Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0162-0134
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Article
The [Ru(II)(Hedta)NO(+)] complex is a diamagnetic species crystallizing in a distorted octahedral geometry, with the Ru-N(O) length 1.756(4) A and the RuNO angle 172.3(4) degrees . The complex contains one protonated carboxylate (pK(a)=2.7+/-0.1). The [Ru(II)(Hedta)NO(+)] complex undergoes a nitrosyl-centered one-electron reduction (chemical or electrochemical), with E(NO+/NO)=-0.31 V vs SCE (I=0.2 M, pH 1), yielding [Ru(II)(Hedta)NO](-), which aquates slowly: k(-NO)=2.1+/-0.4x10(-3) s(-1) (pH 1.0, I=0.2 M, CF(3)COOH/NaCF(3)COO, 25 degrees C). At pHs>12, the predominant species, [Ru(II)(edta)NO](-), reacts according to [Ru(II)(edta)NO](-)+2OH(-)-->[Ru(II)(edta)NO(2)](3-), with K(eq)=1.0+/-0.4 x 10(3) M(-2) (I=1.0 M, NaCl; T=25.0+/-0.1 degrees C). The rate-law is first order in each of the reactants for most reaction conditions, with k(OH(-))=4.35+/-0.02 M(-1)s(-1) (25.0 degrees C), assignable mechanistically to the elementary step comprising the attack of one OH(-) on [Ru(II)(edta)NO](-), with subsequent fast deprotonation of the [Ru(II)(edta)NO(2)H](2-) intermediate. The activation parameters were DeltaH(#)=60+/-1 kJ/mol, DeltaS(#)=-31+/-3 J/Kmol, consistent with a nucleophilic addition process between likely charged ions. In the toxicity up-and-down tests performed with Swiss mice, no death was observed in all the doses administered (3-9.08 x 10(-5) mol/kg). The biodistribution tests performed with Wistar male rats showed metal in the liver, kidney, urine and plasma. Eight hours after the injection no metal was detected in the samples. The vasodilator effect of [Ru(II)(edta)NO](-) was studied in aortic rings without endothelium, and was compared with sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The times of maximal effects of [Ru(II)(edta)NO](-) and SNP were 2 h and 12 min, respectively, suggesting that [Ru(II)(edta)NO](-) releases NO slowly to the medium in comparison with SNP.
 
Article
The digold complex [Au(2)(micro-G)(micro-dmpe)](KBr)(0.75) x 2H(2)O (dmpe=1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (1)) has been prepared by nucleophilic attack of the guaninate dianion on the gold(I) atoms of [(AuBr)(2)(micro-dmpe)] and has been characterised by X-ray crystallography and spectroscopic studies. The structure of 1 consists of dinuclear nine-membered ring molecules, K(+) cations, Br(-) anions and water molecules, all of them involved in either weak K....O or hydrogen bonding interactions. Within the cyclic dinuclear molecules, gold(I) atoms are bridged on one side by the diphosphine ligand and on the other side by a doubly deprotonated guaninate anion coordinated through neighbouring N3 and N9 nitrogen atoms, with gold(I)....gold(I) interactions of 3.030(2) A. This is the first X-ray example showing an N3,N9-bridging mode for guanine. There are two types of K(+) cations in the structure, K1 and K2. The former interacts with water molecules to form a unique [K(H(2)O)(3)(micro-H(2)O)(2)K(H(2)O)(3)](2+) dipotassium unit whereas K2 interact with the O6 atom of the guaninate ligands and oxygen atoms of the dipotassium unit leading to a chain running along the c-axis. Each chain is interdigitated with four neighbouring ones to give rise to an intricate network in which Br1, Br2 and [K(H(2)O)(3)(micro-H(2)O)(2)K(H(2)O)(3)](2+) fit snugly into cavities defined by digold molecules. Complex 1 luminescence at room temperature and 77 K in the solid state with excitation maxima at 385 nm and emission maxima at 451.8 and 448.7 nm, respectively. The emission spectrum of a saturated solution of 1 in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) shows the maximum at about 440 nm.
 
Article
Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is an extracellular heme enzyme produced by the lignin-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. MnP catalyzes the peroxide-dependent oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III). The Mn(III) is released from the enzyme in complex with oxalate, enabling the oxalate-Mn(III) complex to serve as a diffusible redox mediator capable of oxidizing lignin, especially under the mediation of unsaturated fatty acids. One heme propionate and the side chains of Glu35, Glu39 and Asp179 have been identified as Mn(II) ligands in our previous crystal structures of native MnP. In our current work, new 0.93A and 1.05A crystal structures of MnP with and without bound Mn(II), respectively, have been solved. This represents only the sixth structure of a protein of this size at 0.93A resolution. In addition, this is the first structure of a heme peroxidase from a eukaryotic organism at sub-Angstrom resolution. These new structures reveal an ordering/disordering of the C-terminal loop, which is likely required for Mn binding and release. In addition, the catalytic Arg42 residue at the active site, normally thought to function only in the peroxide activation process, also undergoes ordering/disordering that is coupled to a transient H-bond with the Mn ligand, Glu39. Finally, these high-resolution structures also reveal the exact H atoms in several parts of the structure that are relevant to the catalytic mechanism.
 
Second-Order Rate Constants for the 
Article
6-methylated guanine dinucleotides were used to study the influence of hydrogen bonding on the specific binding of the antitumor drug cDDP, cis-PtCl2(NH3)2, to DNA. In this interaction, the guanine-06 site appears to be important in explaining the preference for a pGpG-N7(1),N7(2) chelate, which results from H-bridge formation with the ammine ligand of cDDP. Guanine-06 methylated dinucleotides and the nonmodified dinucleotides were reacted with [Pt(dien)Cl]+, cis-PtCl2(NH3)2, and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)2]2+ and the reaction products were characterized by 1H NMR using pH titrations. Methylation at guanine-06 clearly reduces the preference for the guanine. In competition experiments monitored by NMR and experiments using UV spectrophotometry a decreasing reactivity towards [Pt(dien)(H2O)]2+ and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)2]2+ was found, in the order of d(GpG) greater than d(GomepG) greater than d(GpGome) greater than d(GomepGome). The difference in reactivity between 5' guanine methylation and 3' guanine methylation is ascribed to differences in the H-bond formation with the backbone phosphate. The resulting reduced stacking of the bases in both modified dinucleotides, compared to the bases in d(GpG), results in a preference for the 3' guanine over 5'.
 
