The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of different swimsuits models used by male swimmers during all the finals at the 13th FINA World Championships, being held at Rome in 2009. Simultaneously, it was intended to verify the distribution of the different swimsuits used along the distances of the freestyle finals, and thus to understand the preferences of the top-level swimmers. It were used the results databases from the 13th FINA World Championships, in Rome 2009. Only the male swimmers participating at the finals were analyzed, for a total number of 17 individual swimming events. The wear swimsuit by each swimmer in a given event was observed from video recorded of the television broadcast. Male swimmers participating in the finals limited their choice to seven types of commercial swimsuits, of four different sports brands. Jaked01 Full® was the most used (47.07%), followed by the Powerskin X-Glide Full® (34.56%), the Powerskin X-Glide Pants® (7.35%) and the LZR Racer Full® (5.15%). In freestyle swimming events most of the male swimmers choose to wear full body swimsuits. Jaked01 Full® was predominant in the 50 m event, with 62.50% of swimmers choices. This value decreases to 25.00% when analyzing 100 m event, and remained similar over the longer distances swum. The Powerskin X-Glide Full® was used for 37.50% of the swimmers in 50 m swimming event, and it increases to 62.50% for the 100 m freestyle. These results seem to demonstrate that swimmers have preferences for full swimsuits, and for these two swimsuits, the Powerskin X-Glide Full® and the Jaked01 Full®.
The 1RM is the standard measurement to value isotonic strength. Nevertheless, this type of test takes a lot of time, can expose evaluated individuals at a higher risk of injury, etc. Specialized literature recognizes that the use of a procedure which requires a smaller load than 1RM to estimate individuals maximal strength has, undoubted, a great attractive. Therefore, RM tests are the most commonly tool used with general population. Having the intention of proving these proposals among Spanish female population, 28 active women were evaluated in hers 1RM and RM before and after 8 training weeks. The results obtained put the predictive value of these formulas into question, especially regarding its individual predicting value. El test de 1RM es la medición estándar para valorar la fuerza isotónica. No obstante, este tipo de prueba consume mucho tiempo, puede exponer a los sujetos que son evaluados a un mayor riesgo de lesión, etc. La literatura especializada reconoce que la utilización de un procedimiento que requiera una carga menor de 1RM para estimar la fuerza máxima de los sujetos tiene, indudablemente, un gran atractivo. Así, los tests de RM son la herramienta más comúnmente utilizada con la población general. Con la intención de comprobar estos planteamientos entre la población femenina española, 28 mujeres activas fueron evaluadas en su 1RM y RM antes y después de 8 semanas de entrenamiento. Los resultados obtenidos ponen en duda el valor predictivo de las fórmulas más habituales, especialmente respecto a su valor predictivo individual.
Sodium citrate-induced alkalosis is an ergogenic strategy that has been proven to enhance physical performance in high-intensity exercises by increasing muscle buffer capacity and reducing the influence of H+ on energy production and contractile processes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether acute sodium citrate ingestion may contribute to rowing performance in a 2000-m race simulation. Six well-trained competitive rowers took part in the study, but five of them have completed the whole experimental protocol. They were assessed twice for performance and lactate 2.5 h after the ingestion of a 750-mL natural mango juice containing sodium citrate (0.5 g•kg-1) or no substance added (placebo). The two experiments occurred 7-15 days apart. The study was conducted in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over fashion. Performance was assessed in a rower ergometer and blood lactate was determined in both conditions at rest and after exercise. Heart-rate and oxygen consumption were monitored throughout the tests. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. Sodium citrate yielded a significantly higher lactate response to exercise than placebo (p<0.05), but no significant differences were found between treatments for performance, heart-rate and oxygen consumption. In conclusion, sodium citrate promoted a favorable metabolic environment for exercise performance but did not exert any influence on simulated rowing performance.
This study has pursued to find the efficacy values in the playing micro-situations with or without ball possession present in Water polo and to analyze the relation between these and the condition of winner or loser, among winning teams, among losing teams and for the position that dealt in the final classification of the X World Championship. Were recorded in video all the female and male matches of the X Water polo World Championship, out agreed by consensus between two trained specialists, continuing the directors of the observational methodology. A specific software was designed for the analysis of the images and the management of the information. Has evaluated by means of coefficients the playing micro-situations in numerical equality, counterattack, defensive adjustment, simple temporary numerical inequality and penalty; obtaining efficacy values. For the statistically data analysis was carried out an ANOVA of a single factor followed by the Tukey test, taking as reference a value of p≤.05. To conclude with, say that significant differences have been revealed in thirty six efficacy values in female category and forty six in male between winning and losing teams, eight between winning teams, the same ones between losing teams and seventeen between the positions that dealt in the final classification on having finished the above mentioned championship.
In male high-level long-distance runners over 10,000 m, a positive association between both the front thigh and medial calf skin-fold thickness and running performance has been demonstrated. It is assumed that the thickness of skin-folds of the lower limb is related to training in highly trained runners. We investigated in 22 male ultra-endurance runners in a 24-hour run the relationship between skin-fold thicknesses and race performance. The 22 runners achieved a total of 154 (47) km during the 24 hours, varying from 73.079 km to 231.956 km. No association for both the skin-fold thicknesses and the training variables with race performance could be demonstrated. Furthermore, skin-fold thicknesses showed no relationship with both volume and intensity during training. We must assume that in ultra-endurance runners in a 24-hour run, other variables such as motivation and nutrition must be associated with race outcome.
El abandono de los jóvenes en la competición deportiva es un tema actual, que nos puede llevar incluso a cuestionar la filosofía del deporte escolar para jóvenes. El presente estudio intenta demostrar el índice de participación de los jóvenes en la competición deportiva, en relación con las etapas establecidas por los diferentes organismos oficiales (Benjamín, Alevín, Infantil y Cadete), unido al conjunto de deportes más practicados, tanto de modo colectivo como individual, que engloban al deporte escolar. Este estudio es un análisis descriptivo situacional de la realidad actual del deporte escolar de la ciudad de Alicante, basado en los datos aportados por la Patronato Municipal de Deportes, durante un curso escolar.
