Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1540-3556
Print ISSN: 1091-1359
Publications
This article provides experiential evidence on the transportability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) screening tool and brief intervention in a mental health clinic. There is very little published information on implementing screening and brief intervention (SBI) in a mental health setting. Moreover, few SBI projects have reported on clinicians' experiences using the ASSIST. The article documents a successful attempt at implementing the ASSIST and discusses the benefits and challenges of doing SBI in a mental health setting.
 
The experience of acculturation in Chinese immigrant women from the rural coastal province of Fujian has not been well studied despite of their growing numbers in American cities. This exploratory study is an attempt to examine the experience of acculturation and post-migration stress in Fujianese immigrant women as compared to those from other parts of China. The study is based on a convenience sample 240 Fujianese and 162 non-Fujianese Chinese immigrant women living in Philadelphia.Results from bivariate analyses showed that the variation in demographic characteristics between Fujianese and non-Fujianese women was marginal; that all Chinese women in this study reported experiencing a unidimensional process of acculturation and a domain-generic model of acculturation; and that the Fujianese women showed a higher level of post-migration stress than the non-Fujianese women. In multiple regression controlling for demographic characteristics and including all the women in our sample, more acculturated women reported a higher level of post-migration stress. However, separate multiple regression analyses for Fujianese and non-Fujianese women revealed a different pattern of post-migration stress models. The findings suggest the importance of further research to understand acculturation and post-migration stress among Fujianese immigrant women.
 
As rates of HIV infection increase in adolescents, it is important to provide prevention programs targeting this population. Homeless adolescents living with their families in shelters are at greater risk of participating in risky sexual behavior and incurring negative health outcomes. A family based HIV-prevention pilot study was conducted with eight homeless families in a New York City shelter to explore: 1) the perceived impact of family communication, parental monitoring, family understanding of puberty, STD's and HIV on preventing risky behavior for the participating youth, and 2) the feasibility of conducting such a program within the shelter system. Qualitative and quantitative results indicate increased family communication, parental monitoring and decreased parental depressive symptoms.
 
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.
 
Racial differences in familial factors, psychopathology, perceptions of social support, and socioeconomic status were examined in a matched sample of African American and White suicidal adolescents (N = 90) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Exploratory analyses suggest that significant differences were found in family support and its association with psychopathology, but most noteworthy were the many similarities between the two adolescent groups. The results presented in this study represent new knowledge on the characteristics of African-American adolescents at high risk of suicidal behavior, and replace conventional wisdom with empirical knowledge about an aspect of human behavior for this population. Implications for social work practice, suicide prevention, and future research are discussed.
 
There has been a clear and consistent shift in social work practice from offering treatment as usual to implementing empirically supported treatments (ESTs). As social work researchers and practitioners continue to evaluate the effectiveness of ESTs, their impact on clinical outcomes, and the various obstacles to their adoption, a developing literature could offer some guidance on characteristics of EST adopters. This article provides a beginning discussion of the ideal characteristics of EST adopters both at the organizational and individual levels. While this is a developing area of study, there are some important findings that could better serve community-based organizations, their work force, and the communities they serve.
 
Lobola is in many Southern African countries a tradition, which is expected to be adhered by anyone who is part or want to be part of the community. It is about paying respect to the elders, the family and the community. It is a significant element of marriage among many tribes and there are strict rules to adhere. In order to determine how much the actual fact of payment of lobola would influence the behavior of husbands and wives, we conducted several focus group discussion with men, women, mixed groups and couples. We analyzed the data collected during these sessions and compared these with the literature. Many participants see lobola as part of their African culture, although they wished that they would not actually have to pay lobola. We could not determine a difference in the husband's behavior, whether they had paid lobola or not and having extramarital affairs.
 
This study examines the relationship between contextual factors and attendance in a family-based HIV prevention program for low-income, urban, African-American women and their children. Participants' motivations to become involved, their concerns about discussing sex-related issues with their children, recruiters' perceptions of respondents' understanding of the program, and environmental stressors were examined. Participants' level of motivation and recruiters' success in improving respondents' understanding of the program were significant correlates of attendance. Stressors experienced by the family and concerns around talking with children about sex were not significantly associated with participation. Recommendations to enhance involvement in family-based HIV prevention programs are made.
 