Article
The combination of the pH-metric and NMR studies is used to examine the stabilities and coordination modes as well as related structural aspects of zinc(II), magnesium(II) and calcium(II) complexation to piperyd-1-yl-methane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (1) and its derivatives containing a topologically modified piperidine ring (2-7). The studied compounds coordinate metal ions exclusively via the phosphonate functions with a nitrogen atom remaining protonated over the whole range of studied pH. Compounds 1-6 readily form soluble multinuclear complexes of type [M(3)(HL)(2)] and [M(3)(HL)(3)](3-) with Zn(2+) or [M(2)(H(2)L)(2)] with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). These species are formed based on dimers consisting of two head-to-head arranged molecules linked by strong symmetrical hydrogen bonds. The placement of the two methyl groups at 2- and 6-positions on the piperidine ring precludes the molecular recognition via similar hydrogen bonds and accounts for different complexation properties of 7 compared to 1-6. The role that the metal coordination plays on conformation dynamics in 1-7 is also discussed.
 
Article
DNA-binding properties of novel binulear copper(II) complex [Cu(2)(Dmbiim)(4)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(4).6H(2)O, where Dmbiim = 1,1'-Dimethyl-2,2'-biimidazole are investigated using electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and voltammetry. The results show that the copper(II) complex interacts with DNA through minor groove binding. The interaction between the complex and DNA has also been investigated by gel electrophoresis, interestingly, we found that the copper(II) complex can cleave circular plasmid pBR322 DNA efficiently in the presence of AH(2) (ascorbic acid) at pH 8.0 and 37 degrees C.
 
Article
A DNA-intercalating Ru(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(bpy)2(appo)]2+ (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, appo=11-aminopteridino[6,7-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-13(12H)-one) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectra, (1)H NMR, UV/Vis spectrum, fluorescent spectrum and electrochemistry. The DNA-binding, photocleavage, and topoisomerase inhibition of the complex was studied. Interestingly, the complex binds to DNA via an intercalative mode with preference for GC sequences and cleaves the pBR322 DNA upon irradiation. In addition, the complex shows high inhibition activity against topoisomerase II by interfere the DNA religation.
 
Article
The complex [Mn(L)(NO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (1) (L=2H-5-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazo[3,4-f]1,10-phenanthroline) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV. The crystal and molecular structure of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction; crystal data: light yellow, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, Z=4, a=7.432(2) A, b=9.582(3) A, c=23.445(7) A, beta=90.519(5) degrees. The Mn atom in 1 is hexa-coordinated in a distorted octahedral arrangement by two N atoms of the ligand L and four O atoms of two water molecules and two nitrate anions. Biological tests in vitro showed that 1 has significant antitumor activity against HL-60, KB, Hela and BGC-823 cells. The interaction of 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by absorption titration, thermal denaturation and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that 1 binds with DNA by intercalating via the ligand L.
 
Article
The DNA binding of iron(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline(phen) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline(dip), [Fe(phen)(3)](2+), [Fe(phen)(2)(dip)](2+) and [Fe(phen)(dip)(2)](2+) has been characterized by spectrophotometric titration and melting temperature measurements. The salt concentration dependence of the binding constant has allowed us to dissect the DNA-binding constant and free energy change of each iron(II) complex into the nonelectrostatic and polyelectrolyte contributions. A comparison of the nonelectrostatic components in the binding free energy changes among iron(II) complexes has made it possible to rigorously evaluate the contribution of the ligand substituents to the DNA-binding event. The peripheral substitution of phen by two phenyl groups increases the nonelectrostatic binding constant of the iron(II) complex more than 20 times, which is equivalent to approximately 7.5 kJ mol(-1) of more favorable contribution to the DNA binding. In general, the iron(II) complexes studied have higher affinity towards the more facile A-T sequence than the G-C sequence. This preferential binding may be attributed to the steric effect induced by the ancillary part of the ligands in the course of DNA binding. The binding of disubstituted iron(II) complex to DNA is quite strong as reflected in the modest increase in the denaturation temperature (T(m)) of double helical DNA upon the interaction with the iron(II) complex.
 
Article
Two novel coumarin-based ligands, coumarin-6,7-dioxyacetic acid (1) (cdoaH(2)) and 4-methylcoumarin-6,7-dioxyacetic acid (2) (4-MecdoaH(2)), were reacted with copper(II) and manganese(II) salts to give [Cu(cdoa)(H(2)O)(2)].1.5H(2)O (3), [Cu(4-Mecdoa)(H(2)O)(2)] (4), [Mn(cdoa)(H(2)O)(2)] (5) and [Mn(4-Mecdoa)(H(2)O)(2)].0.5H(2)O (6). The metal complexes, 3-6, were characterised by elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements and were assigned a polymeric structure. 1 and 2 react with Cu(II) in the presence of excess 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) giving [Cu(cdoa)(phen)(2)].8.8H(2)O (7) and [Cu(4-Mecdoa)(phen)(2)].13H(2)O (8), respectively. The X-ray crystal structures of 7 and 8 confirmed trigonal bipyramidal geometries, with the metals bonded to the four nitrogen atoms of the two chelating phen molecules and to a single carboxylate oxygen of the dicarboxylate ligand. The complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against a number of microbial species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The metal-free ligands 1 and 2 were active against all of the microbes. Complexes 3-6 demonstrated no significant activity whilst the phen adducts 7 and 8 were active against MRSA (MIC(80)=12.1microM), E. coli (MIC(80)=14.9microM) and Patonea agglumerans (MIC(80)=12.6microM). Complex 7 also demonstrated anti-Candida activity (MIC(80)=22microM) comparable to that of the commercially available antifungal agent ketoconazole (MIC(80)=25microM).
 
Article
A novel polypyridyl ligand 2-(4'-benzyloxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (BPIP) and its complex [Ru(bpy)2(BPIP)]2+ (1) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) and (2) [Ru(phen)2(BPIP)]2+) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectra and 1H NMR. The DNA-binding properties of the two complexes were investigated by spectroscopic and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that both complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative mode. Both complexes can enantioselectively interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in a way. The Lambda enantiomer of complex 1 is slightly predominant for binding to CT-DNA to the Delta enantiomer. Under irradiation at 365 nm, both complexes have also been found to promote the photocleavage of plasmid pBR 322 DNA. Inhibitors studies suggest that singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and hydroxyl radical (*OH) play a significant role in the cleavage mechanism for both complexes. Moreover, the DNA-binding and photocleavage properties of both complexes were compared with that of [Ru(bpy)2(BPIP)]2+ and [Ru(phen)2(BPIP)]2+. The experimental results indicate that methene group existence or not have a significant effect on the DNA-binding and cleavage mechanism of these complexes.
 
