Journal of International Business Studies

Published by Palgrave Macmillan
Online ISSN: 1478-6990
Print ISSN: 0047-2506
Descriptive Statistics and Correlations among Variables
Cultural Factors and Discretionary Accruals Panel A: Absolute Value of Discretionary Accruals
This study hypothesizes and tests whether the degree to which managers exercise earnings discretion relates to their value system (i.e., culture) as well as the institutional features (i.e., legal environment) of their country. We find that uncertainty avoidance and individualism dimensions of national culture explain managers' earnings discretion across countries, and that this association varies with the strength of investor protection. This study extends prior literature by documenting that both national culture and institutional structure are important factors that explain corporate managers' earnings discretion practices around the world, and that the influences of these factors on earnings discretion are conditional on each other.
Regressions of unexpected stock returns on changes in domestic and foreign earnings (post-131 period) 
Difference-in-differences results 
Difference-in-differences tests including control variables 
Foreign operations are becoming increasingly important for US companies. We investigate whether the market's valuation of foreign earnings is a function of the firm's geographic segment disclosures. Specifically, we examine the effects of an increase in the number of geographic segments disclosed and the inclusion of earnings measures in geographic segment disclosures following the adoption of SFAS 131. We find strong evidence that our proxies for increased disclosure are positively associated with the valuation of foreign earnings. Our results are robust to a number of sensitivity analyses. Taken together, our results suggest that the pricing of foreign earnings is associated with important aspects of the firm's information environment. Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 421–443. doi:10.1057/jibs.2008.72
In recent years the international trade literature has focused on the effects of exporting and its benefits in an open economy. Scholars note that engaging in trade enhances knowledge spillovers, and results in income growth and income convergence among trading partners. Although the macro-literature has long addressed economic convergence, there has been relatively little research examining the effect of exporting on ex post firm performance. Likewise, there has been little research that examines the differential learning-by-exporting effects across industries. In this paper we build upon the convergence literature to argue that engaging in exporting provides firms, especially firms in technologically lagging industries, the opportunity to benefit disproportionately from knowledge spillovers. Using a sample of Spanish manufacturing firms from 1990 to 1997, we investigate empirically how exporting differentially influences the innovative outcomes of firms in technologically leading vs lagging industries. We find evidence that firms in technologically lagging industries (in which Spain lags the global technology frontier) learn more from exporting than those firms in technologically leading industries (in which Spain is at, or near, the global technology frontier). The results enrich the traditional convergence argument by suggesting that industry heterogeneity matters to knowledge transfer, and stands to play a substantial role in reducing knowledge gaps. Journal of International Business Studies (2008) 39, 132–150. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400320
Increased communication, trade and travel between countries act to bring them together in many respects. The present study examines similarities in macro-environmental characteristics of eighteen industrialized nations over a twenty-eight-year period. Contrary to the initial research proposition, countries were found to be diverging, especially in the latter part of the time period. In spite of the increased communications, travel and trade between countries, physical distance remains an important determinant of macro-environmental similarity. Two measures of national culture, Power Distance and Individualism, were found to be related to change in macro-environmental factors.© 1992 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1992) 23, 773–787
This article presents an empirical study of foreign investment board and of its real decision-making process. The analysis, based on more than 200 interviews of government officials and company executives and on a study of 25 foreign investment proposals reveals the existence of a large gap between screening regulations and administrative facilities; a series of propositions offered to explain this gap. The article concludes by giving an assessment of the Colombian foreign investment screening process and by suggesting implications for the MNC negotiation strategy.© 1978 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1978) 9, 66–80
The Zambian government' 51% nationalization of the country's copper mines in 1969 was motivated partly for economic purposes—a kind of learning-by-doing was anticipated—and partly for political reasons. It appears that the Zambians did obtain a semblance of managerial control and “national ownership,” but at a very high financial price. The article estimates that the direct revenue loss was over $1 billion through 1981, not counting various disguised costs. The findings are based primarily on an in-depth analysis of the mining companies' annual reports from 1964 through 1981.© 1985 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1985) 16, 137–163
© 1971 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1971) 2, 68–70
© 1981 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1981) 12, 7–10
This Perspective brings together the remarks written by the authors (or designates) of 16 new JIBS Decade Awards, given in 2009 to the most influential articles published in the journal for 1970 through 1985. The authors briefly discuss the core insights of their articles and assess the relevance of their work for today's scholars. A short history of the JIBS Decade Award precedes these mini-retrospectives. Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 1581-1590. doi: 10.1057/jibs.2009.67