A cross sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using self administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted to assess the need for, and feasibility of, a health promotion programme for university students at a South African University. We examined the gender and cultural effects on sexual attitudes and behaviour, as well as condom use. A total of 73 students, age's between 18 and 30 years, participated in the pilot survey. The results suggest that females compared to the males are more likely to abstain until they find a partner with whom they intend to settle. There was a strong belief that unprotected sex can lead to pregnancy and STIs. Overall participants were not sure if condom use had any negative effects, although female respondents felt that condoms affect the pleasure of sexual intercourse. The results suggest that there is a clear need for health promotion programmes aimed at young adults, who attend university. The programme would need to aim at improving general health knowledge, targeting health promotion and sexual risk behaviour among university students. Such a programme would have to consider gender, socio-economic circumstances as well as national and cultural background of the target population.
 
Globally, chronic diseases place a tremendous burden on health care systems all over the world. The increased prevalence of chronic diseases is mainly influenced by industrialization and decreased levels of physical activity. A cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted with 73 students to assess the need for and feasibility of a health promotion program for university students at a rural South African university. The results of this survey suggest that there is a need for a health promotion program aimed at young adults who attend university.
 
Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community.
 
Selective Community and Health Care System Studies 
Although numerous studies examine diabetes self-care, few regard ecological framework correlates such as community and institutional level factors as fundamental for understanding diabetes management for Latinos. This article addresses the dearth of research that exists regarding social contextual forces and diabetes management for Latinos. Given the scarcity of research on this topic, studies of non-Latino groups were reviewed to illustrate the importance of community and institutional influences on diabetes care. Consideration of fundamental correlates within the ecological framework may better discern the underlying rationale for inadequate diabetes self-management for individuals who live in impoverished communities.
 
Activity logs involve patients writing down their activities over one or more days. Several studies have found these data collection instruments to accurately describe activities of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The purpose of this study was to utilize the repeated measures available on the ACTRE to evaluate predictors of fatigue at a given timepoint. A random intercept model was tested with the following variables predicting current fatigue: past fatigue (30 mins. prior), current category of activity (e.g., resting, work, recreation, etc.), past category of activity (30 mins. prior), the interaction of past fatigue and past activity, and TH2/TH1 immune shift. These findings and others suggest that activity logs can provide investigators and clinicians with valuable sources of data for understanding patterns of behavior and activity among patients with CFS.
 
The authors tested an ecological model that posits mediating variables (substance use and mental health) in the association between ecological factors (family closeness, school closeness, and peer closeness) and youth violence in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Model including substance use present significantly less total effect between ecological factors and youth violence than do models without substance use. Additional probing of significant mediation effect using the Sobel test was performed and suggested that substance use did function as a mediator in the hypothesized path. Considerations of adolescent violence should recognize the possible role of ecological factors and how their influence may vary by substance use.
 
Female Military Spouse Sample Characteristics 
Understanding predictors of military spouse psychosocial vulnerability informs efforts to assess, identify, and support at-risk spouses and families. In this analysis we test the effects of family stress and strain on military spouse psychological health, using a sample of female civilian spouses (n=161). Regression findings confirm expectations of the significant contribution of family stressors, strain, and resources in explaining variation in spouses' psychological health, controlling for deployment and socioeconomic factors. Identifying the effects of family stress on military spouse psychological health supports the need for family-centered interventions and prevention programs.
 