Article
In a preliminary study we tested CuSO4.5H2O, (Cu(II]2[3,5-diisopropylsalicylate]4.2H2O and a number of copper complexes of substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines for superoxide anion dismutase activity. It appeared that this activity depends on the ligands involved and might be governed by the redox potential of the Cu(I) complex/Cu(II) complex couple. The strong superoxide anion dismutase activity of Cu(II)[DMP]2 complex can be expected considering its high redox potential. Rather surprisingly is the superoxide anion dismutase activity of the Cu(I)[DMP]2 complex since it involves oxidation to Cu(II)[DMP]2 complex. From regression analysis it was established that steric and field effects of the substituents of the investigated phenanthrolines play an important role in SOD activity and therefore it is concluded that complex formation is important for the superoxide dismutase-like activity.
 
Article
Two novel lanthanum(III) complexes containing 2-methylene-1,10-phenanthroline units bridged by aliphatic diamines were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, thermal analysis and conductance measurements. They have been assayed for anticancer activity in vitro against HL-60 (human leukocytoma) cells, PC-3MIE8 (human prostate carcinoma) cells, BGC-823 (human stomach carcinoma) cells, MDA-MB-435 (human galactophore carcinoma) cells, Bel-7402 (human liver carcinoma) cells, and Hela (human cervix carcinoma) cells. The results show that the two complexes exhibit good cytotoxic activities against different cell lines in general, especially more effective than cisplatin against Bel-7402, BGC-823 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines. DNA-binding studies indicate that, besides the intercalation, the complexes bind to DNA by the other interaction(s), which might be responsible for the production of more compact DNA, coinciding with more A-like feature of DNA as suggested by CD spectra.
 
Article
Platinum compounds containing an aromatic diimine (1,10-phenanthroline or 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline; phen and Me(2)phen, respectively) and antiviral guanosine-type ligands (acyclovir or penciclovir; acy and pen, respectively) have been synthesised. These compounds maintain the antiviral activity against Herpes Symplex Virus (HSV) and have greater efficacy than free acyclovir or penciclovir against Cytomegalovirus (CMV); in both cases the species with Me(2)phen are more active. The same complexes are effective against tumor cell proliferation which also results to be dependent upon the nature of the diimine ligand: all compounds containing Me(2)phen being more active than those containing phen. Although in vivo some complexes significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, nevertheless, they do not appear to significantly affect the life time expectancy of the treated mice. The greater cytotoxicity of compounds with Me(2)phen may result from a higher reactivity towards cellular components, such as glutathione, which could cause release of the diimine, known to be highly cytotoxic.
 
Article
The stability constants of the mixed ligand complexes formed between Cu(Arm)2+, where Arm=2,2'-bipyridine (Bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen), and the monoanion or the dianion of 9-(4-phosphonobutyl)adenine (dPMEA=3'-deoxa-PMEA), which is the carba analogue of the antivirally active 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA), were determined by potentiometric pH titrations in aqueous solution at 25 degrees C and I=0.1 M (NaNO3). Detailed stability constant comparisons reveal that in the monoprotonated ternary Cu(Arm)(H;dPMEA)+ complexes the proton is at the phosphonate group and that stacking between Cu(Arm)2+ and H(dPMEA)- plays a significant role. For the Cu(Arm)(dPMEA) complexes a large increase in complex stability (compared to the stability expected on the basis of the basicity of the phosphonate group) is observed, which is due to intramolecular stack formation between the aromatic ring systems of Phen or Bpy and the purine moiety of dPMEA2-. The formation degree of the stacked isomer in the Cu(Arm)(dPMEA) systems is on the order of 90%, though it is somewhat more pronounced with Phen than with Bpy. Comparisons of the Cu(Arm)(N) systems, where N=dPMEA2- and PMEA2- or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP2-), reveal that the stacking properties of dPMEA2- and PMEA2-resemble closely those of their parent nucleotide AMP2-.
 
Article
A novel binuclear complex [(bpy)2Ru(mu-bipp)Ru(bpy)2](ClO4)4, where bpy=2,2'-bipyridine and bipp=2,9-bis(2-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline)-1,10-phenanthroline has been synthesized. Photophysical results reveal that this complex interacts with calf-thymus DNA with intrinsic binding constant 2.6 x 10(5) M(-1) in the buffer containing 5 mM Tris and 50 mM NaCl. The fact that the intraligand transition of bipp around 370 nm decreased by up to 50% in the presence of DNA, much more pronounced than the metal to ligand charge transfer band around 445 nm indicates the bridging ligand bipp is also the intercalating ligand into DNA base pairs. The emission band around at 601 nm increased by 1.4-fold, and red shifted 14 nm when DNA was added to saturation. The emission quenching of this complex by K4[Fe(CN)6] was depressed greatly when DNA was present. Viscometric measurements also proved the intercalative binding mode.
 
Article
Five new tetradentate ligands and their corresponding palladium complexes, [Pd(L)]Cl2 (L = N,N'-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimathanamine, N,N'-diethyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimathanamine, N,N'-dipropyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimathanamine, N,N'-ditert-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimathanamine, N,N'-dicyclohexyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimathanamine) have been synthesized. The ligands and their complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and 1H NMR. The complexes have been assayed for antitumor activity in vitro against the mouse leukemia L1210 and the mouse liver carcinoma Bel7402 cell lines. The results showed that the activities of these complexes are significantly dependent on the nature of the alkyl groups on the coordinated amine moieties, and three of these palladium complexes showed lower ID50 values against the two cell lines than cisplatin.
 
Article
Two novel homoleptic ruthenium (II) complexes containing asymmetric tridentate ligands, 2-(benzimidazole-2-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline (PHBI) and 2-(naphtho[2,3-d]imidazole-2-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline (PHNI) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectra, (1)H NMR, and electronic spectroscopy. The DNA-binding properties of the complexes have been investigated by spectroscopic methods and viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the two complexes interact with DNA via electrostatic interaction, and the mechanisms of DNA binding with the complexes have also been discussed.
 
Article
Absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) have been used to characterize the DNA binding of [Fe(phen)3]2+, [Fe(phen)2(DIP)]2+ and [Fe(phen)(DIP)2]2+ where phen and DIP stand for 1,10-phenanthroline and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, respectively. Both [Fe(phen)3]2+ and [Fe(phen)2(DIP)]2+ bind weakly to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in an electrostatic mode, while [Fe(phen)(DIP)2]2+ binds more strongly to CT-DNA, possibly in an intercalation mode. The hypochromicity, red shift and Kb increase in the order [Fe(phen)3]2+ < [Fe(phen)2(DIP)]2+ < [Fe(phen)(DIP)2]2+ in accordance with the increase in size and hydrophobicity of the iron(II) complexes. The thermodynamic parameters obtained suggest that the DNA binding of both [Fe(phen)3]2+ and [Fe(phen)2(DIP)]2+ is entropically driven, while that of [Fe(phen)(DIP)2]2+ is enthalpically driven. A strong CD spectrum in the UV and visible region develops upon addition of CT-DNA into the racemate solution of each iron(II) complex (Pfeiffer effect). This has revealed that a shift in diastereomeric inversion equilibrium takes place in the solution to yield an excess of one of the DNA-complex diastereomers. The striking resemblance of the CD spectral profiles to those of the pure delta-enantiomer indicates that the delta-enantiomer of the iron(II) complexes is preferentially bound to CT-DNA. The mechanism of the development of Pfeiffer CD is proposed on the basis of kinetic studies on the DNA binding of the racemic iron(II) complexes.
 
