Journal of Leisure Research

Print ISSN: 0022-2216
Publications
This study investigates changes in self-reported motivation for leisure due to participation in HealthWise, a high school curriculum aimed at decreasing risk behavior and promoting health behavior. Participants were 2,193 mixed race adolescents (M = 14 years old) from 9 schools (4 intervention, 5 control) near Cape Town, South Africa. Students in the HealthWise school with the greatest involvement in teacher training and implementation fidelity reported increased intrinsic and identified motivation and decreased introjected motivation and amotivation compared to students in control schools. These results point to the potential for intervention programming to influence leisure motivation among adolescents in South Africa and represent a first step toward identifying leisure motivation as a mediator of program effects.
 
The Within-Person Relationship between Positive and Negative Affect was More Negative on Days with High (+1SD) Daily Stress Frequency (Solid Line) than on Days with Low (-1SD) Daily Stress Frequency (Dotted Line). 
The Within-Person Relationship between Positive and Negative Affect was Less Negative on Days with High (+1SD) Leisure Time Availability (Solid Line) than on Days with Low (-1SD) Leisure time Availability (Dotted Line) 
Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research.
 
Logit Model for Active Users of Recreation Areas (N=1638)
Logit Model for Identifying Potential Payers (N=1638)
Reasons Why the Respondent Is not Willing to Pay ...for a recreation pass (N=281) %
Tobit Model for Grouped Data WTP (N=1582)
Basic services in Finnish national parks and state-owned recreation areas have traditionally been publicly financed and thus free of charge for users. Since the benefits of public recreation are not captured by market demand, government spending on recreation services must be motivated in some other way. Here, we elicit people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for services in the country’s state-owned parks to obtain an estimate of the value of outdoor recreation in monetary terms. A variant of the Tobit model is used in the econometric analysis to examine the WTP responses elicited by a payment card format. We also study who the current users of recreation services are in order to enable policymakers to anticipate the redistribution effects of a potential implementation of user fees. Finally, we discuss the motives for WTP, which reveal concerns such as equity and ability to pay that are relevant for planning public recreation in general and for the introduction of fees in particular.
 
Little research has been done on the economic benefits of snowmobiling. This study uses cluster analysis to identify different snowmobiler segments, and then uses the travel cost method to estimate the respective consumer surplus values for the pooled sample and the different market segments. Consumer surplus per trip for the pooled sample is $68 and for the different market segments ranged from $31 to $101 per trip. Differences between the pooled model and segments highlight the importance of differentiating recreational users for both management related issues and for economic benefit measurements.
 
Examined the relationship between substance abuse, leisure boredom, and leisure participation in 39 adolescent substance abusers (SAs) and 81 non-SAs (aged 15–18 yrs). SAs had a tendency to participate more frequently in leisure activities in general, and physical recreation activities in particular. Nonetheless, SAs were significantly more bored with leisure than non-SAs. Results are interpreted as evidence that SAs have a personality predisposition toward sensation seeking and a low tolerance for constant experience. If leisure activities fail to satisfy their need for optimal arousal, leisure boredom results and drugs may be used as an alternative. Findings also suggest that an experiential approach in treating adolescent SAs may be better than traditional cognitive and didactic approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Tested the effects of attitude accessibility on the attitude–behavior relationship and explored the implications of accessibility for recreation research by examining attitude-behavioral intention relationships for 3 levels of prior site visitation and 3 levels of prior topic discussion. 