Journal of Humanistic Psychology

Published by SAGE Publications
Print ISSN: 0022-1678
Publications
REPORTS VARIOUS STUDIES CONCERNING THE USE OF HYPNOSIS AND HALLUCINATORY DRUGS AND CREATIVITY. PSYCHOTHERAPY, ACADEMIC PROFICIENCY, SUSCEPTIBILITY, AND TIME DISTORTIONS ARE TREATED IN RELATION TO HYPNOTIC MANIPULATION OF CREATIVITY. STUDIES CONCERNING AND PERSONAL OPINIONS OF USERS OF MESCALINE, PSILOCYBIN, AND LSD ARE CITED INDICATING A FEELING OF GREATER SENSITIVITY TO CREATIVITY AFTER USE. AS BOTH DRUGS AND HYPNOSIS ALTER THE STATE OF THE CONSCIOUS, THEY MAY FOSTER CREATIVE ACTIVITY SINCE IT IS BASICALLY PREVERBAL AND UNCONSCIOUS IN ORIGIN, AND MAY ALLOW TRANSCENDENCE OF INHIBITORY SOCIETAL CONDITIONING. (35 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
20 " "normal,' relatively healthy, growth-seeking" college undergraduates participated in 9 weekly personal growth group sessions of 4 hr. each. The facilitator was of an experiential-Gestaltist persuasion. Group mean scores on all 12 Personal Orientation Inventory scales changed positively. For 8 of the scales the change was statistically significant. Among a control group, no significant shifts in mean scores occurred. It is concluded that "the personal growth group appears to be 1 effective method for fostering increased self-actualization and the personal growth process in normal college students." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Argues that the intense emotions experienced in encounter group therapy are mediated by norepinephrine (NE) arousal of the CNS and originate in psychic and physiological bound states. Important physiological changes are induced in encounter group Ss, and these changes are related to or identical with those produced under psychosocial stress. States of arousal in group and in everyday life, especially those connected with the psychoanalytic complexes, are state-bound to a high degree not suspected by the participant. Under such conditions the goal of spontaneity sought after in group experience is clearly not attainable. The hypothesis is offered that self-induced NE arousal may be addictive, since the high value placed on feelings and their intense expression in encounter groups may develop into a predilection for exciting situation, violent confrontations, and the like. Experimental tests of the hypothesis of NE-mediated arousal are urged. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Contemporary humanism is not the revival of something from the past but an aggressive attempt to further the human enterprise within the context of the immediate present. In 1 sense it has created a paradox by considering everything characteristically human as good and by encouraging audacity in being the kind of a person one is. Man in general must be free to be audacious, but the individual must be restrained from interfering. The key concepts of threat, aggression, and hostility are redefined in a humanistic frame of reference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the concept of self-actualization, briefly tracing its history and its expression by contemporary psychologists and philosophers. The idea is emphasized that self-realization should not be a goal in itself but should be a by-product of living. The "human potential movement" is examined, particularly encounter groups. These claim to promote the achievement of true human contact through mutual self-disclosure, emotional self-expression, and acceptance of self and others. However, they may fail to do this in various ways and for various reasons, and may in fact have opposite effects from those envisioned for them. A number of debatable assumptions and self-defeating practices in encounter groups are analyzed; e.g., the paradox of "planned spontaneity" in such groups. "Genuine encounter" is described and discussed. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Develops the concept of reciprocal individualism as a viable alternative to the alienating individualism that characterizes most Western Puritan societies. It is argued that alienating individualism (i.e., an individual's self-reliance associated with antagonizing others or being separated from them) results from the overemphasis on independence as a criterion for mental health in the West, and that it leads to loneliness. In Japanese society, the competitive-egoistic need achievement of alienating individualism is replaced by a more harmonious reciprocal individualism which relates to strong needs for affiliation, nurturance, role dedication, and familial obligations. The Japanese system shows that industrialization and alienating individualism are not necessarily associated. A revolt against alienating individualism in the US is evident in the encounter group and commune movement, with its emphasis on "here and now" salvation. Reciprocal individualism is rooted in the belief that people are essentially good. It denotes the dynamic sphere of dialog between persons who are bound to each other in a continuous search for solutions while retaining their individuality and responsibility in relation to the matter under dispute. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Formulates a model of biofeedback and altered states of consciousness derived partially from research with adepts, persons who are able to control their autonomic reactions to traumatic stress such as bleeding, pain, and dental surgery. How these adepts had learned to control their reactions was particularly explored, and it was found that in childhood they had trained themselves to meet self-imposed challenges in a strongly assertive manner. This ability to transcend one's own fear and enter the unknown (a feature of many meditative disciplines) is termed the "chutzpah factor." It involves unusual self-confidence, self-assertion, the acceptance of impossible challenges, and the refusal to accept social constraints and conventions. Biofeedback can be used to train adults to control much of their autonomic reactivity. However, the personalities and life histories of adepts suggest that rewarding children for inquiry, assertiveness, and daring might help them become more competent in controlling their own healing and growth. Biofeedback training would then be unnecessary for them in later life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presents a model of the steps in the transitional experience (TE) (i.e., the active movement toward high self-awareness). Five phases of TE are analyzed, within a culture-shock paradigm, as a set of intensive situations in which the individual perceives and experiences other people in a distinctively new manner. Self-awareness is potentiated when the individual, in these situations, is confronted with the task of coping with the experiential validity of the notion that one's behavior arises out of a complex of motivations and intentions that stem primarily from his/her own cultural vocabulary. The model offers potential frameworks for the development of training experiences that prepare people undergoing changes in lifestyle and for counseling strategies that are developmental rather than adjustive. Further implications of the proposed relationships between phases of TE, perceptions, emotions, and behavior are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Evaluates A. Janov's clinical claims and views on primal scream psychotherapy and personality. Historical precedents of Janov's theories are examined. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Describes the ways in which the need for autonomy may underlie even the most apparently compliant personal interaction styles. Autonomy involves the capacity both to become active in one's own behalf and to struggle against imposed conditions. Paradoxically, this struggle may be expressed through compliance, self-destructiveness, and submissiveness. Generally, behavior which actively or passively is a refusal to affirm the goodness of those who have power over us is labeled maladaptive. The schizophrenic may appear compliant but does not accept the useful lie which allows that being owned and nurtured is being loved. Sheltering oneself from participation in this myth also keeps one's self from the reach of others. The basis of the development of a valid self is the result of experiences in which one believes; this is prevented by such isolation. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Contends that, while values emerge ever more prominently for consideration in the reflective, scientific literature, a stubborn cleavage remains in our construing of values and facts. This separation is encouraged by a 19th-century construction of science which places limitations on humans as scientists, in an effort to preserve an unlimited and superhuman conception of science. The thesis proposed is that all knowledge resides in the human response to events, that this response is irreducibly subjective and evaluative, and that facts are a special class of (communicated) values distinguishable by intraobserver redundancy and interobserver consensuality. (2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
K. Wilber (see record 1990-13661-001) extends his previous response to K. J. Schneider's (see record 1990-13657-001) criticism of transpersonal psychology (TRP), perpetuating the debate between TRP and existential-humanistic psychology. Schneider's theoretical perspective and interpretation of TRP are challenged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Tested J. Bugental's suggested connection between the avoidance of existential confrontation and neurosis. Scores on the Thauberger Existential Confrontation Scale yielded significant correlations with the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale in 2 samples of undergraduates ( r = .18 and .34). These results are discussed in terms of the functions of existential confrontation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
I have long been fascinated by the thinking of Gregory Bateson. I sense in his ideas important directions for modem culture and especially pointer readings for the theory we so clearly need as a foundation for humanistic psychology. In this article I discuss Bateson's epistemology, which I find as a kind of Berkeleyan idealism in which ideas have consequences and therefore are important aspects of reality. For some ideas “validity depends upon belief.” Bateson is not a believer in American individualism; he loves such terms as form, order, and pattern. His learning theory rests centrally on the changing of contexts rather than the mere acquisition of data. He believes it is an error to bootleg into psychology words that come from engineering and physics, like “energy” or “stress” or “input” or “feedback.” He would use only human words for human beings, like form, (in-form), order. These are all words that have to do with human relationships. He criticizes us humanists for being “so materialistic” (i.e., we take over the division of reality into the material and spiritual world). In this sense we ape the behaviorists. Unfortunately, so long as we use their concept of the world, we will be fighting a losing battle. Bateson believes in both deductive and inductive science: the inductive is the acquisition of data, but our very way of perceiving data comes from deductive views of life, even though this is denied by many empiricists. Bateson is for uniting these two so that our data will then be “based on the historical fundamentals of science and philosophy.” His thoughts can be summarized in the well-known pensée from Pascal. “The heart has reasons that the reason knows not of”.
