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Journal Of International Development

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1099-1328
Discipline: Development Studies
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Aims and scope

The Journal of International Development is an inter-disciplinary journal that aims to publish the best research on international development issues in a form that is accessible to practitioners and policy-makers as well as to an academic audience. Alongside its main focus on international development, the Journal does not represent any particular school of development thought, analytical technique or methodological approach, but aims to publish high quality scientific contributions to ideas, frameworks, policy and practice that make a significant and novel contribution to the field of international development. Contributions on the Global North and Global South are welcome, although the journal particularly encourages contributions from researchers from the Global South or working on research that address challenges in the Global South. The Journal has two special features: Field Reports, which are short articles contributing to development policy and practice, and invited Special Issues, which comprise several articles focusing on a theme at the frontier of knowledge in the field of international development.

 

Editors

Recent publications
Article
We assessed the perceived socio‐economic impact of the Kenyan Standard Gauge Railway (SGR), using an original survey with 132 experts and interviews with 91 community residents across five cities and towns. We found that local and international stakeholders prioritize socio‐economic impacts over other impact domains, while there remain local tensions between economic growth and environmental conservation. SGR significantly helped tourism and moderately enhanced employment, with winners and losers divided by business sizes, sectors and locations. To maximize positive impact, China's infrastructure‐led model may benefit from integrating physical infrastructure with supporting services and facilities to promote more equitable growth worldwide.
 
Article
China has become a recent rising power in global development cooperation in the past few years. This paper examines how the Global North, as represented by Japan, responds to the rising of the Global South, as represented by China, in infrastructure support. This paper positions itself in the context of Global‐North/South and triangular cooperation to compare Japan's Partnership for Quality Infrastructure with China's Belt and Road Initiative from the dimensions of policy rhetoric, finance mechanism, environmental sustainability and rule of law. This paper draws the conclusion on whether the North–South competition enhances the quality and sustainability of those initiatives.
 
Cultivable land ownership (in acres) by caste
The economic status of the households by caste
The Economic status of the Households by Caste. Note: (a) Access to housing facility. (b) Access to flush/pit toilet. (c) Access to piped gas connection. (d) Access to Television (exposure to mass media)
Percentage of households taken loan or debt during the last 3 years and average amount of loan
Total, between group and within group inequality by caste group (Theil index)
Article
This study estimates poverty, wealth inequality and financial inclusion, for the first time, at the sub‐caste level in both Hindus and Muslims using a unique survey data collected from 7124 households in Uttar Pradesh, India, during 2014–2015. The results confirm the existing hypothesis that Brahmins, Thakurs and other Hindu general castes have higher wealth accumulation, lower poverty and lesser exclusion from formal financial services than Dalits. Exclusion from formal financial services forces Dalits to depend primarily on informal financial sources for borrowing—which leads to financial misfortune and further dragging them into a vicious cycle of poverty.
 
Average effective tax rates by country and representative mines in 2016 Source: Authors. For a discount rate of 10% and a gold price of 1200$/oz
Distribution of countries by tax regime for the medium‐grade mine in 2016
Article
Based on the innovative database, we use a discounted cash flow model to study the rent sharing and the mining tax design in African gold‐producing countries. Two main tax designs emerge: those that favour production‐based taxes in order to secure government's revenues and those that favour profit‐based taxes to support economic efficiency. From the estimation of a panel model regression, we show that tax design depends essentially on the evolution of world prices and not on institutional variables. The recent ‘innovations’ in mining taxation to introduce more progressivity have had mitigated results. In the best of cases, the regressivity of tax regimes has been reduced.
 
Article
This paper uses data from the China Health and Retirement Survey to estimate the causal effect child out‐migration has on the health of parents in China. For rural parents, we show that after controlling for self‐selection, child out‐migration has a detrimental effect not only on subjective well‐being and mental health but also on cognitive function and physical health when measured using a series of clinical tests and health biomarkers. In contrast, for urban parents, only a few health effects are significant, and those that are tend to be positive. In terms of the mechanism through which migration affects parental health, we find that it is differences in the level of physical support that parents require that is central to explaining many of the health effects we observe. For those who require little physical support, the income effect helps to mitigate the negative effects associated with child out‐migration, while for more vulnerable groups of parents, the economic benefits of migration are currently no substitute for the loss of informal support networks when a child migrates.
 
Karamoja, Uganda, highlighted in red (Map Credit: Author)
Because much of the population is illiterate, attendance sheets are often signed with thumbprints. This was why the survey respondent above described giving thumbprints. (Photo Credit: Author)
Article
In this article, I demonstrate how soda, an ostensibly inconsequential component of development implementation, can have wide‐ranging impacts in shaping programmatic outcomes. Drawing upon 6 months of participant observation alongside an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), I demonstrate how sodas contributed to new ways of valuing time, altered intracommunity and intercommunity relations, and offered unique insight into programme efficacy. In so doing, I argue that refocusing attention beyond the larger discourses of development to the everyday objects, mundane practices, and the interstitial spaces that populate implementation enables critical insights that would otherwise be overlooked.
 