This article examines geographical, sectoral, and corporate trends in the use of minority and 50-50 joint ventures by U.S. multinational manufacturing and mining firms in less developed countries (LDCs) during the 1970s. It is based primarily on data found in the Harvard Multinational Enterprise Data Base, as updated through the mid-1970s, and supplemented with corporate performance data for the 1975-1980 period from a new international Competitive Analysis (ICA) database developed with support from the General Electric Foundation.During the 1970s, there was a clear move toward U.S. Corporate acceptance of minority ownership positions in manufacturing operations in LDCs. This move toward minority joint ventures by American MNEs was, however, concentrated in a handful of specific countries that had activist government policies promoting local ownership. These countries are not now thought to be among the more successful LDC economies.Viewed from the perspective of MNE strategy and performance, our findings confirm Wells's earlier results that the firms most willing to accept minority or 50-50 joint ventures tend to be smaller, “second-rank oligopolists” in their industries. The hypothesis that “second-rank” meant “second rate” in terms of MNE growth and financial performance in their worldwide industry was also examined. Although there was some suggestion that LDC prominority-joint venture policies may have been ‘screening in” less successful firms in the computer and tire industries, there was no evidence of a systematic tendency across industries of a negative relationship between MNE acceptance of minority positions and company under-performance.© 1989 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1989) 20, 19–40
According to a questionnaire survey, the forward-exchange market easily accommodated the demand of U.S. firms for forward cover of transactions with German firms during the 1971 floatation of the mark.. The U.S. firms employed a variety of hedging techniques.The recent experiments with quasi-floating exchange rates have produced new evidence on some old questions about exchange-rate flexibility. One of these questions is whether substantial flexibility disrupts international trade by stimulating more demand for forward-exchange cover than the market can easily satisfy.1For affirmative answers to this question, see the following: H.S. Houthakker, “Exchange Rate Adjustment,” in U.S. Congress, Subcommittee of the Joint Economic Committee, Factors Affecting the United States Balance of Payments, 87th Cong., 2d. sess., Washington, 1962, pp. 292–93: Robert V. Rossa in The Balance of Payments: Free Versus Fixed Exchange Rates, by Milton Friedman and Robert V. Rossa (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1967), pp. 39–41; and Giuliano Pelli, “Why I Am Not in Favor of Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates,” in Approaches to Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates, ed. by Geroge N. Halm (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1970), pp. 203–08. Those who answer this question in the affirmative usually reason along the following lines. Substantial exchange-rate flexibility leads business management to expect greater exchange-rate variations. Therefore, management seeks to cover more of its foreign-exchange explosure (i.e., seeks to “insure” against the greater exchange rate risk by purchasing or selling foreign currency forward. © 1973 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1973) 4, 43–59
This paper explores the behavior of the foreign exchange markets for the floating rate period since 1973 and the immediately preceding fixed rate period. The author presents evidence showing that the cost of forward cover and the gains from speculation in the forward market for the major currencies has not changed significantly between the two periods and, in fact, the forward rate has been an unbiased predictor of the future spot rate for the floating rate period.© 1975 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1975) 6, 33–40
While substantial research has been done on the competitive struggle between U.S. and Japanese consumer products, few studies have examined the U.S. Japan rivalry from a neutral-third country perspective. This study, covering a ten-year period (1975–1985) of data collection, examines changes in Finnish perceptions of U.S. and Japanese consumer products and marketing efforts. Results indicate that while Finnish consumer perceptions of U.S. products and marketing efforts have improved over time, the corresponding perceptions of the Japanese alternative have improved substantially more. Similarly, in areas where U.S. competitors has initial advantages, the study results indicate that by 1985 Japanese firms were able to overcome such advantages and were perceived as superior in all categories.© 1990 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1990) 21, 427–450
The objective of this study is to evaluate the various aspects of the business opportunities and peculiarities of negotiating in the People's Republic of China as viewed by businessmen who attended the recent Canton Trade Fairs. Many of the peculiarities still remain, as attested to by the respondents of the self-administered questionnaires that were mailed to 218 businessmen. However, these businessmen indicate that the Chinese are becoming more flexible in their negotiations and are sincerely interested in expanding their trade with the United States. To date, trade between the two countries is limited in both volume and value; and it has been characterized by a negative balance with the United States. Businessmen feel that as the United States' demand for many of their resources and labor intensive products increases and the trade position of the Chinese improves, their demand for American capital equipment and other goods will result in increasing business opportunities with the People's Republic of China.