Teenage pregnancy is a social problem that has long concerned American citizens, policy makers, and social scientists. Despite that concern and notwithstanding the myriad negative consequences of an early unplanned pregnancy for young mothers and fathers, for their children, and for society, little progress has been made to understand the social and behavioral origins of teenage pregnancy. More important, practitioners and researchers have been sorely remiss in discovering proven, replicable, and socially acceptable ways to help American young people avoid unwanted pregnancies. Nascent data, however, have begun to shed empirical light not only on the underlying causes of pregnancy among adolescents, but also on strategies for reducing the risks of unplanned teenage pregnancy. By expanding that research and by translating research knowledge into practice wisdom, social scientists can advance the cause of adolescent pregnancy prevention. In so doing, we will appropriately address one of America's most pressing and neglected social problems.
 
Reports a study exploring the impact of violence on Black adolescent females in an urban area where a climate of violence prevails in some neighborhoods. 75 African American females (aged 12–19 yrs) participated. Survey data and information from focus groups provide insight into their exposure to violence, their fear of violence and perceptions of institutional support, their future orientation, and coping strategies in neighborhoods and schools they perceive as unsafe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Many researchers of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents describe them as an "invisible" minority. These youth are also one of the most "at risk" youth populations, as they often experience a range of problems related to society's stigmatization of same-sex orientation. Although sexual orientation is not necessarily related to heightened difficulties, lack of social support, infrequent positive interactions, and chronic stress may lead to increased problem behaviors for these youth. To further understand the risk and protective factors experienced by sexual minority adolescents, this article explores a number of these factors and reviews the current empirical research on specific topics, including: family, peer and school, substance use, suicide, and HIV/AIDS issues. Finally, practice implications are discussed to guide clinicians in working more effectively with this youth population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This paper uses social exchange theory to explain the increase by which US families are adopting internationally, compared to domestically. Benefits of adopting internationally appear associated with a preference for infants, confidential adoptions, race/ethnic similarity and shorter waits. Costs are related to generally higher expenses and a greater likelihood of developmental and other health risks among the children. While international adoptions can be expected to increase on this basis, trends may be slowed as a result of social context factors (for example, recent policies governing international adoptions) and greater awareness of inequity in power relations within the adoptive family triad. Implications for practice related to policy advocacy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The current study explores the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on problem behaviors. Racial socialization and racial identity are emerging, albeit atheoretical, constructs that may buffer risk factors related to problem behavior (including violence and delinquency) among African American youth. This research proposes that racial socialization and racial identity should be integrated into current theoretical models of child and adolescent development. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to explore the influence of these constructs on both risk and protective factors in a sample of African American children and adolescents. Implications for social work research and practice are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This paper explores the cultural, religious, and sociological underpinnings of homophobia and intolerance toward homosexuals. Theories of homosexual causation are also explored as well as a brief historical accounting of the rise of modern gay culture in Western society. Empirical findings or regional attitudinal differences toward homosexuals both recently and over time are presented in graphical format. Finally, changing attitudes are explored, and conclusions suggest that although homophobia is still very prevalent, tolerance and support from social institutions for GLBT individuals are slowly increasing over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study utilized a multi-method design that integrated both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study sought to identify differences in kinship social support, self-esteem, and coping responses between African American college students who identify themselves as adult children of alcoholic parents (ACOAs) and adult children of on alcoholic parents (non-ACOAs) at two separate universities. The results indicate that ACOAs utilized more effective coping responses than non-ACOAs and there were no differences in levels of self-esteem and kinship social support. Personal constructs of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs)’ coping responses while living with an alcoholic parent and/or caregiver were investigated using in-depth interviews, and follow-upparticipant checks were used. A theoretical model was developed describing: (a) causal conditions that underlie the development of resilience, (b) phenomena that arose from those causal conditions, (c) context that influenced strategy development, (d) intervening conditions that influenced strategy development, and (e) consequences of those strategies. Subcategories of each component of the theoretical model were identified and illustrated by narrative data. Implications for research, practice, and policy are addressed.
 
Although interpersonal, group processes and inter-group relationships are dynamic phenomena, researchers have studied these phenomena in a static manner. This article provides an overview of system dynamic modeling to bring greater attention to the importance of dynamic theoretical formulations and presents important concepts and tools that can facilitate movement in this direction. Important concepts for theory development are delineated, and various reason why the field has a penchant for static theoretical formulations are explored. A set of tools and concepts from system dynamics is presented to guide dynamic thinking and future theory building.
 