La ejercitación de la musculatura abdominal ha sido objeto de grandes y controvertidos debates, no sólo en cuanto a la forma correcta de realizar los ejercicios sino también en todo aquello relacionado con la participación muscular específica. El presente artículo parte de una revisión y descripción anatómica de la musculatura abdominal, su función, aplicada a diferentes acciones como por ejemplo, caminar y correr y un análisis detallado de los ejercicios mas comúnmente utilizados en su entrenamiento. Han sido revisados estudios científicos que analizan la participación diferenciada de los abdominales y la musculatura de la cadera al ejecutar diferentes ejercicios (con y sin elementos). Se destaca la importancia del fortalecimiento de la musculatura abdominal para mantener los niveles requeridos de fuerza y resistencia así como mantener el equilibrio y la estabilización global de la zona media. La realización sistemática de ejercicios de flexión del tronco con amplitudes de movimiento completas, sin sujetar los miembros inferiores, y manteniendo una flexión de caderas y rodillas de 45º y 90º es un medio efectivo para entrenar la musculatura abdominal. The training of the abdominal muscles has been a topic of strong debate, not only in regards to the correct way of performing the exercises but also in regards to all that relates to the specific muscular participation. The current article starts from a review and anatomical description of the abdominal muscle, as well as its function applied to different actions like for example, to walk and to run. It also includes a detailed analysis of the more commonly used exercises in its training. Scientific studies analyzing the differentiated action of the abdominal muscle and the hip muscles when performing different exercises (with and without elements) have been reviewed. The relevance of strengthening the abdominal muscle in order to maintain the required levels of strength and endurance, as well as to maintain the core balance and stabilization, is stressed. The systematic performance of trunk flexion exercises including whole range of movement, without holding the lower body, and maintaining the hips and knees in a 45º and 90º flexion is an effective way to train the abdominal muscles.
This article reviews existing knowledge concerning the epidemiology, instruments and regulatory criteria currently used to evaluate artificial turf soccer pitches. Recent years have seen tremendous growth in the use of artificial turf as a playing surface for sports (rugby, soccer, American football…) and the problems traditionally associated with artificial turf and its relationship with a higher percentage of injuries seem to be disappearing. The contribution of biomechanics to the development of new techniques and instruments for analysing the properties and characteristics of grass pitches has contributed towards close collaboration with the regulatory bodies of different sporting organisations to define standards and criteria that guarantee not only the safety of the sportsmen and women, but also ensure performance and entertainment. Absorption of impacts, friction and traction, abrasion and factors associated with the mobile element and its interaction with artificial turf are the properties evaluated using a wide range of methodologies and instruments. In this sense, instruments such as the “Artificial Athlete” and the “Stuttgart Skiddometer” have helped different standards (DIN, BSI, AENOR, AFNOR, FIFA…amongst others) to define criteria for the homologation of a certain artificial turf surfaces.
This study analyse the influence of Knowledge of Results (KR) with different accuracy levels on the learning rate of a throwing skill of spatial non-vision accuracy, during the acquisition stage. We assessed the number of successful events, the distance from the target and the consistency of the responses obtained by 180 subjects. We applied three accuracy levels: KR1 – subjects were informed about reaching the target or not; KR2 – informed about the direction of the failure events; and KR3 – informed about the direction and quantification of the failure events. All groups improved their rate of success –15.56% in KR1, 14.45% in KR3 (p<0.001) and 14.16% in KR2 (p=0.001)– as well as their consistency level after the acquisition stage. After 15 minutes without KR, we found main differences related to the rate of success in the retention stage between KR2 and KR1 (p=0.026), and between KR3 and KR1 (p=0.001), but not between KR2 and KR3. We can conclude that, a less precise KR, aimed just to the direction of the failure events, resulted more efficient at an initial learning stage than a more precise KR, aimed to the direction and the distance of the failure events.
The main aim of this study has been the application of a sport and social program intervention to solve the daily problems of conviviality in the classroom of physical education, based on the teaching and learning of social values, attitudes and social skills. 24 children between 9-12 years of Guadix (Granada) have taken part in this study, learning social values that allow them to improve the social relations with their mates. In the data collection of information, three instruments were used; an initial and final sociogram (pre-post) was carried out with the objective of know the social relations of the group; two group interviews, in which the students talked about their learning process and the diary of the teacher, in which the teacher analyzed the program and the advance of the students. The results of three used instruments were compared, the analysis of data shows that there had been considerable changes in the attitude of the students, therefore the personal conflicts that were frequent to the beginning of the research, were diminishing in a gradual way along the experience. The students and the teacher showed their satisfaction for the improvement of their social skills and relationships through the sport motor learning.
The purpose of the study was to investigate sequences of typical beach volleyball actions to determine action patterns and anticipate athlete’s behaviour. Videos from 18 games including 1645 action sequences consisting of 10918 actions from female World Tour athletes were analyzed. Single actions were recorded in a data base and probabilities of serve-reception, set-attacking, and reception-attacking action sequences were determined by means of data base queries. Chi-square tests were applied to determine significant patterns. Results did not reveal any superior type of serve which would create difficulties for the receiving team (p>0.05). The type of attack (smash or shot) did not significantly depend on the position of the setting. However, there was a tendency (p=0.054) to hard attacks when the ball was preceded by a setting far away from the net of from a lateral position near the side lines. The temporal position within a rally did neither effect the type nor the quality of attack (p>0.05). Contrariwise, the quality of the preceding reception did influence the type (p<0.01) and the quality (p<0.05) of attack. Following “good” receptions athletes preferred hard attacks and were more effective compared to situation where they had “perfect” or “poor” receptions. Although dependencies could not be detected in all analyzed cases the analysis of beach volleyball action sequences even by simple means of probabilities is a promising method to determine tactical patterns in beach volleyball.