Percentage of women that have experienced IPV with their current partner
Article
We examine if having legal documentation of one's property rights reduces women's tolerance of intimate partner violence (IPV) in eight countries in Sub‐Saharan Africa. Whilst property titling may have numerous benefits, decreased justification of IPV does not appear to consistently be one of those benefits. Results indicate that out of eight countries examined, only in Ethiopia and Benin did inclusion of women's names on property titles reduce acceptance of IPV. Our findings reinforce the notion that context matters. Whilst in some countries, policies that promote titling may have positive spillover effects, in other contexts, property titling simply is not enough to counter traditional beliefs that IPV is socially acceptable.
 
Article
The ability of microcredit programmes to empower women remains highly contested, with studies alternatively championing their worth or denouncing their ineffectiveness. This article examines why there are such differences of opinion as to the value of microcredit programming for women's empowerment. Through using a qualitative analysis of interviews and focus group discussions with self‐help group participants in West Bengal, this article shows that current microcredit programming varies widely. Results from this study show that there were different empowerment outcomes for women based on which approach to microcredit was implemented. Results further indicate that regardless of the model of programming employed, microcredit is no substitution for welfare or for the creation of employment. This article therefore concludes that microcredit programming exists along a continuum, from ‘smart economics’ approaches to more holistic gender focused programming approaches.
 
Article
Using data from two representative Demographic and Health Surveys, we examine the change in son preference over the past three decades and its effects on Pakistani women's fertility. We analyse a number of indicators and employ different empirical methods to come up with strong and persistent evidence for both the revealed and stated preference for sons. This disproportionate preference for boys is visible in increasing desired sex ratio and worsening sex ratio at last birth. Reliance over differential birth stopping has significantly increased over time as couples are more likely to stop childbearing once the desired number of boys is achieved.
 
A mapping of inclusive development
Article
This article aims to conceptualise contemporary understandings of ‘inclusive development’. The article draws upon two conceptual models: plural/universal rights (Mégret, 2008, 10.1353/hrq.0.0000) and social–relational inclusion (Gupta & Vegelin, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-016-9323-z) to demonstrate how ‘inclusion’ is understood concerning economic, social, and human development. The article then draws upon these disparate, yet interconnected understandings of inclusive development and maps four contemporary inclusive development approaches (participation of stakeholders, representational politics, social protection, and economic redistribution). The purpose of this mapping is to provide context for how the singular word ‘inclusion’ can be used to pursue multiple desired outcomes, some of which may conflict with one another.
 
Article
Partnership is ubiquitous in international development discourse, but it is unclear whether development relationships have become less hierarchical. This study looks beyond the usual North–South inter-organizational partnerships, to examine within-organizational dynamics. It examines participation in the context of two South Korean non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Cambodia. Findings based on qualitative interviews with Korean leaders and local Cambodian managers show shortfalls yet overall improvements in participation, with a shift from a managerialist to a more praxis approach. The study shows that examining within-organizational power relations provides an important window into the real nature of participation, empowerment and partnership in development cooperation practices.
 
Underemployment statistics by year. Notes: Authors calculated based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)
Wages distribution by gender and underemployment statistics (two indicators). Notes: Authors calculated based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)
Article
Using the data from seven waves of China Health and Nutrition Survey questionnaires, this study investigates the factors associated with underemployment by measuring it using multidimensional indicators and the effect of underemployment on hourly wages in China. We find that male workers have a lower probability of underemployment than female workers. The underemployment rate of men has increased with age. As for women, the underemployment rate does not significantly change with age, considering corrections for selectivity bias. Furthermore, the effect of underemployment on the hourly wages of workers is robustly significant and negative for both males and females.
 
Article
Brokers have long been under scrutiny for their purported disloyalty, but brokers’ attachments to and expectations of the parties they mediate for, remain largely neglected. This article contributes to existing scholarship on brokerage by reversing the much-discussed theme of betrayal by brokers, focussing instead on betrayal of brokers. It maps three forms of betrayal - interpersonal; institutional and ideological – drawing on unique empirical material, including interviews with Afghan interpreters who worked for Western armies. It argues that the betrayal of brokers is facilitated by conditions of reduced demand and weak social ties in an unequal global order. In cases where the brokers’ remit is largely dictated by the patron, brokers stand more to lose than to gain.
 