Article
Copper complexes: [Cu(phen)(L-Ser)(H(2)O)Cl] (1), [Cu(phen)(Gly)(H(2)O)]Cl·3H(2)O (2), [Cu(phen)(L-Ala)(H(2)O)]Cl·H(2)O (3), [Cu(phen)(L-Phe)(H(2)O)]Cl·2.5H(2)O (4), Cu(phen)(2)Cl(2)·6H(2)O (5) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized. The structure of 1 was characterized by X-ray crystallography and showed in a triclinic system with space group P1, a=6.8953(15) Å, b=10.737(2) Å, c=11.894(3) Å, α=110.395(3)°, β=94.183(4)° and γ=100.540(3)°. The antibacterial activities on Escherichia coli (E. coli) of these five copper complexes and CuCl(2) (6) were investigated by microcalorimetry. By analyzing the obtained metabolic thermogenic data and curves, crucial parameters such as rate constant of bacterial growth (k), half inhibitory concentration (IC(50)), and generation time (t(G)) were determined. All these copper complexes could stimulate the growth of the E. coli at their lower concentration. At their higher concentration they all showed antibacterial action. The inhibition on E. coli was 5>1 ≈ 2 ≈ 3 ≈ 4 > 6. And the antibacterial mechanism was discussed preliminarily.
 
Article
The complex [Cu(N9-ABS)(phen)2].3.6H2O, H2N9-ABS = N-(9H-purin-6-yl)benzenesulfonamide and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, has been synthesized and then characterized with the aid of X-ray diffraction, analytical, and spectroscopic techniques. The geometry of Cu(II) is distorted square pyramidal with the equatorial positions occupied by three N atoms from two phenantroline molecules and one N atom from the adenine ring of the sulfonamide ligand. The interaction of the complex with DNA was studied by means of viscosity measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results pointed to a classic intercalation of the complex between the DNA base pairs. The complex was found to be a very efficient agent of plasmid DNA cleavage in the presence of ascorbate. Both the kinetics and the mechanism of the cleavage reaction were studied. In addition, the cytotoxic properties of the complex were evaluated in human Jurkat T and Caco-2 cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the compound was higher than that of the reference ([Cu(phen)2]2+). The mechanism and type of cell death induced by the compound was determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst dye staining. The compound demonstrated a significant ability to induce cell death by apoptosis. The apoptosis induced by [Cu(N9-ABS)(phen)2].3.6H2O was associated with an increase in p53 protein levels while those of Bcl-2 were reduced.
 
Article
Three new binary Cu(II) complexes of norfloxacin have been synthesized and characterized. We also report the synthesis, characterization and X-ray crystallographic structures of a new binary compound, [Cu(HNor)(2)]Cl(2).2H(2)O (2) and two new ternary complexes norfloxacin-copper(II)-phen, [Cu(Nor)(phen)(H(2)O)](NO(3)).3H(2)O (4), and [Cu(HNor)(phen)(NO(3))](NO(3)).3H(2)O (5). The structure of 2 consists of two crystallographically independent cationic monomeric units of [Cu(HNor)(2)](2+), chloride anions, and uncoordinated water molecules. The Cu(II) ion is placed at a center of symmetry and is coordinated to two norfloxacin ligands which are related through the inversion center. The structures of 4 and 5 consist of cationic units ([Cu(Nor)(phen)(H(2)O)](+) for 4 and [Cu(HNor)(phen)(NO(3))](+) for 5), nitrate counteranions, and lattice water molecules that provide crystalline stability through a network of hydrogen-bond interactions. The complexes exhibit a five coordinated motif in a square pyramidal environment around the metal center. The ability of compounds 4 and 5 to cleave DNA has also been studied. Mechanistic studies with different inhibiting reagents reveal that hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and superoxide radicals are all involved in the DNA scission process mediated by these compounds.
 
Article
A new polypyridyl ligand MPPIP {MPPIP=2-(3'-phenoxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]-[1,10]phenanthroline} and its ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)(2)MPPIP](2+) (1) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(phen)(2)MPPIP](2+) (2) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized. The binding of the two complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated with spectrophotometric methods, viscosity measurements, as well as equilibrium dialysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results suggest that both complexes bind to CT-DNA through intercalation, and enantioselectively interact with CT-DNA in a way. However, complex 2 is a much better candidate as an enantioselective binder to CT-DNA than complex 1. When irradiated at 365nm, both complexes have also been found to promote the photocleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA.
 
Article
The synthesis and characterization of two cobalt(II) complexes, Co(phen)(ma)Cl 1 and Co(ma)(2)(phen) 2, (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, ma(-)=maltolate or 2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-pyran-3-olate) are reported herein. The complexes have been characterized by FTIR, CHN analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, conductivity measurement and X-ray crystallography. The number of chelated maltolate ligands seems to influence their DNA recognition, topoisomerase I inhibition and antiproliferative properties.
 
Article
Mixed coordination compounds of Cu(II) with sulfonamides and 1,10-phenanthroline as ligands have been prepared and characterised. Single crystal structural determination of the complex [Cu(N-quinolin-8-yl-p-toluenesulfonamidate)(2)(phen)] shows Cu(II) ions are located in a highly distorted octahedral environment, probably as a consequence of the Jahn-Teller effect. The FT-IR and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra are also discussed. The mixed complexes prepared undergo an extensive DNA cleavage in the presence of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide. Two of the complexes have higher nucleolytic efficiency than the bis(o-phenanthroline)copper(II) complex.
 