El mar es el entorno más grande y menos conocido del planeta, muchas investigaciones han intentado acercar el contexto de las actividades físicas en el mar con la educación, pero pocas veces esta conexión ha tenido éxito. Las actividades físicas en el mar han sido clasificadas por gran parte del profesorado que durante mucho tiempo, han intentado entender y diversificar la práctica físico-deportiva en este medio. En el presente artículo se intentará realizar una nueva clasificación ecológica sobre las actividades físicas en el mar, a la vez que se realizaran propuestas de enseñanza de dichas actividades en las etapas educativas obligatorias. The sea is the biggest and less known environment of the planet. Many researches have tried to approach and link the physical activities in the sea to the educational context, but not very often this connection has been successful. Physical activities in the sea have been classified by a great number of teachers and professors. They have tried to understand and diversify the physical-sport practice in this environment during a long time. In this article, a new ecological classification of the physical activities in the sea is proposed. At the same time, some educational proposals for these activities in the obligatory educational stages will be included.
The elaboration of typologies is a previous step to improve the analysis of occupation of leisure-time and the establishment of collective measures that they affect in the development of healthy lifestyle among the young people. The sample of this study been has constituted by 1829 adolescents of three provinces. We use the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire and the cluster analysis. These instruments have shown the existence of two different groups in regard to the leisure-time. These groups are related with sociodemographic variables like educational level and place of residence. Group of adolescents which accomplish physical activities organized did not show differences with the other groups of young people in relation to the consumption of television, time of study and use of computer. On the contrary, accomplish more physical activity in a workday than the other adolescents.
El presente artículo aborda el conocimiento de la habilidad motriz del equilibrio en el medio terrestre como fundamento con el que poder realizar, posteriormente, las adaptaciones necesarias y específicas a las características propias que tiene el medio acuático para desarrollar en él dicha habilidad. De manera más concreta se destacará cómo el conocimiento de estas características o factores limitantes de la habilidad motriz básica va a permitir una concreción a la hora de establecer criterios de evaluación, con lo que se facilitará la tarea de observación y acción del docente. This article approaches the knowledge of the balance motor ability in land as the ground basis to introduce, later on, the necessary and specific adaptations to the own characteristics that aquatics have to develop this ability. In a more concrete way, we will stand out how the knowledge of these characteristics or limiting factors of the basic motor ability allow a concretion when establishing the evaluation criteria, which would facilitate the observation and action task of the teacher.
The whole body vibrations (WBV) it is nowadays one of the most widely used methods for improving the explosive strength. This seems to produce similar effects than those found after applying a eccentric-concentric cycle. In this study, 12 subjects participating in recreational physical activity were allocated to 5 sets of 60 s of WBV exposure, using a frequency of 30 Hz, and 2.5 mm of amplitude, maintaining an static position (110 ° bending knees) on a vibratory platform (Galileo Fitness®; Novotech, Germany). The results showed an increase (not significant) in SJ (+1.76 ± 4.05 cm) and CMJ (+1.10 ± 3.20 cm) in the post-test conducted just after the vibration. The values of the post-test performed 30 min after SJ remained above the pre-test ones but just below the immediate post-test ones (+0.42 ± 4.43 cm). By contrast, the values in CMJ dropped below the pre-test ones (-0.12 ± 2.45 cm). Based on these data it seems that when the frequency is not high it is necessary to use greater amplitude in order to achieve the desired effects. The effect achieved after the vibration is transient, not remaining after 30 min.
Declining health status of youth assumes considerable proportions. The continuously growing number of children with bad body positions, overweight and obesity, diabetes and asthma has been subject to several national or international publications. The number of state surveys, assessments of the situation and action plans has been arising, but real action has been keeping us waiting. Hungary, as a unique country among the neighboring countries, has realized the school-integrated rehabilitation of children suffering from internal and locomotor disorders. Schools in Hungary the Adapted Physical Education (APE), as a part of Physical Education (PE) have been helping disabled children finding their way back to their healthy fellows. In this case study we would like to present the interpretation of the definition, the goals and tasks of APE how and in what way they differ from the European approach and also introduce the definitions are used in Hungarian educational terminology (Physiotherapy, PE, Light Physical Education – as LPE and APE). We consider it to be important to show those substantial points which fundamentally differentiate Physiotherapy, APE and LPE. With setting the goals and tasks we would like to make it clear, that APE is an integral part of PE as a school subject in Hungary. That is the reason why with setting the fundamental goals and tasks, the goals and tasks of PE have to be considered as a starting-point. Compared to international publications a wider interpretation of APE in our study also provides an opportunity to establish an integral European way of thinking.
The aim of this study was to compare the speed and the agility between Brazilian soccer players and non-players, regarding maturity status in adolescents 11-15 years old. Forty and two soccer players (age – 159.30±17.28 months old; weight – 48.45±9.96 kg; height – 1.53±0.10 m) and 45 non-players (age – 162.62±24.92 months old; weight – 48.30±8.35 kg; height – 1.54±0.12 m) participated of this study. Participants were classified by maturity status. On 2 different days with 1 week of differences between the assessments the participants were evaluated the agility, by Shuttle Run test, and the speed, by 30 m maximum speed test. The results showed that the maturity status was an influential factor in the performance with better results for individuals in a more advanced stage. The soccer practice does not seem to interfere in the performance of the physical capacity components analyzed, only effective when different maturity levels are involved in the analysis. It is also possible that late maturing boys selectively drop-out of soccer as age and sport specialization increase.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the characteristics of quality of life, activities, and value systems of the adults participating in our survey. Within these factors, we paid special attention to psychosomatic values such as health, physical activity, free time, and to such activities as sports, trips, and walking. Our sample (N=142) was selected in Budapest and in eight cities/towns in Western Hungary and was asked to fill out a questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions. The middleaged adults participating in the study (M=45.8 SD±8.810) seem to have a sufficient amount of freetime, and only a third of them take part in no or very little physical activity on a regular basis. Personal relationships were the most important component of quality of life, followed by physicalenvironment, meaning in life, and health satisfaction. They also unequivocally considered family as the most important among the value categories. In addition, they ranked health, love, and honour at the top of their scale. The least accepted or preferred values from the bottom of the ordinal scale were sports, career, and free time. As to the rank order of everyday activities, at the top of the scale we can find sleeping/relaxation, reading, TV/film. Society/friends, physical activities/games, computing/internet, trips/walking, and listening to music were considered less popular. In accordance with the literature, the values rank order of the adult population has revealed that sports and trips are significantly less preferred values and activity forms than passive relaxation, sleeping, reading, and watching TV.