This paper reviews empirical research in international marketing published during the period 1976–82. The review focuses on what has been researched and how the research has been conducted. This research is evaluated; a cooperative, multidisciplinary empirical research program in international marketing is then proposed.© 1984 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1984) 15, 161–173
This paper presents new data on the trading activities of multinational companies. Estimates of intrafirm shipments are developed for 1977 and 1982 from trade data contained in the U.S. government benchmark surveys of direct foreign investment. The paper shows that intrafirm shipments comprised a significant share of U.S. international trade and contributed to the deficit pressure on the U.S. trade balance.© 1990 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1990) 21, 495–504
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1977, was intended to improve international confidence in U.S. businesses and institutions. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire submitted to members of the Academy of International Business to determine whether the Act has achieved its goal. The opinions of knowledgeable academicians should add another dimensions to this debatable issue.© 1981 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1981) 12, 123–126
What explains the multinational conglomerate, diversified across both product and geographic boundaries? From a sample of diversifying foreign acquisitions by U.S. firms, we conclude that the choice between related and unrelated acquisitions bears little relation to the acquire's base activity in the U.S., but it is somewhat affected by transaction costs and the firm's previous experience in the host country. The motive of risk-spreading encourages unrelated overseas acquisitions.© 1985 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1985) 16, 51–64
We extend the stages model of internationalization to incorporate a sophisticated consideration of temporal and cross-national variation in the uncertainty of the policy environment. Using a sample of 6465 international expansions of 665 Japanese manufacturing firms in 49 countries, we develop arguments from internationalization and bargaining power perspectives to show how Japanese firms manage policy uncertainty in host country environments through the within-country sequencing of investments. Although a distribution to manufacturing entry sequence tends to prevail in countries with low levels of policy uncertainty, as uncertainty in the policy environment increases, initial entry by distribution is increasingly likely to be eschewed in favor of an initial entry by a joint venture manufacturing plant. We suggest that this change in investment sequence occurs as firms shift from an emphasis on developing knowledge about local markets and consumers in low-hazards markets to an international expansion strategy in uncertain policy environments that places knowledge development of the policy environment at the forefront of a firm's strategy. Journal of International Business Studies (2003) 34, 227–241. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400031
We use an interdisciplinary approach to investigate multinational banks’ foreign activities. We bridge core concepts from the stages theory of internationalization to internalization theory, to extend the literature on the defensive expansion hypothesis. Unlike the primarily aggregate levels of analysis employed in previous research on multinational banking, we utilize a firm-level analysis of the internationalization experiences of 21 Japanese banks in the period 1980–1998. We find that banks undertake foreign direct investment to secure internalization benefits by following their existing clients, and to achieve economies of scale in the application of their intangible assets in international markets. The magnitude of these relationships, however, is contingent upon the level of a bank's experience in the host countries. Consistent with predictions from internationalization theory, we find that the motivations for international expansion can change over time. Journal of International Business Studies (2008) 39, 231–248. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400317
US MNCs' foreign capital investment (panel general equation estimation/probit)
In this paper we examine foreign location choices of the top 100 US multinational corporations (MNCs) in 1980 and 2000. We first ask whether there has been a change in MNC foreign location choice in this two-decade period. Second, we explore the underlying reasons of location change by focusing on country-level factors, accounting for firm-, industry- and regional-level explanations. Our findings suggest, first, that the extent of MNCs' activities around the globe is more extensive than assumed by regionalists' arguments and well beyond Ohmae's TRIAD, but still less widespread than claimed by the globalists – the two main traditions within the globalization–regionalization debate. Second, we uncover an interesting de-location pattern in this period. Third, we develop an integrative framework where both economic and institutional-cultural arguments are shown to influence MNCs' foreign location choice in different ways. We conclude with a discussion of our findings, and provide suggestions for future research. Journal of International Business Studies (2007) 38, 1187–1210. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400307
This paper reports data collected on expropriation activity by developing countries from 1980-1992, extending previous work by Kobrin [1984]. Kobrin's assumption that expropriation activity would continue to decrease over time, and his reasons for this assumption, are supported. The paper introduces recent phenomena which further indicate that expropriation is unlikely to resurface in the near future as a source of multinational corporation-developing country contention. Many developing countries now protect foreign direct investors from expropriation. The broad-scale movement in developing countries to privatize state-owned enterprises also indicates that governments will not be eager to replace private-sector activity with state ownership.© 1994 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1994) 25, 177–188
