Journal of Integral Theory and Practice

Online ISSN: 1944-5083
Publications
Article
This article develops the application of Integral Theory to the theory of integral nursing and the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH). NIGH is a catalytic, integrally informed, grassroots-to-global movement to honor and extend Florence Nightingale's (1820-1910) legacy. Nightingale passed her global vision to nurses and concerned citizens who might carry her work forward. Using Integral Medicine and healthcare lenses we explore how she urged humanity to extend the horizons of possibility, challenging us to remember who we are, what we do, and who we care for. The theory of integral nursing, relevant nurses' stories, and innovative NIGH projects related to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals are used as examples.
 
Article
We investigate and describe the application of action logics, and through this integral theory, to help understand sustainability challenges. Transformational global sustainability shifts are in our individual and collective self-interest, yet, on nearly every cumulative objective measure, necessary change is not occurring. To better understand this paradox we discuss two empirical studies of leaders spanning lower to very late-stage action logics. This sample includes a broad spread of leaders and a unique set of individuals with late-stage action logics. From this we develop a model demonstrating that action logics and how people talk about or express sustainability concepts are correlated. This is an important reference point for future research as well as the development of tools that help realise potential benefits of action logics perspectives for addressing sustainability.
 
Article
The purpose of this conceptual article is to link developmental levels with the transformational leadership model to elaborate upon the question: what is the relationship between these levels of development and one's capacity to effectively enact transformational leadership behaviors? A series of relationships are outlined, where three separate action logics (developmental levels) from the Leadership Development Framework are linked to four transformational leadership dimensions. In so doing, we characterize how a transformational leader might behave in the context of a specific developmental level. The AQAL model is applied to highlight possible complexities that arise to moderate this relationship. Several data-driven examples from a recent case study of a leader further illuminate such complexities. Future research is suggested to deepen our understanding of this relationship.
 
Article
Awareness-in-Action is a critical integral meta-paradigm that is grounded in what appear to be the presupposed perspectives and practices of human awareness-in-action in all its myriad forms, inclusive of anything and everything people do, regardless of how purposeful or spontaneous, mental or physical, independent or interdependent these actions-in-awareness might seem. To whatever extent these apparent presuppositions might be regarded as provisionally valid, these would logically serve as necessary premises for all disciplined inquiries into, and hypotheses about, the many fields of human awareness-in-action, from politics and governance to economics and business to sociology and social work to journalism and activism. Awareness-in-Action may therefore provide the meta-paradigmatic means to create actionable knowledge within, across, and beyond established disciplinary and institutional boundaries, so that those of us concerned with such matters might learn how to respond more effectively to the interdependent political, economic, social, and ecological challenges of our time. This article summarizes the primary features of Awareness-in-Action before elaborating on some of its philosophical implications rooted in Jürgen Habermas's critical theory, Ken Wilber's Integral Theory, and Chris Argyris's action science.
 
Article
Current regional integration theories of neofunctionalism and intergovernmentalism study the Association for Southeast-Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union (EU) predominantly from trade and international business perspectives. ASEAN and EU have been described as sharing “a common DNA,” yet rhetoric has been slow to translate into practical and effective collaborations. This study uses the developmental perspective of Integral Theory to study ASEAN-EU relations and their efforts as regional integrators. Official speeches from ASEAN are analyzed in order to lend deeper insight into the existing asymmetries between the two entities. The core question of the article is, why and to what extent do ASEAN and EU share “a common DNA”? The third wave of globalization enabled by digital technology, which presupposes greater regional cooperation, calls for complementary study of ASEAN-EU relations in the context of international business and international relations.
 