The purpose of the study was to validate the applicability of 20-meter multi stage shuttle run test in Nepalese male College students. 40 Nepalese students were recruited for the study. Direct estimation of cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) comprised treadmill exercise followed by expired gas analysis by scholander micro-gas analyzer whereas VO2max was indirectly predicted by the 20-meter multistage shuttle run test. The difference between the mean (SD) VO2max values of direct measurement (VO2max = 39.29+/-1.98 ml/kg/min) and 20-meter multi stage shuttle run test (SPVO2max = 39.20+/-2.27 ml/kg/min) was statistically insignificant (p >0.10). Limits of agreement analysis also suggest that the 20-m multistage shuttle run test can be applied for use with the studied population. The results suggest that the application of the present form of 20-meter multistage shuttle run test be justified in the studied population. For better prediction of VO2max a new equation has been developed based on present data.
Data from the national surveys indicate that physical activity and dietary patterns of many college students do not meet the recommendations of health and fitness experts, and that 29.9% of college students are overweight or obese. Thus, the aim of the present study is to track changes in body composition and aerobic fitness of physical education students during their college years. The students (n=174, 89 females, 85 males) were evaluated for body weight, percent body fat, lean body mass and aerobic fitness (2000m running time) at the beginning of their freshman and at the end of junior year. Body weight and percent body fat increased significantly in both female and male students. Aerobic fitness decreased significantly in male students. Increases in body weight and fat percentage occurred mainly in initially thin males and females but remained unchanged in initially overweight students. Aerobic fitness decreased significantly in the initially fastest students but improved significantly in the initially slowest students. Findings suggest that the structured PE program and college atmosphere were not sufficient for the upper quartile students to maintain their body weight and fitness level over the three years in college, suggesting that fitness considerations in this population should be addressed more vigorously.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical education in body composition and health-related fitness among boys and girls aged 8 to 12 years old in Granada (Spain) in a longitudinal, randomized study of 5 months. 106 children (49 boys and 57 girls) between 8 and 12 years old completed the study. They were healthy students of the public schools and no history of formal exercise training. Subjects were tested (body composition and health-related fitness, measured by EUROFIT) at baseline and at week 20. After 5 months of study, girls showed more fat mass than boys (p<0.05) and boys was more height than girls (p<0.05). Health-related fitness showed differences by gender only in slalom (boys vs. girls (p<0.05)). The results of body composition and health-related fitness revealed that the physical activity at school is not sufficient to support an ideal level of health-related fitness.
Recent studies explored a new trend of critical velocity as a parameter to evaluate and monitor anaerobic training. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between anaerobic critical velocity and short distances performances in the four swimming techniques, in young swimmers. 12 male and 8 female swimmers (mean ±SD; age 12.10 ± 0.72 years old) performed maximal 10, 15, 20 and 25 m in the four conventional swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. 50, 100 and 200 m individual best performances of the season were used to compare with the critical velocity assessed. The mean ± SD values of anaerobic critical velocity (m.s-1) were 1.10 ± 0.22, 1.07 ± 0.10, 0.89 ± 0.16 and 1.27 ± 0.16, for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. Anaerobic critical velocity was correlated with the 50 and 100 m swimming event velocities in backstroke (r = 0.85; r = 0.86), breaststroke (r = 0.92; r = 0.90) and front crawl (r = 0.85; r = 0.91). Considering the 200 m swimming performance, relationships were found in front crawl (r = 0.90) and in breaststroke (r = 0.89). Differences (p<0.05) between anaerobic critical velocity and swimming performance were observed in all swimming techniques for the 50 m and in breaststroke, front crawl and backstroke for the 100m. There were no differences regarding the 200 m swimming performance. These findings suggest that anaerobic critical velocity may be managed as a control parameter and even to prescribe training for young swimmers.
El triatlón es un deporte combinado y de resistencia donde se desarrollan sin solución de continuidad natación, ciclismo y carrera a pie, siempre en ese orden y sin parar el cronometro. La distancia Sprint es la más corta según el reglamento y sobre la cual se disputan mayor número de pruebas (0’750 km, 20 km, 5 km). Determinar los factores de rendimiento es fundamental para optimizar el entrenamiento de una modalidad deportiva. La diversidad de distancias en este deporte, obliga a realizar diferentes análisis de la competición. El objetivo de este artículo es determinar los factores de rendimiento del triatlón distancia sprint en base a la revisión de los datos aportados por la literatura científica. El poder ir a rueda o no, en el segmento de ciclismo, diferencia completamente los factores de rendimiento. Concluimos como principales factores de rendimiento: elevar el Umbral anaeróbico al máximo porcentaje posible respecto al VO2máx individual, producir y eliminar elevados valores de lactato, y desarrollar una buena técnica específica de natación estilo crol. Triathlon is a combined endurance sport, which includes back-to-back swimming, cycling and running, always in that order and with total time measurements including the transition between events. According to the rules, sprint distance is always the shortest, and the one in which there are most events (0.750 km, 20 km, 5 km). Determining performance factors is a must in order to optimize training in any sports event; however, the various distances in this sport lead to different analyses. The purpose of this paper is to determine the performance factors in sprint distance triathlon, by reviewing the data supplied by the literature. In the cycling event, the performance factors are greatly dependent on whether drafting is permitted or not. In our study, the main factors have been found to be: raising the anaerobic threshold to the highest percentage with respect to the individual’s VO2max, producing and eliminating high lactate values, and developing a good specific technique for crawl swimming.
