Journal of Individual Differences

Published by Hogrefe
Print ISSN: 1614-0001
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), an inconspicuous, but sexually differentiated anatomical trait (men present lower 2D:4D than women), has received intense research interest recently. Fairly strong evidence points to 2D:4D as a biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal testosterone on the brain and behavior. 2D:4D has been shown to be a correlate of a wealth of sex-dependent, hormonally influenced traits and phenotypes, which reach into the domains of behavior, fertility, health, physique, sexuality, and sports and also deeply into differential psychology (ability, cognition, and personality). This study investigated whether individual differences in 2D:4D are related to individual differences in attractiveness, sex typicality, and other attributes ascribed to palm images by raters. For both sexes, more sex-atypical trait expressions (i.e., higher 2D:4D in male, but lower 2D:4D in female palm specimens) were related to higher aggregate ratings of attractiveness, healthiness, sexiness, imagined handshake pleasantness, and imagined person dominance, albeit only the last association achieved formal statistical significance with two-tailed testing. These findings suggest that 2D:4D might be a correlate of perceived dominance and possibly also of other attributes. Digit ratio associations with sex-typicality ratings (sex-of-hand judgments and perceived palm masculinity and femininity) were inconsistent and mostly of smaller size. Finger lengths (2D and 4D) were generally more strongly and consistently related to palm attributes than 2D:4D was. Implications of the findings, study limitations, and directions for future research are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The ratio of second to fourth finger length (2D:4D ratio) is sexually dimorphic with women having higher 2D:4D ratio than men. Recent studies on the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gender-role orientation yielded rather inconsistent results. The present study examines the moderating influence of nationality on the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gender-role orientation, as assessed with the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, as a possible explanation for these inconsistencies. Participants were 176 female and 171 male university students from Germany, Italy, Spain, and Sweden ranging in age from 19 to 32 years. Left-hand 2D:4D ratio was significantly lower in men than in women across all nationalities. Right-hand 2D:4D ratio differed only between Swedish males and females indicating that nationality might effectively moderate the sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D ratio. In none of the examined nationalities was a reliable relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gender-role orientation obtained. Thus, the assumption of nationality-related between-population differences does not seem to account for the inconsistent results on the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gender-role orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Mean subitizing reaction time difference scores (in ms, lefthand RT-right-hand RT) for low (high T) and high (low T) 2D:4D males and females, including error bars indicating SEM.
Means and standard deviations for participant (n = 80) reaction times in ms to correct responses and percentage error for subitizing and color recognition tasks
The ratio between the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) is supposed to serve as a putative indicator of prenatal testosterone (PT). Significant associations between 2D:4D, children's basic numerical ability, and the Spatial Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC) effect have recently been reported. The present study explored potential relationships between 2D:4D and the basic numerical ability of subitizing (the rapid enumeration of small quantities) in 80 right-handed adult volunteers. Participants completed a short battery of computerized subitizing and color recognition control tasks with both left and right hands, independently (order counterbalanced). Findings revealed a significant interaction between sex and 2D:4D on reaction time differences for right vs. left hand responses to the subitizing task. While 2D:4D in women showed a significant negative association with a right-hand advantage for the task, a nonsignificant trend in the opposite direction was observed for men. Results are discussed with respect to the possible effect of PT on sex differences in lateralization for basic quantification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This community-based study investigated the relationships between measures of specific cognitive functions (such as working memory [WM] and interference control) and intelligence in 283 8- to 11-year-old children, including 124 children who fulfilled criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to overcome issues of overlapping predictor constructs. The results generally showed that measures of processing speed, WM, as well as inhibitory interference control entered in the order of presentation, each contributed uniquely to the explanation of fluid intelligence performance. The results for crystallized intelligence performance generally showed that the measures of processing speed, short-term memory (STM), WM, and sustained attention – entered in that order – made significant independent contributions. While effect sizes varied somewhat for contributions in the whole sample compared with the subgroup not meeting criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, there were no significant differences. The findings therefore should be broadly representative in indicating that the unique aspects of these cognitive functions are important in the explanation of intelligence. The findings also demonstrate important independent features of the functions used as predictors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The relationship between self-report abilities and personality was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings ( N = 516) completed self-report ability and personality questionnaires. A factor analysis of the ability questions revealed 10 factors, including politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. Five personality factors were examined, including extraversion, conscientiousness, dependence, aggression, and openness. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and personality factor scores ranged from 0 to .60 (between political abilities and extraversion). The relationship between the two areas at the genetic level was found to range between –.01 and .60; the environmental correlations ranged from –.01 to .48. The results suggest that some of the self-report ability scores are related to self-report personality, and that some of these observed relationships may have a common genetic basis while others are from a common environmental factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Description of the tests applied for measuring primary mental abilities. Subtests are listed in order of their presentation (LPS = Leistungsprüfsystem; CFT3 = Culture Free Test, Scale 3; BIS = Berliner Intelligenzstruktur Test -Form 4). 
Mean scores and standard errors of the mean (S.E.M.) on different subscales of mental abilities for musicians and nonmusicians. Also given are t-values and effect size estimates (d) for the differences obtained. 