Article
A series of copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L)]2+, where L = N,N'-dialkyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimethanamine and R = methyl (L1), n-propyl (L2), isopropyl (L3), sec-butyl (L4), or tert-butyl (L5) group, have been synthesized. The interaction of the complexes with DNA has been studied by DNA fiber electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, emission, viscosity and electrochemical measurements and agarose gel electrophoresis. In the X-ray crystal structure of [Cu(HL2)Cl2]NO3, copper(II) is coordinated to two ring nitrogens and one of the two secondary amine nitrogens of the side chains and two chloride ions as well and the coordination geometry is best described as trigonal bipyramidal distorted square based pyramidal (TBDSBP). Electronic and EPR spectral studies reveal that all the complexes in aqueous solution around pH 7 possess CuN3O2 rather than CuN4O chromophore with one of the alkylamino side chain not involved in coordination. The structures of the complexes in aqueous solution around pH 7 change from distorted tetragonal to trigonal bipyramidal as the size of the alkyl group is increased. The observed changes in the physicochemical features of the complexes on binding to DNA suggest that the complexes, except [Cu(L5)]2+, bind to DNA with partial intercalation of the derivatised phen ring in between the DNA base pairs. Electrochemical studies reveal that the complexes prefer to bind to DNA in Cu(II) rather than Cu(I) oxidation state. Interestingly, [Cu(L5)]2+ shows the highest DNA cleavage activity among all the present copper(II) complexes suggesting that the bulky N-tert-butyl group plays an important role in modifying the coordination environment around the copper(II) center, the Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox potential and hence the formation of activated oxidant responsible for the cleavage. These results were compared with those for bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II), [Cu(phen)2]2+.
 
Article
The hydroxo-bridged dinuclear copper (II)/phen complex [Cu(2)(phen)(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)][Cu(2)(phen)(2)(OH)(2)Cl(2)]Cl(2).6H(2)O (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The coordinated area of the complex shows two distorted [CuN(2)O(2)O(w)] and [CuN(2)O(2)Cl] square-pyramidal and one strictly planar configuration CuO(2)Cu involving two O atoms of hydroxo-bridged, Cu(2+) cations, N atoms of two phen ligands and disorder solvate water and chlorine anions. In the presence of H(2)O(2), the complex of mono(1,10-phenanthroline)copper exhibits higher activity as a nuclease than bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper.
 
Article
A binuclear complex [(phen)Cu(mu-bipp)Cu(phen)](ClO(4))(4), where phen=1,10-phenanthroline and bipp=2,9-bis(2-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline)-1,10-phenanthroline, has been synthesized and its interaction with calf-thymus DNA in the buffer containing 5mM Tris and 50mM NaCl has been studied by means of electronic absorption titration, luminescence titration and viscometric measurements. The absorbance of the complex in the range of 320-400 nm, which is mainly based on bipp showed no obvious change upon addition of DNA, while the peak at 270 nm, which is determined by both phen and bipp decreased by up to 18%. The emission band of the complex around 360 nm decreased remarkably in presence of DNA. The emission quenching of this complex by [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) was depressed greatly when bound to DNA. The relative viscosity of DNA was increased by this complex more significantly than a bipp directed intercalating reagent. These results suggest that this complex binds to calf thymus DNA by intercalation of the two phenanthrolinecopper terminals. The apparent intrinsic binding constant of the complexes with DNA was 1.6 x 10(4)M(-1) as determined by UV-visible titration.
 
Article
Three new ternary peptide-Cu(II)-1,10-phenanthroline (phen) complexes, [Cu(L-ala-gly)(phen)].3.5H(2)O 1, [Cu(L-val-gly)(phen)] 2 and [Cu(gly-L-trp)(phen)].2H(2)O 3, have been prepared and structurally characterised. These compounds exist as distorted square pyramidal complexes with the five co-ordination sites occupied by the tridentate peptide dianion and the two heterocyclic nitrogens of the phenanthroline ligand. The bulk of the lateral chain in the peptide moiety determines the relative disposition of the phen ligand. Thus, in [Cu(L-val-gly)(phen)] 2, the phenanthroline plane is deviated towards the opposite side of the isopropyl group of the L-valine moiety. On the other hand, in [Cu(gly-L-trp)(phen)].2H(2)O 3 the absence of stacking interactions between phen and indole rings and the presence of an intramolecular CH...pi interaction should be pointed out. These complexes exhibit significant differences in their nuclease activity which depends on the nature of the peptidic moiety, the complex [Cu(gly-L-trp) (phen)].2H(2)O 3 being the most active.
 
Article
A novel ternary copper(II) complex, [Cu(phen)(L-Thr)(H2O)](ClO4) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, L-Thr=L-threonine), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The complex crystallized in a triclinic system with space group P1 , a=7.526(15) A, b=11.651(2) A, c=12.127(2) A, alpha=115.41(3) degrees , beta=102.34(3) degrees and gamma=91.33(3) degrees . The copper(II) center is situated in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. At a concentration of 10(-6) mol L(-1), the complex exhibited potent cytotoxic effects against human leukemia cell line HL-60 and human stomach cancer cell line SGC-7901 with inhibition rates of over 90%, however, less pronounced effects were observed for human liver carcinoma cell line BEL-7402 and human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A-549. The complex was shown to bind DNA by intercalation and cleave pBR322 DNA in the presence of ascorbate.
 
Article
The interaction of the lanthanum(III) La(III)-L (L=N,N'-bis-(1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dimethanamine) complex with calf thymus DNA was studied by electronic spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroic spectra. The La(III)-L complex was assayed for antitumor activity in vitro against the HL-60 (the human leucocytoma) cells, HCT-8 (the human coloadenocarcinoma) cells, BGC-823 (the human carcinoma of stomach) cells, Bel-7402 (the human liver carcinoma) cells and KB (the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells. The results show that the La(III)-L complex has activity against HL-60 cells, Bel-7402 cells and KB cells. Moreover, it is slightly more effective against Bel-7402 cell line than cisplatin. Using ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe, the binding mode of the La(III)-L complex to calf-thymus DNA was studied spectroscopically. For comparison, the same measurements were carried out with La(III)-Phen [La(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex] and La(III)-Val [La(III)-L-valine complex]. The results indicate that the La(III)-L and La(III)-Phen complexes possibly interact with calf-thymus DNA by both intercalative and coordination binding, whereas the La(III)-Val complex interacts with calf-thymus DNA by coordination binding. Kinetics of binding of the three complexes to DNA is for the first time studied using ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe with stopped-flow spectrophotometer under pseudo-first-order condition. The strong two-step mechanisms in the process of the La(III)-L and La(III)-Phen complexes and one step in the process of the complex La(III)-Val interacting with DNA are observed, and the k(obs) (observed pseudo-first-order rate constant) and E(a) (observed energy of activation) values of binding to DNA are obtained.
 