Location of Chinese aid projects and Afrobarometer survey clusters [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Article
This paper examines whether Chinese aid impacts citizens' trust in government by matching geocoded data on Chinese aid projects located in sub‐Sahara Africa (SSA) between 2000 and 2014 to respondents from rounds 3 to 6 of Afrobarometer survey. Implementing an instrumental variable (IV) estimation to control for the potential endogeneity of aid, this paper finds robust evidence that Chinese aid reduces trust in government. The decline in trust seems to be because the aid projects stimulate poor assessments of government performance and perceptions that government officials are involved in corrupt activities. Replication analysis reveals that World Bank projects are no different and also reduce trust in government. Consequently, these findings reignite concerns about the unintended consequences of aid and the need to adopt implementation approaches that mitigate unintended adverse outcomes.
 
Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Nagpur and Nashik radar diagrams illustrates each city's linkages with 9 world regions. Note: The radar diagrams are produced by the author using GaWC 2016 data.
Article
This paper analyses the global connectivity of Indian cities to understand the varying pace of city growth in the context of Indian Urban Development. Using Globalisation and World City (GaWC) network's 2016 data, this paper examines each city's connectivity via their intra‐firm–office transactions. First, Mumbai, New Delhi and Bangalore were identified as the top‐most group strongly linked with the advanced economies in North America and Europe. Second, India's second category cities—Chennai, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Pune and Ahmedabad—had dominant connectedness with South Asian cities growing at a moderate pace. Third, the lowest‐tier cities—Allahabad, Nagpur and Nashik—were fast catching up with their global service activities, demonstrating India's emerging South–South multilateral cooperation. Confirming to the global urban literature, the above pattern reflects those greater intra‐firm linkages that contributed to higher connectivity between cities, being leveraged through the ICT infrastructure growing beyond the primary (X) citiesto engage smart (Y) cities. This finding provides evidence against postcolonial critiques that argued for place‐specific history of colonial cities explaining emerging geographies.
 
Article
Formal digital credit raises hopes to decrease the gender gap in financial inclusion. However, up until now, it remains unknown whether these hopes are justified. Using nationally representative household surveys from Kenya, the present study aims to fill this gap. We find strong indication that formal digital credit, contrasting to expectations, has led to an increase in the gender gap in financial inclusion. We further find indication that the pervasive gender gap in the formal digital credit market is largely attributable to gender differences in socio‐economic variables in combination with a lack of contract term heterogeneity in that market. The paper suggests that policies to strengthen women's position in society and/or to encourage contract term heterogeneity in the formal digital credit market could decrease the gender gap in financial inclusion.
 
Article
India has witnessed a rapid rise in personal income, increased spending on infrastructure and construction and urbanisation in the past three decades. Households have changed their eating habits by purchasing more processed food. This study examines the factors affecting India's consumption of and expenditures on processed foods. The study uses information from three rounds of data collected by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) and probit and selection bias‐controlled tobit and ordinary least square (OLS) estimation procedures to estimate the empirical model. Findings reveal that the average expected per capita monthly spending on processed foods increased by about 77% between 1990–1991 and 2011–2012. An increase in total consumption expenditure and rapid urbanisation were the primary drivers of consumption and spending on processed foods by Indian households. Secondly, households with salaried or stable incomes were more likely to consume processed foods than other households. This study suggests public and private initiatives to improve human health and nutritional outcomes in Indian households. The government should strengthen food safety regulations related to processed food preparation, distribution and consumption.
 
Article
Over the past one and a half centuries, urbanization has coincided with industrialization and globalization. The business as usual mode of urban development has proven unsustainable, and the consensus of developing new paradigms toward more sustainable trajectories has been reached. This paper reviews and identifies the most prominent forms of sustainable urban development, encompassing theories of urban frameworks, major definitions and concepts and historical developments in the East Asian context. Three major trends are assessed, including garden cities (and eco‐cities), low‐carbon cities and smart cities, which identify each main phase of sustainable urbanization in the East Asian context.
 
Needs results from focus group discussions (FGD) card sorting exercise. Number of groups mentioning the listed expense as a need
Priorities results from the focus group discussions (FGD) card sorting exercise. Number of groups mentioning the listed expense as a priority
Article
Cash‐based interventions are increasingly used in humanitarian response, including in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector. To strengthen evidence, we conducted a qualitative study on cash‐based interventions programs for WASH operations and maintenance in Kachin, Myanmar. We collected field data for one programme and completed a desk review for two programs. We found camp‐based committees were responsible for spending decisions and cash use was aligned with community needs/priorities. Programme strengths included community empowerment, time effectiveness; programme weaknesses included funding insecurity, limited training and monitoring and vulnerable groups inclusion. Recommendations for cash‐based WASH operation and maintenance programs in Kachin and similar contexts are presented.
 