In the present study, psychometric performance on different aspects of primary mental abilities (verbal comprehension, word fluency, space, flexibility of closure, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, and memory) was compared in 70 adult musicians and 70 nonmusicians matched for age, sex, and level of education. No significant differences could be confirmed for either mean full-scale scores or for specific aspects of mental abilities, except Flexibility of Closure and Perceptual Speed. In both these subtests, musicians performed reliably better than nonmusicians. Musicians' superior performance may reflect nonaural aspects of musical ability or the result of long-term musical training. Eventually, a similar factor structure of intelligence does not support the notion of qualitative differences in the conception of intelligence between musicians and nonmusicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The construct of resilience has been viewed as the direct counterpart of factors jeopardizing mental health, i.e., vulnerability and psychopathology. Any operationalization of resilience, thus, risks lying on the same latent continuum as indicators of mental illness, although indicating their absence. A factor analysis combining items from these measurement domains, followed by analyses of second-order factor scores was performed to test this assumption. A random selection of 1,724 participants (34% response rate) from the general population of Norway responded. All items were discriminated well by their primary factors. A second-order factor analysis extracted two components, which was confirmed on a hold-out sample by confirmatory factor methods. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), which measures protective factors, correlated with both second-order factors. Thus, the RSA shared common variance with vulnerability and psychopathology, as well as being unique from illness indices. A hierarchical regression analysis that tested interactions between vulnerability and resilience further supported the unique contributions of the RSA. Thus, the notion of resilience-protective indicators as solely counterparts of vulnerability and psychopathology is not empirically supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Means, standard deviations, internal consistency, and temporal stability of the Anxiety-IAT in three conditions (Study 1: anxiety self-concept)
Multiple regression of IAT at occasion 2 on IAT at occasion 1, Contextual background, Chronic ac- cessibility, and Moderator terms. Only standard- ized regression weights and R² increases are shown (Study 2: Attitudes toward Turks)
The current research explored the stability of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) depending on contextual constraints and chronic accessibility. Two studies incorporated background pictures into the IAT. In Study 1, the 2-week stability of an IAT assessing anxiety was higher when IAT stimuli were embedded in an anxiety-relevant background (e.g., a snake). In Study 2, this context effect could be replicated in the domain of racial attitudes. Moreover, the context effect in Study 2 was especially pronounced for participants with high chronic access to the relevant concept. The results support the assumption that implicit measures like the IAT are sensitive to contextual constraints and that these constraints can be utilized to enhance the stability of the IAT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The present study investigated whether long-term job strain increases the prevalence of risk for metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, across sex and occupation. The participants (64 men, 62 women) were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, Finland. Job strain was measured by a combination of high job demands and low job control (Karasek, 1979) at ages 36 and 42. Metabolic syndrome was measured at age 42. The results indicated that both sex and occupational group moderated the association between long-term job strain and the metabolic syndrome factor but in an unexpected way. In women, low long-term job strain was associated with higher levels of the metabolic syndrome factor. Among white-collar workers high long-term job strain was related to low levels of the metabolic syndrome factor. Hence, more research is needed to identify additional potential moderators of long-term job strain on metabolic syndrome across sex and occupation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Classification of 6 core virtues and 24 strengths of character
Descriptive statistics, reliabilities, and correlations of the VIA-IS scales with sex, age, and educational level
Behavioral correlates of character strengths
The Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005a) is an English-language self-report questionnaire that measures 24 widely-valued character strengths. The present paper describes the creation and adaptation of the German version of the VIA-IS and its peer-rating form using a sample of 1,674 adults. The 24 subscales had high reliability (median α = .77; median corrected item-total correlations = .45) and high stability across 9 months (median test-retest correlation = .73). The VIA-IS peer form also had high reliability (median α = .81). Self- and peer-ratings of strengths converged as expected (median correlation = .40), and on average ordered the strengths in the same way, correlating .88 across the 24 strengths. There were low to modest correlations of the VIA subscales with demographic variables. Neither the VIA-IS nor the VIA-IS Peer was strongly influenced by social desirability. Correlations with three different measures of subjective well-being replicated findings from earlier studies of the original English VIA-IS and supported the validity of the scale. Furthermore, relations to self-reported behavior and contentment with various aspects of life were modest but congruent with the meaning of the scales (e.g., higher endorsement of religion among spiritual participants, less cigarette smoking among participants with higher self-regulation). Overall, the German VIA-IS and VIA-IS Peer demonstrated good psychometric properties and promising validity evidence. These scales can be recommended for the assessment of strengths of character in the German-speaking world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The present study tested a possible explanation for the positive relationship between the motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (need for cognition, NFC) and indicators of affective adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem, lower depression) that has been demonstrated in previous studies. We suggest that dispositional self-control capacity mediates this relationship, since NFC has been found to be related to self-control capacity, and self-control capacity is crucial for adjustment. NFC, dispositional self-control capacity, self-esteem, habitual depressive mood, and tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner were measured among 150 university students via self-report. Regression analyses and Sobel tests revealed that self-control capacity was a potential mediator of the positive relationship between NFC and affective adjustment. The findings were robust in terms of social desirability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Means and standard deviations of well-being and distress among the four attachment styles
Hierarchical regression coefficients of contributions to the variance in well-being
Hierarchical regression coefficients of contributions to the variance in distress