Article
This article outlines an integrally informed individual psychotherapy adapted for treating addicted populations. Integrated Recovery Therapy, as a therapeutic orientation, is a psychotherapeutic Integral Methodological Pluralism. As with any Integral Methodological Pluralism, it has paradigmatic and meta-paradigmatic features. The paradigmatic aspect refers to the recognition, compilation, and implementation of various methodologies in a comprehensive and inclusive manner. The meta-paradigmatic aspect refers to its capacity to weave together, relate, and integrate the various paradigmatic practices while providing a metatheoretical and transdisciplinary framework. Integrated Recovery Therapy is a meta-therapy that provides a comprehensive and multiperspectival therapeutic orientation for therapists who treat addicted clients in individual psychotherapy. Its core philosophy is derived from an integration of 12-Step abstinence-based philosophy, mindfulness, positive psychology, and Integral Theory. Integrated Recovery Therapy represents one of the various novel, integrally informed methodologies in the budding field of Integral Addiction Treatment and Integral Recovery-a nascent discipline that holds much promise for developing more comprehensive and sustainable addiction treatment approaches.
 
Article
This article outlines an integrally informed model for addiction treatment and recovery that is being pioneered and developed at Tabankulu Secondary Addiction Recovery Center in Cape Town, South Africa. Tabankulu is the world's first inpatient addiction treatment center to implement an integrally informed treatment model. The Integrated Recovery model is a comprehensive, balanced, multi-phased, and multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of and recovery from addiction. Its philosophy is derived from integrating a 12 Step abstinence-based methodology, mindfulness-based interventions, positive psychology, and Integral Theory. The case is made that addiction treatment facilities, therapists working with this population, and recovering addicts will become more proficient, effective, and consequently have higher success rates by becoming integrally informed.
 
Article
This article describes the Integral Therapeutic Community (ITC) model for adolescent addiction treatment. The ITC model synthesizes the best practices of long-term therapeutic community treatment with the tenets of Integral Theory. ITC treatment forms a comprehensive treatment model that promotes transformational development in the areas of individual consciousness, personal relationships and values, physical health, and constructive worldly engagement.
 
Article
In this article, Part 1 of "Advancing Integral Perspectives in Psychiatry," I incorporate Paul McHugh's work on disease, behavior, dimension, and life story as clinical perspectives. These perspectives are situated within an integrally informed psychiatric treatment model. Each perspective can be localized within a quadrant that has a broad pathophysiology, defined as disturbances in complexity. Psychiatric disease is related to neurological disturbances that respond to somatic treatments; behavioral disorders are intertwined with biology, learning, and choice; dimensional disorders are multifactorial and require support, reduction of provocation, and modification of response; and life story disorders require life narrative "re-scripting." These four clinical perspectives help prioritize integral treatment already occurring in the four quadrants.
 
Article
As the need for international cooperation in confronting global challenges increases, and the pace of technological innovation quickens, the possibility of creating media capable of facilitating such cooperation becomes ever more tenable. Evolutionary Guidance Media is a systematic framework designed for those individuals and organizations interested in creating such media; specifically, media capable of advancing human evolution, promoting global ethics, planetary consciousness, and integral aims. This article briefly outlines an application of the Integral Operating System to Evolutionary Guidance Media, resulting in a more encompassing framework: EGM-Integral.
 
Article
This article explores the use of the AQAL model to support student self-understanding in courses aimed at developing social conscience at an international school in Hong Kong. In one such course, the Integral framework provided a useful conceptual map that assisted in bringing a wide array of course materials to curricular coherence, and led to an all-high school gathering to consider greater institutional balance. Through these curricular explorations, it is proposed that the AQAL model may be used as a pedagogical tool in social conscience courses to facilitate a holistic sense of meaning and life direction for high school students.
 
Article
Management is a multidisciplinary, fragmented, complex, and multifaceted field of knowledge that is characterized by a proliferation of paradigms. This article conducts a multipara-digm review of management and organizational theories using Integral Theory. Its purpose is to help scholars understand the multiple paradigms that characterize the management field and make a contribution to the integration of those paradigms.
 