 
Proposes the "development of an in-school, out-of-school, larger-environment learning setting where the objective is to translate current theory about self-actualization into educational practice." It focuses on the "creative growth of the self and the synergic relationship of the individual with society . . . ." (49 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
28 TESTABLE PROPOSITIONS REGARDING THE SELF-ACTUALIZER ARE PRESENTED AND DISCUSSED IN DETAIL. THE TERM "METANEEDS" IS USED TO DIFFERENTIATE BASIC NEEDS FROM THE HIGHER NEEDS OF SELF-ACTUALIZERS. (2 P. REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Sketches therapeutic experiences of breathing during the course of psychotherapy, which draw various body experiences into focus. Some of the effects on ego formation are noted, and the author focuses on the patient's less conflicted experiences, which distinguish breathing from appetite. As the experience of breathing is differentiated from the flux of changing body states, the gentle regularity of inflow and outflow is perceived as a safety zone and a model for the ego in its dual role of being both within and without the body. The breathing process also provides the ego with a model of cohesion and interaction and supports the ego's sense of constancy and unifying activities. Although breathing is characterized by momentary and periodic variations, it is not experienced as a disturbance under normal circumstances. Appetite, by contrast, involves more acute and insistent sensations which often have a disturbing quality that may or may not be pleasurable. Appetite almost always involves a gap between the felt want and the moment of gratification. Breathing, unlike appetite, usually is supplied immediately with an outside source of gratification. This continuous feeding of the insides of the body by the outside world in breathing is the basic, sustaining interpenetration that provides a bodily form for communion and relatedness in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Responds to C. Rogers's (1981) claim that the present author believes that evil is inherent in humans while Rogers believes that humans are essentially constructive in their fundamental nature but are damaged by cultural experiences. The present author maintains that the word diamonic, not demonic, was used to describe the urge in every being to affirm and assert itself. It is suggested that Rogers's use of client-centered psychotherapy does not deal with clients' hostile and negative feelings. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presents a brief historical sketch of current body psychotherapies. It is suggested that these techniques are fruitful and challenging to the traditional "talking" therapies and consequently are being integrated into the mainstream of clinical psychology. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the rediscovery and use of catharsis in human potential encounter groups. Advantages and shortcomings of the procedure are discussed, and it is suggested that integrating cathartic techniques with certain spiritual disciplines may enhance the experience. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A measure of harmony might be introduced into the relationship between the social sciences and religion by emphasizing a future oriented psychotherapy based on outsight. According to this principle, human concepts are considered the product of the rewards and punishments administered by other people and emotional disturbance is seen to consist in a lack of identification with the community. The strong need everyone has for the good will of others can be used as an incentive for the psychiatric patient to understand the needs of people around him. His own self-esteem will mount in proportion to the future rewards resulting from such identification. It is precisely this brotherly love in action which may provide an area of peaceful coexistence for psychiatry and religion. 7 controversial topics including free will, ideal man, guilt feelings, and sin are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
12 women designated as high disclosers and 12 as low disclosers were selected from a sample of 80 female undergraduates, on the basis of scores on a self-disclosure questionnaire. A 2-part experiment was conducted, inquiring into (a) the predictive value of the selection instrument at forecasting self-disclosure in a dyadic situation, and (b) whether an S would increase or decrease her predicted level of self-disclosure when paired with a partner who differed from her in self-disclosure. The low-disclosing Ss disclosed less to their partners than did the high-disclosing Ss when dyads were formed with like-disclosing pairs. When low disclosers were paired with high disclosers, however, the latter remained high disclosing and the low disclosers showed a significant increase in self-disclosure to their partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the interchange between C. Rogers (1982) and R. May (see record 1983-06152-001) on the question of evil in human nature, in which Rogers viewed good and evil as binary, with people as essentially good, and May described evil as itself containing the possibility for good if it is given direction or as leading inevitably to destructiveness if it remains unrecognized. A 3rd alternative is suggested by M. Buber (1969), who considered good and evil as polar yet interdependent, and people as in need of personal direction. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Responds to commentary by B. Burstow (see record 1988-17585-001) and D. C. Brink (see record 1988-17584-001) on the analysis of equality in a therapeutic relationship and the inadequacies of mechanical, dogmatic client-centered therapy. The present author contends that the question of equality is irrelevant when the client and therapist are bonded together in understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