913 Ss who participated were interviewed over the telephone, and the attitude object was their support of controlled-burn fire policies for parks and natural areas. Results show that at higher levels of experience and discussion (1) there was an improved prediction of intentions to support the policy from attitudes and (2) attitudes were more extreme. These findings have implications for the use of attitudes in predicting recreation behavior, for examining issues of nonparticipation in recreation, and in attempting persuasive communication in recreation settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Investigated the relationships among self-esteem, acculturation and recreation participation among 117 recent Chinese immigrant 9th–12th graders (aged 13–21 yrs) from New York City. Ss completed the 3 questionnaires used in the study. Research findings showed that Ss were at a low level of acculturation, but had a moderately high level of self-esteem. They participated most frequently in home/indoor activities and were attracted to various mass media using Chinese language and music. They often recreated with family members, Chinese friends or were alone in their free time. Boys participated significantly more often in sports while girls participated significantly more often in arts and crafts. The perceived barriers to participation cited most often were lack of English proficiency, lack of opportunity, lack of partner and money and lack of knowledge about sites or information about activities. Both self-esteem and acculturation had a significant positive correlation with total level of recreation participation and a significant negative correlation with the total number of perceived barriers. Ss with higher levels of self-esteem participated more often in recreation activities in the indoor/home-based, spectator, and outdoor activity categories. Students with higher levels of acculturation participated more often in recreation activities and affiliated more often with organizations. No significant relationship was found between self-esteem and acculturation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined attitudes, social groups, and gender, using the theory of reasoned action, in an effort to increase understanding and the predictive power of the correlates of recreation participation. 100 residents of a small city were questioned about their intentions to camp, their attitudes and beliefs about going camping, and the influence of important others in making decisions to camp. A significant correlation was found between camping intentions and reported camping behavior. Attitude and subjective norms were used to accurately predict intentions to camp. Regression coefficients indicated that intentions were slightly more influenced by Ss' attitudes than by the influence of social groups. Differences were observed between females and males and between those who did or did not intend to camp. Results demonstrate that the theory may be useful in predicting behavior and understanding the relationships among recreation behavior, intentions, attitudes, and beliefs. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined 3,072 observations of Mexican-American recreation activities that occurred in 13 urban neighborhood and regional parks and compared findings to those of J. B. McMillen's (see record 1984-14834-001) study, which revealed no differences in leisure participation between Mexican-American and general American populations. The observations indicated differences between the 2 populations in type of activity, and in the age, sex, size, and social composition of recreation groups. Findings suggest that these differences result from social and cultural differences between the 2 populations. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Age-Division Age Division N Pet. 
Investigated the degree to which pre-adolescents as well as adolescents associate with parents and peers in their leisure time. Based on recent theoretical conceptions of childhood sociologists, a questionnaire was designed for children and young teens (aged 10–15 yrs). 927 Dutch juveniles from different social classes participated. A leisure kids typology was constructed by means of Principal Components Analysis for categorical data (PRINCALS). It was found that 10–12 yr olds from higher social classes were family kids. They spend a substantial part of their leisure time with parents and siblings. Male 14–15 yr olds, especially those from higher social classes, strongly focused on peer groups. In contrast, females of the same age have a salient preference for dyadic friendships. Questions on parental attitude towards leisure activities and choice of friends show that 10–12 yr olds, especially those from higher social classes, experience most parental interference in their leisure activities. Teenage girls from lower social classes encounter most parental attention concerning peer contacts. Findings partially support theoretical conceptions regarding the parent–peer orientation of children and teens, but add some important nuances to these general perspectives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The purpose of this study was to test a life satisfaction model for older women. The model was derived from policy-relevant variables. The data base for the study consisted of a stratified random, national sample of 698 female retirees and 403 female homemakers. Findings suggested that life satisfaction was directly and positively affected by (in descending order of importance): leisure roles, income, health problems, and employment background. That is, homemakers were found to have higher life satisfaction than retirees. Additionally, income, health problems and employment background (retirees participated in leisure activities more frequently than home- makers) indirectly affected life satisfaction via leisure roles.
