Journal of Health Psychology

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1461-7277
Print ISSN: 1359-1053
Publications
The recent expansion of Nicotine Replacement Therapy to pregnant women and children ignores the fact that nicotine impairs, disrupts, duplicates and/or interacts with essential physiological functions and is involved in tobacco-related carcinogenesis. The main concerns in the present context are its fetotoxicity and neuroteratogenicity that can cause cognitive, affective and behavioral disorders in children born to mothers exposed to nicotine during pregnancy, and the detrimental effects of nicotine on the growing organism. Hence, the use of nicotine, whose efficacy in treating nicotine addiction is controversial even in adults, must be strictly avoided in pregnancy, breastfeeding, childhood and adolescence.
 
Urban poverty and health inequalities are inextricably intertwined. By working in partnership with service providers and communities to address urban poverty, we can enhance the wellness of people in need. This article reflects on lessons learned from the Family100 project that explores the everyday lives, frustrations and dilemmas faced by 100 families living in poverty in Auckland. Lessons learned support the need to bring the experiences and lived realities of families to the fore in public deliberations about community and societal responses to urban poverty and health inequality.
 
Percentage of respondents endorsing each item and mean (and SD) frequency and severity ratings from the Modified PTSD Symptoms Scale (MPSS) 
In collaboration with a Community Advisory Group we examined the impact of the 1998 Swissair Flight 111 disaster on volunteer responders and surrounding communities. We conducted qualitative interviews and administered a set of structured questionnaires to 13 volunteer disaster workers and conducted a focus group with community leaders. Community silence and limited help-seeking behaviour were typical reactions to the SA 111 disaster. The nature and duration of the disaster response efforts contributed to a probable 46 per cent PTSD rate in the community volunteers. Community-based, culturally appropriate followup, as well as the development of volunteer protocols for future disaster response efforts, are necessary to minimize long-term health impacts and to promote resilience among community residents and volunteers exposed to a major disaster.
 
This study examined the gender invariance of the 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a single factor model with one pair of correlated errors fit the data well. Invariance testing indicated that the scale is both congeneric and tau equivalent, meaning that a single latent SOC construct holds equally well for males and females, and that both genders demonstrate an equivalent pattern of factor loadings. There was little evidence in support of latent factor mean equivalence across gender. Explanations for the lack of factor mean equivalence were discussed and recommendations for future research were suggested.
 
A survey of 3820 school children in England aged 13-16 years examined sexual activity using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change. A quarter (26%) of teens were sexually experienced, 44.8 per cent did not use contraception and 48.9 per cent did not use condoms, every time. Past history of condom and contraceptive use, and partner willingness to use condoms were the best predictors of being in Action or Maintenance stage for condom use. Of virgins, 19.82 per cent were in Contemplation or Preparation stages for intercourse, and 85.4 per cent would use condoms every time. Sex education should be tailored to Stage, and signposting to sexual health and contraception services.
 
The Journal of Health Psychology enters its 14th year of publication with a few new developments to bring to libraries', authors' and readers' attention. These include changes to the Editorial Board, a new web-based manuscript submission portal and an announcement of a new global special issue on Psychology and Poverty Reduction. Lastly, the content of the current issue is introduced.
 
We are supportive of Cromby's challenge to further develop 'belief' as a concept relevant for health psychology. Drawing on the wider "affective turn" in the social sciences, Cromby demonstrates the importance of theorising the sociality of thinking and feeling for fundamental health psychology conceptualisations. These theorisations might usefully be applied to key health psychology topics, such as social cogntion models, beliefs about adherence, medications, diagnoses, and illness perceptions. Cromby's approach to beliefs might also be beneficial for fostering a more contextual and culturally oriented health psychology, as well as a greater (and much needed) engagement with notions of embodiment. Cromby's arguments raise many questions for health psychology research practice and deserve close attention and consideration by health psychologists.
 
'Child labour' is a worldwide problem that has caused detrimental effects to children's health and well-being. The ILO Convention 182 aims to address this issue by immediately eliminating its worst forms. This article provides a discourse analysis of this Convention. The analysis suggests that using an organizational discourse, the Convention promotes the maintenance of existing hierarchies of power, primarily through emphasis on legislative structures and consultation with the Organization of Employers and Workers. It has been recommended that the Convention be revised in light of the insights generated by the analysis and that the children be given a more active role in the process.
 