Games such as marbles, knucklebones, triangle, hopscotch and ring-based games are played in modern times in Mediterranean countries, but they date back to the 5th century BC, and are mentioned by Alcibiades. Taking as a basis these interesting facts, we decided to investigate further and sought out specialist articles and books on traditional children’s games. The similarity of games in Mediterranean countries would seem to be due to a shared culture, but can the analogies detected be confirmed from the perspective of social sciences and sciences of physical activity? Due to such a large body of documentation and the number of authors with specialist knowledge in games, we have selected those that we feel make the most solid epistemological contribution. We have specifically chosen researchers who could best guide us in terms of interculturality in traditional children’s games, ranging from eminent classical historians to the most well-known modern-day folklorists. Analysing the factors that have led to the development of Mediterranean culture, it becomes clear that the human race is simply the product of the constant mixing of human beings. The world of play may also be the result of an individual’s biological, sociomotional and contextual characteristics. In this context, interculturality means recognising the culture of the other, and the positive values of both cultures. The universal language of play is a valuable tool to foster knowledge of and respect for different cultures and languages present in society. In short, children’s traditional games are an excellent instrument for intercultural development, given that many of them increase tolerance, respect and participation, and due to their content constitute a powerful resource for moral education and a unifying link between children from different cultures.
The present study arises as a response to the historical controversy about the theoretical model of the hammer throw and performance. It starts from the fluctuations produced in the tangential velocity in the centre of gravity (CG) of the hammer in each turn, accelerating during the double support phase and reducing markedly in the single support phase. Coaches have sought to prolong the double support phase, although other studies have shown that acceleration is also possible during the single support phase. It has recently been proved that to the extent that the velocity of the CG of the hammer increases, the time that the thrower remains in the double support phase tends to reduce. The action of thirty hammer throwers in five national and international competitions has been analysed, utilizing the methodology proposed by Dapena (1984) and Gutiérrez, Soto & Rojas (2002) of 3D photogrammetric techniques. The results show a correlation between the angular displacement of the hammer during the double support phase and its average velocity in the penultimate turn (R=-0.50; p<.005). In the second turn no significant differences were found in the relation between the variables, while for the final action of the throw a certain negative correlation among the variables existed (-0.39; p<0.05). Finally, no relation was found between the angular displacement of the hammer and the change in velocity in the double support phase.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a NSAID, Diclofenac sodium, and an analgesic, Paracetamol in the reduction of pain and in the passive and active range of ankle motion of severe sprains. Ninety patients, 18 to 60 years old, with severe acute ankle sprain were randomized in two groups. Group A (45 patients) were given Diclofenac sodium tabs 75 mg 2 times a day for the first 10 days. The patients in group B (45 patients) received Paracetamol tabs 500 mg, 3 times daily for the pain. The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values (p>0.05). The restriction of active and passive ankle range of motion was significant decreased in both groups on the 10th day in comparison to the arrival day (p<0.05). There were no significant differences found between the two groups (p>0.05). The pain decreased in both groups on the third day and the tenth day (p<0.001). According to these results, both Diclofenac sodium and Paracetamol had the same effect on pain reduction, on passive and active range of ankle joint motion after sprains during the first 10 post traumatic days.
The purpose of this study was of two-folds, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian inter-university volleyball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant) and Vo2max. with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometric characteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables and nine arm anthropometric characteristics were measured on randomly selected 63 inter-university Indian volleyball players (38 males and 25 females) aged 18–25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females). The results indicated that male volleyball players were taller (6.63%) and heavier (7.31%) and female volleyball players were slightly taller (0.31%) and lighter (3.74%) than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p≤0.004-0.000) between group differences in all the variables (except hip circumference) between volleyball players and controls. In volley players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 19 variables, with percent body fat and 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and 20 variables and with Vo2max and other 19 variables, and significantly negative correlations were found with percent body fat and other 16 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 7 variables and with Vo2max with other 8 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in volleyball and training program development.
Due to the progressive lowering of the age of peak performance among swimmers, it became important to better understand the factors influencing performance in prepuberal boys and girls. Aim of this study is to compare two different racial/ethnic groups of young swimmers, one from Nord-Europe, Estonia (Tartuma Region), and the other from China (Shanghai District) in order to assess existing differences in respect to body dimension, body fat, technical parameters of swimming performance and maximum lactate production. 26 Estonian and 7 Chinese female and 25 Estonian and 10 Chinese male, from two swimming schools, took part in the study. Anthropometric parameters were measured in accord with ISAK guidelines. BMI, Stroke Index, Stroke Length, mean velocity on a 200 m freestyle all out, and blood lactate after three minutes were measured. Significant differences exist in anthropometry between Nord-European and Asian young swimmers. These differences are more pronounced in female, with higher fat tissue in Nordic girls. Leg lengths are different between Chinese and Estonian girls having the Estonian longer legs. Hands lengths are different both in male and in female subjects. Being the Chinese groups of higher level of performance (higher mean velocity in the 200 m freestyle, such differences seems not to be as major determinants of the performance, also if they are often indicated as determinants of buoyancy and stroke efficiency.
As the primary aim of the paper was to evaluate the possible relationships between selected anthropometric parameters and motor abilities, it is deemed pertinent that the intra-observer reliability of these measures should have been reported. Without quantification of intra-observer measurement error the acceptability of these variables for subsequent analyses in the main study is unknown.