Composite Index of Performance Requirements (PERF) 
Data from the Benchmark Surveys of the Commerce Department show the beginning of a global liberalization in government restrictions on foreign equity in the 1980s. This was manifested in a small but unmistakable across-the-board reduction in the share of 50-50 and minority affiliates out of all U.S. affiliates in a country. Across countries there remains a huge variation in this proportion, and the second part of the paper seeks to statistically explain this variation in a cross-section regression analysis.© 1990 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1990) 21, 55–73
This paper presents data collected by structured interviews concerning how external environments analysis and strategic planning are related in major U.S.-based multinational corporations. The research was also undertaken to ascertain why and the extent to which firms have formally institutionalized the external environmental functions since the Iranian revolution.© 1984 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1984) 15, 99–108
Much of the current research and teaching in international business and trade is not part of a concerted effort in a given direction. This is the result of a lack of adequate information about what the major issues will be, and a lack of adequate communication between the academic, business and policymaking communities. This article presents the findings of a Delphi study conducted with academicians, business executives, and policymakers involved in international trade. The most crucial issue identified by that research is the current challenge to the multilateral trade frame work. This challenge emanates from such new factors as trade in services, subsidization, high technology transfer, countertrade, and orderly marketing agreements. After discussing these and other newly emerging issues in international business and trade, recommendations are made to encourage a better focus for future research and teaching in the international business and trade arena.© 1986 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1986) 17, 127–134
International trade intermediaries, such as export management companies, have long existed in the United States. Many studies and reports have provided “snapshots” of their activities and roles over time. Their evolution, however, has hardly been researched—mainly for lack of an appropriate dynamic model. This paper integrates various conceptual frameworks and theories to develop a useful mode of the evolution of the U.S. international trade intermediary in the 1980s.© 1990 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1990) 21, 133–153
Binomial logit estimates of likelihood of establishing a tie-in relationship
Cox proportional hazard estimates of forms' rate of exit, 1982-1991 Obs split by productivity
OLS estimates of factors affecting firms' accumulated productivity growth 1982-1991
Although several studies have shown that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) often leads to greater host country productivity, researchers have yet to determine the relative importance of direct technology transfer and competitive pressure. To assess the relative importance of the two channels, we examine the US auto-component industry between 1979 and 1991. During this period, Japanese automobile assemblers began to produce vehicles in North America, and began to purchase inputs from US auto-component manufacturers. Those US manufacturers that sold components to Japanese transplants would be the direct recipients of any technologies transferred from the Japanese. Although we find that the direct investment by Japanese assemblers was associated with overall productivity improvement in the US auto-component industry, we find little evidence of direct technology transfer. The productivity growth of US suppliers affiliated with Japanese assemblers was no greater than that of other, non-affiliated US suppliers. Further, we find that the Japanese assemblers tended to purchase components from less productive US suppliers and, moreover, that low-productivity suppliers that sold goods to Japanese assemblers had a higher survival rate than low-productivity suppliers that did not sell to Japanese firms. The results suggest that increased competitive pressure in the auto-sector was the main cause of overall productivity improvement, at least during the initial stages of FDI of the 1980s. Journal of International Business Studies (2003) 34, 199–218. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400017
Results of logistic regression analysis predicting M&A completion (overall sample)
Results of logistic regression analysis predicting M&A completion (split samples)
Based on the concepts of North's (1990) political economy of national institutions and economic behavior, we investigate how formal and informal institutional features influence the likelihood that a cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the time taken for its completion after announcement. Additionally, we study how past experience with completed acquisition deals moderates the effects of institutional differences. We focus on a relatively new context – the pre-completion stage of acquisition processes. We test our hypotheses using data from 2389 announced cross-border acquisition deals in the international business service industry (1981–2001). We find that differences in national formal and informal institutions explain part of the variation in the likelihood that an announced cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the duration of the deal-making. In addition, organizational learning moderates the effects of institutional distance: past experience with completed cross-border acquisition deals increases the likelihood of a subsequent deal completion in institutionally closer environments, but shortens the deal duration in institutionally distant environments.