John Wesley was an 18th- century Anglican priest whose evangelistic efforts led to the establishment of Methodist Societies in England, Ireland and America. He became greatly concerned for the spiritual and physical health of the poor. Wesley wrote a book entitled Primitive Physick: Or, an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. He was deeply impressed with the few physicians who called for the prevention of disease through healthy living and who recommended time-honored, inexpensive methods of cure. This article reviews Wesley's ideas and prescriptions for healthy living. The discussion reflects on his contribution to the development of a psychology of health and credits Wesley with being ahead of his time in his dietetic and hygienic recommendations. Using Matarazzo's (1982) definition the article shows that over 200 years ago Wesley dealt with each of the major concerns of health psychology and behavioral medicine.
 
Link between disordered eating behaviors and BMI, relatives' criticism of body weight and shape, relatives' affection, depressive symptomatology, self-esteem and the internalization of body aesthetic thin ideal. 
This study evaluated the link between relatives' criticism of overweight or obese teenage girls' figure and body weight and their relationship with their mothers, fathers and siblings, affection, self-esteem, the internalization of the aesthetic body thin ideal, depressive symptoms and disordered eating behaviors (DEB). The sample comprised 2174 senior high school students aged 15 to 19. Teenagers criticized by their relatives showed higher DEB, without interaction between Body Mass Index (BMI) and DEB. The structural equations model showed DEB was primarily explained by the internalization of the body aesthetic thin ideal, family's criticism, BMI and depressive symptoms.
 
The aim of this study was to assess the association between temperament and metabolic syndrome markers. Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and clinical examination were carried out in 1997 in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N = 4364 respondents). Novelty seeking was positively associated with waist circumference in both genders. Systolic blood pressure was highest in men with high harm avoidance and low persistence scores and lowest in women with high reward dependence and high persistence scores. Childhood socio-economic status did not confound these associations. Smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with higher novelty seeking. Our results suggest that temperament is associated with metabolic syndrome markers and this association may be partly mediated by lifestyle factors and socio-economic status in adulthood.
 
Community participation in health has conventionally been described and analysed from a non-historical perspective, neglecting the central role that disadvantaged communities have played in the construction of health institutions in our societies, alienating collective health from its historical subject. From a socio-psychological perspective, this study explores the experiences of community participation in health during the Unidad Popular government in Santiago de Chile from 1970 to 1973, evidencing a radical pedagogical process inside poor urban settlements, aimed to transform Chilean classist health institutions. These findings contribute to a critical understanding of community participation in health, conceived as a dialectic and transformative action.
 
Representations of voluntary childlessness--the declaration by an individual that he or she does not wish to bear or raise children--were studied in 116 articles published in British national newspapers in the period 1990-2008. Media framing analysis was used to examine broad patterns of framing of the topic, identifying four frames: voluntary childlessness as an individual rights issue, as a form of resistance, as a social trend, and as a personal decision. These frames, it is argued, may act as potential 'scripts' for newspaper readers who are debating the decision to start a family.
 
This article is a discourse analysis of 'The Community Action Programme on Health Promotion, Information, Education and Training 1996-2000'. The analysis uses six stages to discourse analysis. A religious discourse is used to construct the Programme and a military discourse is used to construct its implementation. These discourses are embedded in a scientific discourse. This analysis reveals that despite rhetorical endorsement of the concept of empowerment in health promotion, this Programme disempowers through vagueness, clear hierarchies of power and an emphasis on scientific methods of evaluation. The analysis also reveals that there has been a shift in blame in recent health promotion policy, the reflection is now on the collective as opposed to individual behaviour.
 
This Final Report of the European Federation of Professional Psychologists' Associations (EFPPA) Task Force on Health Psychology defines the nature and scope of health psychology and its possible future development to the year 2000 and beyond. Training needs and objectives are specified for professional health psychologists working in Europe. Practical and policy implications of medical progress and societal changes are discussed. The future development of health psychology as a profession depends on putting theory and policy into practice through the implementation of high quality training. Currently there are relatively few European countries where this has yet happened. Training programmes need to be introduced in all European countries within the framework of each member- country's national laws, regulations and practices.
 
Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of health indicators, family and school-related factors for the entire sample (N = 3034) 
Summary of hierarchical regression analyses for variables predicting self-rated health, satisfaction with life and health complaints in each age group 
The association between family, school and subjective health was examined in a large representative sample of Greek children and adolescents (N = 3034). We hypothesized that (a) family and school factors are associated with health, even after controlling for gender and economic status; (b) family and school factors are directly related to satisfaction with life and health complaints, but indirectly to self-rated health. According to the findings, family and school factors were related to subjective health, even though this relation was weakening with age. Family and school factors were associated with self-rated health through health complaints and life satisfaction.
 