El entrenamiento de la fuerza en los niños y los jóvenes ha sido, tradicionalmente, un tema controvertido. Generalmente, el origen de esta controversia es un buen número de prejuicios inducidos por la falta de actualización en los conocimientos sobre desarrollo motor humano y sobre las bases de la metodología del entrenamiento de la fuerza. La visión estereotipada del “fisioculturista” de gimnasio o el deportista adulto de halterofilia contribuyen a mantener la “leyenda negra” sobre el desarrollo de este factor motor condicional que, en realidad, requiere el mismo tratamiento que cualquier otro: conocimientos amplios y profundos sobre la materia y sobre las características individuales de los deportistas, buenas dosis de sentido común y finalmente, una visión general de todo el proceso de marcada orientación “humanista”. El objetivo de este artículo es el de ofrecer una pincelada del estado de la cuestión en este momento, a la luz de la postura y declaraciones de algunos de los más destacados investigadores y reputadas instituciones nacionales e internacionales y ofrecer una serie de recomendaciones sobre cómo se concibe en la actualidad el proceso para el desarrollo de esta importante cualidad motriz. Strength training for children and youth has traditionally been a controversial topic. In general, the origin of this controversy is a good number of prejudices induced by the lack of updated knowledge on human motor development and the basis of the strength training methodology. The stereotyped vision of the "bodybuilder" or the adult weightlifter contributes to maintain the "black legend" on the development of this conditional motor factor that, in fact, requires the same process that any other: wide and deep knowledge on the matter and the individual characteristics of the sportsmen, good doses of common sense and finally, a general vision of all the process with a humanist orientation. The objective of this article is to offer a general vision of the current situation of this topic, considering the positioning and statements of some of the most outstanding researchers and reputed national and international institutions. Furthermore, we offer some guidelines about how the development process of this important motor quality is conceived nowadays.
La actividad física es un elemento vital tan complejo que su medición y evaluación tiende a ser tan complicada y difícil como lo es su importancia para el ser humano. En este sentido es necesario mantener la investigación en temas clave como son los instrumentos de evaluación y valoración de la actividad física, los efectos que provoca la disminución del sedentarismo, el diseño de estrategias que permitan la promoción de la actividad física encaminada hacia la consecución y el mantenimiento de la salud. Una correcta prescripción de ejercicio físico, individualizada y sistematizada, requiere de metodologías apropiadas para evaluar las necesidades y carencias específicas de cada sujeto. Es pues objeto del presente trabajo determinar los diferentes modelos de baterías de test para la evaluación de la aptitud física en relación con la salud así como su evolución en el tiempo en base a la revisión de los datos aportados por la literatura científica. Physical ability is such a complex issue in human beings that its measurement and assessment tends to be as complex as it is important for humans. In this respect, there is a need for continued research in key areas, such as the instruments for the assessment and evaluation of physical activity, the effects of the reduction of sedentarism, and the design of strategies promoting physical activity aimed at obtaining and maintaining health. In order to correctly, individually and systematically prescribe physical exercise, suitable methods are needed to assess the specific needs and lacks of each subject. Therefore, this paper attempts to determine the various series of tests for the assessment of physical ability as related to health, and also their chronological evolution as a result of the data supplied by the literature.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of eight weeks of aquatic and land plyometric training on leg muscle strength, 36.5 and 60 meters sprint times, and dynamic balance test in young male basketball players. Eighteen young male basketball players (age=18.81±1.46 years, height=179.34±6.11 cm, body mass=67.80±9.52 kg, sport experience=4.8±2.47 years) volunteered in this study and divided to three groups; aquatic plyometric training (APT), land plyometric training (LPT) and control group (CON). Experimental groups trained; ankle jumps, speed marching, squat jumps, and skipping drills for eight weeks and 3 times a week for 40 min. The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance with repeated measures, a Tukey post hoc testing and independent-sample t-test. The results showed there were not any significant differences between the APT and LPT groups in any of the variables tested (P>0.05). Significant increases were observed in posttraining both APT and LPT groups in 36.5-m and 60-m sprint times record compare to pretraining (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in relative improvement between the APT and CON in 36.5-m, 60-m, and one repetition maximum leg press (P<0.05). We conclude that plyometric training in water can be an effective technique to improve sprint and strength in young athletes.
Although traditional martial arts training focuses on defensive and offensive systems of physical techniques for combat, martial arts can be practiced as a physical activity for health and fitness, and are recommended as such by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, limited information on non-competitive martial arts exercise programs is available in the open literature. Compared with other modalities of exercise, martial arts exercise offers advantages in safety, no equipment required, flexible space requirement, adjustable intensity, comprehensiveness, individuality, exercise when watching television, and higher motivation of adherence. This article introduces a structured, systematic, and comprehensive martial arts exercise program suitable for the general population of different age groups and physical conditions. The curriculum features a non-competitive, non-contact, safe and fun personal/group exercise based on traditional martial arts training, covering a wide spectrum of techniques of hand strikes, kicks, elbow strikes, knee strikes, blocks, their combinations, takedowns/throws, and self-defense, in addition to warm-up and cool-down. The purpose is to provide an easy, safe, cost-effective (virtually no-cost) and user-friendly alternative exercise program to help the general population increase quality daily exercise.
Maximal Dynamic Strength is usually assessed either by the one repetition maximum test (1-RM) or by a repetition maximum test with submaximal loads, which requires the application of a formula to estimate the value of 1-RM. This value is needed to establish the objective of resistance training: such as maximum strength, endurance strength, and/or explosive strength. However, both 1-RM and submaximal tests are unable to highlight the changes produced on power and velocity. This manuscript summarizes and reviews several common strength testing protocols and proposes a novel approach that may offer greater insight to hierarchical muscle functionality.
In this research we examined the opinions of basketball stakeholders regarding several questions of special interests to valuate players. Players, coaches, agents, journalists, editors, bloggers, researchers, analysts, fans and chairs participated in this macro-research. After analysing their opinions using the content analysis methodology, we found that current player evaluation systems are insufficient to fulfill the expectations of stakeholders regarding the definition of value, because they fail to rate intangibles. In addition, the importance of qualitative thinking is prominent and should be considered in valuating such intangibles. The current system of valuation used in Euroleague and Spanish ACB League (Ranking) is acknowledged as deficient, but stakeholders think that other advanced metrics do not significantly outperform Ranking. Implications for management, decision making and marketing in basketball are finally discussed.
