myths about women expatriates: that they do not want to be international managers and that foreign prejudice against women renders them ineffective. However, another myth – that companies hesitate to send women abroad – is found to be true. Competitive advantage in transnationals can only come from a combination of an increased representation of women and a recognition of differences as complementary. Recommendations are given to companies and to future women expatriates.
Although getting along with people is just as important to being a
good manager as being able to get the job done, according to the current
stereotype the ideal manager is task-oriented rather than
person-oriented. Here the importance of feminine qualities and
interpersonal skills for managerial effectiveness are discussed.
Interviews with 30 women managers illustrate the fact that women can
approach management with a “masculine” (task-oriented),
“feminine” (people-oriented), or an
“androgynous” style which combines the two. The androgynous
style is the one most likely to be successful.
Reflects on the practical experience of the author in introducing
competency-based action learning into Australian public and private
sector organizations. Contains a series of interviews with graduates of
an action learning Masters programme in the Health industry. Suggests
that early and consistent focus on participants' self-knowledge and
self-management significantly improves their learning ability, personal
growth and management competence. Linkage between the project-based
experimental journey and with the consequent learning journey is both
illustrated and discussed.
The process of action learning from the viewpoint of an IMCB MBA set member is described. The effectiveness of the learning experience is reviewed, with emphasis on the opportunities to use various styles of learning in different parts of the programme. The IMCB programme itself is briefly outlined and the Activist, Reflector, Theorist and Pragmatist learning styles discussed. The course is seen as an effective way to educate managers due to its immediate relevance to their needs and its focus on application and implementation, as well as theory.
The first reference to what has since become known as action learning was by Revans in October 1945; it was in a report upon the future of the British coalmining industry issued by the Mining Association of Great Britain. He recommended setting up a staff college for the industry, at which the field managers would be encouraged to learn with and from each other using the group review to find solutions to their immediate problems — about which something needed to be done whether the staff college had been set up or not. The report specifically said that the college ought not to have any permanent corps of experts and lecturers, although there was no objection to them being invited in for particular missions, after it was clear what those missions were supposed to be seeking.
The Learning Cube in its early development stages is a simple diagnostic tool used to analyse and evaluate a training programme in the People's Republic of China: the China-EEC Management Programme (CEMP). The Learning Cube is presented in outline, with a description of all its dimensions and their meanings. CEMP is summarised and assessed with new proposals set out. The model is then applied to the CEMP situation and possible course improvements and conclusions are presented.
Most Master's Degrees in Management include a research project. A
dissertation is normally required which sets the managerial problem
under investigation within the context of the subject and explores
possible wider implications. However in manufacturing industry,
management consultants are increasingly being used to solve problems and
act as change agents. Describes a major course exercise that focuses
specifically on consultancy and managerial problem solving. The exercise
is unusual in that it is company-based and relies heavily on action
learning. Since the course participants are practising managers, the
exercise represents a major piece of management development.
The purpose of our research is to determine whether the performance of the supporting activities is more influenced by information systems than the performance of the core competence. New definitions are proposed for the concepts of core competence and supporting activities. A questionnaire was sent to collect data from private firms in the industrial and the service sectors. Our quantitative analysis shows that information systems have relatively more influence on the performance of the core competence than on the performance of supporting activities, especially on the exclusivity and value creation components of the core competence.
Describes the areas of human resource development that come under the administration of the Human Resources Development Bureau of the Ministry of Labour in Japan, and are administered through human resource development councils at the central and prefectural level. The recent rapid changes in industrial and demographic structures necessitated a systematic training for new skills and upgrading of the current ones for people who enter the labour market for the first time as well as those who are changing jobs. The Ministry’s role is to provide the integrated system of training opportunities, evaluation and certification, and the financial support to encourage participation of an increasing number of workers in vocational education, to improve their future prospects in employment. In particular, the establishment of the Business Career Development System is a reflection of a trend from generalist training of managers hitherto carried out in-company to specialist development now offered outside the company.
This article describes the Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation
System (CHESS), which has been developed by two of the authors, Knotts
and Parrish, in co-operation with the Canadian College of Health Service
Executives; the key features of CHESS are then outlined. The article
also describes the use of CHESS in Executive Development Programmes
conducted for healthcare executives by the Canadian College of Health
– This study aims to investigate the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of knowledge management systems (KMSs) in Australia.
– The study uses a mixed methodology approach. The research was carried out in three stages: field study, pilot survey, and national survey (top 1,500 companies). This paper reports the findings of the third phase of the study – the national survey. The data of the national survey was analyzed through structural equation modeling (LISREL).
– The results indicate that individual factors and task complexity are the significant factors that influence the perceived usefulness of KMSs which, in turn, significantly influence the intention to adopt a KMS and its diffusion process. Some unexpected results were also found.
– There is a scarcity of studies on the empirical perspectives of KMSs in the literature, especially in the area of adoption and diffusion. This research addresses this gap by studying the adoption and diffusion of KMSs in Australian organizations.
Discusses how economic change affects organizational structures,
pointing out that in such a changing environment, management development
should be continuous rather than sporadic, and should be available to
all managers instead of the chosen few. Lists the various requirements
of managerial development programmes before discussing the role and
structure of “smart software”, and what it has to offer.