Studies of negotiation have proliferated, but few, especially in international business, have systematically detailed the complexity of negotiations in situ. This paper describes and explains the widely publicized, controversial talks between IBM and the Mexican government that followed IBM's proposal to established a 100%-owned personal computer assembly plant near Guadalajara.© 1990 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1990) 21, 565–596
We identify inward investment as an important impetus to outward investment, supplemental to the impetuses depicted in conventional internationalization frameworks. By incorporating both the spillover and competition effects of foreign entrants, we develop an integrated framework of the inward–outward investment relationship for different investment modes and different home-country and host-country pairs. Our analysis of venture capital (VC) investments worldwide from 1985 to 2007 shows a positive spillover effect on outward investment for inward co-investments and a negative competition effect on outward investment for inward standalone investments. We find the strongest effects when the host country is a laggard in the VC industry and the home country is a leader.
The evolution of foreign entry in the form of joint ventures and wholly owned manufacturing operations is examined as a staged process shaped by experience and imitation dynamics at the firm, group, and industry levels of analysis. The expansion of South Korean firms into China between 1987 and 1995 lends support to the staged view of foreign entry. Over time, technology-intensive firms are more likely to abandon joint-venture entry modes, owing to contractual hazards. Firms in the same business group are found to imitate each other's choice of joint ventures and wholly owned plants. Firms in the same industry mimic each other's choice of wholly owned plants, though not of joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies (2003) 34, 185–198. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400016
This study uses a unique sample to evaluate changes in shareholder wealth from announcements of expansion by US firms into 18 transition economies, through four entry modes, from 1987 to 1999. On average, expansion in transition economies is associated with significant positive wealth effects. Results show that value creation is most significantly associated with expansion through less risky entry modes into host countries that are in the more advanced stages of market liberalization and structural reform. Sample firms with lower profitability also experience significantly higher abnormal returns, while significant value creation documented for firms entering transition economies in 1989, 1990, and 1992 suggests first-mover advantages. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 179–195. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400187
This paper attempts to test the theory developed by Gray [1988] linking accounting values and systems with Hofstede’s [1980] cultural constructs. Based on data from twenty-nine countries, it finds that while Gray's [1988] model has statistically significant explanatory power, it is best at explaining actual financial reporting practices and is relatively weak in explaining extant professional and regulatory structures from a cultural base. This paper further finds that both the development of financial markets and levels of taxation enhance the explanations offered by Gray [1988].© 1995 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1995) 26, 379–397
This paper reports an empirical test of the Bartlett and Ghoshal [1989] organizational typology. Some 131 senior executives of corporations with worldwide operations classified their organizations as being multinational, global, international, or transnational in nature and evaluated their organizations′ configuration of assets and capabilities, role of overseas operations, and development and diffusion of knowledge. Results provide partial support for the typology. As expected, transnational corporations were least frequently reported by the respondents. The hypothesized practices associated with multinational and global organizations were more consistent with the typology's predictions relative to those of the international and transnational types.© 1993 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1993) 24, 449–464
This article presents the major findings of the fifth global curriculum survey of the Academy of International Business (AIB)—an examination of the status and trends in international business education around the world as of the early 1990s. The survey's findings, based on responses from more than 500 business schools, encompass different goals and methods of internationalization, international linkages and experiential activities, organizational issues, amounts of internationalization progress achieved, and degrees of administrative satisfaction with progress achieved. The overall conclusion is that considerable progress has been made, but much more remains to be accomplished.© 1994 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1994) 25, 605–623
This paper examines the response to the creation of the European Union by firms located outside the European Community that seek to serve its markets. Analysis of some of the major steps taken by the European Community to complete the internal market shows that the relative competitive position of outsiders is expected to deteriorate, even if the concept of “Fortress Europe” is rejected by the Community.Outsider firms can neutralize some of the disadvantages they encounter by engaging in foreign direct investment in the European Community which transforms them, in some sense, into insiders. This paper outlines a model that distinguishes between the expected investment behavior of producers of different kinds of goods. Distinction is made between Heckscher-Ohlin goods (H-goods), characterized by publicly available technologies, and Schumpeter goods (S-goods), based on firm-specific knowledge. Analysis of recent foreign direct investment by Israeli firms in the European Community and in other parts of the world shows that patterns of actual flows by sector, by geographic region and over time, correspond to predictions derived from the model.© 1995 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1995) 26, 223–237
Densities of four ownership forms in China, 1994-2006.