 
Investigated the relationship of race and class to participation in leisure activities. In interviews with a random sample of 750 adult urban residents (66.7% Black, 27.7% White, 5.4% other) in a Northern community, Blacks and Whites of different classes were compared to determine the degree of association between rankings of their participation in leisure activities. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether Blacks and Whites of differing classes participated at a differential rate in 22 specific leisure categories. Contrary to prediction, race was more important than class in determining leisure participation. This was especially true for middle-class respondents. It is concluded that social class and race are not clear predictors of leisure participation. Future research using multivariate analysis is recommended. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Explored the effects of utilizing 4 social levels of play (isolate, dyadic, group, and team) on the appropriate play behavior of children in special education classes (SECs) for students with autism in a leisure education/physical education program. Recreation activities representing the 4 social levels of play were implemented during 10-min periods within a multielement design. 17 children in SECs who exhibited social withdrawal and severe communication disorders and 21 same-age peers without disabilities, who were trained to participate in the activities, served as Ss. Team, group, and dyadic play activities all showed a higher percentage of appropriate play behaviors in learners with autism than was shown in isolate play activities. Suggestions are made for the development of recreation and play curricula to serve individuals with autism in integrated settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the extent to which experience level affects the factor structure of motivations to participate in leisure activities. Data were part of the National River Recreation Study database, which included 3,181 river floaters. Factor analyses of responses to a 36-item set of Recreation Experience Preference (REP) scales were performed for each of 6 categories of Experience Use History (EUH). The motivational structure of adjacent EUH categories (ordered in terms of increasing experience) were more similar than the structures of nonadjacent categories. The factor structures became increasingly complex with higher levels of experience. The structure of leisure motivations may not generalize across individuals. Such structural variations may lend insights into the dynamic nature of the psychological meaning of leisure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Two studies with 334 undergraduates explored the role of leisure activities (LSAs) in the process of maintaining and expressing identity. Leisure identities are depicted as cognitive, multidimensional self-concepts. Study 1 examined the nature of leisure identity images for 8 LSAs. Study 2 measured desire for these identity images. Discriminant analysis indicates that leisure participants could be correctly assigned to their activity group on the basis of their desire for the various leisure identities. LSAs symbolize discrete sets of identity images, which generalize from 1 sample to another, and which may be seen as a motivation for participation in specific LSAs. LSAs may be selected on the basis of their ability to affirm valued aspects of identities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Descriptions of the psychological benefits of participation in 34 leisure activities were obtained from 1,375 respondents (college students and non-college adults) who described themselves as knowledgeable participants of at least 1 yr's standing. Cluster analysis revealed 9 relatively homogeneous groups of leisure activities. The psychological benefits provided by participation in the activities assigned to each cluster are identified, and possible applications of this classification system are discussed. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presents a theoretical framework and empirical research. It intends to broaden understanding of the dynamics of emotions and subjective experiences as they develop during a recreational event. The hypothesis is that a congruence between recreational mode and actual behavior facilitates the optimal recreational experience. Data sets from two Norwegian studies, comprising sport fishers, canoeists, and hikers, were examined against this hypothesis. In the first study, 346 participants completed questionnaires measuring place attachment, activity goals and affective responses during their recent fishing trip. In Study 2, 305 outdoor recreationists were approached in the field and asked to describe their recreational mode and to report on their affective responses during an active and a resting phase of the trip, respectively. Analyses were undertaken by means of the so-called flow simplex, revealing that optimal experiences typically develop if the recreational mode is congruent with the present recreational event. The two studies suggest that it is not possible to understand the dynamics of a recreational experience unless the issue of cognitive representations is considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Tested the prediction that wilderness users are more