The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between resilience and psychological adjustment in Chinese adolescents who experienced the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Study 1 compared the scores and factor structures on the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents for 1436 adolescents, who were divided into a high-adversity group and a low-adversity group. The results showed that resilience following exposure to an earthquake included cognitive and emotive components. In Study 2, 311 Chinese adolescents who resided in the most severely affected areas were surveyed at 15 months (T1) and 20 months (T2) following the earthquake. The results revealed that resilience mediated the relationship between positive future expectations at T1 and adjustment at T2.
 
Descriptive and bivariate statistics (n = 429). 
The percentage of respondents who endorsed existential challenges by sociodemographic and clinical variables. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01. 
Multivariate linear regressions of constructed meaning and cancer worry. 
We sought to examine the existential challenges that cancer survivors may experience as they strive to make meaning, regain their self-identity, cope with fear of recurrence, and experience feelings of grief and guilt. Lymphoma survivors (n = 429) completed the 2010 LIVE STRONG: survey and provided responses about meaning, cancer worry, security, identity, grief, guilt, and perceived functional impairment due to these concerns. Most survivors (73%-86%) endorsed existential concerns, with 30-39 percent reporting related perceived functional impairment. Concerns were associated with being female, younger, unmarried, and having undergone stem cell transplantation. Lymphoma survivors experience existential challenges that impact their life even years after diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.
 
The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of what suffering from hyperacusis means. Twenty-one out-patients referred to a hearing clinic due to persisting hypersensitivity to sounds after an acute head trauma were interviewed. Before the head trauma, they had lived an independent, active and externally oriented life. As a consequence of the trauma, the patients became psychosocially vulnerable and suffered from a variety of symptoms: hypersensitivity to sounds, difficulties with concentrating and remembering, increased anxiety and sensitivity to stress. Structuring everyday life and using a variety of coping strategies was necessary for reducing life stress and symptoms in the process of adjusting to the changed life situation.
 
The article explores the Freirian theory of social change underpinning health-related community mobilisation in poor and marginalised communities. Highlighting potential shortcomings of its essentialist understandings of power and identity, and linear notions of change, it examines how lessons from the 'new left', and burgeoning global protest movements, can rejuvenate the field given the growing complexity of 21st-century social inequalities. It suggests the need for a pastiche of approaches to accommodate health struggles in different times and places. However, while needing some updating, Freire's profound and actionable understandings of the symbolic and material dimensions of social inequalities remain a powerful starting point for activism.
 
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
 
This study examined the latent factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) in a Black South African sample (N = 523). Results of the single-group confirmatory factor analysis support the universal four-factor structure of general psychological health observed in Western samples. However, multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (i.e. split-sample cross-validation approach, conducted with invariance analyses) for a three-factor structure suggest that psychological health could have a less differentiated dimensional structure in some African populations. Theoretical and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
 
Mean and standard error of SF-36 scores with Australian and US age-matched norms 
Summary of Mental Health Validity Test for SF-12 scales compared with psychologically distressed women defined by GHQ-12 means 
This study assessed the relative validity of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36 and SF-12) for Australian women and compared norms for the independently administered and embedded SF- 12. Two samples of women in New South Wales were randomly selected from the Medicare database ( N = 3600). The sample was stratified into young (18 to 22 years), middle-aged (45 to 49 years) and older (70 to 74 years) women, and into women living in urban (40 percent), rural (30 percent) and remote (30 percent) areas. In study 3500 households were selected by random digit dial. The method was a mailout survey. SF-36 scale scores were similar to US norms. For the older group, health profiles of the independent and embedded SF- 12 differed. For the SF-36 and independently administered SF- 12, means differed in all three age groups. The SF-12 physical health scores discriminated between women with poor versus good physical health, and mental health scores discriminated between groups who were or were not psychologically distressed on GHQ-12. The SF- 36, relative to the SF-12, appears to be a more reliable measure for examining changes in health status over time and between groups.
 