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (United Nations Development Programme, 2020) [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
MNEs and their focus on the SDGs [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Regional focus of MNEs' sustainability actions [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Regional focus of MNEs sectors' sustainability actions [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Article
This article examines multinationals' (MNEs) sustainability practices focusing on the SDGs in developing countries through studying sustainability reports of multinationals from China (CMNEs) and developed countries (DMNEs). Findings show significant differences in MNEs' approaches to the SDGs. DMNEs prioritise education, health and poverty, whereas CMNEs emphasise poverty, education and cities in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Conversely, inequality, hunger, consumption and production, oceans and peace, justice and strong institutions are poorly addressed. Most importantly, while contributing to sustainability, they foster inequalities among developing countries by over‐focusing on China and India, against the pledge of Leaving No One Behind.
 
Article
This paper empirically examines the economic impacts of COVID‐19 on firms' business activities and female workers in 10 developing economies around the world. Based on a survey conducted by the World Bank, we constructed a firm‐level panel dataset and investigated how firms' production and finances have developed during COVID‐19. We also investigated female workers' employment situations and how they were affected by firm performance. COVID‐19 indeed casted seriously adverse impacts in the developing world. As time passes, firms' production has been recovering, but their finances are worsening, and the female workers are facing worse situations in forms of higher probabilities of losing jobs and getting furloughed. Other variables such as workforce, capacity utilisation, and exports also play important roles in this process.
 
The consequences of surface‐level problem analysis
Towards a deeper problem analysis and more transformative interventions
Article
Diverse approaches to promoting disability inclusive employment aim to transform workplaces into truly inclusive environments, usually with intervention strategies targeting two main groups: employers and jobseekers with disabilities. However, they do not always consider other relevant stakeholders or address the relationships and interactions between diverse actors in the wider social ecosystem. These approaches often neglect deeper ‘vexing’ difficulties which block progress towards disability inclusive work environments. Most interventions rightly embrace hegemonic ‘social models of disability’ and use human rights arguments but may neglect entrenched structural factors. Disability inclusive employment is complex, with unaddressed invisible aspects that continue to limit progress. We explore some key relevant disability concepts and then interrogate evidence from the ‘Inclusion Works’ programme working in four middle‐ and low‐income countries, considering some intractable barriers underlying the slow movement towards inclusive employment. Finally, we propose that a more participatory action orientated approach involving disabled people and others is needed to both generate deeper understanding and provide pathways towards new solutions to obstinate problems through progressive action learning processes in context. Programmatic interventions that work across the levels of the ecosystem and address power relations and interactions between stakeholders could lead to more substantial forms of disability inclusive employment.
 
Kenya disability facts
Bangladesh disability facts (Limited Published Academic Papers of Disability)
Examples of personas used in the study: a person with a disability (hearing impairment) and a person with a disability (vision impairment)
Assistive technology key drivers
Article
Owing to increased inclusion of young people with disabilities into the private sector in Bangladesh and Kenya, there is an urgent need to find alternative ways to support young graduates with a disability in the workplace with assistive technology solutions. The aim of the paper is to identify barriers for private workplace sectors to use assistive technology to support young graduates seeking, maintaining and retaining employment. This qualitative study adopted the research onion design of Saunders et al. Data were collected using interviews and focus group discussions and analysed using thematic analysis. The findings reveal that barriers are linked to seven key person‐centred capability themes: the dream, external factors, internal factors, assistive technology vision, strategic design priorities and gaps and assistive actions.
 
Article
The paper presents interview data from Malawian government representatives, trade unionists, employers and people with disabilities from the country's largest cities Lilongwe and Blantyre. Findings relate to the gap between the discourse of employers and government officials and that of workers with disabilities. Firstly, we find a policy‐based assumption of a formalised workforce that is not representative of the predominantly informal disabled workforce. Secondly, the disruptive, intermittent and often reactive nature of non‐governmental organisation (NGO) interventions can limit long‐term inclusivity agendas and undermine the work of disabled activists in Malawi. Lastly, we present findings on the stigmatised nature of disability in these urban centres. We find that stigma is economic: Urban workers with disabilities are discriminated against locally by employers, landlords and banks on assumptions they will not produce or earn enough to meet productivity demands, rent or repayment costs.
 
Disability groups in Uzbekistan. Source: Registration of documents for obtaining disability, single portal of interactive government services, https://my.gov.uz/ru/life‐situations/10 (assessed on 25 May 2021). Authors' illustration
Article
Despite the recent advances in the field of protection of the rights of disabled people in Uzbekistan, their right to work and be protected from unemployment is not fully implemented. The reported levels of disability employment remain significantly low. The findings of this pilot qualitative study reveal that the current institutional framework which takes its roots in the Soviet disability policies coupled with environmental and attitudinal barriers is restricting disabled people's right to work. Based on the lived experiences of disabled people in Tashkent city and the Tashkent region this study calls for the removal of all the barriers.
 