self-actualized than nonusers and that frequent wilderness users are more self-actualized than occasional users. Data were collected from a random sample of 503 adults in Illinois and 222 wilderness users. Ss were given a self-actualization scale that was based on the Personal Orientation Inventory and scales designed to measure a general wilderness attitude and commitment to wilderness. Results show that wilderness use and attitudes were related to self-actualization. Wilderness users were more self-actualized than nonusers and potential users were more self-actualized than potential nonusers. Self-actualization was also positively related to wilderness attitudes. However, frequent wilderness uses were no more self-actualized than occasional wilderness users. Wilderness may be used by some individuals as a self-actualizing experience. However, it is concluded that for representative groups of people, the relationship between wilderness use and self-actualization is very weak. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined 75 adolescents' experience of freedom, intrinsic motivation and positive affect in free time vs productive and maintenance activities, and the degree of challenge and concentration in such activities (i.e., preparation for serious adult roles). Data from 4,489 self-reports indicate that in free time activities, Ss reported experiencing greater freedom, intrinsic motivation and positive affect than in productive and maintenance activities. Higher degrees of challenge and concentration in productive rather than free time activities were reported; sports, games, arts, and hobbies were higher on concentration and challenge than all other activities. These more structured activities were seen by the Ss as transitional (i.e., similar in demand characteristics to serious adult roles) compared with relaxed leisure activities such as socializing and TV-watching. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between adolescent playfulness, the perception of daily stressors and the coping strategies engaged by adolescents within the context of school and leisure. A mixed method approach was used including semi-structured interviews, scales and survey questionnaires. Two hundred ninety adolescents' ages 12 to 19 participated in the study. Results suggest that playful teens are less prone to experience stress of a personal nature or in relation to their peers. Yet they were more prone to experience stress concerning their future or their parents' future. A number of contextual variations were identified. Playfulness as a personality disposition had significant predictive value pertaining to the adolescents' leisure experience, the perception of daily stressors and overall well being. No significant differences across gender or coping mechanisms (active, internal, and withdrawal) were observed. Contrary to previous assumptions, high playful and low playful teens appear to engage in very similar coping processes for very similar stressors, thus playfulness has a low predictability in terms of adolescent coping. Practical implications of this study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Evaluated the psychometric properties of a battery of scales measuring selected dimensions of the leisure experience of adolescents. Four leisure dimensions were included in the battery: boredom, awareness, anxiety, and challenge. The reliability and validity of these scales were established with a sample of 1,407 10th graders as part of a longitudinal panel study on the onset of cigarette smoking during adolescence. The goal of the analysis was to produce parsimonious yet internally consistent measures of selected dimensions of the adolescent leisure experience. To accomplish this, the original, longer version of the battery was shortened. Both Cronbach's alpha and factor analyses confirmed the internal consistency reliability of the reduced dimensions. Test–retest reliability was established over a 12 mo interval. Correlations with theoretically related measures suggested initial construct validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Collected data via questionnaire from 205 Ss (aged 41–86 yrs) and performed causal modeling and path analysis. Findings indicate that (a) age was not related to perceptions of social competence, (b) perceived social competence was a factor in the level of participation in leisure activities, (c) the relationship of perceived social competence to different leisure activities is complex, and (d) perceptions of social competence affected leisure participation and leisure satisfaction, thereby affecting life satisfaction. Implications of the findings suggest a need for greater attention to the social demands of activities as well as the social abilities of Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Performed 2 factor analyses on the responses of 233 university students engaged in a ropes course program to explore and confirm factor structure of these 2 constructs. Ss were responding to the Dimensions of an Adventure Experience survey: a semantic differential of 24 bipolar adjectives concerned with perceptual changes in risk and competence that may occur from participating in adventure experiences. The exploratory analysis formed 3 factors related to risk (fear, eustress, and distress) and 2 factors related to competence (abilities and attitudes). The confirmatory analysis formed the same factors with slightly different loading coefficients. From these findings, a combination of several theoretical models was achieved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined factors influencing fan identity salience and attendance at women's college basketball events, and developed and tested a model. 