shows that item-own scale correlations 
Hypothesized and actual rotated pnncipal component associations between the physical and mental health component summary scores and SF-36 scales, commonalities (h2) and relative validity scores 
Means (and standard errors) for three different hospital groups compared with US medical sample and Australian community sample 
This study investigated the characteristics and validity of the SF-36 (Australian version) health profile and summary scores for recently discharged hospital patients and compared this with US and Australian community samples with minor and serious medical conditions. Adult medical, surgical, obstetric and gynaecological patients from a large teaching hospital in NSW, Australia, completed a postal survey 1 week after discharge. The SF- 36 discriminated well among patient groups and performed well on most validity tests. Scale and summary scores varied by age, gender, seriousness of condition on admission, prior health status and hospital group. The findings highlight the potential of the SF-36 in monitoring the health status of Australian hospital patients and assessing the health-related support needed on discharge.
 
This paper investigated whether the SF-12 could replace the SF-36 in the measurement of health status among ischaemic heart disease patients. The SF-36 and SF-12 were administered to 105 cardiac patients. The SF-36 summary scores were strongly correlated and similar to the SF-12 summary scores. Also, the SF-12 scores were as powerful as the SF-36 summary scores in discriminating between subgroups of patients categorized according to their self-reported health status or angina classification. It is suggested that when there is a need to collect routine information about cardiac patients' general physical and mental health, the SF-12 is preferable to the SF-36 because of its brevity and acceptability to patients.
 
This study determined the feasibility, reliability and validity of the 23-item PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version as a multidimensional measure of health-related quality of life. The study population consisted of 1273 students ages 18-25. The PedsQL (Physical, Emotional, Social, Work/School Functioning) Young Adult Version and SF-8 were self-administered. The PedsQL evidenced minimal missing responses, achieved excellent reliability for the Total Scale Score, acceptable reliability for subscale scores, distinguished between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions and was significantly correlated with the SF-8. The results demonstrate the measurement properties of the PedsQL Young Adult Version.
 
Women in recovery from early stage gynaecological cancer have extremely good survival and low recurrence rates. Despite this, women continue to feel vulnerable to cancer recurrence for years after treatment. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to explore the factors involved in recovery from gynaecological cancer. This article argues that the illness identity of gynaecological cancer perpetuates a vulnerability to cancer recurrence. The absence of self-diagnosis prior to medical diagnosis is important in the formation of gynaecological cancer illness identity. A lack of self-diagnosis may be due to the 'normalization' of initial symptomatology. It is suggested that illness identity is responsible for maintaining fears of symptom-free cancer recurrence. The self-regulatory model is employed to explore this process, looking in particular at the reinforcement of reassurance needs.
 
This study investigated the processes associated with the engagement of adults aged 70 years and older in a 12-month long research-based structured exercise programme. A sample of 21 participants (Mean age (SD) 75.8 (3.9); 14 females) and six exercise class leaders or researchers involved in the programme participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were analysed with the principles of interpretive qualitative analysis. Our findings suggest that a programme that runs locally, provides individual attention/tailoring, delivers meaningful benefits, offers a staged approach to efficacy building, creates a sense of ownership, and provides intergenerational support and opportunities for social interaction, facilitates exercise engagement in later life.
 
Strong social support is associated with lower mortality and morbidity and better self-rated health in later life. The aim of this study was to compare social network size and satisfaction in men (N = 2589) and women (n = 3152), aged 72-78 years. Women reported significantly larger networks (Difference 1.36, 95% CI 0.89, 1.83) than men. However, being separated, divorced or single had a significantly greater impact on men's social networks (Difference 0.92, 95% CI 0.17, 1.68). Poor mental health and sensory impairments were associated with smaller networks and lower satisfaction with support for both men and women.
 
Attributesof Thaicohortstudymembers2005 
Socialcapitalandhealthoutcomesbycharacteristicsof Thaicohortstudymembers 
We report associations between social capital and health among 82,482 adults in a national cohort of Open University students residing throughout Thailand. After adjusting for covariates, poor self-assessed health was positively associated with low social trust (OR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.76–2.01) and low social support (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.63–1.95). In addition, poor psychological health was also associated with low social trust (OR = 2.52; 95% CI 2.41–2.64) and low social support (OR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.69–1.92). Females, elderly, unpartnered, low income, and urban residents were associated with poor health. Findings suggest ways to improve social capital and heath in Thailand and other middle-income countries.
 