The study examines the contributions of hardiness, attachment style, and cognitive appraisal to the psychological adjustment of 300 survivors of malignant melanoma: The findings show that the survivors' adjustment is by far better predicted by their personal resources and cognitive appraisal than by their sociodemographic features (with the exception of marital status) and features of their illness. Of all the variables, their adjustment was best predicted by their attachment style, with secure attachment making for greater well-being and less distress. These findings add to the ample evidence that personal resources help persons to cope with stressful or traumatic events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The present study focused on personality characteristics in adolescent boys (n = 414) and girls (n = 552) in 8th grade with self-reported violent behavior and risky alcohol use. Adolescents with indications of violent behavior and/or risky alcohol use, compared to others, were generally more impulsive, had a stronger need for change and action, were less adjusted and socially conforming, as well as more aggressive. The findings pointed toward a clustering of problem behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents with a combination of violent behavior and alcohol use had more pronounced personality scores than subjects who reported only one of these behaviors. The main finding was that among girls these behaviors appeared to be associated with more deviant levels of the personality characteristics in focus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The aim of this research was to determine prospectively to what extent the outcomes of coping styles are determined by personality traits in a sample of adolescents (aged 14 through 16 years). The sample consisted of 259 (132 females, 127 males) students in two Norwegian secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents’ coping styles were only moderately correlated with the personality traits of Neuroticism and Extraversion. Coping styles and personality showed consistent patterns over the 1-year period. In addition, although personality explains a substantial part of the variance in the criterion variables, coping styles also contribute to a significant portion of this variance, which may support the hypothesis that coping styles are partially determined by the personality traits of Extraversion and Neuroticism. In view of these findings, it could be surmised that coping styles among these adolescents might not just be epiphenomena of enduring personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The focus of this article is on (1) the possible influence of childhood hyperactive behavior on adult psychopathy, and (2) how adult, clinically rated, psychopathy tendencies are related to self-reported personality. The sample comprised 152 male subjects, including young lawbreakers (n = 98) and controls (n = 54), prospectively studied over their lifetime. Ratings of childhood behavior were obtained from a psychiatrist and data on adult personality (using the Karolinska Scales of Personality and a shortened form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and psychopathy were obtained using the Psychopathy Check List (PCL). Subjects with high PCL as adults (n = 36) scored higher than low PCL subjects (n = 116) on the majority of the personality dimensions studied, even when controlling for criminality. Former childhood hyperactive subjects (n = 26) displayed higher impulsivity and hostility than nonhyperactive subjects (n = 126) when criminality was controlled for. Among the high PCL group subjects there was an overrepresentation of childhood hyperactive males. They displayed significantly higher impulsivity and verbal aggression than their respective nonhyperactive counterparts and were characterized by extreme scores on several psychopathy-related personality scales. Further, there was a significant interaction effect between hyperactivity and PCL on the narrow/noninclusive form of impulsivity. The findings of the present personality-based approach were in favor of childhood hyperactivity being crucial as a risk indicator in the development of psychopathic tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Test-retest correlations (32 months).
Means and standard deviations for the EQ-i:Short scales.
The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted growing interest from researchers working in various fields. The present study examined the long-term stability (32 months) of EI-related abilities over the course of a major life transition (the transition from high school to university). During the first week of full-time study, a large group of undergraduates completed the EQ-i:Short; 32 months later a random subset of these students (N = 238), who had started their postsecondary education within 24 months of graduating from high school, completed the measures for a second time. The study found EI scores to be relatively stable over the 32-month time period. EI scores were also found to be significantly higher at Time 2; the overall pattern of change in EI-levels was more than can be attributed to the increased age of the participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Despite its importance for basic and applied psychology, only a few longitudinal studies have examined whether parental differential treatment (PDT) is a persistent or a transient phenomenon, these studies being confined to childhood or adolescence. Based on latent state-trait theory, the present study identified the amount of variance in three dimensions of perceived PDT in middle adulthood attributable to stable interindividual differences (trait variance) and to intraindividual changes (state variance). At two occasions of measurement (2 years apart), 709 middle-aged adults rated how often they and a sibling currently received parental recognition, nurture, and demand to assume filial responsibility. Tests of latent state-trait models for these three dimensions of PDT by structural equation modeling revealed that trait variance represented the largest proportion of the systematic variance in all observed indicators of perceived maternal and paternal differential treatment. Yet there was a considerable increase in state variance for the dimension of differential parental demand for assuming responsibility. Results are discussed with respect to the conditions accounting for the high overall stability of actual and/or perceived PDT in adulthood, and different approaches for determining their role are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
One instrument cited in the literature as an effective measure of approaches to coping is the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS; Folkman & Lazarus, 2005). This study is a reliability generalization (RG) study of the WAYS that strives to further distill psychometric properties of the scores generated by this measure. Results from this meta-analytic investigation of 130 previously published research studies indicate that the Confrontive Coping and Distancing subscales generate the most variable reliability coefficients across studies. Regression analyses suggest that the variables type of scoring, sample size, population type, sample source, gender homogeneity, and racial homogeneity were most important in determining reliability estimates on the Seeking Social Support, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving, and Positive Reappraisal subscales. Implications for the use of the WAYS are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In emotion research, affective pictures are limited in their ability to elicit discrete emotions. The current study attempted to elicit anger using pictures and a person by image-content interactional strategy. In two studies, undergraduates who varied with respect to concern for animal welfare (person factor) were shown pictures that included several of actual or impending animal harm (image content). Results from Study 1 showed that (1) the link between animal concern and combined emotion outcomes was strongest for animal harm pictures compared to other picture categories and (2) individual differences in animal concern were more strongly linked to anger than other negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, disgust, sadness) while viewing pictures of animal harm. Results from Study 2 showed that animal concern predicted variance in self-reported anger above and beyond that explained by broader constructs (empathy and nurturance) to which it relates. Overall, data suggest that the person by image-content interactional strategy is a promising new tool for researchers seeking to elicit discrete emotions in the laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Descriptive statistics and correlation results (N = 486)
Interaction effect of positive affect and regulation of emotion (ROE) on deep acting.