190 undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure situational involvement, enduring involvement, attachment, identity salience, satisfaction, and attendance. Results show that Ss who attained higher scores concerning situational involvement, enduring involvement, and attachment were more likely to rate their fan identity as being an important part of their self-concept. Identity salience was a greater predictor of fan attendance than was satisfaction. Findings suggest that identity salience is an important factor in explaining fan-related behavior and may be useful for exploring other leisure behaviors. The questionnaire is appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the relationship between degree of influence of agents of socialization and leisure self-efficacy (LSE) among 200 male and 209 female university students. Ss completed instruments measuring the influence of 4 agents of socialization (parents, peers, teachers, and TV) and 3 indicators of LSE: the Perceived Freedom of Leisure Scale by G. D. Ellis and P. A. Witt (1986), the Intrinsic Leisure Motivation Personality Disposition Scale by E. Weissinger (1986), and the Self-as-Entertainment Scale by R. Mannell (1984). LISREL was used to examine the relationships between the socialization influences and the indicators of LSE. Degree of peer influence was found to be significantly related to LSE for both males and females. For females, parental influences were also found to be significantly related to LSE. Results support B. D. McPherson's (1976) findings and are consistent with S. L. Greendorfer's (1977) work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined how experience of self among members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) constrains their experience of leisure. In an 8-mo qualitative study of AA, which used both participant observation and in-depth interviewing for data collection, AA members ( N = 97) expressed deep-seated feelings of deviance or being different. This experience of self had an impact on and impeded alcoholics' affiliations and interactions with others, suggesting that certain forms of self-experience constrain leisure preferences and must be considered in the context of the situation in which preferences are expressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Models were developed for predicting scenic beauty of forest landscapes using field inventories of forest features. Alternative forms for the models included linear, quadratic, cross-product, logarithmic, and square root terms. The more complex nonlinear forms performed only slightly better than the simple linear form, suggesting that linear models are appropriate for practical use in predicting forest scenic beauty from field inventory data. Contrary to the predictions of psychophysical theory, the logarithmic form did not perform better than the linear model. This may be because field inventory variables are an indirect measure of what is actually visible to the observer. Models based on direct measurements of photographic zone areas may be more appropriate for testing psychophysical theories of landscape perception. ANNOTATION: A linear regression model for predicting forest scenic beauty from field inventory data was compared with more complex nonlinear functional forms. The nonlinear forms performed only slightly better than the linear form.
 
80 undergraduates, randomly chosen from a group of 200 Ss who had been administered Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, were exposed to a bogus task situation and then given free time. Leisure experience was operationalized as the extent to which Ss became absorbed or achieved flow in a game. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) focused on freedom of choice, locus of control, and setting structure. Locus of control acted as a moderator variable in conditions of low setting structure. Externally oriented Ss failed to become more absorbed in the game with greater objective choice compared with internals. The impact of personality was suppressed when setting structure was high with both internals and externals showing greater absorption with greater objective freedom of choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Identifiable patterns of subcultural social participation, or membership in voluntary and political organizations, for 130 18–86 yr olds of Hispanic heritage suggested that similar patterns might be identified in leisure behavior. Leisure participation patterns were assumed to differ between Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans, based on previously identified differences in social participation between the 2 groups. Leisure participation patterns, in terms of extensity and intensity of participation, were examined from the perspective of 16 independent social organization variables. Findings indicate that there was no difference in leisure behavior patterns of Mexican- and