Individually observed ad libitum food and beverage consumption of 42 adults during several hours in time isolation laboratory. Men and women showed similar patterns of ingestion, including eating rates consistent with caloric need (men consuming siginificantly more calories than women). Observed frequent ingestion episodes, supporting ecological view of food intake regulation. (Author/NB)
 
The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has taken the world by storm, causing massive death and infection rates, along with a myriad of challenges for individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities everywhere. Rural communities are disproportionally impacted by COVID-19 as they were already challenged by social, economic, and health disparities. Social workers and frontline responders in these communities also face unique challenges as the people they serve are poorer, older, and have more chronic health conditions as compared to people in urban communities (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019). As social workers and other frontline responders become more overwhelmed and burdened with the responsibility to care for others during this pandemic, their own needs are often overlooked and unmet. To that end, there is increasing recognition of the relevance of self-care among social workers and other frontline responders, particularly those in rural communities where there is a shortage of professional service providers and resources. This article explores stressors associated with COVID-19 and the impact of COVID-19 on rural communities, social workers, and other frontline responders. It also presents self-care strategies for reducing the burden of COVID-19. It concludes with implications for social work practice. Lastly, practical strategies for self-care and implications for social work will be provided.
 
This chapter will explore the experiences of older lesbian and gay men caregivers by examining the socio-historical times in which they have lived, the impact of a lifetime of adverse societal messages about homosexuality, family rejection, and internalized homophobia, as well as their development of resiliency and psychological well-being. Once the contextual issues have been identified, the research on older lesbian and gay caregivers for families of origin and families of choice will be explored.
 
Background information of respondents.
Distribution of parental response levels to social and safety needs of school-age children.
Parents' socio-economic background and social needs of school- age children.
Parents' socio-economic status and safety needs of school-age children.
The corona virus has emerged as a dreaded disease globally, and it is no longer a news that the virus is a killer disease. It has paralyzed individual and nations’ economic activities due to the governments’ orders made to curtail its spread. Based on this, the researchers explored parental responses to social and safety needs of their school children during the pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria. Four research questions were raised, and a questionnaire titled “COVID-19 Pandemic and Parental Response to School Children Survey” (online) was used to elicit data from 5,340 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using frequency count, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Analysis of Variance. The findings revealed that the parental response to their children social needs was high, while their response to safety needs was low. Also, it was discovered that there was a significant influence between parental socioeconomic background and the needs of school-age children. It was therefore recommended that, parents must have intimate relationship with their children by meeting their needs, protecting them, and never allow communication gap between them and their children. The government also should assist parents in meeting the needs of the school-age children, especially in the time of crises or emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
The entry of COVID-19 created an unprecedented environment of fear in society. Life during lockdown may have a significant effect on the mental and physical health of human beings. The present study aims to analyze the effect of gender and age group in deciding the level of fear and stress due to COVID-19. We conducted an online survey in the Uttarakhand state of India for the present study. Chi–square test of independence has been used for establishing dependency of various factors like fear/stress on gender and age group. We find that fear of COVID-19 is independent of gender as well as age group. Stress is independent of gender but depends on age group with elder people having less stress in comparison to young people.
 
Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life (QoL) among adults aged ≥65 years in Kahramanmaraş City, Turkey. The sample of the study consists of 402 elderly people. The relationships of all factors and the scores of QoL were analyzed with Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. The average value of QoL was found to be 3.56. It was observed that communication with physicians during the restriction process could positively affect the perception of quality of life. Elderly adults who reported using the Internet reported better QoL levels. Significant relationships were found between educational status, marital status, health insurance and chronic illness status, and QoL. Our sample shows that the epidemic does not negatively affect the perception of quality of life in the short term. Personal characteristics of elderly adults and their communications with the physician appear to have a protective effect on QoL during the epidemic. These findings would need to be verified in larger population studies.
 