Article
This article introduces integrally informed clinicians and their patients to an Integral Psychograph Assessment (IPA). The IPA I employ is a clinical assessment process developed for psychotherapists to be used with their patients in the therapeutic context to evaluate levels of an individual across 10 lines of development. In this article, the integral psychograph is first situated within the Integral model and then within a larger historical discussion of multiple lines of development. The components of the IPA-the map, matrix, and mirror-which utilize third-, second-, and first-person clinical assessment methodologies are then introduced and described. Clinical considerations, with an emphasis on the impact of the assessment process on therapy, are woven into the discussion of the six procedural steps of the IPA. To illustrate the assessment process, I present clinical vignettes in which the IPA was administered in the context of long-term (five year) psychoanalytically oriented integral psychotherapy with an adult patient. I conclude with a discussion of clinical implications to be considered when using an IPA in the context of psychotherapy.
 
Article
Sport is a vital part of culture and an enduring symbol of human excellence. Therefore, it is believed sports are a great avenue to explore and promote integral awareness. This article aims to show an application of Integral Theory to a real-time project over six years. Integral enactment theory will be used to explore all dimensions of the "who," the "how," and the "what." Using ego development theory, the team concept is explored as representing the "who." Integral injunctions are then explored for the "how," and followed by an analysis of sport, the "what," as a multiple object. It is hoped that the vision of Integral Sports envisioned in this article can be an example of embodying and enacting integral applications in the world.
 
Article
This article explores an application of Integral Theory in the context of professional community well-being, with a focus on ethos-making, and with an interest in the interface between "integral" and "professional." Ethos is discussed in relation to ethics, in the wider context of an integrally informed approach to inter-professional education. Ethos is positioned beyond praxis, en route to poiesis, with all three represented as the "makings"-or unique integrations-of professionals. The learning from a highly experiential ethos-making workshop is examined, including the main outcome-a representation of agency in communion. Ethos, in integral terms, is speculated to represent a place for inter-beings, for well-becoming. The learning edges relate to: the integration implicit in ethos; the critical "audience" aspect; the associated collective intention and communal enaction; and the generative potential-ethos beyond praxis en route to poiesis, the latter being viewed creatively, in integral place-making terms-as possibly the ultimate venue for transformative integral practice.
 
Article
Although Integral Theory is frequently regarded as inclusivist in orientation, inclusivism, as an interreligious strategy, has been criticized in postmodern interfaith contexts as subtly or overtly hegemonic or triumphalist. Can Integral Spirituality maintain a powerfully inclusive, integrative orientation while avoiding the problems that have marred traditional and modern inclusivist strategies? In this article, I argue that the post-metaphysical, enactive emphasis in the current phase of Integral Theory offers a fruitful way forward-one that honors and transcends its inclusivist and pluralist predecessors.
 
Article
This article provides an introduction to Integral Sports. We begin by outlining a key element of our work, integral coaching with parents of athletes, and then explain how Integral Theory can help support the aims of coaching in this context. To broaden the scope of the article we discuss how sports science research is tackling the issue of parents in sports and argue that much of this work has led to limitations in understanding and inertia in the field. The use of the methodology of Integral Coaching Canada is outlined with a case study of a parental participant in our project, followed by a discussion and reports of some of the characteristics found in other tennis parents. Finally, we present our future plans and the wider potential for Integral Sports both in research and practice.
 
Article
The current paradigm for breast cancer is unable to explain its clinical course in many cases. Cancer is currently seen as external to the host, analogous to the Jungian conception of shadow. This perspective hinders medical progress and misallocates limited resources. This article reviews the current scientific consensus on breast cancer through an integral lens, and then proposes a new paradigm that envisions cancer as a complex adaptive system. Women will be the driving force to evolve toward this new paradigm, leading from the bottom up by asking difficult questions and insisting on a framework that better explains reality.
 