Anglo-Americans. Not all of the social organization variables were related to leisure behavior. Relationships that were identified, however, were explained by the same factors for both Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Tested a model composed of social class and intragroup regionality variables to explain leisure patterns among 311 urban or rural Blacks (aged 21+ yrs). The analysis of empirical data collected by telephone interview in a southwest Chicago community revealed that the number of full-time employed adults in the household most accurately predicted participation across activities but that social class and regionality were also important variables. The analysis showed that participants in metropolitan activities are likely to be middle class, from the urban North, and live in families with 2 or more full-time employed adults. Findings suggest that explanations of Black American life in the post-civil rights era should include vertical and horizontal differentiation of Black American social structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Surveyed 374 male and 377 female 6th–9th graders enrolled in science classes in 10 schools in a midwestern city and discovered that gender was a more important factor in angling (i.e., fishing) socialization than either race or residence. Angling socialization in turn was very important in determining the Ss' angling activities. Ss who had anglers in their households were more likely to engage in fishing more frequently and were more likely to enjoy angling as a leisure activity. Because males were more likely to enjoy angling than females, teenage males were more active within the urban context. Although urban Black teenage males were not more likely to fish in polluted waters, they ran a higher risk of consuming contaminated fish. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Monitored the behavior of hikers at 4 locations along the trail system of a National Military Park over 12 weekends. 42 groups of hikers were exposed to an awareness of consequences (AC) message, 39 groups received an AC plus resource protector (RP) message, and 53 groups heard a AC plus RP plus incentive message. 72 groups that heard no message served as controls. Results indicate that, compared with control groups, all 3 messages reduced the amount of depreciative behavior committed, especially climbing and hitting; however, the expected pattern of increased effectiveness did not emerge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined cultural differences in the choice of leisure activities and satisfaction with these choices in 164 Jews (70 males and 94 females) and 164 Arabs (100 males and 64 females) living in urban areas in northern Israel. Ss were 15–17 yr old students. A questionnaire covering 4 categories of activities was administered: organized after-school activities, public- and entertainment-related activities, unorganized outside activities, and individual activities in the home. Results indicate significant differences in choices of activity between the 2 cultures and between sexes. Jewish Ss spent more time than Arab Ss in public- and entertainment-related activities, while Arab Ss spent more time than Jewish Ss in home-based activities. Males spent more time than females in all activities except those that were home-based. Arab Ss were generally less satisfied with leisure activities than Jewish Ss. Findings are explained according to modern vs traditional lifestyles. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Percentage of arcade clients in varying sized social groups Content analysis of21 most popular video games The protocol which h a � been prepared for these observations was designed to determine the e x t ellf to which violence is present in arcade video games. To this effect, 71% W the video games surveyed contained violence as previously define d. e. found that violence was observed primarily in 4 types of games: war g ames� sports, ingestion (e.g., Ms PacMan), and games involving criminal t heiil e t (e.g., escape from jail by a convict). The distribution of violent con t e ll among these 4 types is presented in Figure 5.
Description of Cognitive, Perceptual and M otoric Task Demands of21 Most Popu la r Video Games: Percentage per Game
Percentages of "playi � g mod � s" of clients playing the 21 most po pu la r video games (based on all observatiOn sesstons)  
Frequencies of Boys and Girls and of Players and Non-players over All Observation Sessions
Observed 55 girls and 443 boys in 18 video arcades, focusing on 21 of the most popular video games. The cognitive, perceptual, and motor skill demands of these games were highly varied. Most of the games comprised combinations of continuous and fixed ratio appetitive and aversive reinforcement contingencies. Stereotypically male qualities were highly overrepresented in the games. Boys vastly outnumbered girls and were more active consumers but did not manifest stronger preference for violent games than the girls. Most games allowed sequential competition, a small minority allowed only solitary play, and none allowed cooperation. Many games contained antisocial values of a violent nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the ceasing participation (CP) aspect of nonparticipation from a conceptual perspective. A model