Parents may maintain or exacerbate functional abdominal pain (FAP) in children through modeling of physical symptoms and solicitous responses to the child's complaints. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine these relationships. Parents of children with FAP reported more physical symptoms than parents of healthy children (effect size d = .36). As all studies were cross-sectional or retrospective, the causal direction was unclear. For parental responses to child complaints, not enough studies were available to perform a meta-analysis. We conclude that the present literature is unfit to establish whether parents maintain or exacerbate pediatric FAP through the processes investigated.
 
We applied a general theoretical framework to understand intentions to attend recommended follow-up for abnormal Pap results. Participants were 338 women attending university-affiliated clinics. Intention was associated with favorable attitudes toward follow-up (OR = 5.3); perceiving attending follow-up as consistent with one's self-concept (OR = 3.0); self-efficacy (OR = 1.8); and believing one would be told exactly what is wrong (OR = 1.3). Intention was negatively associated with believing the problem could be avoided by not returning for follow-up (OR = 0.75). Beliefs, affect and attitudes differed by race and ethnicity (all p < .05). Attendance at follow-up was related to attitude and self-concept (both p < .05). Results have implications for theory development and patient education.
 
Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to analyse data from one man whose partner underwent a third-trimester termination of pregnancy for foetal abnormality. This case study examines the data from the participant and aspects of grief are examined qualitatively from a male perspective. The importance of the male role, management of his own particular needs and coping mechanisms are discussed in the context of society's expectations and current thinking on grief counselling. The impact of a new technique in obstetric management is highlighted in this case.
 
This article questions whether the concept of active ageing unintentionally devalues the life experiences of disadvantaged groups of older people. It is argued that talking up the expectation that older people will continue to be physically active may further marginalize significant groups of elders, including those from diverse non-dominant cultural groups. The article draws on a study of Australian Aboriginal Elders to illustrate this point, with suggestions about culturally appropriate ageing policies. The article concludes that alternative conceptions of ageing, such as 'ageing well' or 'authentic ageing', may better capture the cultural diversity of ageing and promote social inclusion.
 
Depressive symptoms play a major role in cigarette smoking among US White adults, but it is not known if this holds for US Blacks. Hence, the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking was examined among 520 US Black adults sampled from 10 randomlyselected community census tracts. Results revealed no relationship between depression and smoking, but education levels did contribute; Black high school drop-outs were four times more likely than Black college graduates to be smokers.
 
Standardized indirect effects of physical activity indices on outcome measures 
Drawing on Salmon's (2001) unifying theory of the beneficial effects of physical exercise, we examined physical activity behaviors as an important, but understudied, buffer against experiences of emotional exhaustion, absenteeism, and turnover intentions in 189 childcare teachers. Structural equation modeling revealed that workplace and leisure-time physical activity were negatively related to emotional exhaustion, which in turn, was positively related to teacher migration and attrition intentions. Post-hoc analyses revealed indirect (mediated) effects between physical activity behaviors and teacher turnover intentions via emotional exhaustion. This theoretically driven model fit the data better than an alternative model whereby emotional exhaustion predicts physical activity behaviors.
 
Research is mixed regarding whether comparative or absolute risk perceptions are most associated with important outcomes (e.g. worry). The current research examined the role of individual differences in organizational brain structure and connectivity-assessed via handedness strength-in moderating these effects. Strong handers and mixed handers made comparative and absolute risk estimates for contracting a sexually transmitted disease or sexually transmitted infection and also indicated their worry. Additionally, participants indicated whether they received testing for sexually transmitted diseases or sexually transmitted infections. For strong handers, absolute risk perceptions were generally more associated with worry and testing behaviors, whereas for mixed handers, comparative risk perceptions were more associated.
 
Frequencies of open answers in factor categories for the actor and the abstainer prototype and differentiated for evaluative categories 
This research investigated contents of actor and abstainer prototypes with regard to young adults’ social drinking combining quantitative and qualitative approaches (adjective ratings, N = 300; open answers, N = 90). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors (sociability/hedonism, responsibility) in both prototypes, confirmed by qualitative data. Given the importance for intention and willingness to drink alcohol, interventions should focus on the factor ‘sociability/hedonism’ of the actor and the abstainer prototype to reduce heavy drinking; addressing ‘responsibility’ may be ineffective. Participants’ evaluations appeared to be less prone to mean tendencies subsequent to open answers compared with adjective scales.
 