Article
Despite a growing focus on disability‐inclusive employment and livelihoods, people with intellectual disabilities and their families remain underrepresented in both the literature and in employment programming. This paper identifies key barriers to inclusive employment collected through six (6) focus groups made up of people with intellectual disabilities (N:54) and their family members (N:45) in Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Self‐advocates and families report stigma, denial of access to education, safety and security concerns, pressure to engage in self‐employment, and discrimination as key barriers. Their experiences can contribute to more inclusive cross‐disability perspectives on employment and provide guidance for practitioners aiming to design responsive disability‐inclusive employment programmes.
 
Economic activity status of disabled people 15 years and older by sex and type of locality in Ghana
The employment cycle indicating relevant concerns regarding an inclusive workplace that disabled people experience at each stage of the process
Map of Ghana depicting the administrative regions, with Kumasi, the study area zoomed in to the right
Disabled peoples' overall work experience over the last decade (2010–2019)
Article
In Africa, the work experiences of disabled people can help employers and the government build more inclusive workplaces. Nonetheless, research exploring disabled people's work experiences at various employment stages is limited, particularly in Africa. The study applies ethnographic research methods to examine the work experience of those with visual, speech, hearing, mobility and psychological disabilities in Ghana. Data were coded and analysed using content and descriptive methods. The findings suggest that disabled people face several barriers, including inadequate accommodation, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination and poor performance evaluation at work. This paper argues that transformational leadership is a prerequisite for African governments and private sector employers seeking to improve the workplace environment and build an inclusive culture within these spaces.
 
Article
In low-income settings, the informal economy is a practical alternative to work and employment for persons with disabilities. However, the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the informal economy. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women with psychosocial disabilities in Kenya during the pandemic. We found that the pandemic worsened their experiences of work and employment, and they did not receive any social welfare or support from the government. Our findings suggest that pandemic management must adopt inclusive and context-sensitive approaches that support persons with psychosocial disabilities. Social welfare and protection for persons with disabilities are relevant for socio-economic empowerment and inclusion.
 
Article
This paper examines whether descriptive social norms affect one's intention to participate in voluntary social insurance in Mongolia. It reports the results of a survey experiment conducted in September 2020 among herders, whose rate of participation in voluntary social insurance is low and who presumably lack information about others' behaviours with respect to social insurance enrollment. Building upon prior research on descriptive social norms, we hypothesise that herders would be more willing to participate in voluntary social insurance when given information that many others are participating. The respondents were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received information that many others were participating in social insurance, and the other received information that the participation rate was low. We find that those who were given information on the high participation rate expressed a greater willingness to participate in social insurance in the future than the other group.
 
Article
Introduction: Disability is restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner or with range consider normal for a human being. Disability results from the interactions between individual with a health condition. People with disability experience poorer health outcome have less access to education and work opportunities and are more likely to live in poverty than those without a disability. Evidence shows that half of people with disability cannot afford healthcare. Objective: To assess the attitude of Undergraduate Nurses toward disability and to find out the association of attitude towards disability among Undergraduate Nurses with their selected socio-demographic variables. Method: A Quantitative descriptive research design was adopted and study was conducted on 119 Undergraduate nurses of Akal College of Nursing selected by purposive sampling technique. The data collection tool consists of two parts: Socio-demographic variables and semi structured 5 pointer Likert scales on disability. Questionnaire consists of 22 items and 3 domains (Physical, Mental, Social). Method of data collection was online self-administration. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23 (Descriptive Statistics). Descriptive statistics: Frequency, Percentage was used for socio-demographic variables. Chi-square was used to find out the association of attitude towards disability among Undergraduate Nurses with their selected socio-demographic variables. Findings:. In this study 65 (54.6%) have positive attitude and 54(45.4%) have negative attitude towards disability. Conclusion: The results from this study revealed that level of knowledge on disability among undergraduate nurses was inadequate.
 
The three study areas [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Changes in the fields of actions of the organisations studied [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Changes in the sources of funding obtained by organisations studied [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Article
Local development organisations are now widespread in rural regions of North Africa. In the past, these organisations were usually only involved in a few sector‐specific activities. This study investigated the activities of 24 local development organisations in the Saharan regions of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The fields of action of these organisations have expanded in the past decade, thanks to their increased capacity to handle relations with other actors. They have become active in defining what development means at the local level, although public administrations do not yet acknowledge such a role.
 
Article
This paper describes the socio‐economic dynamics that, in the Colombian case, underlie the relationship between mining and the territory where it takes place. The description includes the key features of public policy regarding mining, under which mineral resource extraction may have produced unintended effects that raise doubts regarding mining's contribution to Colombian economic development. Under a qualitative approach, I carried out a documentary analysis from which I identified several aspects of the economic and mining policy. The analysis confirms several of the explanations for the so‐called resource curse hypothesis, the connection between these aspects, and of them with specific policy decisions.
 