Article
In order to avoid overshoot of critical planetary boundaries, collective and purposeful social transformation is needed on a scale unprecedented in human history. In Part 1, this article describes and critiques applications of Integral Theory to sustainability and social change, highlighting overstated claims about the role interior development plays in effecting social change. Integral Theory is also missing lenses necessary for understanding the pathways to social transformation, including multi-domain concepts, micro-meso-macro scales, process lenses to illuminate cross-quadrant dynamics, and depictions of the embeddedness of actors and the strategies they pursue. Wilber's outline of an integral social theory of transformation is then presented as a resource to more effectively analyze social change processes. In Part 2, the sociological concepts of agency, structure, and institutions are introduced as important building blocks in any theory of social transformation. Next, three middle-range theories of transformative change are reviewed for their contributions in understanding multi-level and dynamic processes of change, along with the strategies actors can pursue to aid systems transformation. Future directions for research and practice are then identified.
 
The five phases of surrendering into witnessing.
Article
While a noted enthusiasm for the "we-space" has developed within the integral community in recent years, there is a need for practices and methods for directly working with inter-subjective field dynamics in groups. This article presents a post-personal practice, surrendering into witnessing, for evolutionary groups to more effectively discern and engage complex emergent collective-intelligence processes. Surrendering into witnessing is a five-phase practice designed to co-create optimal conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and wisdom.
 
Article
In a world of increasing complexity where existing models of leadership are becoming obsolete, an ongoing and current healthcare controversy provides us with a rich vein of study for integral models of leadership. This article draws on research from and about the medical cannabis community, revealing human universals of leadership, with pressing practical implications for community building, research methodology, medical interventions, and public policy. Specifically, this article examines the suitability of the AQAL model as a frame for constructing healthcare organizations promoting, centered on, and with leadership shared by patients themselves. Critical elements include support for the individual and the collective, as well as an avenue for knowledge exchange. Additionally, such organizations and groups have the potential to develop a sense of community, increase diversity maturity, and offer leadership opportunities.
 
Article
This article explores the ethical impacts of standardized testing and psychopharmacology in order to diagnose the pathologies of human capital theory as an educational metatheory. Drawing on the work of Ken Wilber and Roy Bhaskar, I build an alternative integral metatheory of education, which is deployed to reveal ethical issues involved with standardized testing infrastructures that center around a principled distinction between efficiency-oriented testing practices and justice-oriented ones. I argue further that the recent epidemic of psychotropic drug prescriptions for school-aged children is dialectically related to the dominance of efficiency-oriented testing infrastructures. Looking at the rhetoric and science surrounding the growth of educationally oriented psychopharmacology, I deploy the same metatheoretical approach to characterize the ethical difference between designing children and raising them. I conclude with a series of provocations and reflections directed at kindling the social imagination and reviving our sense that there are alternatives to dystopian educational futures.
 
Article
This article explores the potential of video games as an interactive entertainment medium with unprecedented capacities for enacting novel educational and developmental practices. Based on three field applications of Integral Research, six different methodologies were applied to explore the potential applications of video games to catalyze and integrate horizontal and vertical human development (also referred to as translation and transformation). Various qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted, including phenomenological and structural analyses of the researcher; discussions with leading integral practitioners, video game critics, and designers; an online survey; attendance of video game conferences and events; and extensive review of the literature related to the educational and developmental potentials of video games. These potentials were not only accessed and validated by various methodological data, but also categorized into an Integral- Developmental Trojan Horse (INDENTRO) video game design framework. The INDENTRO framework applies a Trojan Horse approach for catalyzing and integrating human development through the medium of video games, based on complementary applications of the AQAL model, Integral Life Practice, and Integral Play.
 
Article
This article identifies strategic improvement options that aim to increase the sustain-ability of fishery supply chains. An option is deemed strategic if it takes into account the underlying patterns and change dynamics in fishery supply chains system. Using the quadrants and levels of Integral Theory and the double S-curve model from chaos and complexity theory, a methodology for an integral complex systems analysis was developed and applied. Based on this analysis, three translational interventions aligned to the current interests and worldviews of stakeholders and four transformational interventions were identified, providing a challenge to the current interest and worldviews to enable further development. The interventions identified are directed at retailers, restaurants, the financial sector, and small-scale fisheries. Effective collaboration between stakeholders was found to be one of the key success factors for all of the interventions identified.
 