Over the past few decades, emojis have emerged as a popular form of non-linguistic expression in computer-mediated communication. Various factors have been known to affect emoji usage patterns (such as age, gender, platform diversity etc.). The aim of the current study is to explore if the onset of the coronavirus pandemic (2019–20) has affected emoji usage patterns across various countries. The present study was conducted on two sets of tweets, collected before (July, 2019) and during the pandemic (March, 2020). The results suggest that although the usage of specific emojis has not changed noticeably (that is, the popular emojis mostly remained the same), the emoji density (average number of emojis per tweet) and the relative popularity of specific emojis have changed. This could potentially point toward a sense of insufficiency of emojis to express the sentiments associated with the pandemic.
 
The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 and resultant lockdown led to the disruption of classical pedagogy methods and a mandatory shift toward online mode. The impact of this unplanned enforcement of online education was assessed on Indian students, parents and teachers. An online survey was designed with questions based on ease of accessibility, attentiveness, learning outcome, stress level, preferred learning mode, and was shared through Gmail and Whatsapp. Almost all the respondents could access virtual platforms; 48.3% found themselves inattentive during the online classes, while 71.6% were not satisfied with respect to understanding the topic. Academic integrity also needs serious assessment, as only 11.3% of students were sure that no unfair means were used during the online assessment. Increased workload (57.7%) and screen time (94.2%) of children have become a concern for parents. Online education has provided a solution in the current scenario, but it cannot replace offline learning which ensures the holistic development of young minds for a better future.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated a sudden shift in the delivery of social work education from a bricks-and-mortar space to Zoom classes using various synchronous and asynchronous technologies. Although there is a body of evidence around the effectiveness of online teaching in social work, there remain critical questions around how best to ensure student engagement within the online environment. Thus, the current study examined students’ experience (n= 119) of transitioning to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and their perceived efficacy of teaching online compared to face-to-face teaching via a mixed-method online survey. Although most students preferred face-to-face learning, 60% reported that online learning met their expectations. Findings revealed a mix of preferences and experiences using Zoom technology as a substitution for face-to-face learning with positive aspects (e.g., convenience, development of technology skills, and interactive features) and negative aspects (e.g., social connectedness, anxiety, and technology issues). Social work educators must understand the complexities for students in transitioning to online learning and provide adequate support and resources to meet students’ learning, technological and social needs.
 
The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 induced a variety of psychological disorders for the entire community in each country in one way or the other. PTSD is also an important psychological concern in the context of the COVID-19. As observed during previous epidemics, people are growing increasingly dependent on the media for the sake of information, while the media has exhibited a tendency to amplify the public risk in perception of the disease. Hence, the present study investigated that how the media use pattern of the people influenced on the PTSD syndrome in the backdrop of the sever outbreak of the Covid-19. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted during lockdown to collect data from the Indian adults (age≥ 18) on the media use pattern and the PTSD through snowball sampling. Out of the 672 respondent, only 658 samples were selected for the final analysis. Apart from the percentage analysis of demographic data, simple regression analysis model was used to measure the relationship between the media use and the PTSD. To predict the probable associations between socio-demographic characteristics with the PTSD score and pattern of the media use one-way ANOVA and the LSD post hoc was done as inferential statistics. The length of engagement with media of people in quarantine was quiet high and the higher exposure of the media has led to a higher posttraumatic stress among them. As demographic variables, young people, lower income group and the PG qualified respondents have shown higher PTSD than their counterpart.
 
Loneliness has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of people. The COVID-19 pandemic has demanded individuals to socially distance, which has implications for loneliness and social isolation. This cross-sectional study explored the ways in which people in the United States (N = 412) are meeting their social needs in a time of social distancing, how these activities relate to levels of loneliness, and any differences among young, middle-aged, and older adults. Results indicated higher levels of loneliness and social isolation for the entire sample and across the three age groups from pre- to during COVID-19 with younger adults experiencing higher levels of emotional loneliness during COVID-19. The extent to which the activities were related to loneliness was only found among the young adults and older adults where outdoor meet-ups, talking on the phone, and texting was associated with lower levels of loneliness among the young adults, and engaging in social media and talking on the phone was associated with lower levels of loneliness among the older adults. The findings support social work and public health recommendations for addressing loneliness during times of social distancing under the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health crises.
 