Article
The orientation of mono(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II), [Cu(phen)]2+, and the ternary complexes with amino acids, [Cu(phen)X(aa)]n+, where X(aa) stands for an alpha-amino acid, has been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the complexes on DNA fibers. It has been revealed that these complexes bind to DNA with several different binding modes. The observation of a species whose g axis is almost parallel to the DNA double helical axis has suggested that the phenanthroline moiety intercalates to DNA. An absence of the intercalated species for the corresponding 2,2'-bipyridine complex has shown that the three-fused aromatic rings in phenanthroline are critical for the intercalative binding of the complexes. The intercalative binding was promoted by 5,6-dimethyl groups on the phenanthroline ring, whereas it was disturbed by 2,9-dimethyl groups, indicating that the planarity of the coordination sphere is important for the intercalative binding. In all cases, the amount of the non-intercalated species was larger than that of the intercalated one. The amino acids in the ternary complexes of glycine, leucine, serine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, and asparagine were partly substituted with some coordinating groups in DNA, whereas the ternary complexes of lysine, arginine, and glutamine remained intact on DNA.
 
Article
Three new solid complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of rare earth(III) nitrate with the first ligand curcumin (HL) and the second ligand 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (L') in alcohol solution (pH=6.5-7.0). The composition of the complexes has been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis methods. The results reveal that beta-diketone group of the first ligand to coordinates with rare earth ions in bidentate mode after deprotonated. But the second ligand uses its two N atoms coordinates with rare earth ions in bidentate mode. The general formula of the complexes is REL(3)L' (RE=Sm, Eu, Dy). The results of antibacterial activity indicated that the complexes have excellent antibacterial ability for the testing bacterium than that of curcumin. The result of agarose gel electrophoresis suggested that the complex of SmL(3)L' can cleave the plasmid DNA at physiological pH and temperature. And it was found that the cleavage process of plasmid DNA was sensitive to pH, however, adding radical scavengers almost had no effect on the DNA cleavage reaction, therefore, the cleavage of DNA by SmL(3)L' does not produce diffusible hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction.
 
Article
The complexes [(bpy)(2)Ru(dpp)]Cl(2), [(phen)(2)Ru(dpp)]Cl(2), and [(Ph(2)phen)(2)Ru(dpp)]Cl(2) (where dpp=2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, Ph(2)phen=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) have been investigated and found to photocleave DNA via an oxygen-mediated pathway. These light absorbing complexes possess intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible region of the spectrum. The [(TL)(2)Ru(dpp)](2+) systems populate (3)MLCT states after visible light excitation, giving rise to emissions in aqueous solution centered at 692, 690, and 698nm for TL=bpy, phen, and Ph(2)phen respectively. The (3)MLCT states and emissions are quenched by O(2), producing a reactive oxygen species. These complexes photocleave DNA with varying efficiencies, [(Ph(2)phen)(2)Ru(dpp)](2+)>[(phen)(2)Ru(dpp)](2+)>[(bpy)(2)Ru(dpp)](2+). The presence of the polyazine bridging ligand will allow these chromophores to be incorporated into larger supramolecular assemblies.
 
Article
Multidimensional NMR techniques (1D (1)HNMR, 2D DQF (1)H(1)H COSY and 2D (1)H(1)H NOESY), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electronic spectroscopy, were performed to study the interactions of the enantiomers lambda- and delta-[Ru(bpy)(2)(HPIP)]Cl(2), (HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthro-line) with the self complementary hexanucleotide duplex d(5'-GTCGAC-3')(2). The results show that the delta-[Ru(bpy)(2)(HPIP)]Cl(2) binds tightly to the oligonucleotide, by intercalation of the ligand HPIP, between the A5 and C6 base sequence of the same strand, probably through the minor groove. Lambda-enantiomer binds weakly, suggesting groove interactions with the hexanucleotide duplex. ESI-MS spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy also confirmed these observations.
 
Article
Two ternary Cu(II) complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and singly (Hsal(-)) or dideprotonated (sal(2-)) salicylate ligands were synthesized, their X-ray crystal structure and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral characteristics determined, and evaluated for anti-convulsant activities in the maximal electroshock (MES) and Metrazol models of seizure and Rotorod toxicity. The X-ray crystal structure of [bis(1,10-phenanthroline)-mu-bis(salicylato-O,O')dicopper(II)] dihydrate, 1, ([Cu(II)(2)(phen)(2)(sal)(2)].2[H(2)O]), shows it to be binuclear. This dimer consists of two centrosymmetrically related pseudo-five coordinate Cu(II) atoms 3.242(2) A apart and bridged by two dideprotonated salicylate ligands. The X-ray crystal structure of [bis(1,10-phenanthroline)(salicylato)copper(II)][salicylate] monohydrate, 2, ([Cu(II)(phen)(2)(Hsal)](+)[Hsal](-)[H(2)O]), shows it to be mononuclear. This complex cation exhibits a highly irregular distorted square pyramidal geometry about the Cu(II) atom, (4+1+1*). Each salicylate is singly deprotonated and one of them is ligand bonded in an asymmetric chelating mode. EPR results for 2 indicate that in concentrated DMF solution phen remains bonded to copper but salicylate is likely monodentate in contrast to the situation for 1. However, in dilute DMF solution, both 1 and 2 form the same species, which accounts for the similarity in anti-convulsant activity of the two compounds. Both 1 and 2 were found to be effective in preventing MES-induced seizures and ineffective in preventing Metrazol-induced seizures. Rotorod toxicity, consistent with central nervous system depression, paralleled the observed anti-convulsant activity. It is suggested that the observed anti-convulsant activity is consistent with central nervous system depression as a physiological mechanism in overcoming MES-induced seizures due to MES-induced brain inflammatory disease.
 
Article
Large enhancement in the luminescence intensity of the Delta- and Lambda-Ru(phenanthroline)(2)dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine](2+) ([Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+)) complexes upon their association with single stranded poly(dA) and poly(dT) is reported in this work. As the mixing ratio ([[Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+)]/[DNA base]) increases, the luminescence intensity increase in a sigmoidal manner, indicating that the enhancement involves some cooperativity. At a high mixing ratio, the luminescence properties are affected by the nature of the DNA bases and not by the absolute configuration of the [Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+) complex, indicating that the single stranded poly(dA) and poly(dT) do not recognize the configuration of the metal complex. In the case of the Lambda-[Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+)-poly(dT) complex, the manner of the enhancement is somewhat different from the other Ru(II) complex-polynucelotide combinations: the luminescence intensity reached a maximum at an intermediate mixing ratio of 0.32, and gradually decreased as the mixing ratio increased. In contrast to other complexes at high mixing ratios, an upward bending curve was found in the Stern-Volmer plot, which indicates that the micro-environment of the Lambda-[Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+) is heterogeneous. In the Delta-[Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+)-poly(dT) complex case, formation of this highly luminescent species at an intermediate mixing ratio is far less effective.
 