Article
This article offers an overview of an integral approach to climate change. After discussing the extent to which anti-modernist sentiments sometimes cloud the arguments of those convinced that climate change is driven by human activity, I emphasize the importance of distinguishing among perspectives as well as respecting perspectives in the overheated climate change debate. One can be concerned about the possible climatic consequences of burning billions of tons of carbon fuels, while at the same time acknowledging that climate is a chaotic system, one for which accurate predictions are not possible. There is still much to be learned about how climate works. How do we proceed in a way that respects the need for economic development while simultaneously minimizing human impact on the natural environment? This is the question posed and answered by authors of the influential Hartwell Paper, which exhibits an integral perspective, even though the authors were unaware of Integral Theory.
 
Article
The Optimum Health Clinic, established in 2004 to help those with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) find effective treatment, has used the Integral model, specifically the four quadrants, as a basis for understanding the development and maintenance of the condition. Here we present literature to highlight the application of Integral Medicine in this area in an effort to root our experiential knowledge in research evidence and also to illustrate to a wider audience the usefulness of this perspective in treating an illness of unknown etiology. We then consider the difficulties in applying this approach in the current healthcare environment and describe what The Optimum Health Clinic is doing to advance research and practice in an integral manner.
 
Article
This article composes a formal constellation of distinct, but overlapping, philosophical, methodological, and theoretical commitments enactive within the integrative world-space. This approach is proposed as a basis for exploring a pragmatic meta-worldview capable of carrying meaning making necessary for the formation of a healthy and enduring planetary civilization. The heart of this challenge lies in finding a coherent and culturally extensible contemporary integration of humanity's most persistent and foundational dualism-that of materialist and spiritualist views (with their respective ontic/realist vs. espistemic/idealist orientations) and the overarching meaning-making cosmologies they respectively support. I contend that current integrative approaches are still early in the developmental process of forming such a view, and that while they move us ever closer to a viable nondual orientation, they are ultimately perceived to fall on one side or the other of the divide and therefore fail, as yet, to locate a meaningfully comprehensive stance capable of uniting all of humanity under one cosmological structure. In this article I seek to develop an integral pragmatist approach, which I refer to as integral semiotic realism, as a distinction supportive of resolving the cosmological divide. An integral cosmology is then proposed based on the post-metaphysical injunction prescribed by the semiotic enactment of the notion of Planetary Civilization through the signification of integral rational spirituality. This endeavor fits within and contributes to the development of Integral Post-Metaphysics, Integral Pluralism, and an integrative realism and strives to locate unity in their diversity.
 
The four quadrivia of the SoccerFest and Granite Bowl CAO courses. Adapted from Esbjörn-Hargens (2009) and Wilber (2006).  
The four quadrivia of the Brendan Ford Run for Success event in the Leadership in Sport Management CAO course. Adapted from Esbjörn-Hargens (2009) and Wilber (2006).  
Article
When using the classroom-as-organization (CAO) approach, students are given the responsibility for planning, organizing, and leading a classroom. While research indicates that the CAO approach helps students develop greater self- and social awareness, increased self-confidence, and an understanding of how to perform effectively in "real world" settings, we believe management educators are better served when they apply and facilitate the CAO approach within a holistic framework. To this end, we introduce the application of Integral Theory to the CAO approach. Insights derived from three separate CAO contexts are synthesized and viewed through both quadrivia and quadratic lenses to demonstrate the value of such an application. We draw on lessons that we have experienced as they both naturally arise and have been enacted through curricula design. As this is a developing area for investigation, future research opportunities are reviewed.
 
Article
Climate change is a complex phenomenon that is enacted by multiple methodologies from various disciplines. No single method by itself can "see" or reveal climate change in its entirety. This raises the issue of the ontological status of climate change and to what degree are the data from these methodological traditions pointing to a singular or multiple object. This article explores the ontology of climate change. First, the notion of ontological pluralism is introduced and linked to climate change. Next, the role of enactment and performativity is explored in the context of climate change. As a result of this analysis, climate change is presented as a multiple object with overlapping and divergent dimensions. Issues of hybridity and multiplicity are linked to climate change action. Lastly, a framework of Integral Pluralism is presented that addresses the relationship between epistemological distance (the Who), methodological variety (the How), and ontological complexity (the What). In conclusion, this article presents five reasons why it is advantageous-philosophically and pragmatically-to relate to climate change as an ontological plurality.
 