MASLOW AGREES WITH FRANKL (SEE 41:2) THAT MAN'S HIGHEST CONCERN IS HIS "WILL TO POWER," BUT HE PREFERS, EVEN AT THE EXPLORATORY STAGE TO STATE CONCEPTS AS TESTABLE HYPOTHESES. THERE ARE MANY ABSTRACT SYSTEMS AND LANGUAGES THAT CAN BE USED TO ORGANIZE THE KNOWN FACTS ALMOST EQUALLY WELL. AT THIS LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IT IS USEFUL TO HAVE VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW. FRANKL'S FINDINGS ARE COMPATIBLE WITH MASLOW'S EMPIRICAL PERSONOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF SELF-ACTUALIZING PEOPLE. WITHOUT EXCEPTION THEY WERE DEVOTED TO A CALLING BEYOND THEMSELVES. THE 1000 STATEMENTS THEY MADE ABOUT THEIR WORK FELL ROUGHLY INTO THE CATEGORIES EARLIER IDENTIFIED AS B VALUES. THESE VALUES CAN BE SEEN AS METANEEDS, OVER AND ABOVE THE BASIC NEEDS. A PERSON NOT COMMITTED TO THE METANEEDS SEEMS TO FALL PREY TO MEANINGLESSNESS OR THE "EXISTENTIAL VACUUM." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Describes traditional dream incubation--the ritual of going to sleep in a sacred place in anticipation of receiving a helpful dream from a divine benefactor--and current methods of inducing dreams for guidance and conflict resolution. The author's procedure is in 4 parts: (a) selection of the dreamer for incubation, (b) preparation of the incubant, (c) the incubation ceremony, and (d) the incubant's testimony. Research applications of dream incubation are proposed, and the methodological implications of a ritualistic approach to research are discussed. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reevaluation counseling (RC) is a "peer self-help psychotherapy." It trains laymen to serve as psychotherapists for one another and may thus provide a humanistic resolution of the psychological and economic difficulties that dependence on professional experts for psychotherapy creates. Peer self-help psychotherapy groups furnish " "artificial' social networks" as replacements for the rapidly disappearing natural Western networks. Following a statement on the structure of the movement, the theory and practice of RC are briefly discussed. It has one goal, rationality, i.e., "freedom from repetitive patterns of behavior," achieved through discharging distressful emotion. 6 forms of universally occurring distress are postulated: grief, fear, anger, embarrassment, boredom, and physical distress. "As discharge occurs . . . the client is flooded with new memories and new insights concerning the distressful experience . . . This process is called reevaluation. When the client has discharged all of the distress connected with a given event or class of events, the theory postulates that the pattern that ensued from the event or events will disappear." (21 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
39 graduate students enrolled in counseling courses participated in an experiment designed to learn if practicing zazen could assist counselors to improve their empathic abilities. Experimental Ss, who volunteered for meditation, practiced zazen 30 min. each weekday over 4 wk. Of 2 control groups, which did not meditate, 1 consisted also of volunteers for zazen and 1 of meditation refusers. Tests of affective sensitivity (empathy), of openness to experience, and of self-actualization were administered to all Ss before and after treatment. Experimental Ss improved their empathic abilities significantly; control Ss did not. The effect is greatest in persons with low initial abilities. Both openness to experience and self-actualization are positively related to empathic ability. Depth of concentration reached in zazen is positively related to openness to experience. (50 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Posits that humanistic goals cannot be achieved without major changes in economic organization and the distribution of power. Marx's analysis of the processes involved in individual development emphasized this interplay between the individual and society. It therefore provides a framework within which to integrate our knowledge of intraindividual development with those social processes that can alter or otherwise exert strong controlling forces over such development. The failure of a majority of humanistic psychologists (with a few exceptions, among them C. H. Hampden-Turner and W. Anderson) to seriously consider the effects of macrolevel social forces on human character is considered to have hindered the development of an adequate theory of personality growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Criticizes M. Csikszentmihalyi's formulations on play and the determinants of flow experiences. In the context of the literature dealing with intrinsic motivation, play may be regarded as an activity