This study aims to characterize the specific domains (SPD) and non-specific domains (NSD) of practice on the procedures of learning training in football, quantifying and identifying the experiences in order to find possible links between the estimates of accumulation of spent hours, relating them to the general aspects of practice. In this study, it was used a model of semi-structured interview. The sample (N=40), was composed of male subjects, athletes from junior category (u-20) from different populations - Portugal (pt=20) and Brazil (br=20), enabling comparative analysis of the results. After collecting the data, we analyzed the possible relationship between the profile of practice and the general aspects of training that each athlete analyzed. Regarding the discussion of the data, we made up comparisons of the results between the two clubs where the interviews were applied. The results are summarized having in mind the following aspects: (a) Portuguese Athletes (about 3000 hrs) have more experience in specific areas than Brazilian athletes (about 2600 hrs) up to 18 years old, (b) Brazilian Athletes (approx. 1600 hrs) have more experience in areas than non-specific athletes Portuguese (about 1000 hrs) up to 18 years old.
This research analyzes different aspects related to the sociological context of Spanish sportsmen and sportswomen, specifically the sociological context of athletics, in a time when women practically compete in the same events than men, and sports are accessible anddesirable for them. A questionnaire was carried out among the athletes to obtain information about the social aspects, the preferences and the degree of satisfaction of their condition as athletes on one hand, and the presence or the feelings about different treatment between the two sexes on the other. The data have been then analyzed statistically as a fundamental tool of the methodology used in this survey. The study confirms that women have succeeded in establishing a position of equality with men for number of participants at high competitions and for the level of performance.
This article will evolve around the subject of female integration and participation in athletics in the Olympic Games, analyzing the initial difficulties they encountered, the role played by sports institutions as well as international federations and the Olympic International Committee.
The primary aim of Education is to provide children and young people of both sexes with well-rounded training that allows them to shape their own unique identities, while contributing towards shaping a concept of reality that combines both knowledge and its ethical and moral assessment. In the Physical Activity area, we offer children the chance to motivate each other through programmed activities that foment self-regulation and group cohesion within the class, while facilitating learning to provide all of them with a feeling of happiness that has a positive effect on the educational commitments made by the Educational Centres. We need to start with schools, which should transmit the idea of accepting differences as a cornerstone of education, making significant progress towards accepting those with special needs.
An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX), which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and aerobic conditioning guidelines.
The current study attempts to describe the free time of City of Havana (Cuba) population older than 15 years, distinguishing between word days, weekends and vacation and holiday periods, determining the population’s socio-demographic profile. The object population of study numbers over 1,720,445 people (2003), the selected sample is 1,144 individuals. The assumed sample error is ±3% with a confidence level of 95.5%. The technical quantitative analysis of data has been done using the SPSS/PC+ (V 14.0) computer program, which presents descriptive analyses of the different proposed variables, and using the program Elvira for the production of the Bayesian networks. Note in the results, that the availability of free time in work days are normal, increasing some in weekends and, is quite higher in vacation and holiday periods. The age and main activity are shown to be discriminating factors, being elders those with have more free time, and those with higher pro-fession who have less time.
Despite the inclusion of beach volleyball as an Olympic discipline with a fully professional world tour, little research has been published that has examined the physical qualities of internationally competitive athletes. Thirty international-standard beach volleyball athletes (14 male, 16 female) performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) on a force platform. Ground reaction force (GRF) was collected from three SJ separated by 30 seconds passive rest, followed by three CMJ separated by 30 seconds passive rest. Significant differences (P<0.01) between male and female groups were found for all measured GRF characteristics of the SJ and CMJ, with the exception of peak rate of force development, relative peak force, power and relative average power for the CMJ test. For centre of mass displacement (jump height) the male mean was 8.33cm greater than the female mean. The strongest positive correlations with female jump height were SJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.90); CMJ: Relative Average Power (r=0.67) The strongest positive correlations with male jump height were SJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.94); Male CMJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.83). No significant difference (P<0.05) was shown between male and female stretch shortening cycle (SSC) performance as examined by a prestretch augmentation and eccentric utilisation ratios for jump height and peak power. The findings of this study suggest that relative peak and average power outputs are factors highly associated with vertical jump height in elite male and female beach volleyball players.
The main aim of this study was to determine if short-term post exercise recovery, cycling performance and blood analysis were altered when consuming three different beverages with the same amounts of calories, a carbohydrate-only beverage (CHO, 9% carbohydrate) a carbohydrate and casein protein beverage (CHO+Pc, 7% carbohydrate and 2% protein) and a carbohydrate and whey hydrolyzed drink (CHO+Pw, 7% + 2 %). Fifteen male cyclists (VO2peak= 63.4±9.6 ml•kg-1•min-1) performed three trials using a randomly counterbalanced, double-blind design. In each trial one litre of one of the test drinks was consumed in fasting conditions after 1 hour ride at 75% VO2peak. After a two hours recovery period the cyclists rode 20 km at the rider’s maximum speed for this distance. The results showed no significant differences in the 20-km ride when consuming the CHO (1770±210 s), the CHO+Pc drink (1819±185 s) or the CHO+Pw (1803±201). Post-exercise creatine kinase (CK) was not significantly different between treatments. However, serum insulin concentrations were higher during recovery when CHO+Pc and CHO+Pw beverages were consumed (P<0.05). Glucagon and lactic acid levels increased more on the CHO than on the CHO+Pc and CHO+Pw treatments (P<0.05) at the end of the 20 km test. Within the context of this experimental design, the CHO+Pc and CHO+Pw beverages showed different physiological effects than the CHO drink. One purported mechanism indicates muscle glycogen re-synthesis is enhanced when protein is added to a CHO recovery formula. The CHO+Pw and CHO+Pc drinks could be recommended for improving recuperation from intensive exercise. Although this was not reflected in post-recovery exercise performance in this 20 km test, a harder or longer test may be more affected by the physiological parameters especially in the last kilometres of the test.