Article
Climate change is a multifaceted problem that requires a transdisciplinary, and thereby integral, approach. In this article I draw on Integral Theory and its AQAL model as a framework for generating an Integral approach to climate change. In Part 1, I introduce the four quadrants of Integral Theory and then use this conceptual lens to generate a four-layered analysis of climate change: its dimensions, its causes, possible solutions, and areas of research. In Part 2, I showcase the work of seven integral practitioners and mention the work of an additional dozen who are using Integral Theory and its quadrants (among other elements) to support their work in climate leadership. These examples serve to illustrate the practical and effective nature of taking an Integral approach as illustrated in Part 1. This article aims to provide a basic overview of how to begin to think about climate change in an integral way and serves as a comprehensive inventory of who is already using the Integral framework to respond to climate change.
 
Article
Integral Possibilism is herein presented as an alternative to the maxim that "everyone is right about something." While in some situations everyone being right about something may be a resourceful way to begin dialogue or take a new perspective, in others it can feed relativism, and even what is best called quackery. Drawing on the Freethought Movement of the 19th century, Integral Possibilism is a cognitive reframe calling for more discernment before we seek out what someone is right about and more critical thinking when someone is clearly wrong. Integral Possibilism also acknowledges our evolutionary legacy of brains that have an inherent "belief engine" that has evolved over millions of years. This legacy includes a tendency to seek patterns and anthropomorphize intention. Because we are prone to belief, critical thinking is even more important.
 
Article
The Restorative Integral Support (RIS) model is an application of Integral Theory developed at the Committee on the Shelterless (COTS) to integrate and translate research on adverse childhood experiences and resiliency into practice. Applying RIS, COTS designed a response to adverse childhood experiences that integrated services within the context of intentionally developed healthy environments and relationships that support whole-person programs (Larkin & Records, 2007). It is suggested that as a theoretically based model, grounded in research taking client characteristics into account, RIS is a useful development to address gaps in homeless services evaluation and research. Service outcomes action research (SOAR), a team-based research partnership that could be enhanced through Integral Methodological Pluralism, is proposed as a fitting way to conduct evaluation at COTS and ongoing research on the RIS model. In this way, an integrally enacted SOAR could facilitate social change by opening collaborative pathways of data exchange within and beyond organizations such as COTS. The data-informed practice process (DIPP) offered through SOAR could strengthen the RIS model in diverse agencies, bringing forth the future of Integral Theory in social service.
 
Article
The stigma of mental illness has been described using a variety of paradigms from different disciplines. These perspectives vary from the sociological to the cognitive, biomedical, sociocognitive and religious/spiritual. Although the paradigms used in describing stigma are different, they all have excellent utility in relating the tremendous impact stigma has on the lives of the mentally ill. The principal aim of this article is to organize these perspectives into a coherent conceptualization using the AQAL model. The four quadrants are used to describe the stigma of mental illness by looking at the subjective, objective, intersubjective, and interobjective perspectives of the stigmatized. The Integral model allows for a discussion of human developmental issues that affect how impactful stigma is for mentally ill individuals. The article concludes with recommendations for ways to mitigate the stigma of mental illness.
 
Article
This article explores current integral conceptualizations of shadow, and then proceeds to interweave those concepts and practices into an interpersonal, neurobiologically based approach to shadow. An argument is made that normal neurobiological growth inevitably involves the development of reflexive defensive states (with corresponding structures of consciousness), and that defensive states are signature expressions of destructive shadow material. Discussion centers on how we redefine mental health from having no neuroses—internalized conflicts in the Freudian sense—to a self-regulatory process orientation that normalizes the regular instantiations of defensive states in response to perceived threat. In this model, psychosocial health involves increasing capacities to observe defensive states as they arise and to regulate them to states of healthy response—essentially a resilience-based approach. I will demonstrate how the states concept of defensive states/ states-of-healthy-response practically operationalizes a simple two-channel orientation to problematic shadow material in the psychotherapy session, thus providing therapists and clients with a bridge from theory into practice in the right-hemisphere dominated, intersubjective flow of the therapeutic relationship.
 