is proposed that demonstrates how CP and other aspects of nonparticipation are interconnected and how they relate to the broader concepts of leisure demand. A public opinion mail survey on recreation was completed by 3,921 households. CP data alone do not provide a useful indicator of changes in recreation participation. By integrating CP data with information about other aspects of leisure behavior, it was demonstrated that the concepts of the "dropout rate" and "replacement rate" allow for more accurate interpretation of changes in behavior than do raw data on CP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses shortcomings occurring frequently in manuscripts submitted to the present journal, research issues confronting the leisure research community, and techniques for improving leisure research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Proposes a model of persuasion for evaluating informational techniques used in recreation management. The model focuses on the communication response process and factors that influence this process. Behavior change is a function of message elaboration, which is measured using 3 variables: number of thoughts generated, acquisition of new beliefs, and changes in old beliefs. Factors that affect this process include amount of past knowledge regarding a message topic, direct experience related to the topic, personal involvement in the topic, role in social group, perception of source credibility and need for cognition. A study of the effects of brochures on 368 wilderness users was used to test the model. Results support the proposed model. Prior knowledge and source credibility had a direct effect on the persuasion process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Investigated response bias, in the form of "response peaks," in 228 adults who participated in a lottery-regulated hunt. Ss demonstrated a significant digit preference for values ending in 0 or 5 in the self report of number of days hunted per year and number of years hunted. Ss who exhibited a digit preference were significantly more variable and reported significantly higher mean values for number of days and years hunted. Response peaks appear to exist in leisure science. Because decisions relevant to planning and management of leisure service systems rely on self-reported data, validity may be enhanced by focusing on ways to reduce intersubject variability and by attending to issues relevant to experimental protocol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Develops and tests a model of the relationship between international tourism and visitors' postvacation attitudes toward the host or destination culture. Path analysis of data from 96 Ss is used to examine the linkages between pleasure travel motivations, level of intercultural interaction, vacation satisfaction, and visitors' postvacation attitudes. Implications for understanding the role of tourism in changing visitors' attitudes and perceptions of host cultures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Public agencies that provide outdoor recreational facilities are seeking additional sources of funding to operate existing facilities and to provide new recreational opportunities. Higher user fees is one potential source of additional funds. However, negative reactions to higher fees on the part of the using public have been cited as one of the barriers to increasing fees. This paper examines users' attitudes about current fee levels and whether an educational program designed to inform users of the cost of substitute sites and the actual cost of providing public facilities would alter user's attitudes about fees. State park campgrounds in Maine are used as an example, and the attitudes of both resident and non-resident users are examined. The results indicate that the information program can significantly alter the attitudes of both user groups, thus perhaps increasing their willingness to accept higher fees and reduce the potential for negative reaction to campground fee increases. -Authors
 
This study explores variations in preferences for various environmental attributes as they influence the choice of a specific setting in which to recreate. The influence of amount of previous experience and activity commitment is explored. These variables are two of the major dimensions of the specialization concept. They are expected to relate to the ways in which individuals process and store information about their recreational activities. Thus, they would be expected to influence both the types of attributes preferred, as well as the way those attributes are structured. Structure was represented vertically by the level of specificity of attributes and horizontally by the number of attributes used in the recreation decision process. Further, an open-ended format for eliciting attribute preferences was used to avoid constraints imposed by fixed lists. Two separate surveys were carried out, one administered to persons in a wildland setting who had made an actual choice to participate, and the other to members of a wilderness organization, who were asked to make a hypothetical choice. Results indicated that experience and commitment were not related to the types of attributes preferred, but significantly influenced both the vertical and horizontal structure of attribute preferences.