Article
To address intensifying social and environmental challenges, development policy must learn from inclusions and exclusions of past discourses. We analyse Kenya's post‐colonial agricultural policy discourse. Our analysis reveals a near‐exclusive focus on the promotion of agricultural modernisation based on industrial farm inputs, a bureaucratic state and/or ‘the liberalised market’. It was with this thrust to modernise that smallholders (and other farmers) were generally seen as aligning. Smallholders' agency to diverge from modernisation was thus marginalised in the policy discourse. Overall then, the promotion of diverse agroecological and other farmer‐led directions of development was largely missing from Kenya's policy landscape.
 
The change of equilibrium results with consumers' environmental awareness [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
The change of total pollution with R&D efficiency [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
The comparison between the input subsidy and the output subsidy
Article
This paper investigates the effects of the government's input subsidy and output subsidy in a green supply chain with a manufacturer and a retailer. We find the input subsidy does not necessarily give rise to a higher R&D input, while the output subsidy does not necessarily lead to a higher output. The comparison is strongly dependent on the externality of the production and consumers' environmental awareness.
 
The interlocking latticework of China–Africa relations [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Article
This study applies a Chinese theoretical framework—relationality, as articulated by Qin Yaqing—to explain how Beijing creates and manipulates its relations with African partners to advance its “core interests” and leadership of the Global South. Relationality elucidates the “Community of Shared Future for Mankind”—an interlocking, multitiered network of Sinocentric relationships based on traditional Confucian conceptions of reciprocity. The pervasiveness of China's influence in Africa can be explained by its overlapping latticework of relationships involving thousands of African elites traversing all four levels—bilateral, subregional, regional and global. At each level, Chinese interlocutors use material support, inclusive rhetoric and host diplomacy to create and perpetuate so‐called “win–win” relationships with African partners. Because the “relational power” these dyads generate disproportionately strengthens the weaker side, China can elicit African compliance by reducing—or threatening to reduce—its shared economic and political resources.
 
Participants in TPP and RCEP
China's top 5 trading partners. Source: The State Council of the PRC (2022) [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Article
China's FTA strategy and its efforts in economic regionalism in the Pacific region are providing new impetus to deepening economic interdependence with its partners and domestic reform to sustain the country's economic growth. The FTAs in the Pacific region provide China and its economic partners with convenient access to their mutual markets, investment destinations and resources, expanding their economic cooperation and trade. China is increasingly able to obtain economic benefits from the regional network of FTAs while intensifying its economic and, by extension, political relations with its partners. In the face of the enormous economic benefits, China's partners, particularly those without geopolitical competition and territorial disputes with China, may view China's rise as an “opportunity” for their economic growth and accept its concept of “peaceful rise.” In this sense, China's FTA strategy and the regional network of FTAs may help China reap not only economic but also geopolitical interest, accelerating its rise at the systemic (global) and subsystemic (regional) levels.
 
Economic transformation. Source: Calabrese et al. (2020) (permission to reproduce this figure has been obtained by the authors)
Article
African countries face an economic transformation gap. Given the large and growing Chinese presence on the African continent, a fundamental question is whether Chinese firms contribute to, or hinder, economic transformation in Africa. This article conducts a scoping review of over one hundred sources, examining the pathways through which Chinese firms can affect economic transformation. On balance, the literature points to a positive role of Chinese firms. Africa–China trade leads to mixed results, while Chinese investment and infrastructure construction are found to contribute positively to transformation. Chinese firms are also found to support capacity building, spillovers and innovation in African countries.
 
Sustainability analysis framework. Source: The Springfield Centre (2014) [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Key questions and indicators of sustainability and scale. Source: The Springfield Centre (2014) [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Sustainability and exit strategies conceptual framework. Source: Rogers and Coates (2015). Adapted from Coates and Kegode. 2012. ‘Kenya Exit Strategies Study Round 2 Report’. Unpublished, submitted to FANTA April 8 [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Article
Billions of dollars continue to be provided in foreign aid each year. However, few scholarly studies have examined whether the outcomes from foreign aid interventions are sustained after donor funding has ceased. This paper examines current approaches to assessing this issue before arguing that a realist evaluation approach is ideally suited to understand why and how sustained outcomes are—or are not—achieved. It contributes to the existing literature by presenting three new frameworks to examine the sustainability of outcomes in international development as well as some Context‐Mechanism‐Outcome statements. Implications for governments, communities, households and donor/implementing organisations are discussed.
 
Article
The impact of pandemic COVID-19 is changed and transformed in every sector around the world. The education sectors in various countries also seen a huge change especially in India and in various states of the country. It was created massive transformation in Bangalore city are badly affected by this. It has enforced the world wide lock down creating very bad effect on the students' life. Around 10 lakh learners stopped to move schools/colleges and all educational activities halted in Bangalore. The outbreak of COVID-19 has taught us that change is inevitable. It has worked as a catalyst for the educational institutions to grow and opt for platforms with technologies, which have not been used before. The education sector has been fighting to survive the crises with a different approach and digitising the challenges to wash away the threat of the pandemic. This paper highlights some measures taken by Govt. of India and State Government of Karnataka to provide seamless education in the country. Both the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on education are discussed and some fruitful suggestions are also pointed to carry out educational activities during the pandemic situation.
 