Article
This article is a commentary on the Integral Futures controversy that arose between authors in two special editions of Futures (Vol. 40, No. 2, and Vol. 42, No. 2). The vitriolic rhetoric of the debate suggests the need for a new form of scholarship, which I call "postformal-integral-planetary scholarship." Such scholarship would require creative altruism, nuanced theorizing, and recognition that we share something of uncommon value with our colleagues-a deep desire and willingness to work toward a more equitable, just, sustainable, and peaceful world. Postformal-integral-planetary scholarship has the potential to move our discourse beyond the personal ego and into a field where we can jointly address global crises.
 
Article
Natura manufactures and sells cosmetics, fragrances, and personal hygiene products in a direct sales business model in Brazil, several countries in Latin America, and France. The brand was born from the combination of two passions-for cosmetics as a vehicle of self-knowledge, and well-being and human connection as the keystones to health. These beliefs are fully integrated into Natura's corporate culture and behavior, feeding the aspiration to adopt an integral framework in all aspects of the company's operations. In this sense, several activities have been developed over recent years to incorporate Integral Theory into different dimensions of the business, including the areas and teams responsible for research, technology and product development, human resources, relationship management, marketing, and sustainability. In this context, we describe one particular event in 2012 that was centered on a discussion of how to apply Integral Theory to some of Natura's projects and business routines.
 
Article
The couples relationship can be volatile and chaotic when it fails to regulate regression unique to the intimate dyad. One of the issues that distinguish the intimate relationship from all others is the influx of regression that interjects earlier developmental aspects of self into the present, which then must be processed by the couple. The capacities to express and balance regression are not as strongly needed in non-intimate relationships. Regression involves powerful feelings of sensitivity and vulnerability that are frequently expressed in withdrawal behavior or anger. This angry enactment of perhaps one’s earlier unresolved issues predictably elicits a defensive response in a partner. This article explores the central role of regression in intimacy, identifies rigid patterns that fail to meet this essential need, describes a model to assess a couple’s ability to process and balance the expression of regression, and underscores the need for integral sensibilities in the practice of couples therapy.
 
Article
This article introduces a new model of self called the Integral Cube. Mainly for integral scholar-practitioners, the Integral Cube is based upon the most relevant and apparent data clinicians and coaches see when working with people: how they pay attention to how they feel. The Integral Cube represents an explanatory model of the psyche that is uniquely integral. The Wilber- Combs Lattice differentiated the human trajectories of transcendence and transformation. In order to render the Wilber-Combs Lattice more application-friendly, a proposed third axis is added-an axis of translation. This "z axis" represents a continuum of affect. Using the proposed z axis may reveal the ways that emotions can be isomers-phenomenologically similar yet structurally dissimilar (old self vs. new self). Both developmental subphases (y axis) and general states (x axis) can be hypothesized by expertly attending to such isometric emotions (y axis) and the intentions the client self-generates (x axis). Assisting people with the involutionary tensions of evolutionary motion is the goal of the proposed Integral Cube. A propositional logic of affect based on the notion of Kosmic forces is presented to support the identification of common feelings expressed during subphase transformation (y axis) and during state transition (x axis), which may help clinicians and coaches diagnose the relative health of their clients' translations.
 
Article
Because the fate of the integral paradigm probably hinges on the successful integration of science, religion, and spirituality, I examine key features of "Integral Science," which, as it has been defined hitherto in the integral discourse, falls short of honoring all of science's standards. I argue that scientific and mythic realities are both essential. The concept of mythos should be understood in evolutionary terms all the way up to turquoise altitude and not be relegated to premodern stages of psychocultural development. The unique contribution of science to Western culture can then be reevaluated. Science reveals the spiritual dimension of material reality; it gives rise to powerful narratives about the origins of the universe and life as well as human nature. Paradoxically, science, once considered the "myth-killer," is generating today's new mythic reality.
 