Article
Cu(BZA)(2)(EtOH)(0.5) (1) was generated by the reaction of copper(II) hydroxide with benzoic acid (BZAH). [Cu(TBZH)(2)(BZA)](BZA).0.5TBZH.H(2)O (2) and [Cu(2-PyBZIMH)(2-PyBZIM)(BZA)].1.66EtOH (3) were obtained when 1 reacted with Thiabendazole (TBZH) and 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (2-PyBZIMH), respectively. [Cu(BZA)(2)(phen)(H(2)O)] (4) was isolated from the reaction of benzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) with copper(II)acetate dihydrate. Molecular structures of 2, 3 and 4 were determined crystallographically. 2 and 3 are hydrogen bonded dimers and trimers, respectively. The copper centres in complexes 2 and 3 are bis-chelate derivatives that have N(4)O ligation and their geometry is very similar being approximately square-pyramidal. However whereas in complex 2 both TBZH ligands are neutral in 3 one of the 2-PyBZIMH chelators is deprotonated on each copper. The structural results for 4 represent a re-examination of this crystallographically known compound for which no hydrogen atom coordinates have been previously reported. It crystallises as a hydrogen bonded dimmer and is a mono-chelate of phen with each copper centre possessing N(2)O(3) ligation and square pyramidal geometry. The catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the four complexes along with those of the known phenanthroline complexes [Cu(mal)(phen)(2)] and [Cu(phendione)(3)](ClO(4))(2) (malH(2)=malonic acid and phendione=1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) were investigated. Complexes 1-4, the metal free ligands and a simple copper(II) salt were assessed for their cancer chemotherapeutic potential against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G(2)) and kidney adenocarcinoma (A-498) cell lines. TBZH, 2-PyBZIMH and benzoic acid when uncoordinated to a metal centre offer poor chemotherapeutic potential. copper(II) benzoate is significantly more active than the free acid. The bis-chelate derivatives [Cu(TBZH)(2)(BZA)](BZA).0.5TBZH.H(2)O (2) and [Cu(2-PyBZIMH)(2-PyBZIM)(BZA)].1.66EtOH (3) elicit a significant cytotoxic response to the cancer cell lines tested. Replacing TBZH and 2-PyBZIMH with phen to give [Cu(BZA)(2)(phen)(H(2)O)] (4) does not significantly increase the anti-cancer activity.
 
Article
A gold(III) complex possessing 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5,6DMP) was synthesized and fully characterized using standard spectroscopic techniques, as well as X-ray crystallography and elemental analysis. The complex [(5,6DMP)AuCl(2)][BF(4)] (2) was found to possess a distorted square planar geometry about the gold(III) center, commonplace for d(8) Au(III) cations possessing sterically un-hindered polypyridyl ligands. Compound 2 was evaluated for its potential use as an anticancer therapeutic. It was determined that the complex is stable in phosphate buffer over a 24-hour period, thought it does undergo rapid reduction in the presence of equimolar amounts of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid. The DNA binding and in vitro tumor cytotoxicity of the title compound 2 were also determined. It was found to undergo weak and reversible binding to calf thymus DNA, and was more cytotoxic towards a panel of human cancer cell lines than the commonly used chemotherapy agent cisplatin. Cytotoxicity experiments with the free 5,6DMP ligand indicate that the ligand has IC(50) values that are slightly lower than those observed for the gold complex (2), and coupled with the fact that the ligand appears to be released from the gold(III) metal center in reducing environments, this suggests the ligand itself may play an important role in the antitumor activity of the parent gold complex.
 
Article
Cu(II) complexes with 1,10-orthophenanthroline (phen) show cytotoxic and antitumoral effects. To enhance and exploit these features, we studied complexes containing one or two phen units together with N,N'-substituted-imidazolidine-2-thione (L). We synthesized and structurally characterized the precursor molecule Cu(phen)(OH(2))(2)(OClO(3))(2), and determined the complex formation constants of [Cu(phen)(L)](2+). We studied the cytotoxic activity of [Cu(phen)(2)(L)](ClO(4))(2) versus human hematologic (CCRF-CEM and CCRF-SB) and solid tumor-derived cell lines (K-MES-1, DU-145). The cytotoxic activities, in the 1-3 μM range, show that our Cu(II)-complexes possess comparable inhibitory activities against both leukemia and carcinoma cells, unlike the majority of antineoplastic agents, usually more potent against hematologic cancer cells than against solid tumor cells. Because the free Cu(II) ion is reduced by glutathione (GSH), we studied the reactivity of our complexes with GSH, providing evidence that no redox reaction occurred under the chosen experimental conditions. Complex formation equilibria were present, studied by spectrophotometric titrations. The redox properties of the prepared compounds were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry, confirming that the mixed Cu(II) complexes were resistant to reduction.
 
Article
A series of ruthenium(II) mixed ligand complexes of the type [Ru(NH(3))(4)(L)](2+), where L=imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (ip), 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (pip), 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (hpip), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dip), naphtha[2,3-a]dipyrido[3,2-h:2',3'-f]phenazine-5,18-dione (qdppz), 5,18-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-a]dipyrido[3,2-H:2',3'-f]phenazine (hqdppz), have been isolated and characterized. The interaction of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) has been explored by using absorption, emission, and circular dichroic spectral methods, thermal denaturation studies and viscometry. All these studies suggest the involvement of the modified phenanthroline 'face' rather than the ammonia 'face' of the complexes in DNA binding. An intercalative mode of DNA binding, which involves the insertion of the modified phenanthroline ligands in between the base pairs, is suggested. The results from absorption spectral titration and circular dichroism (CD), thermal denaturation and viscosity experiments indicate that the qdppz and hqdppz complexes (K(b) approximately 10(6) and Delta T(m)=11-13 degrees C) bind more avidly than the ip, pip and hpip complexes (K(b) approximately 10(5), Delta T(m)=6-8 degrees C). Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the hpip and hqdppz complexes increases the surface area of the intercalating diimines and enhances the DNA binding affinity substantially. The ammonia co-ligands of the complexes are possibly involved in hydrogen bonding with the intrastrand nucleobases to favour intercalation of the extended aromatic ligands. Circular dichroism spectral studies reveal that all the complexes effect certain structural changes on DNA duplex; [Ru(NH(3))(4)(ip)](2+) induces a B to A transition while [Ru(NH(3))(4)(qdppz)](2+) a B to Psi conformational change on CT DNA. Cleavage efficiency of the complexes were determined using pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA. All the complexes, except hqdppz complex, promote the cleavage of supercoiled plasmid (form I) to relaxed circular form (form II).
 