La biomecánica deportiva emplea una serie de herramientas y técnicas de instrumentación para el análisis de las diferentes disciplinas físico-deportivas, así como también para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales y equipamiento deportivo. Sin embargo, estas herramientas empleadas actualmente, poseen su cuerpo de conocimientos teóricos en los conocidos como “precursores de la biomecánica”: Aristóteles, Da Vinci, Galileo, Descartes, Borelli, Newton, etc... El documento, presenta diferentes técnicas instrumentales desarrolladas para evaluar y aportar información relevante en la ejecución físico-deportiva, así como contribuir en la disminución de la epidemiología deportiva. Entre las principales herramientas y técnicas instrumentales, se describen aquellas destinadas al análisis cinemático y cinético, como: los cronoscopios (y herramientas asociadas en su utilización, como las fotocélulas, micrófonos y las plataformas de contacto), y diferentes técnicas instrumentales, como la fotogrametría y cinematografía (fotografía y cámaras de video, cinerradiografía, y resonancia magnética), electrogoniometría, electromiografía, dinamografía (células de carga y plataforma dinamométrica), acelerometría, electrodinografía, presurometría (plataforma/esterillas de presiones y plantillas instrumentadas), y finalmente las técnicas de modelado y simulación (MEF y CFD). Sports biomechanics uses a number of instrumentation techniques and tools for the analysis of various physical and sports activities, and also for the development of new sports materials and equipment. However, the tools used today are based on a theoretical body of knowledge by the so-called “forerunners of biomechanics”, including Aristotle, Da Vinci, Galileo, Descartes, Borelli, and Newton. This paper presents a number of instrumental techniques which provide and assess relevant information in physical and sports performance, and also help to reduce sports-related injuries. Amongst the main instrumental techniques and tools, this paper lists those used for kinematic and kinetic analysis, such as chronoscopes (and other tools related to their usage, such as photocells, microphones and contact platforms). Also, mention is made of various instrumental techniques, such as photogrammetry and cinematography (photography and video cameras, cineradiography and magnetic resonance), electrogoniometry, electromyography, dynamography (load cells and dynamometric platform), accelerometry, electrodynography, pressurometry (pressure platforms/mats and instrumented insoles), and, finally, modelling and simulation techniques (MEF and CFD).
This article reviews the state of art of the research concerning the biomechanics of blocking in volleyball. Since it is fundamental to link the “reality of the game” (what happens in the field) with laboratory simulations, the logic procedure to investigate this skill followed this progression: 1) the importance of block in the game was analyzed in terms of relationships with the match results. 2) Blocking footwork techniques were classified and data relative to the frequency of blocking to stop the opponents attack were collected and analysed. 3) Kinematical analyses of blocking techniques were performed in the laboratory of the Faculty of Exercise and Sport Science at the University of Bologna, Italy. These results allow coaches to adjust the tactic in the game, to differentiate the type of drills and to develop some special exercises to train players for the improvement of their blocking technique.
There is ever-greater interest in the use of web technologies such as blogs in higher education. This study was designed to identify the perceptions held by students regarding the process of learning and interacting with their co-students through using blogs as part of their higher education experience. Twenty, 5th-year students, 12 male and 8 female, studying for the Sciences of Physical Activity and Sport degree took part in the study. Each subject was interviewed by two interviewers and recorded on audio using a conventional tape-recorder. A descriptive analysis was carried beforehand, the statistics used for this consisted of frequency analysis distribution. After grouping by categories, the answers were analysed and classified by factors. Eighty-five percent of the subjects stated that the creation of the blogs had helped them in their learning process. Seventy percent believed that e-learning facilitates learning. Ninety percent stated that the blog helped them to acquire more knowledge, and 100% agreed that their relationships with their co-students had increased considerably. These results could underline the positive value of using blogs within teaching processes for university students studying sports sciences.
In this work, the parameters of motor evoked potentials of upper and lower extremity muscles were evaluated, under magnetic stimulation of cerebral cortex motor areas, spinal segments, and nerve tibialis in athletes adapted to work of various duration and intensity (sprinters, stayers) and having various qualifications. It was established that the maximum amplitude of the motor evoked potentials of muscle gastrocnemius med. and muscle soleus under transcranial magnetic stimulation of the brain is higher in the stayer group than in sprinters. High qualification ski racers, in comparison with lower qualification ski racers, have lower excitation thresholds and a higher maximum amplitude of the motor evoked potentials of muscles carpi radialis, biceps brahii, gastrocnemius med., and soleus. No statistically significant differences in the central motor conduction time and the latent period of motor evoked potentials have been revealed between the compared groups of persons being tested.
Performing Arts Medicine is a broad field that includes the study of medical conditions and injuries incurred by dancers, instrument musicians and vocalists. Musicians' playing-related health problems have focused more and more the interest of scientists, researchers, physicians, physiotherapists and, in generally, of health care professionals during the last decades. The most relevant Performing Arts Medicine's literature of approximately the past twenty years has been summarized. Special attention has been given to studies concerning playing-related musculoskeletal conditions of musicians.Overuse syndrome is the most reported diagnosis among instrumental musicians suffering from playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs), despite the fact that epidemiologic rates of PRMDs among woodwind, brass and percussion musicians seem to variate widely. An unambiguous definition of specific PRMDs seems to be more and more necessary, and would permit subsequent studies not to be excluded in the data collection of further systematic reviews. In conclusion, in order to change musicians atrisk behaviours a significant mind-changing is necessary and prevention should be considered as a living matter. Health care professional should also represent animportant stream to make aware musicians about PRMDs and pain management.
The media is a powerful tool in creating sports legends. However, international studies have proved that the media tends to favor male athletes and their feats and neglects female sports players. The main purpose of this paper is to determine how many articles one of the most important daily newspapers in Brazil published about male and female athletes. The data was gathered over a number of months at the beginning of this decade. The analysis demonstrated that men usually are mentioned much more frequently than women, that journalists tend to write more about the appearance of female athletes than about their real talents for sport. The findings lead to the conclusion that gender inequality in sport in Brazil is common and that the media, instead of contributing to the decrease in levels of gender inequality, is contributing to this inequality in wider society.