This study describes the willingness of receiving the COVID-19 booster doses for adults and their children 12–17 years old, and its related factors in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted through a national online survey from November 17 to November 24, 2021 using Google Form. Study respondents were Vietnamese citizens who were ≥18 years old and currently living in Vietnam. A total of 900 complete responses were analyzed and of those 93.77% were willingness to receive the booster dose. Participants with a university degree or higher were 8.16 times higher in willingness than those with primary school (p = .017). Those who received the first or the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine were 5.85 (p = .001) and 5.65 (p < 0.001) times higher in willingness to receive booster doses, respectively. About the willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine for children 12–17 years, 89.2% of the participants were willing to have their children get the vaccine. Participants who had the first or the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine had a 4.15 (p = .001) and 3.91 (p < 0.001) times higher willingness, respectively. Thus, the rate of willingness to receive the booster doses and the COVID-19 vaccine to children were excellent in this study. Both the education level and COVID-19 vaccination history were two positively associated factors. Abbreviations: COVID-19: Coronavirus Disease 2019; SARS-COV-2: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; WHO: The World Health Organization; CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; UK: The United Kingdom; US: The United States; MIS-C: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
 
The novel coronavirus that shook the world population has restructured the world order. While the scientists are grappling hard to find a solution to the imminent problem at hand, the pandemic has thrown the human race into a perplexed stage questioning and mostly changing everything they believed in. The pandemic has replaced human beings as social animal to virtual being. The social distancing mandate required for the survival as propounded by WHO has forced individuals to keep the other humans at bay. The present paper is an attempt to look at the changes the world is facing with respect to the social, cultural, economic, and psychological aspects with a special focus on the internationally acclaimed Kerala model of survival. Kerala, a small state located within the southern peninsula of the country has played an important role in containing the spread of the virus despite its larger population density. The paper focuses on the innovative mechanics followed by the state to curtail the spreading. It also attempts to look at the changes that have been brought in the general human behavior.
 
The global lockdown of higher education institutions due to COVID-19 has led to major modifications in the way education is delivered. While students were enrolled in traditional learning environments before the pandemic, delivery modes changed quickly into online or remote learning environments mid-semester at the onset of the coronavirus. Many students experienced different emotions and challenges in response to the disruption. This study explored those experiences from the graduate students’ perspective. Qualitative methods were used to analyze graduate student reflections across the Spring 2020 semester during the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 7). The reflection papers captured the students’ fears, frustrations, anxieties, and concerns over six weeks. The outcome of the study identified five key themes—accepting virtual learning and teaching; managing disappointment; experiencing loss of power and control; feeling anxious and fearful; and incorporating coping strategies and finding relief. Most study participants expressed concern over the effectiveness of the online learning environment, while others struggled with the possibility of not seeing their colleagues physically in class. There was a general feeling that students did not have control over what they did and the uncertainty over the coronavirus proved difficult to manage. The study participants proposed a few coping strategies, including finding enough space to work and connecting with others for emotional support. This work contributes to the growing body of studies on COVID-19 and its impact on students.
 
Gender and age distribution.
Participants department and academic year level.
(Continued).
Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemics has spread rapidly around the world, sending millions of people into quarantine and lockdown. Based on that, the management of higher educational institutions had to use Internet technology in teaching as the only option to continue all the academic activities across all higher education institution worldwide. This paper aims to investigate how engineering students are coping with the e-learning methods adopted by Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan during the pandemic. A total of 470 have participated in this study from the faculty of engineering and technology at Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan. From the findings of the survey, it was clear that students are satisfied with the online teaching and learning instituted by Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, despite few identified challenges.
 