Article
Faculty Of Science, Gokul Science College, Gokul Global University, India. Abstract: A chromatographic method for determination of assay of Brexpiprazole was developed using Quality by design approach. QBD is a standardized approach for the process development. The method development by QBD begins with the predefined objectives. In this modern era of pharmaceuticals, the perception of QBD is extended to analytical method development. In present work a simple method was developed and two critical attributes were focused for developing the robust and rugged method. Total of 13 experiments were suggested by the Design Expert software using the central composite method, in which, the flow rate and the proportion of solvent were focused. The central composite method is widely used for the method development because of its accuracy in a smaller number of experiments. The implication of self-sufficient factors was resolved using Fisher’s statistical test for Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA) model that was predicted. Primesil C-18 column (250mm*4.6mm*5µ) was found to be suitable as it produced the symmetrical peaks. The wavelength on which the detection was carried is 215nm with Phosphate Buffer pH 3.5 as mobile phase A and Acetonitrile 100% as mobile phase B. The validation parameters such as specificity, accuracy, linearity, repeatability, robustness and solution stability were carried out and this method can be used for judgement of quality of API. The forced degradation study was also carried out and no interference of any unknown peak found with main peak. Keywords: Chromatography, HPLC, Analytical Method development, QBD approach, Brexpiprazole, Antipsychotic Drug, Design Expert
 
Article
The developing world has experienced unprecedented effects of the Covid‐19 pandemic. The devastating effects of this major crisis are felt in all possible spheres of the developing world and with a serious impact on social and economic development in developing countries. The spread of Covid‐19, which has brought the world to a near standstill, has given rise to the question on the socioeconomic effects of the pandemic. The special issue on Covid‐19 at JID aims to bring together contemporary research on several aspects of how the devastating effects of the pandemic have panned out in different spheres of life, particularly, in the developing world. This special issue has 10 papers with a particular emphasis on evidence of the impact of the Covid‐19 pandemic in Sub‐Saharan Africa and South America. The volume documents studies on the effects of the pandemic at the macro‐level, for economy wide effects, the impact of the pandemic on firms and on its effects on households.
 
Spillover plots, 2 January 2017 to 30 October 2020. Notes: Diebold and Yilmaz's (2012) spillover model has been used to generate return spillover plots for the United States and developing African economies: South Africa, Nigeria, Egypt, and Morocco. The return spillover index uses a 200–day rolling window with a forecast horizon of 10 days. The shaded area represents Phase I of the COVID–19 pandemic (30 January to 30 April 2020)
Article
This study provides new evidence on how risk spillovers occur from the United States to developing economies in Africa during the COVID‐19 pandemic. The results show that downside risk exposures of African markets, financial firms and banks particularly increased during Phase I (30 January to 30 April 2020). The nature and magnitude of downside risk exposures of African financial markets were similar to those of the United States. Our results also reveal that the United States is a net transmitter of risk spillovers while Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt and Morocco are net recipients. Our conclusions offer guidance to risk managers, policymakers and investors.
 
COVID‐19 in Mozambique—daily and accumulated cases. Source: authors' computation based on Ministério da Saúde (2020)
Poverty rate increase (pp) and consumption reduction (%) at different levels. Note: pp, percentage point; Q1–Q5, consumption quintiles 1–5, respectively; Educ 1, no education/incomplete primary education; Educ 2, complete primary/incomplete secondary education; Educ 3, incomplete/complete second cycle of secondary education; Educ 4, incomplete/complete tertiary education; Manag, senior manager; Univers, university staff/technician; Non_univ, non‐university staff/technicians; Admin, administration staff; Non_ag_work, non‐agricultural workers; Crafts, self‐employed craftsman; Trader, small trader; Service, service staff; Domestic, domestic employee; Peasant, smallholder/peasant; Agric_work, agricultural worker; Other, other occupations; Pub_admin, public administration; Loc_admin, local administration; Pub_comp, public company; Priv_comp, private company; Coop, cooperative; Non‐prof, non‐profit institutions; House, private house; Self_empl, self‐employed with employees; Self_no_empl, self‐employed without employees; Family, family worker without remuneration and domestic workers; Internat, international organization/embassy; Agr, agriculture, forestry and fishing; Mining, mining and quarrying; Manuf, manufacturing; Elec, electricity, gas and water; Const, construction; Transp, transport, storage, and communication; Trade_acc: trade, catering and accommodation, and finance; Gov, general government services; Serv: personal services and other services. The results for the increase in poverty rates for different quintiles are not shown because they are not meaningful. The averages are computed over Approaches 1–3 and over all workers/entire population. Disaggregated results from the three approaches are shown in the Appendix. Source: Authors' calculations based on IOF14
Approaches implemented to assess the impact of Covid‐19 on consumption and poverty using the IOF14 data and macroeconomic estimates from Betho et al. (2021)
Article
This study assesses the impact of COVID‐19 on household consumption poverty. To predict changes in income and the associated effects on poverty, we rely on existing estimated macroeconomic impacts. We assume two main impact channels: direct income/wage and employment losses. Our simulations suggest that consumption decreased by 7.1%–14.4% and that poverty increased by 4.3–9.9 percentage points in 2020. This points to a reversal of the positive poverty reduction trend observed in previous years. Poverty most certainly increased in the pre‐COVID period due to other shocks, so Mozambique finds itself in a deepening struggle against poverty.
 