Descriptive statistics
FGLS estimates of coefficients in Eq. (8)
Estimates of carrying capacity, adjustment speed and intra-population competition effect of different ownership forms
In the current study, expansion of foreign investment in transition economies such as China is analyzed as an organizational selection process in a community ecology setting. Insights from organizational ecology are used to explain how institutional forces constrain ecological processes, together driving the evolution of the population size of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs), privately held domestic firms, and state-owned domestic organizations. We argue that the variation in the relative forces of ecological processes and institutional constraints across FIEs and their domestic rivals accounts for the expansion of FIEs in China. On the one hand, in many transition economies, institutional constraints are imposed on foreign enterprises by regulation that limits FDI opportunities. On the other hand, after entry, foreign enterprises can benefit from their competitive advantages in their ecological struggle against domestic rivals. This logic produces different sets of hypotheses as to foreign enterprises’ density and sales growth, in interaction with domestic organizations. Using a data set of the Chinese construction industry in 29 provinces over the 1993–2006 period, estimation of a partial adjustment growth model produces support for our theoretical claim.
Some argue that corporate finance and governance practices were among the root causes of the Asian crisis. It is alleged that high and increasing corporate debt ratios were partly to blame. This claim is overstated: only South Korea and arguably Thailand had leverage ratios significantly above the G7 range, and only South Korea had an income-gearing ratio higher than the G7. Although the reliance on short-term debt was high, there was no drastic change in the maturity structure of debt before the crash. However, conventional factors are relatively more successful in explaining leverage for firms that were less closely connected to the relationship-based financing system. Our paper links to ongoing research on investor protection, cronyism, connections between business and government, and business groups. It ends by commenting on the 2008 financial crisis, currently engulfing the world, and highlights some similarities and paradoxes. Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 990–1004. doi:10.1057/jibs.2009.13
Is globalization being derailed by opponents? Results of this event study analysis of the 1997 fast-track denial suggest that investors (1) may have perceived fast-track as a debate on globalization and (2) appear to have expected financial losses to result from the failure to enact fast-track. Regression results further support the event study findings.© 2001 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2001) 32, 479–496
We summarize the major findings of the sixth global survey of business school internationalization sponsored by the Academy of International Business (AIB). The survey covers various aspects of internationalization including: objectives, organizational issues, curriculum and faculty internationalization, foreign institutional arrangements, and satisfaction with progress achieved. The empirical results indicate that, across all dimensions, significant progress continued to be made in the internationalization of business schools.© 2002 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2002) 33, 571–581
Glocalized Community Culture Model (GCCM). 
Culture is a critical variable in international business (IB), and Leung, Bhagat, Buchan, Erez and Gibson (2005) enrich our understanding of its role. However, that said, their framing of this variable conflates the role of national culture (NC), a particular form of culture, with culture itself, a more pivotal, holistic and central construct. This paper, by commenting on and critiquing their approach, seeks to shift the theoretical center of gravity from a NC-centric paradigm to a culture-centric, constructivist one, and from a top-down, bottom-up view to a flatter, glocalized one. Implications are provided which suggest that research should address cultural processes of patterning and production, as well as cultural forms, such as global communities and global culture (GC), which share with or even capture the spotlight from NC as a focus for studying and developing IB cultural theory. Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 237–254; doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400410
A model of feelings of tension in negotiations.  