initiated for the intrinsic reward it provides. A number of theoretical and analytical points are discussed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The socially irresponsible use of psychiatric nomenclature to label human beings poses a serious problem. Whereas Russian novelists felt unable to accurately characterize an individual after a lifetime of effort, some superficial clinicians smugly dispose of a patient after a single interview in a brief diagnosis bristling with professional jargon. In some cases the diagnosis becomes an end in itself, crowding out any genuine involvment with the suffering patient. This dehumanization of people by way of psychiatric name calling is not confined to the clinic. Many individuals are irretrievably hurt by the thoughtless or malicious use of psychiatric labels whether in gossip, letters of recommendation, or power struggles. The motives of psychologists and presumably sophisticated laymen in using such nomenclature are discussed at length. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Distinguishes between 2 models of institutional treatment systems and describes their characteristics in terms of the research and theoretical literature. The Open Dialogue System (ODS) emphasizes social and communicative factors in institutional treatment and is useful for developing a societal perspective for the design and management of residential mental health programs. The ODS model is an organizational alternative to the traditional hospital model, the Restricted Dialogue System (RDS). ODS institutions stress (a) the importance of personal knowledge and skills and the social context in which treatment takes place, (b) the residents' personal strengths and trustworthiness, (c) multilevel involvement in treatment, and (d) administrative processes that foster a flexible and open social organization in which opportunities for involvement are available to all persons within the system (multilevel involvement). RDS emphasizes the hierarchical isolation of knowledge; the administrative process is a technocracy whose function is to maintain the rigid role definitions that determine the appropriate patterns of interaction among the persons within the system. Fuller awareness of the societal nature of treatment institutions should lead to further elaboration of ODS and to less restrictive environments. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the effects of psychomotor therapy, a body-oriented group approach, on scores on Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Experimental and control groups were formed by the random assignment of 40 college students to these groups, and experimental Ss met for 8 weekly sessions of 4 hrs each. All Ss were tested before and after the experience, and experimental Ss were tested again 6 mo later. Pre-post comparisons disclosed significant positive changes on both tests for the experimental group, and follow-up data revealed that this change remained constant. The control group showed no significant changes. Psychomotor therapy seems to foster increased internality and decreased social desirability responding in growth-seeking college students. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviews the contributions and limitations of humanistic psychology and the human potential movement to the development of radical therapy. It is suggested that radical psychiatry, the most prevalent form of radical therapy, indicates the need for using a Marxist methodology for reconstructing radical therapy. The present author considers dialectics to be the most important aspect of the Marxist method for radical therapy and provides several guidelines for using dialectical analysis in a therapeutic encounter. He further suggests that the successful reconstruction of radical therapy is dependent on the development of a Marxist psychology, and that the critical theory approach of Frankfurt School Marxism is the most beneficial path for developing a theory and practice of a Marxist psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Comments on W. B. Frick's (see record 1993-37563-001) critique of subpersonality theory and offers observations in support of an approach that regards subpersonalities as essential elements in an integrated self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
INVESTIGATED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOUCHING, OR BODY CONTACT, AND PERSONAL SELF-DISCLOSURE TO EACH OF 4 TARGET-PERSONS: THE FATHER, MOTHER, BEST FRIEND OF SAME SEX, AND BEST FRIEND OF OPPOSITE SEX. A DUAL QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE, ONE ASSESSING CONTACT AND THE OTHER VERBAL SELF-DISCLOSURE, INDICATED THAT THE 2 INDICES OF INTIMACY ARE VIRTUALLY INDEPENDENT. AMOUNT OF TOUCHING VARIED OVER PERSONALITY TYPES, BUT GENERALLY IMPLIED SEXUAL EXPRESSION. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the development of a program of community education and existentially oriented peer counseling for Viet Nam veterans, using the theoretical resources of humanistic psychology. Personal observations and the program's experience indicate that military training involved promotion of aggression, sexual debasement, and racism. This conditioning, coupled with the reality of the war situation, resulted in both object- and self-directed dehumanization which rigidified over time and became chronic for many. The veteran may not realize his affective numbing until he has established a stable life style and has time to introspect. He may then exhibit antisocial and/or self-destructive behavior. The human potential movement provides a rationale and vehicle for intervention toward the development of the persons' capacity to sustain human values in times of cultural confusion and violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Dreaming is considered to involve "phenomenological processes intrinsic to the growth, change and transformation of personality." 10 hypotheses are outlined, based on the author's work with dreams of intelligent and highly gifted young adults in psychotherapy. The theoretical ground of the hypotheses includes views of Jung, Rank, Maslow, Assagioli, Boss, and the author's own growth orientation in psychotherapy. While differing from the early Freudian perspective on dreams, the hypotheses are "entirely in keeping with the more modern neo-Freudian approach to dreams as a creative problem solving process . . . and Jung's understanding of the dream as a reflection of internal processes of psychic transformation." Certain findings of REM research are construed as consistent with the acceptance of dreams as "a state of endogenous psychosynthetic activity." For the practicing psychotherapist, what is important is to be sensitive to "any signs of change and transformation that take place in the dreamer during the dream experience . . . since they represent efforts to cope with developmental blocks . . . that would obscure the synthesis of new developments in the personality." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The shaping of behavior (Skinner, 1953) by externally applied rewards is a common tool in classroom management. An alternative is suggested: that behavior be permitted to take shape from within. Self-realization is the more appropriate mode of effecting change in outer behavior. It is suggested that American educators have adopted this shaping procedure without carefully considering its applicability or repercussions. This is considered a reflection of a trend toward scientism in our educational system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Studied methods of measuring desire for need satisfaction. A. H. Maslow (1943, 1954) postulated a 5-level hierarchy of needs in which low order, prepotent needs must be at least somewhat satisfied before higher order needs motivate an individual. The hypotheses were tested that (a) the level of satisfaction of any given need should be negatively correlated with desire for satisfaction of that need and (b) in any pair-wise comparison of needs at different levels in the need hierarchy, satisfaction with the lower order need should be greater than for the higher order need. Through random quota sampling 37 Ss were selected. 3 measures of need satisfaction were used: an open-ended coded questionnaire, judgments of a series of life situations, and direct ratings of present satisfaction. The hypotheses were supported, thus lending credence to Maslow's theory relating satisfaction and drive to the ordering of human needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Describes the Teilhardian Mass, beginning with a description of the Law of Complexity/Consciousness. The Teilhardian Mass is an act of commitment to life and growth in evolution. P. Teilhard de Chardin (1963, 1965) pointed out that whenever something new appears in evolution, one must avoid the temptation to view it simply as another new element. It is more important to recognize it as disclosing another dimension of the total process. The union to which humans are called in evolution is one that expresses the fundamental energy of evolution. It must be a union of love. Humans are called to love and to unite with the whole of evolution, including the environment, as with another person. Suggestions for facilitating participation in a Teilhardian Mass are presented. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviews the destructive powers and probability of nuclear war (NW) and discusses common attitudes that are making NW difficult to prevent. It is suggested that the silence of Americans today about NW is like the silence of the Germans in the 1930's about the destruction of the Jews. The psychological effects of living under the constant threat of nuclear destruction—especially on youth—are discussed. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
8 emergent levels of human existence are distinguished: automatic, tribalistic, egocentric, saintly, materialistic, sociocentric, cognitive, and experientialistic. These arise "as man solves certain hierarchically ordered existential problems crucial to him in his existence." To each state is associated a particular value system, respectively: reactive, traditionalistic, exploitive, sacrificial, materialistic, sociocratic, existential, and experiential. The problem of moral and ethical decline rests "not so much in the breakdown and discard of "the old' as in the retention of existentially inappropriate values during a period of profound transformation in human existence." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Existential psychotherapy is not a single school of thought but a mood embracing a number of divergent philosophies. In focusing attention on the concrete, unique individual it avoids the generalized image of man implicit in such constructs as the id, the ego, and the superego. Therapeutic technique remains flexible, varying from patient to patient and from 1 stage of treatment to another. The 3 basic elements in existential psychotherapy are: "phenomenology," "world-design" based on Heideggers's modes of "being in the world," and the "I-Thou" relationship which replaces the concept of transference. In contrast to neurotic guilt, real guilt arises from the way in which a person relates to others. The analyst, acting as a confidant, helps his patient see his illness as a failure to relate in a responsible way to the community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