Fiscal Stimulus vs. Shadow Economy Size. Source: Informal sector size data is the DGE series (from the year 2019) from Elgin, Kose, et al. (2021). The fiscal stimulus package is from the most recent version (February 2021) of the stimulus data
Evolution of the Fiscal Stimulus Package. Source: Informal sector size data is the DGE series (from the year 2019) from Elgin, Kose, et al. (2021). The fiscal stimulus package is from the most recent version (February 2021) of the stimulus data
Article
In this paper, we use a novel cross‐country dataset to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of the shadow economy and fiscal policy responses to the economic crisis induced by the pandemic. The finding is that countries with a relatively larger shadow economy before the pandemic have adopted a smaller fiscal policy package. The results are robust to different econometric specifications, including an instrumental variable estimation. This reinforces the wider literature that countries (especially those with larger shadow economies) generally follow a procyclical policy as opposed to the optimal and countercyclical one.
 
Article
The Covid‐19 pandemic is widely speculated to have disrupted the delivery of primary health care in low‐income countries. Yet, there is little rigorous empirical research identifying this effect. This paper estimates the impact of Covid‐19 on facility and skilled delivery and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC) services by comparing these outcomes for women who were pregnant/delivered before and during the Covid‐19 period. The results show that Covid‐19 led to 23% and 25% reductions, respectively, in the likelihood of facility delivery and four or more ANC visits during pregnancy. These findings highlight the need to build more resilient health systems in low‐income settings.
 
Year‐on‐year variation of quarterly remittances in 2019 and 2020 (%)
Evolution of stringency and economic support indices of receiving and sending countries
Sankey diagram of bilateral remittances received by Latin American countries from each sending country in 2020
Correlations between policy responses of receiving countries and bilateral remittances
Article
Workers' remittances declined sharply as the COVID-19 pandemic spread in the first half of 2020, rebounding in the second half. This paper analyses the impact of containment and economic support measures on remittances sent to Latin America during 2019–2020 using a gravity model estimated with the Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood estimator (PPML). Results show that containment measures in receiving countries mainly explain the fall in remittance flows, whereas the effect of economic support measures is not robust. Among the traditional explanatory factors, the business cycle and the real exchange rate in receiving countries explain the subsequent recovery of remittances.
 
FDI inflows in Europe, USA and Ecuador. Source: Superintendencia de Compañías, Valores y Seguros. Elaboration: the authors
Inward FDI in Ecuador. Note: In Guayaquil and Quito, the reopening took places in different weeks. Guayaquil implement a partial reopening on May 20, and in Quito was on June 3. Source: Superintendencia de Compañías, Valores y Seguros. Elaboration: the authors
Regression discontinuity plot for FDI inflows analysis. Source: Superintendencia de Compañías, Valores y Seguros. Elaboration: the authors
Regression discontinuity plot for FDI inflows analysis of partial reopening activities in Guayaquil and Quito. Source: Superintendencia de Compañías, Valores y Seguros. Elaboration: the authors
Article
We exploit the exogenous variation that comes from the COVID‐19 and the subsequent lockdown in Ecuador. We estimate a regression discontinuity in time (RDiT) design using official administrative FDI data from January to May 2020. We observe an overall large decrease in FDI inflows. We assess differences across FDI sources and find stronger effects coming from capital increases compared with new firm constitutions. In addition, we find that the negative effects are mostly from inflows coming from North and South American investments. We also assess whether partial reopening of activities positively affects FDI. We do not find any significant effect.
 
Article
This study assesses the economic costs of COVID-19 and the state of emergency implemented by the Government of Mozambique. We use a social accounting matrix multiplier analysis to estimate the effects of the pandemic on the economy. Our simulations suggest that the Mozambican economy lost 3.6 percentage points of GDP growth in 2020 and that employment was 1.9 percentage points down. These losses were primarily driven by export shocks, the most heavily affected sectors being trade and accommodation and mining. Mozambique faces a critical challenge of how to promote economic diversification and reduce vulnerability to foreign shocks.
 
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