 
Explored the relationship between work environment and burnout by examining whether attributes of work environment are related to burnout and if so, what the relative contribution of these attributes is to burnout. 414 Iowa and Missouri Park and Recreation professionals completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Work Environment Scale. Results show that the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the MBI was significantly related to burnout. Work pressure, job clarity, and staff support were the key work-environment variables related to burnout. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Compared 169 workers and volunteers (aged 60–87 yrs) in Israel with nonworkers and nonvolunteers on psychological variables. Contrasting self-attributions of reasons for either activity or inactivity were studied as well as strategies employed and recommended for finding jobs or volunteer positions. Older workers tended to be male, better educated, younger, and more satisfied with their lives than nonworkers. Volunteers were more educated than nonvolunteers, and higher rates of volunteers were found among women. Working was attributed primarily to financial reasons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Investigated the commercial, personal-goods, auction sale as an adult play-world setting. J. Huizinga's (1950) conception of play was employed in an application of symbolic interaction theory, using participant observation methodology. Findings suggest that auctions are a play-world setting for adults. They are a performance in which boundaries are defined, auction participants become players, and the event can be replayed, transforming ordinary life into something special and limited in time and space. Contests were orderly and decisions followed fair-play rules. Use of multiple confirmatory sources indicate that findings were valid. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A spatial and temporal analysis of the occurrence of crime was undertaken at selected tourist resorts in Australia to determine whether, and to what extent, tourism and crime are related. When compared with results from nontourist "control" centers, statistical tests showed significant differences between the 2 samples in the type of offense and the characteristics of offenders and victims. Seasonal bias was also revealed in the incidence of criminal behavior during the year, a finding that may have important implications for the work loads of law enforcement agencies in tourist areas. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the degree to which backpackers used 6 physical coping (PC) and 6 social coping (SC) behaviors to avoid encounters/interactions with other backpackers. PC behaviors were used more often than SC behaviors. Ss used SC behaviors infrequently, except for reducing social interactions with backpackers in other parties. The importance of solitude to Ss was significantly related to adoption of all 6 PC behaviors but to none of the SC behaviors. Ss who had lower encounter norms and who were more sensitive to actual encounters participated significantly more often in 10 of the 12 coping behaviors. Level of past experience had little influence on use of coping behaviors. Findings are interpreted in the context of coping behavior as a means of avoiding or adjusting to visitor encounters in wildland recreation areas. The role of such behavior in controlling environmental conditions and desired level of privacy is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviews the conceptual and empirical literature that supports the notion that crowding in outdoor recreation is a normative concept. It is indicated that crowding norms are influenced by visitor characteristics, characteristics of those encountered, and situational variables. Several management and research implications are developed based on review and synthesis of the crowding literature in outdoor recreation. It is concluded that it may be possible to manage crowding without limiting density. (77 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Comments on the concept of norms as used in M. Patterson and W. Hammitt's (see record 1991-02995-001) study on backpacker backcountry encounters. Patterson and Hammitt verify the existence of a norm not in terms of sanctions but from personal norms (PNs). Social norms are not evaluated directly with this approach; rather their existence is inferred from the amount of agreement among PNs. This formulation presents theoretical and methodological problems: (1) PNs focus on personal standards as opposed to group orientations; (2) PNs are not entirely divorced from a group orientation, and as such, also have implications for sanctions; and (3) PNs are further distinguished by the character of sanctions attached to them that are tied to the self-concept. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A total of 294 female university students, faculty, and staff completed a questionnaire consisting of items related to the Bem Sex Role Inventory and to barriers to and participation in recreational activities. Results reveal 10 recreation barrier (BR) factors, including time, money, facilities, family concerns, unawareness, lack of interest, decision making, body image, skills, and social inappropriateness. A few associations were found between Ss with identified gender-role personality traits and BRs. Ss with masculine personalities were not hampered by unawareness of activities. Interest in recreation activities was the greatest BR for stereotypic feminine and undifferentiated Ss. Body image was a significantly greater BR for feminine and undifferentiated Ss than for masculine and androgynous Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the effects of service quality and satisfaction on behavioral intention among visitors to a wildlife refuge. 282 adult visitors (aged 40-69 yrs) of the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in Texas completed questionnaires concerning the benefits of visiting the site, including nature appreciation/learning, achievement, introspection/nostalgia, escape, meeting new and similar people, physical fitness, and family togetherness. Questions also concerned overall service quality and satisfaction, and the likelihood of revisiting or recommending the refuge. Results show that subjects (Ss) who reported satisfaction with their overall experience at the refuge rated its overall quality as high. Ratings of high obtained psychological benefits were associated with high overall satisfaction ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Icek Ajzen
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Seppo iso-ahola
  • University of Maryland, College Park
Karla A Henderson
  • North Carolina State University
Daniel R. Williams
  • US Forest Service
Linda L Caldwell
  • Pennsylvania State University