Interaction effect of positive affectivity and regulation of emotion (ROE) on expression of naturally felt emotion.
We investigated how affectivity and emotional intelligence (EI) influence the use of emotional labor strategies at work among 486 Chinese employees. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that negative affectivity was a significant correlate for surface acting, while EI was a significant correlate for both deep acting and expression of naturally felt emotion. Positive affectivity and EI interacted with each other to influence the adoption of various emotional labor strategies. For instance, individuals with positive affectivity and regulation of emotion, a key facet of EI, tended to use more deep acting and the expression of naturally felt emotion but less surface acting than employees who were low in regulation of emotion. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed that EI was a mediator between positive affectivity and deep acting. We discussed limitations as well as practical and research implications of findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Means and standard deviations for urge to drink and affect at baseline, neutral and alcohol cue pre- sentations
Studies have shown that regular drinkers respond to alcohol-related stimuli with increases in urge to drink and changes in affect. Evidence indicates that there is individual variability in responses to alcohol-related cues. The current study aimed to examine (1) the role of extraversion in understanding variability in responses to alcohol cues and (2) whether cue-elicited altered states of awareness are related to urge to drink and affective responses. Forty-one participants were exposed first to a neutral and then to an alcohol cue; urge and affective responses were then measured. Extraversion was a significant positive predictor of urge to drink, while altered state of awareness was a significant positive predictor of urge to drink and positive affect. Interestingly, altered state of awareness significantly improved prediction of both urge to drink and positive affect after controlling for levels of extraversion. These findings suggest that changes in states of awareness following presentation of alcohol cues may facilitate the observed increases in urge to drink and positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Comparisons of psychological variables between the sceptics (n = 1615), the religious (n = 1157), the paranormal believers (n = 375), and the double believers (n = 114) 
This study aimed at clarifying the relationship between religious and paranormal beliefs, on which previous studies have yielded varying results. It was examined whether the relationship varies by the level of religiousness, and individual differences between religious and paranormal believers and sceptics were compared. Finnish participants (N = 3261) filled in an Internet-based questionnaire. The results showed that the relationship between religious and paranormal beliefs was positive among paranormal believers and sceptics but negative among religious people. High intuitive thinking, low analytical thinking, mystical experiences, and close others' positive attitude toward the supernatural distinguished both kinds of believers from the sceptics, while conservation and self-transcendence values distinguished religious people from paranormal believers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The present longitudinal study investigated three aspects of allostatic load, a long-term negative consequence of physical responses to stress: (1) sex differences in allostatic load in early middle age, (2) associations between career stability history and allostatic load, and (3) relationships between allostatic load and health problems. Participants consisted of 62 men and 55 women from the ongoing Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, Finland. Allostatic load was the sum of eight parameters (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, 12-h urinary norepinephrine, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and waist-to-hip ratio) for which the participant fell into the high-risk quartile. Results showed that 41.9% of men and 21.8% of women had an elevated allostatic load at age 42. Participants with preceding unstable career assessed prospectively at age 36 had an over three-fold risk for high allostatic load six years later compared to participants with a stable career history; sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking were adjusted for in the models. Furthermore, participants with high allostatic load reported having more psychosomatic symptoms. The results reveal that an unstable career as a long-term stressful life condition may have long-lasting effects on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Results of tests for measurement and structural invariance for the BIS, anxiety, and fear CFA model
Recent revisions to the reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) of personality have highlighted the distinction between the emotions of fear and anxiety. These revisions have substantial implications for self-report measurement; in particular, they raise the question of whether separate traits of fear and anxiety exist and, if so, their interrelationship. To address this question, the current study used confirmatory factor analytic procedures to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of measures of trait anxiety, fear, and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). We also examined measurement and structural invariance across gender in 167 males and 173 females who completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Carver and White BIS Scale, and the Fear Survey Schedule (FSS). The findings suggested that trait anxiety and the BIS scale are relatively distinct from Tissue Damage Fear (FSS). Further, the final model showed measurement and structural invariance across gender. The implications of the results for future selfreport assessment in RST research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study looks at individual difference (personality and intelligence) correlates of proneness to anchoring bias. In all, 172 participants completed four anchoring tasks, and in each case there was a significant effect of the high/low anchor. They also completed the NEO-FFI personality test (measuring Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) as well as two intelligence tests. Only Extroversion was found to be related to individual judgments—and only for one of the tasks. The results are discussed with respect to the literature on individual differences and anchoring bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The article presents two studies done with the Anger-Related Reactions and Goals Inventory (ARGI) combining the assessment of functional and dysfunctional anger-related reactions with the goals that people pursue in regulating interpersonal anger. Study 1 ( N = 756) corroborated the questionnaire’s psychometric properties and factorial structure. Correlations with indicators for psychosocial well-being, trait anger, and the Big Five dimensions were largely in line with our predictions. Study 2 documented the convergence between self-reports ( N = 104) and reports of two knowledgeable informants ( N = 188), in particular for the dysfunctional reactions. We conclude that the ARGI is a reliable and valid questionnaire that taps into facets of anger regulation that are of high relevance for research on the consequences of anger for health and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Momentary ratings of affective states with a pair of strict antonyms (“happy” vs. “sad”) were studied with an experience-sampling method in a group of 110 participants during 14 consecutive days at 7 randomly determined occasions per day. Before and after the experimental session participants also retrospectively rated how happy or sad they had been during the previous 2 weeks. Multilevel analysis showed that, at the level of single measurement trials, the momentary ratings of happiness and sadness were moderately negatively correlated (r = –.32, p < .001). A between-subject correlation of the two antonyms, however, was in a positive direction (r = .13, p = .123). Participants experienced mixed feelings during a considerable number of measurement trials, whereas the tendency to feel mixed emotions was predicted by all Big Five personality traits except Agreeableness. A configural frequency analysis (CFA) demonstrated that, although there was no strict bipolarity between momentary ratings of happiness and sadness, they were nevertheless used in an exclusive manner in many occasions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Design of the Visual Recognition task. M = male, F = female, Ang = angry facial expression. 
Immediate and Delayed verbal recall according to stimulus valence and anxiety group (LA-low anxious, and HA-high anxious).
There is extensive evidence indicating cognitive biases at several stages of information processing in high-anxious children. Little research, however, has investigated a potential memory bias toward negative information in high-anxious young children. We studied immediate and delayed verbal recall as well as delayed visual recognition in a sample of high-trait-anxious (HA) and low-trait-anxious (LA) preschoolers (N = 76, mean age = 65 months), using stimuli containing task-irrelevant emotional valence (positive, negative, neutral). The findings revealed that, compared to their LA counterparts, HA preschoolers displayed (1) a tendency to be less accurate in the immediate verbal recall task, (2) poorer recall of negative words in the immediate condition and poorer recall of neutral words in the delayed condition, (3) impaired delayed recognition of identities with happy facial expressions and a tendency to better recognize identities expressing anger. Results are discussed considering the dynamic interplay between personality, emotion and cognitive factors during early development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Hans-Jürgen Eysenck suggested that introverts are characterized by greater cortical arousal or arousability than extraverts. This prediction was tested in several studies that used the electroencephalogram (EEG) to index cortical activity, but the relations between the EEG measures and Extraversion are typically small. Possibly, situational factors that are external to the laboratory may act as nuisance variables and affect cortical activity, thus, mitigating the relation between arousal or arousability and Extraversion. To test this hypothesis, resting EEG was acquired on four occasions of measurement and Extraversion was assessed by questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM) represented cortical arousal, arousability, and external factors. This analysis suggested that (1) arousal and arousability are independent factors, (2) external factors only marginally contribute to the variance of the EEG measures, and (3) the relations between the EEG measures and Extraversion were insignificant even if external factors were statistically controlled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Mean procedural learning for Session 3 showing low-and high-trait anxiety groups in punishment and control conditions.
An experiment examining the effects of reinforcement and personality on a procedural learning task tested H. J. Eysenck’s (1968, 1979) incubation theory of the development of fear, relating to a “reminiscence” effect during a rest pause. Eysenck’s arousal-based personality predictions for enhanced learning were contrasted with J. A. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) of personality. Measures of Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) and Trait Anxiety were taken. Participants completed six blocks of a procedural learning task, under either punishment or control (no reinforcement) in one of two training conditions: (a) spaced training (four blocks of the task in the first session followed by retest on one block in two subsequent sessions, 24 h and 5 days later); or (b) massed training (six blocks of the task in a single session). Results showed that, under punishment, high trait anxiety led to enhanced learning in both training conditions; however, this increase was not predicted by Eysenck’s arousal-based personality theory, but rather high anxiety facilitated learning in a manner consistent with RST predictions. There was no effect of spaced vs. mass training: Procedural learning increased over the course of the testing sessions under both conditions. Results failed to support Eysenck’s predictions for reminiscence as a function of personality but suggested that learning was enhanced under punishment in line with RST’s predictions for high anxiety. The implications of these data for current theories of personality are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Both theory and research suggest that beliefs about justice for the self are distinct from beliefs about justice for others. Self-other differences, however, have not yet intersected with research on procedural and distributive justice. We examined the psychometrics and validity of a proposed four-dimensional measure of procedural and distributive justice beliefs for self and others. Participants from three samples (total N = 1463) completed dispositional measures of beliefs about fair outcomes (distributive justice beliefs) and processes (procedural justice beliefs). These measures were modified and expanded to record beliefs about justice for the self and justice for others. We also administered measures of well-being and harsh social attitudes. Factor analyses strongly supported the proposed four-factor model. In addition, higher-order self-others and procedural-distributive factors were indicated by theoretically appropriate lower-level factors. Finally, multiple regression analyses provided evidence for idiosyncratic links between four-factor individual differences and measures of well-being and harsh social attitudes. The proposed four-factor operationalization can provide individual differences researchers with a useful tool for bridging two important areas of justice theory and research that previously have been linked to health behavior, well-being, and harsh social attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Distribution of the 132 items according to the abridged 4-dimensional circumplex design; col- umns: primary loadings; rows: secondary loadings
Hofstee and Ten Berge (2004a) have proposed a new look at personality assessment data, based on a bipolar proportional (-1,... 0,... +1) scale, a corresponding coefficient of raw-scores likeness L = ΣXY/N, and raw-scores principal component analysis. In a normal sample, the approach resulted in a structure dominated by a first principal component, according to which most people are faintly to mildly socially desirable. We hypothesized that a more differentiated structure would arise in a clinical sample. We analyzed the scores of 775 psychiatric clients on the 132 items of the Dutch Personality Questionnaire (NPV). In comparison to a normative sample (N= 3140), the eigenvalue for the first principal component appeared to be 1.7 times as small, indicating that such clients have less personality (social desirability) in common. Still, the match between the structures in the two samples was excellent after oblique rotation of the loadings. We applied the abridged m-dimensional circumplex design, by which persons are typed by their two highest scores on the principal components, to the scores on the first four principal components. We identified five types: Indignant (1-), Resilient (1-2+), Nervous (1-2-), Obsessive-Compulsive (1-3-), and Introverted (1-4-), covering 40% of the psychiatric sample. Some 26% of the individuals had negligible scores on all type vectors. We discuss the potential and the limitations of our approach in a clinical context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between resting frontal hemispheric asymmetry (FHA) in the low alpha band (8-10.25 Hz) and the two components of socially desirable responding, i.e., self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and impression management (IM), in an opposite-sex encounter. In addition, Big Five facets, self-reports of emotion, and spontaneous eye blink rate (BR), a noninvasive indicator of functional dopamine activity, were assessed. SDE as well as IM were related to relatively greater right-than-left activity in the low alpha band (i.e., relative left frontal activation; LFA) and to self-reported positive affect (PA), but only SDE was related to BR. We hypothesized that two independent types of motivational approach tendencies underlie individual differences in FHA and PA: affiliative motivation represented by IM and agentic incentive motivation represented by SDE. Whereas the relationship between SDE and PA was mediated by BR, the relationship between SDE and FHA was not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Confirmatory factor analysis (standardized solution) as reported by Oberauer et al. (2000). All variables in rectangles were parcels of several tasks (aggregated z-scores). For the present study we have chosen tasks out of the parcels in the darker boxes. Spat = figural/spatial content factor. Verb & Num = verbal/numerical content factor. Stor/Trans & Coord = storage in the context of processing/coordination.
Means, standard deviations, and reliability estimates of the full sample.
Standardized solution of Model 3. The broken lines indicate Model 4. N/V = numerical/verbal factor. FIG = figural/spatial factor. SP = storage in the context of processing factor. CO = coordination . SUP = supervision/speed factor. RS = Reading Span. CS = Computation Span. MS = Math Span. SF = Switching figural. SC = Star Counting Test. SN = Switching numerical. FC = Figural Coordination. FS = Figural Short Term Memory. GO = TAP Go/NoGo Test. DS = TAP Divided Attention Test (squares). DT = TAP Divided Attention Test (tones).  
Standardized solution of Model 1. N/V = numerical/verbal factor. FIG = figural/spatial factor. SP = storage in the context of processing factor (without broken lines). SP(CO) = storage in the context of processing/coordination factor (with broken lines). SUP = supervision/speed factor. RS = Reading Span. CS = computation Span. MS = Math Span. SF = Switching figural. SC = Star Counting Test. SN = Switching numerical. FC = Figural Coordination . FS = Figural Short Term Memory.  
Standardized solution of Model 2. N/V = numerical/verbal factor. FIG = figural/spatial factor. SP = storage in the context of processing factor. CO = coordination factor. SUP = supervision/speed factor. RS = Reading Span. CS = Computation Span. MS = Math Span. SF = Switching figural. SC = Star Counting Test. SN = Switching numerical. FC = Figural Coordination. FS = Figural Short Term Memory.  
The purpose of this study was to replicate the working memory model proposed by Oberauer, Suess, Wilhelm, and Wittmann (2000; see record 2000-00778-002) and to clarify its relationship to selective attention. Eleven working memory and attention tests were administered to 125 students. Using structural equation models, we were able to confirm a facet model of working memory with three functional and two content factors. Thus, the present study provides further evidence for a facet model of working memory. Additionally, the factor selective attention was added to this model. We found only low to moderate correlations between selective attention and functional working memory factors. Therefore, this study provides further evidence that selective attention, as measured by the Testbattery for Attentional Performance (TAP), and working memory are distinct concepts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This paper presents the results of a study that employed measures of personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms that have been the focus of recent research in individual differences. These measures were given to a sample of participants (N=1,255) who were enrolled at 25 US colleges and universities. Factor analysis of the correlation matrix produced four factors. Three of these factors corresponded to the domains of Personality/Amoral Social Attitudes, Values, and Social Norms; one factor, Conservatism, cut across the domains. Cognitive ability showed negative correlation with conservatism and amoral social attitudes. The study also examined gender and ethnic group differences on factor scores. The overall interpretation of the findings is consistent with the inside-out view of human social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Based on the recent findings that show evidence in favor of five rather than three prototypes in Big Five questionnaire data, the main aim of this study was to evaluate a five-cluster solution. The cluster solution is compared with a Big Five variable-centered approach regarding their relative utility in the concurrent prediction of social attitudes in an adult, nonstudent sample. In addition to the Big Five personality variables, we also assessed social attitudes (generalized prejudice, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation) and resiliency. Performing head-to-head comparisons to evaluate the goodness of cluster-solutions, our study again provides strong evidence that the five-cluster solution is superior to the three-cluster solution. The results also suggest that in fair comparisons (e.g., dichotomized Big Five scores) the typological approach can compete with the dimensional approach in predicting criterion variables. Furthermore, we have been able to show that the typological approach based on Big Five personality variables can lead to reasonable predictions and new insights with respect to social attitudes and ideological belief systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
While there has been much emphasis on the objective properties of beautiful faces, some theories of physical attractiveness implicate norm-based coding of faces and experience-dependent preferences (e.g., Langlois & Roggman, 1990; Rhodes, Jeffery,Watson, Clifford, & Nakayama, 2003). This study further explored experiential influences by correlating a person's standing height with his/her ideal vertical location of the internal features in computerized faces. Taller raters created faces with larger ratios of forehead height to chin height-resulting in a larger forehead and a smaller chin, presumably caused by their biased exposure to faces from above eye level. Faces produced by shorter raters had a smaller forehead and a larger chin. The moderate correlation was maintained after controlling for age and gender (i.e., semipartial r = .41; N = 39), and rater height alone explained 24% of the variance in preferred location of the internal facial features. These results point to individual differences in perceptions of attractiveness, accounted for to some degree by the facial proportions encountered in everyday interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study investigated the relationship between visual inspection time (VIT) and a new measure of auditory inspection time (AIT: see Parker, Crawford, & Stephen, 1999). The purpose was twofold: first, to understand the generality of the mechanism underpinning performance on visual IT tasks (VIT); second, to evaluate the efficacy of this new auditory task. Participants were 80 primary school children aged 10-12 years. They each completed AIT, VIT, and a marker test for each of general speediness (Gs), fluid ability (Gf), and crystallized ability (Gc). AIT and VIT were positively correlated with each other, and they both correlated with the marker of Gs. However, the data suggest that the nature of IT tasks changes as task difficulty increases. Thus, IT appears to be a purer measure of processing speed at longer exposure durations. These findings are discussed in relation to the methodology employed in IT estimation and in light of recent comments concerning the psychological complexity of IT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Augmenting/reducing is a personality dimension related to the processing of sensory stimuli. Augmenters are assumed to augment the impact of stimuli leading to stimulation-avoidant behavior and lower pain tolerance. Reducers are assumed to attenuate sensory stimuli leading to stimulation-seeking behavior and higher pain tolerance. Augmenting/reducing can be assessed by the method of evoked potentials or - as in this study - by questionnaire. Two studies were conducted to examine associations between augmenting/ reducing as assessed by questionnaire and stimulus intensity modulation. Study 1 found reducers (n = 24, 12 females) to more frequently consume psychoactive substances and to turn music on louder than augmenters (n = 25, 12 females) even after controlling for individual hearing ability. In Study 2, reducers (n = 19, 10 females) were more pain tolerant than augmenters (n = 18, 9 females) and this difference increased with increasing stimulation time. Moreover, reducers were faster than augmenters in a rapid tapping task but there was no difference in a lower-stimulation tracking task. The results suggest that differences between augmenters and reducers are most reliable when the stimulation potential is high. The clinical relevance of this construct is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Model of predictors and indicators of generalized prejudice (Study 1). Note: Sex = participant sex (women = 1; men = 2), Emp = Empathy, SDO = Social dominance orientation, GP = Generalized prejudice, CR = Classical racism, MR = Modern racism, CD = Classical prejudice toward people with impaired development, MD = Modern prejudice toward people with impaired development, CS = Classical sexism, MS = Modern sexism, FH = Female homosexuality, MH = Male homosexuality.
Intercorrelations, means, standard deviations, and Cronbach's α reliabilities for the variables in Study 1
Intercorrelations, means, standard deviations, and Cronbach's α reliabilities for the variables in Study 2
Structural equation modeling on questionnaire data showed that prejudice toward different target groups can be represented in terms of a general prejudice factor. Distinction of classical and modern prejudice only increased model fit marginally. In two separate samples (paper and pencil vs. Internet) several structural models of the relationship between key individual difference variables and prejudice were tested, revealing highly similar results. Social dominance orientation, empathy, and right-wing authoritarianism had direct effects on generalized prejudice. The effect of participant sex on generalized prejudice, where the men scored higher, was largely mediated by empathy. The benefit of including empathy in structural models of prejudice is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This internet study investigated the effect of individual differences in cognitive avoidance on the persuasive impact of threat communications. A total of 289 participants completed a measure of dispositional cognitive avoidance and read either a high- or a low-threat communication that provided either an effective response to reduce the threat or not. We found that cognitive avoidance did not moderate the effect of magnitude of threat when response efficacy was low. By contrast, cognitive avoidance was relevant when efficacy was high: After a high-threat message, low cognitive avoiders reported more favorable attitudes toward and intentions to adopt the action recommendation than high cognitive avoiders. Further analyses showed that severity perceptions mediate this effect of avoidance on attitudes and intentions. Individual differences in cognitive avoidance are thus an important moderator of the effectiveness of threat communications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
a. Allele distribution for AVPR1A microsatellite RS1. Nine alleles were identified, and the distribution of allele frequencies is similar to previous reports (Kim et al., 2002; Wassink et al., 2004). 
b. Allele distribution of RS3. Sixteen alleles were identified, and the distribution of allele frequencies is similar to a previous report (Thibonnier et al., 2000). 
Linkage analysis with Merlin. 