Article
The photoaquation of the title compound [cis-Cr(phen)2CL+2] has been studied using high performance liquid chromatography. Both monoaquo [cis-Cr(phen)2Cl(OH2)2+2] and diaquo [cis-Cr(phen)2(OH2)3+2] products are formed, and the quantum efficiency for the loss of starting material in Tris buffer (pH 7) under argon and oxygen is 0.010 +/- 0.001 and 0.0026 +/- 0.0002, respectively. The presence of deoxyguanosine (dG) increases the rate of loss, as much as twofold under argon, but only the rate of diaquo product formation is enhanced by the nucleoside. The dG effect is attributed to reductive quenching of the cis-Cr(phen)2Cl+2 excited state by the base. Equilibrium dialysis studies indicate that both cis-Cr(phen)2Cl+2 and cis-Cr(phen)2(OH2)3+2 minimally associate with calf-thymus DNA. However, photolyses of cis-Cr(phen)2Cl+2 with the nucleic acid yield a mixture of unidentified covalent adducts. The diaquo complex also forms covalent adducts with DNA in the absence of light. Photolyses of the cis-Cr(phen)2Cl+2 with polyribonucleotides indicate a clear preference for covalent binding to the purines.
 
Article
A series of complexes of the type [Pt(phen)(AA)]+ (where AA is the anion of glycine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, or L-tryptophan) has been synthesized. These complexes have been characterized by electronic absorption, infrared, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The interaction of these complexes with calf thymus DNA has been studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. They inhibit the intercalation of ethidium bromide in DNA by intercalative binding at low concentrations and show nonintercalative binding at higher concentrations.
 
Article
Complexation reactions in the quaternary system Cu/ATP/3,3,3-tet/Urd have been studied. The stability constants of the complexes of the Cu(ATP)(3,3,3-tet)H(x)(Urd) type have been determined by computer analysis of the potentiometric titration. On the basis of the results of spectroscopic as well as equilibrium studies, the mode of interactions has been proposed. Metal ions coordinate phosphate groups of ATP and nitrogen atoms of polyamine. It has been established that in the conditions of the complex Cu(ATP)(3,3,3-tet) formation, uridine introduced into the Cu(II)/ATP/3,3,3-tet ternary system is involved in hydrogen bonding with the endocyclic nitrogen atoms N(1) and N(7) of the ATP purine ring and formation of the adduct Cu(ATP)(3,3,3-tet)H(Urd) is observed. Introduction of metal ions into the system changes substantially the mode of interactions between complementary base pairs relative to that proposed in the Watson and Crick model.
 
Article
The interactions of Cu(II) ions with adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP) and 1,12-diamino-4,9-dioxadodecane (OSpm) were studied. A potentiometric method was applied to determine the composition and stability constants of complexes formed, while the mode of interactions was analysed by spectral methods (ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), (13)C NMR, (31)P NMR). In metal-free systems, molecular complexes nucleotide-polyamine (NMP)H(x)(OSpm) were formed. The endocyclic nitrogen atoms of the purine ring N(1), N(7), the nitrogen atom of the pyrimidine ring N(3), the oxygen atoms of the phosphate group of the nucleotide and the protonated nitrogen atoms of the polyamine were the reaction centres. The mode of interaction of the metal ion with OSpm and the nucleotides (AMP or CMP) in the coordination compounds was established. In the system Cu(II)/OSpm the dinuclear complex Cu(2)(OSpm) forms, while in the ternary systems Cu(II)/nucleotide/OSpm the species type MH(x)LL' and MLL' appear. In the MH(x)LL' type species, the main centres of copper (II) ion binding in the nucleotide are the phosphate groups. The protonated amino groups of OSpm are involved in non-covalent interaction with the nitrogen atoms N(1), N(7) or N(3) of the purine or pyrimidine ring, whereas at higher pH, deprotonated nitrogen atoms of polyamine are engaged in metallation in MLL' species.
 
Article
1,19-Disubstituted tetradehydrocorrins have a ring structure that is closely related to the corrin ring found in vitamin B12. We herein report the isolation and full characterization of a Co(I)-TDHC species and X-ray crystal structures and full characterization of related Co(II) and Co(III) corrins as models for vitamin B12 complexes.
 
Article
Dioxycyclobutenedione-(1,2-cyclohexanediamine)platinum(II), (R,R-DC-Pt) was found to have stronger cytotoxicity against six cancer cell lines than cisplatin and its DNA interactions was studied by calorimetric measurements, (13)C NMR. The binding specificity study of DNA base with R,R-DC-Pt was conducted by HPLC. To understand the molecular mechanism of R,R-DC-Pt with stronger cytotoxicity than that of cisplatin, we studied R,R-DC-Pt interaction with an oligonucleotide, d(ACCACGTGGT)(2), which contained c-H-ras gene encoding GGT by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomer DNA double helix was destroyed almost completely upon the R,R-DC-Pt binding. However under the same condition, the cisplatin binding with DNA was not so affected, and instead another conformation was formed, which suggests that larger damage to DNA can be induced by R,R-DC-Pt complex than that by cisplatin.
 
Article
The interaction of cis-dichloro-(1,2 diethyl-3-aminopyrrolidine)platinum(II) (Ptpyrr) with the polynucleotides poly(I), poly(C) and poly(I) x poly(C) acids was studied by circular dichroism, molecular fluorescence and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Multivariate Curve Resolution, a factor analysis method, was applied for the analysis and interpretation of spectroscopic data obtained in mole ratio and kinetics studies. This procedure allows the determination of the number of different interaction complexes present during the experiments and the resolution of both concentration profiles and pure spectra for all of them. Two different interaction complexes were observed at the experimental conditions studied. The first one, at low Ptpyrr:polynucleotide ratio (r(Ptpyrr:poly)) values, corresponds to the interaction of Ptpyrr with hypoxanthine bases in the poly(I) moiety. This interaction leads to the destabilization and dissociation of the double-stranded conformation. The second complex was observed at higher r(Ptpyrr:poly) values and corresponds to the interaction of Ptpyrr to cytosine bases in poly(C) moiety. The formation of both complexes showed that the interaction of Ptpyrr with hypoxanthine bases occurred at the first stages of the reaction and with cytosine bases at longer reaction times. The results obtained show the utility of the Multivariate Curve Resolution approach for the analysis of data obtained by monitoring spectroscopically the interaction equilibria of platinum compounds with nucleic acids.
 
Top-cited authors
Hui Chao
  • Sun Yat-Sen University
Palaniandavar Mallayan
  • Bharathidasan University
Henryk Kozlowski
  • University of Wroclaw
Hong Li
  • Sichuan University
Wojciech Bal
  • Polish Academy of Sciences