The purpose of this study is to depict the experience of the people in enduring the quarantine in the global supply chains breakdown during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Quarantined Individual’s behavior can be defined as the means by which an individual withstands and behaves in response to the quarantine process. The study was a cross sectional, exploratory study carried out in India. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlation were performed from the data. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to validate the Quarantined Individual’s Behavior scale which reveals six factors which include quarantine awareness, quarantine anxiety, personal measures, domestic measures, hygiene measures, and societal measures. The survey was conducted online, 382 responses of the internet users of different groups was taken as valid. The first order confirmatory factor analysis was performed and further the Correlation was performed to check the multicollinearity. Thus, the scale Quarantined Individual’s Behavior is proved suitable to be used in different context.
 
Social distancing as a health-related behavior during epidemics and pandemics, can significantly influence their control. In this regard, the identification of the factors influencing behavior change can play a remarkable role in assessing for how behaviors form. This paper is an attempt to show that the extended theory of planned behavior can provide a useful theoretical framework for explaining social distancing in the face of a contagion disease. The results showed that the constructs of attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy significantly influenced the students’ intention to adhere to social distancing in the form of university closure. Among these constructs, self-efficacy was found to be the main predictor of the students’ intention. Interestingly, the research revealed that injunctive norms were not a significant predictor of the students’ intention. Practically, this study is a justification for the use of attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy in planning and decision-making for encouraging students to adhere to social distancing during epidemics and pandemics, like the COVID-19 pandemic. The extended theory of planned behavior is useful in understanding Iranian College Students’ Intention toward Social Distancing in COVID-19 Pandemic.
 
Urban-rural balancing has close linkage to sustainable development as it attaches to all of us in a way of mutual supplementation. Its critical role has even been highlighted since the spread of COVID-19, which has menaced our lives and highly impacts our environment. This research scrutinizes the rationalization process of urban-rural population and infrastructure to establish the static foundation. It further proposes time-space swap theory to trade “space” for “time,” to protect us as dynamic solutions.
 
The commentary elucidates the importance of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework to encourage the practice of social distancing in rural areas as the world grappled with the pandemic of COVID-19 outbreak.
 
Strategies for controlling pandemics include social distancing. Using data from a 2016 nation-wide survey pertaining to influenza, (generalized) ordered logit models are developed to identify the factors associated with the relative frequency (never/sometimes/always) a household (a) isolates a sick child from others in the household, (b) keeps the sick child out of school/daycare, (c) stops the child’s social activities, (d) has a parent stay home to care for the child, and (e) has another adult care for the child. Marital status is non-significant for isolation practices but is significant in caregiving. Married individuals are 25% more likely to report a parent always staying home with a sick child. Males are more likely to report never isolating a sick child (6%, 3%, and 2% for actions a, b, and c, respectively) and 3% more likely to never have a parent stay home. Individuals knowledgeable about the disease are 10% more likely to always keep a sick child home from school/daycare. Parents are 27% more likely to always stay home with an infant. Individuals who had never worn masks (before the survey) are less likely to isolate a child within the household, but do not act significantly differently with respect to school/daycare.
 
The high rate of mortality and global panic for the past 6 months because of Covid-19 pandemic calls for concern. Among the precautionary measures from international health organizations and governments to her citizens are the total lock-down, self-isolation, physical distancing, and handwashing mechanisms. Thus, this study attempts to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of these mechanisms by residents and tourists in George Town Heritage City traditional shophouses and proffer possible ways to mitigate future pandemics, especially concerning interior design components of a typical traditional shophouse. To achieve this, a phenomenology type of qualitative research was adopted. Data were collected via observations of selected traditional shophouses in George Town Heritage City, face-to-face interviews conducted, and validated via secondary sources. Findings show that it is difficult to practice some of the precautionary measures as recommended by appropriate authorities in majority of the George Town Heritage City traditional shophouses because of renovation and modernization to the original design. As part of the practical implications, this study is advocating for the modification of future design and construction to mitigate the spread of the contagious pandemic in shophouses. Also, this paper intends to stir-up key stakeholders and open new areas for future research.
 