The present study incorporated the behavioral alternative of abstinence into the Theory of Reasoned Action to test whether abstinence contributed to the prediction of intentions to use performance enhancing substances (PES). Adolescent athletes (N = 241) completed a questionnaire about the use of legal and illegal PES. Approximately 2.5 percent of adolescents reported having tried an illegal PES and 17 percent reported having tried a legal PES. Results showed that attitudes and norms associated with abstinence contribute to the prediction of behavioral intentions over and above that of attitudes and norms associated with using both legal and illegal PES.
 
Estacio argues for critical health psychology to take action to address three issues raised (unintentionally) in the 'Harry and Paul' sketch broadcast on British television. It is suggested that, although attempting humour, the sketch offensively reflected and reproduced patterns of social injustice that are far from funny. We argue here that micro-level analysis of the interactional elements of the sketch provides an understanding of how in everyday contexts Filipino workers are constructed in socially unjust terms and of how abuse can be justified. Such an understanding can allow critical health psychology to make a distinctive contribution to these topics.
 
Abuse status
Means, standard deviations and comparisons for each measure by group
Correlations among independent and dependent variables
Hierarchical regression predicting health problems (CHIPS)
This study examined hardiness and health in women with and without histories of physical and/or sexual abuse. Patients (N=201) from a major Midwestern hospital gynecology clinic completed measures of hardiness, physical health, psychological health and neuroticism. The following findings were obtained: (a) the proposed three-factor structure of hardiness was not confirmed, and a different model was suggested; (b) evidence for convergent (adjustment and neuroticism) validity was found; (c) hardiness was significantly associated with physical and psychological health; (d) hardiness was not found to moderate the effects of an abusive past; and (e) the constructs of neuroticism and hardiness appear to overlap to a certain extent. Implications of these findings for theory, research and practice are discussed.
 
The authors investigated the relationship between patients' self-rated satisfaction with treatment services during and shortly after treatment with their drug use outcomes at one year follow-up, using a US national panel survey of patients in 62 methadone, outpatient, short-term residential, and long-term residential programs. A favorable evaluation of treatment near the time of discharge had a significant positive relationship with drug use improvement outcomes approximately one year later, independent of the separately measured effects of treatment duration, counseling intensity, patient adherence to treatment protocols, pre-treatment drug use patterns, and other characteristics of patients and treatment programs.
 
This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.
 
Ninety-five sexually active White American female college students participated in a questionnaire study about their sexual behavior in the past 12 months. A path model was tested in order to assess specific hypothesized predictors of risky sexual behavior. As predicted, participants with greater sex guilt reported using condoms more and having had fewer sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that White American female college students are at some degree of risk due to risky sexual behavior. Taking into account attitudes about sexuality and past sexual abuse along with the requisite training in condom use self-efficacy may enhance the success of interventions designed to reduce risky sexual behavior among White American female college students.
 
Emerging behavioral research on methamphetamine suggests a growing public health concern no longer limited to specific regions of the United States. Given that current evidence-based treatments for addressing methamphetamine addiction have had limited success, there remains a need to further examine the efficacy of these approaches. Here, we synthesize the psychological research literature regarding the prevalence and correlates of methamphetamine use across all segments of the US population, analyze the role that use of the drug plays in relation to sexual risk-taking and consider implications for therapeutic interventions to address this drug addiction.
 
This study examined the influence of immediate social environment on health compromising behaviors (HCB) among 6564 high school students in China. Results showed that physical abuse by parents was a major risk factor that accounted for high rates of HCB. Perceived positive school experience and social support were protective factors associated with low rates of HCB. These two protective factors also buffered the adverse influence of abuse on the practice of individual HCB. In particular, parental abuse was associated with sexual experimentation, non-fatal self-harm, and suicide behaviors only at low levels of protective factors.
 
Standardized factor loadings for health variables summarized in five factors 
Demographic variable means and standard deviations for abused and comparison females 
Raw means, standard deviations and group differences for self-reported health variables 
Logistic regression of health variables predicting group status 
Adjusted means for profile subgroups on five health factors (n = 144) 
This article addresses the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the long-term physical health and healthcare utilization of 148 female participants in an eight-year prospective study. Five factors of physical health emerged: General Health; Vegetative Health Symptoms; Colds and Flu; Gastrointestinal/Gynecological; and Healthcare Utilization. Abused females scored higher on the healthcare utilization and gastrointestinal/gynecological factors than comparison females. Abused females experiencing multiple perpetrators, violence, longer duration and older age at onset endorsed significantly more gastrointestinal/gynecological problems than did the other abused females and the comparison group. