A mixed solution of 0.1% sodium nitroprusside and 1% sodium thiosulphate ('SNP-thiosulphate') was given as i.v. infusion to 80 patients, 30 of whom were hypertensive emergencies and 50 were surgical cases requiring induction of hypotension. This treatment lowered the blood pressure (BP) by an average of 30% of the initial levels in the hypertensive patients and 30-40% of the initial levels in the surgical patients. The mean effective dose in the hypertensive patients was 2.4 micrograms/kg/min compared with about 3 micrograms/kg/min in 40 cases treated with sodium nitroprusside as mono-infusion. For deliberate hypotension in surgical patients the mean doses of SNP, used here in the mixed infusion with thiosulphate, were 1.0 and 2.3 micrograms/kg/min, compared with 1.3-7.5 micrograms/kg/min in 181 patients treated with SNP as monotherapy. In contrast to conventional therapy with SNP, the infusion of SNP-thiosulphate even at extremely high dose rates did not produce toxic concentrations of prussic acid in the blood. In no case was a rise observed in the cellular enzymes as an indirect indication of hypoxic cell damage. SNP-thiosulphate is thus at least as effective at lowering BP as SNP infused alone, and has a substantially lower toxicity risk.
To evaluate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters in a broad sample of high-risk hypertensive patients.
The Spanish Society of Hypertension is developing a nationwide project in which more than 900 physicians send ABPM registries and corresponding clinical records to a central database via www.cardiorisc.com. Between June 2004 and July 2005 a 20 000-patient database was obtained; 17 219 were valid for analysis.
We identified 6534 patients with high cardiovascular risk according to the 2003 European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology guidelines stratification score. Office blood pressure (BP) was 158.8/89.9 mmHg and 24-h BP was 135.8/77.0 mmHg. Patients with grade 3 BP in the office showed ambulatory systolic BP values less than 160 mmHg in more than 80%. A non-dipping pattern was observed in 3836 cases (58.7%), whereas this abnormality was present in 47.9% of patients with low-to-moderate risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-1.64]. The prevalence of non-dippers was higher as ambulatory BP increased ( approximately 70% when 24-h systolic BP > 155 mmHg) and was similar in both groups. At the lowest levels of BP (24-h systolic BP < 135 mmHg) a non-dipping pattern was more prevalent in high-risk cases (56.6 versus 45.7%; OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.40-1.64).
There was a remarkable discrepancy between office and ambulatory BP in high-risk hypertensive patients. The prevalence of a non-dipper BP pattern was almost 60%. In the lowest levels of ambulatory BP, high-risk patients showed a higher prevalence of non-dipping BP than lower-risk cases. These observations support the recommendation of a wider use of ABPM in high-risk hypertensive patients.
To assess trends in blood pressure (BP) levels, prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in the Czech population from 1985 to 2000/01.
Five independent cross-sectional population surveys conducted in 1985, 1988, 1992, 1997/98, and 2000/01.
Six, mostly rural, districts of the Czech Republic (Praha-východ, Benesov, Pardubice, Chrudim, Cheb, and Jindrichův Hradec).
Men and women aged 25-64 years randomly selected from six districts using the National Population Register/General Health Insurance Company Register (covering, by law, all citizens). The total number of participants was 11 726.
We assessed the mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and pulse pressure, prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg, or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs), awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension.
Mean systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure decreased significantly over a period of 15/16 years. This was associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of hypertension (from 47.1 to 39.1%, P < 0.001) and with an increase in its awareness (from 49.5 to 67.2%, P < 0.001), use of antihypertensive medication (from 29.3 to 49.3%, P < 0.001), and hypertension control (from 3.9 to 17.0%, P < 0.001). Despite having lower BP values and prevalence of hypertension, females showed higher awareness of the disease, and were more frequently taking antihypertensive medication, and their hypertension was better controlled.
The reduction in population BP and improved control of hypertension may have contributed to the decrease in cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease mortality in the Czech Republic. The positive longitudinal changes seen in the MONICA regions need not necessarily reflect the situation in the country as a whole. The situation is far from being optimal; a major problem is inadequate treatment of hypertension
Restoring renal perfusion pressure (unclipping) of one-kidney-one-clip renal hypertensive (1 K1C) rats normalizes mean arterial pressure (MAP) rapidly. This has been attributed to salt/volume losses or release of the putative renal medullary depressor hormone (RMDH).
To investigate the effects of endothelin receptor A and B (ET(A)/ET(B)) antagonism on unclipping.
Telemetric devices were implanted in male Wistar 1K1C rats for measurement of conscious MAP. Hypertension was reversed by unclipping with the animal under brief anaesthesia. Seven rats were treated with the ET(A)/ET(B) antagonist, TAK-044 (two doses of 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally in 24 h), and eight rats received its vehicle. In order to investigate whether endothelin receptor antagonism could release RMDH under resting conditions, TAK-044 was administered to telemetered non-clipped intact and chemically renal medullectomized rats (BEA treatment).
TAK-044 did not affect resting MAP, urine flow or sodium excretion in 1K1C rats. However, after unclipping, the TAK-044-treated group showed a more marked reduction in MAP during the first 24 h after unclipping (P< 0.01). TAK-044 also reduced urine flow and sodium excretion during the first 8 h after unclipping (P< 0.05). TAK-044 reduced resting MAP (P< 0.05) to a similar extent in intact and BEA rats.
TAK-044 potentiated the reduction in MAP after unclipping, independently of changes in urine flow and sodium excretion. It also reduced MAP in normotensive rats--an effect that was not dependent on an intact renal medulla. Potentiation of the depressor response to unclipping by TAK-044 could be the result of an interaction of endogenous endothelin receptors with renal depressor mechanisms--possibly, the release, actions, or both, of the putative RMDH.
The aim of this study was to test the effects of exogenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) on regional kidney blood flow and renal function, and the renal haemodynamic effects of endogenous ET, in anaesthetized rabbits.
ET-1 was infused into the left renal artery at 2 ng/kg/min for 30 min, then at 1 ng/kg/min. Cumulative doses of TAK-044 (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v.) or its vehicle were given at 30-min intervals. In other rabbits, an extracorporeal circuit was established to adjust renal arterial pressure (RAP) independently of systemic arterial pressure (MAP). RAP was set at 65 mmHg, and either TAK-044 (3 mg/kg, i.v.) or its vehicle was administered.
In the infused kidney ET-1 (2 ng/kg/min) reduced renal blood flow (RBFprobe; 52+/-8%), cortical perfusion (37+/-7%), glomerular filtration rate (GFR; 49+/-8%), urine flow (47+/-14%) and sodium excretion (49+/-13%), but not medullary perfusion (5+/-6%). No effects of ET-1 on MAP or on the contralateral kidney were observed. TAK-044 dose-dependently reversed the effects of ET-1 on RBFprobe and cortical perfusion. TAK-044 also reduced MAP (by up to 11+/-3%) and increased effective renal blood flow in the contralateral kidney (by up to 46+/-27%). In the extracorporeal circuit model, TAK-044 decreased MAP by 12+/-2% and RAP by 10+/-3%, and increased RBF by 9+/-3%.
Exogenous ET-1 reduces cortical more than medullary perfusion, and reduces GFR without affecting net tubular sodium and fluid reabsorption. TAK-044 antagonizes local renal vascular responses to ET-1. Endogenous ETs appear to contribute markedly to resting renal vasomotor tone and MAP.
Hypertension results in high morbidity and mortality. Its management is predominantly undertaken in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to assess trends in blood pressure (BP) and hypertensive management in primary care in Australia.
A retrospective analysis of patient-based electronic medical records was conducted. Antihypertensive therapy was determined by prescription data. We identified 532 050 patients (55% women, average age 54 ± 18 years) being managed by 733 general practitioners from 286 clinics Australia-wide who had at least one visit with BP recorded between 2005 and 2010.
Average BP did not change and men had consistently higher levels than women (132/79 vs. 127/77 mmHg, P < 0.001). At least 25% of all individuals had a visit where elevated BP more than 140/90 mmHg was recorded. Up to 50% of patients on antihypertensive therapy had a BP more than 140/90 mmHg. In any year, the odds of elevated BP more than 140/90 mmHg were three-fold to four-fold higher in treated individuals (yearly range OR 3.0-3.97; 95% CI 2.93-3.83 to 3.08-4.10). Over annual contiguous visits in 51 721 patients with BP more than 140/90 mmHg, BP decreased after two visits and then remained stable (P < 0.001) irrespective of frequency of visits or antihypertensive treatment. Individuals with more frequent visits were more likely to attain target BP less than 140/90 mmHg [OR 1.08 (three visits) to 1.29 (five visits); 95% CI range 1.03-1.38].
In the absence of any significant gains in the community control of hypertension since 2005, a more intensive approach to BP management in primary care is required to ensure more patients achieve BP targets.
The C825T single nucleotide polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 (GNB3) has been implicated in susceptibility to essential hypertension, through the expression of an alternatively spliced truncated variant. In an effort to clarify earlier inconclusive results, we performed a meta-analysis of population-based case-control genetic association studies.
Random-effects methods were applied on summary data in order to combine the results of the individual studies.
We identified in total 34 studies, including 14,094 hypertensive cases and 17,760 controls. The TT versus CC + CT contrast yielded an overall odds ratio (OR) of 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.15], the contrast of TT + CT versus CC, an OR of 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.29), whereas that of the T allele versus C allele yielded a non-significant OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.13). There was moderate evidence for a publication bias in the latter two contrasts, which was eliminated after excluding studies not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and those performed on non-normal populations (those with a diagnosis of diabetes, obesity and myocardial infarction). Subgroup analyses revealed that non-significant estimates arose from studies on Asian populations, as opposed to the Caucasian ones. Furthermore, the frequency of the T allele was lower in Caucasians and these populations were found to inhabit higher latitudes.
The findings are in agreement with a recently proposed causal model for systolic blood pressure, which correlates it with the T allele and the absolute latitude. Further studies are needed in order to fully address questions about the aetiological mechanism of the particular association, as well as to study the effect in populations of African descent.
Whether treatment with vitamin D receptor activators contributes to cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease is a matter of debate. We studied mechanisms involved in vitamin D-related vascular calcifications in vivo and in vitro.
Aortic calcifications were induced in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats by treatment with a high dose (0.25 μg/kg per day) of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) given for 6 weeks. Likewise, primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were incubated with calcitriol at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 mol/l. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the aortic expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein was significantly increased in calcitriol-treated SNX rats compared to untreated SNX controls. In addition, aortic expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid calcium channel 6 (TRPV6) and calbindin D9k was significantly up-regulated by treatment with calcitriol. Furthermore, calcitriol significantly increased expression of the osteogenic transcription factor osterix. In-vitro studies showed similar results, confirming that these effects could be attributed to treatment with calcitriol.
High-dose calcitriol treatment induces an osteoblastic phenotype in VSMC both in SNX rats and in vitro, associated with up-regulation of proteins regulating mineralization and calcium transport, and of the osteogenic transcription factor osterix.
Vitamin D may contribute to cardiovascular disease in the absence of hypercalcemia in patients with chronic kidney disease.
We investigated the effects of long-term (6-week) treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, at a non-hypercalcemic dosage (0.25 microg/kg per day per orally) in 5/6 nephrectomized rats: (i) vehicle-treated, sham-operated rats; (ii) 1,25(OH)2D3-treated, sham-operated rats; (iii) vehicle-treated, 5/6 nephrectomized rats; and (iv) 1,25(OH)2D3-treated, 5/6 nephrectomized rats.
Creatinine clearance after 6 weeks was significantly lower and parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated uremic rats, compared with uremic controls (P < 0.01). Serum calcium levels, as well as the calcium-phosphorus product, did not differ between both groups. Mean systolic blood pressure in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated animals was significantly increased, compared with vehicle (each P < 0.01). In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3-treated uremic animals showed left ventricular hypertrophy. Diffuse aortic calcification involving the intima and media layer occurred in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated uremic animals, but not in other groups. The mean aortic wall area and lumen area were increased two-fold in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated uremic animals compared with vehicle (P < 0.01), whereas the wall/lumen ratio remained unchanged, indicating fusiform aneurysm formation.
Hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, aortic calcification, and aneurysm, without hypercalcemia, occurred in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated, 5/6 nephrectomized rats. These data indicate a permissive effect of uremia for cardiovascular damage induced by non-hypercalcemic doses of 1,25(OH)2D3.
To evaluate the cardiovascular effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D).
Recent studies suggest that Ca-regulating hormones may contribute to the genesis of hypertension. We determined systemic and regional hemodynamics 24 h after administration of 1,25-D or vehicle to normal conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, to dissociate the vascular effects of 1,25-D from changes in serum ionized Ca2+, 1,25-D and vehicle were administered to rats maintained for 3 days on a low-Ca diet. To evaluate the effect of the slight rise in serum ionized Ca2+ with 1,25-D administration, we infused CaCl or vehicle over 1 h into normal rats to raise the serum Ca2+ to near that of rats treated with 1,25-D.
The radioactive microsphere technique was used.
Systemic hemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and stroke volume) did not differ between the two groups receiving a normal-Ca diet. In these rats 1,25-D significantly decreased renal blood flow (RBF), increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) and slightly increased serum ionized Ca2+. Similarly, in rats receiving a low-Ca diet, 1,25-D administration decreased renal blood flow, increased renal vascular resistance and caused only a minimal increase in serum ionized Ca2+. A low-Ca diet also increased heart rate, cardiac blood flow and renal blood flow. Although CaCl infusion raised serum ionized Ca2+, blood pressure, renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance did not change significantly.
1,25-D may constrict the renal vasculature directly or indirectly by enhancing the vascular sensitivity to circulating vasoconstrictors.
To investigate a possible relationship between the time courses of action of various calcium antagonists and their lipophilicity, characterized as log P-values.
The functional experiments were performed in vitro in human small subcutaneous arteries (internal diameter 591 +/- 51 microm, n = 7 for each concentration), obtained from cosmetic surgery (mamma reduction and abdominoplasty). The vessels were investigated in an isometric wire myograph. The vasodilator effect of the calcium antagonists was quantified by means of log IC50-values, and the onset of the vasodilator effect for each concentration studied was expressed as time to Eeq90-values (time to reach 90% of the maximal effect).
Log IC50-values were -8.46 +/- 0.09, -8.33 +/- 0.25 and -8.72 +/- 0.16 for nifedipine, felodipine and (S)-lercanidipine, respectively (not significant). On average, nifedipine reached time to Eeq90 in 11 +/- 1 min. For felodipine and (S)-lercanidipine the corresponding values were 60 +/- 11 min and 99 +/- 9 min, respectively. The differences between these values were statistically significant (P< 0.01). In spite of these differences in the in-vitro human vascular model, the three calcium antagonists are equipotent with regard to their vasodilator effects. Linear regression analysis of the correlation between the logarithm of the membrane partition coefficient (log P-values) of the calcium antagonists tested [2.50, 4.46 and 6.88 for nifedipine, felodipine and (S)-lercanidipine, respectively] and their respective values found for time to Eeq90 was highly significant.
It appears that a higher log P-value is correlated with a slower onset of action.
To analyse the efficacy of indapamide sustained-release (SR) 1.5 mg in reducing blood pressure versus amlodipine 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, in elderly hypertensive patients.
Double-blind, randomized, 12 week study using three parallel groups.
European teaching hospitals and general practices.
Randomized patients, (n = 524) including 128 patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH); mean age: 72.4 years; mean systolic/diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP): 174.5/97.9 mmHg.
Clinic systolic and diastolic blood pressure variations.
Indapamide SR 1.5 mg demonstrates a similar efficacy to that of amlodipine 5 mg, as well as to that of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (equivalence P < 0.001); the mean decreases in SBP/DBP were -22.7/-11.8 mmHg, -22.2/-10.7 mmHg and -19.4/-10.8 mmHg, respectively. In the ISH subgroup, indapamide SR 1.5 mg tends to have greater efficacy than hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg in reducing the SBP (-24.7 versus -18.5 mmHg, respectively; equivalence P = 0.117), while similar results are obtained with amlodipine 5 mg (-23 mmHg, equivalence P < 0.001). The normalization rate was relatively high for indapamide SR 1.5 mg (75.3%), when compared with amlodipine (66.9%) and hydrochlorothiazide (67.3%), especially in the subgroup of isolated systolic hypertensive patients: 84.2 versus 80.0% for amlodipine, and versus 71.4% for hydrochlorothiazide.
Indapamide SR 1.5 mg shows similar antihypertensive efficacy to amlodipine 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg in elderly hypertensive patients, while in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, indapamide SR 1.5 mg shows a similar efficacy to amlodipine 5 mg but a greater efficacy than hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg.
In accordance with international recommendations on the need to decrease doses of antihypertensive drugs, a low-dose (1.5 mg) sustained-release (SR) formulation of indapamide was developed to optimize the drug's efficacy : safety ratio. The aim of this work was to evaluate the benefit of a low-dose diuretic by consolidating the efficacy and safety results of two clinical trials with a similar design.
Clinical data were obtained in two European randomized double-blind studies with 690 mild to moderate hypertensive patients (95 mmHg < or = supine diastolic blood pressure < or = 114 mmHg using a mercury sphygmomanometer) treated respectively for 2 and 3 months, with a mean age of 53 and 57 years, 44 and 57% males, mean supine diastolic blood pressure of 100.6 and 102.5 mmHg and mean supine systolic blood pressure of 161.0 and 164.5 mmHg.
The first study, a dose-finding study with indapamide SR at 1.5, 2 and 2.5 mg versus placebo and the immediate-release (IR) formulation of indapamide, showed that the 1.5 mg dosage of the new indapamide formulation had an improved antihypertensive efficacy : safety ratio. The second study confirmed the equivalence of blood pressure reductions with 1.5 mg indapamide SR and 2.5 mg indapamide IR, and better acceptability with 1.5 mg indapamide SR, particularly in the number of patients with serum potassium levels < 3.4 mmol/l, which was reduced by more than 50%. The long-term efficacy of 1.5 mg indapamide SR was observed through a 9-month open-treatment follow-up to the second study.
The 1.5 mg SR formulation of indapamide has an improved antihypertensive efficacy : safety ratio, which is in accordance with international recommendations for the use of low-dose antihypertensive drugs and diuretics in first-line therapy of hypertension.
To compare the efficacy of indapamide sustained release (SR) 1.5 mg and enalapril 20 mg at reducing left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
The LIVE study (left ventricular hypertrophy regression, indapamide versus enalapril) was a 1 year, prospective, randomized, double-blind study. For the first time, a committee validated LVH before inclusion, provided on-going quality control during the study, and performed an end-study reading of all echocardiograms blinded to sequence.
European hospitals, general practitioners and cardiologists.
Hypertensive patients aged > or = 20 years with LVH (LVMI in men > 120 g/m2; LVMI in women > 100 g/m2). Data were obtained from 411 of 505 randomized patients.
Indapamide SR 1.5 mg, or enalapril 20 mg, daily for 48 weeks.
LVMI variation in the perprotocol population.
Indapamide SR 1.5 mg significantly reduced LVMI (-8.4 +/- 30.5 g/m2 from baseline; P< 0.001), but enalapril 20 mg did not (-1.9 +/- 28.3 g/m2). Indapamide SR 1.5 mg reduced LVMI significantly more than enalapril 20 mg: -6.5 g/m2, P = 0.013 (-4.3 g/m2 when adjusted for baseline values; P = 0.049). Both drugs equally and significantly reduced blood pressures (P< 0.001), without correlation with LVMI changes. Indapamide SR progressively reduced wall thicknesses throughout the 1-year treatment period. In contrast, the effect of enalapril observed at 6 months was not maintained at 12 months.
Indapamide SR 1.5 mg was significantly more effective than enalapril 20 mg at reducing LVMI in hypertensive patients with LVH.
In the previous studies, we indicated that a gene (or genes) responsible for exaggerated sympathetic response to stress was located in a chromosome 1 QTL for blood pressure (BP) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). In this study, we narrowed down the candidate region to a 1.8-Mbp fragment between D1Rat171 and D1Wox33, and established reciprocal congenic strains for this region.
Reciprocal congenic strains were established by introgressing the chromosomal segment from SHRSP/Izm into WKY/Izm (Wpch1.21) and vice versa (SPwch1.72). The urinary norepinephrine excretion (u-NE) was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography in the urine collected under 6 h of cold stress (4°C). ECG was recorded using the telemetry under 3 h of restraint stress, and the relative sympathetic activity was evaluated as the low frequency/high frequency ratio by the power spectral analysis. BP under the stresses was evaluated by the telemetry.
The increases in the u-NE during the cold stress and in the low frequency/high frequency ratio under the restraint stress were significantly greater in Wpch1.21 when compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The increases in BP both under the cold and the restraint stresses were significantly greater in Wpch1.21 than in WKY. In the reciprocal congenic strain, SPwch1.72, the effects of the transferred fragment on the sympathetic stress responses were confirmed as lower u-NE and low frequency/high frequency in this strain than in SHRSP. Further, the BP responses both to the cold and the restraint stresses were significantly greater in SHRSP than in SPwch1.72.
These results indicated that a small fragment on chromosome 1 harbored a gene (or genes) influencing the sympathetic response to different stresses.
To investigate the effects of the dual angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) + neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, MDL-100,240 (MDL), on hypertension and cardiovascular damage in male heterozygous transgenic Ren2 rats.
Blood-pressure-matched 5-week-old transgenic rats were allocated to receive a placebo, MDL (40 mg/kg body weight) or ramipril (5 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. During the last 4 weeks, the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant (0.5 mg/kg body weight), was also administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps to 50% of the transgenic rats receiving MDL or ramipril. We measured blood pressure, heart weight, structural changes in the aorta and small resistance mesenteric arteries, and the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide and cGMP. To verify if MDL could regress long-standing hypertension and full-blown cardiovascular damage, 3-month-old transgenic rats received MDL subcutaneously (3 and 10 mg/kg body weight, osmotic minipumps) for 4 weeks.
Compared with placebo, MDL decreased blood pressure (P < 0.001) and prevented left ventricular hypertrophy (P < 0.001), being as effective as ramipril. Hypertrophy and dilatation of the aorta and hypertrophy of the resistance arterioles were all prevented by MDL. Plasma aldosterone was decreased by MDL (P < 0.001), but not by ramipril. Icatibant blunted the decrease in blood pressure (P < 0.001), decreased cGMP concentrations and blunted the decrease in cross-sectional area of the resistance arteries in MDL-treated, but not in ramipril-treated, transgenic rats. In 3-month-old transgenic rats, MDL normalized blood pressure, regressed left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased adrenomedullin concentrations.
The dual ACE+NEP inhibitor MDL prevented and regressed severe hypertension and cardiovascular damage, even in this model of severe angiotensin II-dependent hypertension with pronounced cardiovascular damage. Enhancement of the effects of bradykinin has a role in such favourable outcomes.
To investigate the endocrine and renal effects of the dual inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase, MDL 100,240.
A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers.
MDL 100,240 was administered intravenously over 20 min at single doses of 6.25 and 25 mg in subjects with a sodium intake of 280 (n = 6) or 80 (n = 6) mmol/day. Measurements were taken of supine and standing blood pressure, plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity, angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide, urinary atrial natriuretic peptide and cyclic GMP excretion, effective renal plasma flow and the glomerular filtration rate as p-aminohippurate and inulin clearances, electrolytes and segmental tubular function by endogenous lithium clearance.
Supine systolic blood pressure was consistently decreased by MDL 100,240, particularly after the high dose and during the low-salt intake. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate did not change. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity decreased rapidly and dose-dependently. In both the high- and the low-salt treatment groups, plasma angiotensin II levels fell and renin activity rose accordingly, while plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels remained unchanged. In contrast, urinary atrial natriuretic peptide excretion increased dose-dependently under both diets, as did urinary cyclic GMP excretion. Effective renal plasma flow and the glomerular filtration rate did not change. The urinary flow rate increased markedly during the first 2 h following administration of either dose of MDL 100,240 (P < 0.001) and, similarly, sodium excretion tended to increase from 0 to 4 h after the dose (P = 0.07). Potassium excretion remained stable. Proximal and distal fractional sodium reabsorption were not significantly altered by the treatment. Uric acid excretion was increased. The safety and clinical tolerance of MDL 100,240 were good.
The increased fall in blood pressure in normal volunteers together with the preservation of renal hemodynamics and the increased urinary volume, atrial natriuretic peptide and cyclic GMP excretion distinguish MDL 100,240 as a double-enzyme inhibitor from inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme alone. The differences appear to be due, at least in part, to increased renal exposure to atrial natriuretic peptide following neutral endopeptidase blockade.
The effects of 3 weeks treatment with CGS 10078B (30 mg/kg orally) on systemic and regional haemodynamics and cardiac mass were studied in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. The significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) (174 +/- 3 versus 156 +/- 4 mmHg, P less than 0.002) in SHR was associated with a significantly slower heart rate. No significant alteration in systemic haemodynamics was observed in WKY rats. The reduced MAP in SHR was related to the preserved blood flow to the vital organs, and therefore reduced renal and cerebrovascular resistances. Left ventricular mass index was reduced in both rat strains of treated animals. Therefore, the reduced MAP and heart rate in the SHR without haemodynamic changes in the WKY indicates that CGS 10078B was an effective antihypertensive agent that decreased cardiac mass in rats through mechanisms that may be dissociated from their haemodynamic effects.
To investigate ambulatory blood pressure in elderly people, including 'old elderly' subjects, aged over 80 years.
Cross-sectional study of community-dwelling, elderly subjects.