Categories, definitions, and counts 
The purpose of the study is to shed light on the antecedents and consequences of tension felt during international business negotiations. A total of 176 American and Chinese executives participated in simulated international business (buyer–seller) negotiations. The negotiations were videotaped, and the participants completed questionnaires. Each participant was also asked to review his/her videotaped negotiation, rate the tension felt on a videotape review form, and briefly describe the antecedents of the tension felt. The data collected were then analyzed using first a structural equations approach and then a more exploratory content analysis. Both Chinese and American executives felt tension during the negotiations. For the Chinese, greater levels of tension led to an increased likelihood of agreement, but also led to lower levels of interpersonal attraction and in turn lower trust for their American counterparts. For the Americans, tension felt decreased marginally the likelihood of an agreement, did not affect interpersonal attraction, but did have a direct negative effect on trust. A series of other cultural differences are also reported. The measure of tension felt developed in the study appears to be useful methodologically, theoretically, and practically. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 623–641. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400215
We are pleased that Dunning et al. have provided macro (country) level data demonstrating the increased internationalization of many nations over the past decade. We also appreciate their findings lending support to our perspective on the regional nature of world business. Our work was based solely on micro (firm) level data. Both country-level data and firm-level data have methodological problems, which we attempt to reconcile in this commentary. We also address the broader conceptual issues of how to interpret country-level vs firm-level data. Journal of International Business Studies (2007) 38, 200–205. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400242
A retrospective by John H. Dunning on location and the MNE, written in the form of responses to questions posed by Rajneesh Narula in an interview recorded at the University of Reading which was shown at the JIBS Decade Award session at the AIB annual meetings in Milan, June 2008. Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 20–34. doi:10.1057/jibs.2008.75
Our goal is to develop a profile of Chinese managers, and in particular a profile of the New Generation of Chinese managers. The purpose for developing this profile is primarily to provide relevant information for non-Chinese business people, especially Westerners, who plan to engage in business in China. This profile is based on measures of individual values (Individualism, Collectivism and Confucianism) relevant to China and business. Our findings suggest that the New Generation manager is more individualistic and more likely to act independently, while taking risks in the pursuit of profits. However, these New managers are, likewise, not forsaking their Confucian values. Thus, they may be viewed as crossverging their Eastern and Western influences, while on the road of modernization.© 1999 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1999) 30, 415–427
Journal of International Business Studies (2003) 34, 101–107. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400022
Descriptive statistics and correlations
Hierarchical linear model of gender main effects and country as a moderator predicting leadership prototype dimensions a
Our study shows that preferred leadership prototypes held by female leaders differ from the prototypes held by male leaders, and that these prototype differences vary across countries, cultures, and especially industries. In general, female managers prefer participative, team oriented, and charismatic leadership prototype dimensions more than males. Contrary to popular belief, both males and females valued humane-oriented leadership equally. Gender egalitarianism and industry type were important moderators of the gender–leadership prototype relationship. Gender egalitarianism increased females' desire for participative leadership, while prototype differences between genders were magnified in the finance and food industries.
Entry mode choice is a critical ingredient of international entry strategies, and has been voluminously examined in the field. The findings, however, are very mixed, especially with respect to transaction-cost-related factors in determining the ownership-based entry mode choice. This study conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the literature and empirically generalize more conclusive findings. Based on the 106 effect sizes of 38 empirical studies, the meta-analysis shows that the findings of the existing studies are moderated to varying degrees by both study-setting factors and statistical artifacts, although the combined overall effects of transaction cost-based determinants are consistent with the predictions of transaction cost economics. We extensively discuss the implications of meta-analytical results, especially moderating effects of location, country of origin, industry type, and statistical artifacts, highlight the measurement adequacy, equivalence, and multidimensionality of transaction cost determinants, and present our suggestions to improve theoretical inquiries and empirical verifications on entry mode choice. Journal of International Business Studies (2004) 35, 524–544. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400106
Top-cited authors
Jan Johanson
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Jan-Erik Vahlne
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Bruce Kogut
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Peter J Buckley
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Harbir Singh
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