30 ACUTELY DISTURBED MALE SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS WERE OBSERVED IN MEDICAL, RECREATIONAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND SOCIAL SITUATIONS TO TEST THE HYPOTHESES THAT: (1) THEIR RESPONSES WOULD APPEAR SIGNIFICANTLY MORE PATHOLOGICAL IN A MEDICAL SETTING, AND (2) THEIR BEHAVIOR WOULD ADAPT APPROPRIATELY TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF A PARTICULAR ENVIRONMENT. RECORDINGS WERE MADE OF THEIR LANGUAGE AND ROLE BEHAVIOR. THERE IS EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE CONCLUSION THAT LANGUAGE AND ROLE PATHOLOGY ARE TO SOME EXTENT ARTIFACTS OF A SOCIAL MILIEU. THEORIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA MAY BE BIASED BY CONSTANT ERRORS RESULTING FROM TECHNIQUES OF OBSERVATION AND TREATMENT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Erikson has shown that myth performs an important function in organizing man's attitudes for survival in the face of the human condition. Peak experience serves a similar purpose at the personal level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Evidence that the subjective inner life of man can be studied objectively is rapidly accumulating and a new break-through in the measurement, manipulation, and conceptualization of intraphysic phenomena appears imminent. If this be true many significant issues once banned from psychology can be reinstated. The basic principle of introspection is still in use under various aliases because it yields data unobtainable in any other way. A modernized introspective methodology must take cognizance of the fact that verbal behavior refers to actual internal phenomena and must focus attention on the phenomena themselves rather than the reporting behavior. To a greater extent than is usually appreciated social psychology, the study of perception, personality, and motivation consist in the analysis of experimental factors. A fuller realization of what is actually being done in psychology might lead us to accept experience as a primary phenomenon measurable in terms of overt observables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
16 male and 4 female athletes described peak experiences (PE) in sport, i.e., their "greatest moment" during participation. The findings reveal that the PE is a nonvoluntary, transcendent experience that often forms a feeling of union or harmony with the environment. The PE was perceived as a self-validating experience, relatively noncognitive (nonreflective). It was intense but was not perceived as of pivotal importance in the athletes' lives. Implications for further study of athletes' subjective experiences are discussed, such as guided discussions among coaches and players of their subjective experiences. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The view that science is the only reliable path to knowledge is a naive philosophical assumption which often goes unexamined. The makers of "normal science" are not the great discoverers who dared to take chances, but the majority of "normal scientists" who overstress caution and the art of not making mistakes. Science need not confine itself to a reductionist, atomistic view of the world in which man is dehumanized. Many nonscientists fear science for they see it as belittling the things they consider beautiful and valuable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Explores the use of poetry as a psychotherapeutic technique and as an aspect of interpersonal communication in order to stimulate group development toward increasing directness of expression. The purpose is to demonstrate the manner in which poetic expression can be woven into the texture of the group discussion and can function as an integral part of the ongoing process of movement toward heightened intimacy and cohesion. 9 college undergraduates and an ongoing group of 12-20 hospital patients were brought together to discuss and create poetry for 7 sessions. It is noted that feelings that cannot be openly expressed in a new group can be discussed abstractly through poetry. In addition, poetry has a unique potential for capturing the quality of experience. Intimacy experienced during the final session demonstrated the usefulness of poetry in combination with a theory of group development. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  • Claremont Graduate University
Salvatore R. Maddi
  • University of California, Irvine
Harris Friedman
  • University of Florida
Barbara Held
  • Bowdoin College
Alfonso Montuori
  • California Institute of Integral Studies