Subjects were healthy, self-caring, and living independently. Those who were taking medication affecting blood pressure were excluded. Conventional blood pressure was the mean of two measurements. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed using the SpaceLabs 90207 device. Daytime and night-time blood pressure were defined by fixed clock intervals.
Seventy-five 'young elderly', aged 60-79 years, (39 men, 36 women) and 81 'old elderly' aged 80 years and older (37 men, 44 women) underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was related to age, correlation coefficients between age and SBP were 0.31, 0.25 and 0.31, respectively, for conventional SBP, daytime SBP and night-time SBP (P < 0.01 for all). There was no correlation between age and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure levels were similar in men and women. Mean conventional blood pressure, daytime blood pressure and night-time blood pressure were found to be 149/81, 138/82 and 119/69 mmHg, respectively, in the 'young elderly' and 162/82, 147/83, and 133/71 mmHg, respectively, in the 'old elderly (P < 0.01 for SBP). The night : day SBP ratio was significantly higher in the 'old' elderly compared with the 'young' elderly (0.90 versus 0.86, respectively; P < 0.01).
Ambulatory blood pressure levels in healthy, community-dwelling 'old elderly' are higher than those reported for younger adults and reflect the prominent age-related rise in SBP associated with advanced old age. Advanced old age is associated with a diminished nocturnal dip in blood pressure.
In our previous linkage analysis of Chinese hypertensive families, a hypertension susceptibility region on chromosome 17 was located at D17S1878, which encompasses the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between variant in the human iNOS gene and susceptibility to hypertension in Chinese Han.
We detected the -1026C/A polymorphism of the iNOS promoter in 463 hypertensive patients and 432 normotensive individuals for purposes of an association analysis and in 76 hypertensive families with 318 members for purposes of transmission disequillibrium test analysis via real-time PCR with a Taqman-minor groove binder probe. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the iNOS-1026C/A (P<0.05); the genotype CC was associated with hypertension after adjusting for environmental risk factors via a nonconditional logistic regression analysis [adjusted odds ratio, 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 2.14-3.93]. A transmission disequillibrium test-sib transmission disequillibrium test analysis demonstrated that the allele C was preferentially transmitted within a pedigree (combined Z score 2.257, P<0.05). The iNOS-1026C/A was identified by a construct reporter assay as a functional variant, and the transcriptional activity of the promoter with allele C was 4.73-fold lower than that with allele A. Furthermore, electrophoresis mobility shift assay showed that the -1026C/A changed the Y in Yang 1 (YY1)-binding pattern in vitro, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that transcription factor YY1 was bound to the -1026C element in vivo. Lipopolysaccharide, an inflammatory stimulating factor, could induce YY1 to augment DNA-binding affinity; it could also be involved in the inhibited transcriptional activity of the iNOS promoter with allele C.
We thus conclude that iNOS-1026C/A with a change in YY1-binding affinity is associated with hypertension under the affect of inflammatory-stimulating factors.
To examine the chronic effects of a newly synthesized, potent and selective endothelin (ET) ETA receptor antagonist, J-1 05859, on mortality in salt-loaded Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats and to confirm the potential of this compound as an ETA antagonist
Vehicle and J-105859 were administered to salt-loaded DS rats for 12 weeks. Throughout the experimental period, blood pressure was measured continuously using a telemetry system and the survival rate was determined. The surviving animals were subsequently sacrificed and autopsy was performed. Binding and functional assays were also carried out to characterize J-1 05859.
The Ki values of J-1 05859 for cloned human ETA and ETB were 0.025 and 48 nmol/l, respectively. J-105859 inhibited ET-1-induced contractions in rabbit iliac artery (pA2 = 10.08) and BQ-3020 (ETB agonist)-induced contractions in pulmonary artery (pA2 = 7.63). The pressor response to intravenous (i.v.) ET-1 (0.5 nmol/kg) was significantly inhibited by J-1 05859 at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg i.v. Chronic treatment with J-1 05859 [0.1 and 1 mg/kg per day orally (p.o.)] from the prehypertensive stage decreased the mortality of salt-loaded DS rats and markedly inhibited the development of brain lesions. The survival rates in the control and J-1 05859 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg per day) groups were 34, 80 and 100%, respectively. Development of hypertension was markedly inhibited at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day.
J-105859 is a selective, potent, orally active ETA-selective antagonist ETA antagonists may reduce morbidity as well as mortality in salt-sensitive hypertension.