The Integral model and evolution.
Evolution from traditional investing to impact investing.
United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
Impact investing assets by selected European countries (in €bn); sourced from Eurosif (2010a).
Convergence of traditional capital and philanthropy.
Article
This two-part article proposes using Integral Theory as the foundation of a more sus-tainable investing practice, named here integral investing. This evolving investment concept, which crystallized over the past two decades in my personal investing practice, is a condensation of sev-eral papers presented at various finance, economics, and sustainability conferences. Part 1 sup-ports the proposal through investigations performed on 1) current investing structures, 2) global initiatives and trends, and 3) 132 leading-edge individual investors who have apparently evolved to later stages of human development. This research is revealed using Joseph Campbell's conception of the hero's journey. Based on the Integral framework, Part 2 of the article introduces a possible path toward a more sustainable investing practice that is based on evolution and the essence of all existence, considering interior as well as exterior realities. In this model, financial returns must be inseparable from a deep impact on the social, environmental, cultural, and behavioral aspects of reality as well as human development and evolution.
 
Article
This two-part article proposes using Integral Theory as the foundation of a more sus-tainable investing practice in the future, named here integral investing. In Part 1, this proposal is supported mainly through research performed on 132 individual investors who have apparently evolved to later stages of human development and are now impacting various industries. In Part 2, I introduce a possible path toward a concept of integral investing that is centered in evolution and the essence of all existence (i.e., interior as well as exterior reality). In this model, financial returns must be inseparable from a deep impact on the experiential, cultural, behavioral, and social aspects of reality as well as human development. The article shows furthermore how this investing concept, once developed, could provide the necessary indicators and means for investing across all asset classes. Such a model could transcend and include current practices and provide the evolutionary integration between traditional investing and impact investing; regular capital and philanthropic capital; traditional business and social business; and interior and exterior aspects of human life, ultimately serving as a vehicle for individual self-actualization.
 
Article
This article expands on the use of the integral political-economic approach with the concept of holarchical embeddedness. Integral Theory is used to embed users and critics of economics according to their development, typology, and stakeholder position when they perceive, act, and interact. The approach itself is also embedded within and across schools of economics using the quadrants, levels, and types of Integral Theory. Holarchical embeddedness (HE) is clarified by extending the three individual political-economic types (of conservative, liberal and radical) to collectives. HE helps demonstrate the role of multiple stakeholder deflection of blame in suboptimal policymaking, which involves confusion between immature and mature uses of economic theory across types (the immature/mature fallacy). This article introduces a novel decomposition of the immature/mature fallacy into two versions, reductionism and elevationism. This helps to spot a dynamic in which critics of elevationist uses of economics respond by reducing economics to a subset of models that are erroneously perceived as having to be applied universally or not at all (coined here as the fallacy of implied universalism). Overcoming these oppositional fallacies suggests working to integrate various schools of economics, which is furthered here by using a four-quadrant, multilevel, three-type approach and by building on previously established aspects of the framework.
 
Article
In order to reach their maximum potential, children must be supported from an early age in the development of higher level thinking and reasoning. This article examines the educational system in the United States and its weaknesses in promoting conceptual understandings of mathematics, developing students' abilities to make connections between concepts, and enabling the creative use of mathematics in problem solving. One constructivist pedagogical strategy of mathematics instruction currently in place is examined and teacher practices in delivering instruction using this model are explored through the lens of the AQAL framework. The development of integral pedagogical methods that can be delivered by teachers at all levels is explored.
 
Top-cited authors
Olga Jarrín
  • Rutgers School of Nursing
Jeffery A. Martin
  • Transformative Technology Lab
Edith Friesen
Ian Wight
  • University of Manitoba
Heather Larkin
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York