Correlations between social variables and other measures (N = 552). SRQ power SRQ warmth SRQ conflict CAS RSMS 
Two markers near the vasopressin receptor ( AVPR1A) gene located on chromosome 12q14-15 were tested for linkage to two complex social behaviors in humans: Sibling relationships and self-presentation style. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 552 same-sex siblings from 248 families. Suggestive linkage was observed between both microsatellites (RS1 and RS3) and the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire Conflict scale (RS1: χ² = 13.65, LOD = 2.96, p = .0001; RS3: χ² = 14.54, LOD = 3.16, p = .00007) and the Concern for Appropriateness Scale Self-presentational style (RS1: χ² = 8.25, LOD = 1.79 p = .002; RS3: χ² = 8.81, LOD = 1.91, p = .002. The current results provide the first provisional evidence that the vasopressin receptor mediates social behavior in humans and links a specific genetic element to perceived sibling interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Big Five personality dimensions were examined as possible risk, resource, vulnerability, or protective factors in the link between work-family conflict and psychological distress. Data were derived for 75 men and 80 women from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (JYLS), in which the NEO Personality Inventory was completed at age 33, and work-family conflict and psychological distress were assessed at age 36. Neuroticism was positively linked to work-to-family conflict (WFC), family-to-work (FWC) conflict, and psychological distress in both genders. Neuroticism was also a moderator strengthening the link between WFC and psychological distress in women. Openness to Experience was positively linked to FWC in men, and Agreeableness was negatively linked to psychological distress in both genders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Coefficient α for NEO-PI-3FH Scales 
Equivalence coefficients for NEO-PI-3FH vs. NEO-PI-3 scales 
Cross-observer validity and comparative validity of NEO-PI-3 First Half scales 
Self-report (Form S) and observer rating (Form R) versions of two short forms of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEOPI- 3) were evaluated. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 is a 60-item instrument that assesses the five factors. The NEO-PI-3 First Half consists of the first 120 items of the NEO-PI-3, selected to optimally assess its 30 facet scales. Internal consistencies were systematically lower for the brief scales than for the parent scales, but both brief instruments replicated the factor structure and showed cross-observer validity. They appeared to work well in both adolescent and adult samples, and adequately in a middle school-age sample. Norms for the NEO-FFI-3 are provided and it was shown that NEO-PI-3 norms can be used for NEO-PI-3 First Half scores if they are simply doubled. Uses of the NEO-PI-3 First Half are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Accurate identification of emotional expressions is important to social interaction. We examined the relations among shyness, sociability, and the accuracy of categorization of facial expression of emotions in a sample of 127 undergraduates. Individual differences in sociability, but not shyness, were significantly related to categorization accuracy under conditions of limited presentation time, but not under circumstances of unlimited stimulus presentation time. Adults self-rated as low to moderate in sociability were significantly less accurate in categorizing facial expressions of emotion, albeit only under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. These results suggest that individual differences in sociability and social exposure may influence the ability to categorize facial expressions of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A new test on map understanding for preschool and elementary-school children was constructed based on a Piagetian framework of the development of spatial ability and representational understanding. Results from a study with 95 3- to 6-year-old children are reported. The developmental trajectories for the performance components confirmed the construction rules and were explainable by Piagetian developmental stages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Previous studies found that children are able to perform mental rotation (MR) tasks with a gender difference from the age of 4. More recently, gender differences in MR were also reported in infancy. However, different kinds of paradigms and stimuli were used. The present study investigates whether the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotation Test (VMRT; Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978) as well as another similar 2-dimensional stimuli test may be used with elementary and middle-school children, and whether gender differences are evidenced. Results show that boys outperform girls in the middle-school group only. Elementary school children encountered difficulties solving both the VMRT and 2D MR tests. The data confirmed recent results showing that gender differences in the VMRT performance were found at age 10. We further concluded that the VMRT and 2D MR tests may not be well-designed for elementary-school children. Further investigations should focus on gender differences in MR for children younger than 9 years old as well as on the underlying causes of such difference, using other experimental paradigms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Spatial orientation as the ability to know the bearing to the origin of a walked path was investigated in two studies with ca. 140 preschool and primary school children who walked paths of about 1 km beginning at the familiar kindergarten or in a completely unknown territory. Path difficulty and familiarity with the surroundings influenced correctness of pointing. Spatial ability measured by test performance and spatial activity experience, i.e., children’s reports about unsupervised walks, effected pointing accuracy as well. The data emphasize that spatial activity experience may be an important factor for spatial orientation beyond kindergarten age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) comprises 10 basic values that guide behavior. The Schwartz model postulates that these 10 values build a circumplex structure. We examined the PVQ with respect to its dimensional structure using a representative sample (N = 1896) of the German population. The results of three widely used analyses were compared: multidimensional scaling, factorial analysis (with varimax rotation) of raw scores, and factorial analysis with ipsative values. Furthermore, rank correlations between the theoretically assumed circular distances and the empirical data were calculated. The analyses confirmed that the 10 dimensions of the PVQ can be depicted in a two-dimensional plane. However, the statistical techniques chosen yielded different arrangements of the 10 values in the plane. All statistical methods failed to confirm the circumplex structure postulated by Schwartz. Nevertheless, dimensions of higher order that condense the 10 dimensions can be derived for applications of the PVQ. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Through the development of the Short Test of Musical Preferences (STOMP) and a larger theory of music preferences, Rentfrow and Gosling (2003, 2006) have helped guide the way toward understanding the role of music in people's lives, and the relationship between music preferences and personality. The four music dimensions they established in their 2003 study provide a broad-brush look at some of the relationships between music preferences and personality. This study of 83 undergraduates at Guilford College in Greensboro, NC, used the NEO-PI, rather than the Big Five Inventory, which allowed us to examine the six facets that make up each of the Big Five traits as well as those traits themselves, and it looked separately at the music genres that make up the four music dimensions identified by Rentfrow and Gosling (2003). The findings provide general support for Rentfrow and Gosling's work, but they also demonstrate that the personality patterns for the specific music genres differ considerably from one another, even those that fall within the same broad music dimensions. The Openness trait was by far the most robust of the Big Five traits assessed by the NEO-PI, and preferences for some music genres (e.g., folk, international music, and rap/hip-hop) were far more revealing of personality than others (e.g., classical, rock, and electronic). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Top-cited authors
Adrian Furnham
  • University of London
Matthias Ziegler
  • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Heike Eschenbeck
  • University of Education Schwäbisch Gmünd
Carl-Walter Kohlmann
  • University of Education Schwäbisch Gmünd
Willibald Ruch
  • University of Zurich