A slaughterer or killer wave of lenient COVID-19 pandemic disease breaks the normal rhythm of global socio-economic and cultural livelihood. This research attempts to evaluate trustworthiness toward God, Doctor, Politician, and Administrator along with attitude and behavior of Indian people during such global emergency. Around 323 respondents have sent their opinion through digital social media platforms like Google Forms, Zoom Cloud Meeting, WhatsApp Group Chat for such perception study. The multivariate statistical techniques like Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been performed using IBM SPSS (v 25) statistical software to analyze the trustworthiness, attitude, and behavior of respondents during COVID-19 lockdown. Result shows that maximum people express their faith to God or Prophets or Spiritual leader during COVID-19 pandemic. This belief or trust is transmitted in the blood of Indian people by generation after generation through cultural antiquity. This study is also focused that the people also undergo through various situations like anxiety, tension, fears of infection, anger, mental disorder, isolation and cohabitation stress, stigmatization, domestic violence etc. due to long-time detention in the sealed concrete walls as well as curbed cubicles.
 
COVID-19 has caused unprecedented impact on the lives of Australians, with significant influence on the mental health and well-being of adults. Initial estimates predict that there will be a decline in birth rates from 1.7 to 1.59 children per woman in Australia over the course of 2021. This study aimed to explore change in fertility intentions as a result of COVID-19 in Australian young adults. Sixty-seven adults (82% women) between the ages of 18–35 years participated in the online survey. The study collected socio-demographic data including relationship status, employment, education, income, and gender as well as three measures of wellbeing including hopelessness, anxiety, and coping. Results of the study indicated that employment status is a significant indicator of change in fertility intention. There was a strong effect for hopelessness, indicating that increased hope for the future is associated with a change in fertility intention. Anxiety and coping did not appear to significantly influence change. The results of this study indicate that the immediate impact of COVID-19 on wellbeing does not cause people to change fertility intention, however, hope for the future has a significant influence. Through the lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior, this may be because people evaluate the consequences of their actions based on predictions of the future, and therefore hope for the future most significantly impacts their attitudes toward having children. Future research should investigate how supporting the wellbeing of young adults can influence choice in fertility intention.
 
Daily Google mobility data covering 130 countries over the period between February 15, 2020 and May 2, 2020 suggest that less mobility is associated with lower COVID-19 cases and deaths. This observation is formally tested by using a difference-in-difference design, where country-fixed effects, day-fixed effects, as well as the country-specific timing of the 100th COVID-19 case are controlled for. The results suggest that 1% of a weekly increase in being at residential places leads to about 70 less weekly COVID-19 cases and about 7 less weekly COVID-19 deaths, whereas 1% of a weekly decrease in visits to transit stations leads to about 33 less weekly COVID-19 cases and about 4 less weekly COVID-19 deaths, on average across countries. Similarly, 1% of a weekly reduction in visits to retail & recreation results in about 25 less weekly COVID-19 cases and about 3 less weekly COVID-19 deaths, or 1% of a weekly reduction in visits to workplaces results in about 18 less weekly COVID-19 cases and about 2 less weekly COVID-19 deaths.
 
COVID-19 continues to have a deleterious impact on vulnerable populations in our society, and unfortunately, first responders are often overlooked in this conversation. To address that gap, we retrospectively compared routinely collected baseline assessment data from 69 treatment-seeking first responders who presented for treatment before COVID-19 to data collected from 75 similar first responders at the same agency during the pandemic. Data assessments gauged first responders’ attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, resilience, depression, generalized anxiety, PTSD, and suicidality. Findings indicate that the strength of correlations between resilience, depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD increased for these responders during the COVID-19 pandemic. They further highlight the role that attachment anxiety plays for first responder ability to cope during the pandemic. Practitioners can use these findings to create a conversation early in the treatment process and guide a collaborative treatment plan.
 
Top-cited authors
Gail Kinman
  • Birkbeck, University of London
Fiona Jones
  • University of Leeds
Roberta Rubin Greene
  • University of Texas at Austin
Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart
  • University of New Mexico
Dominique Roe-Sepowitz
  • Arizona State University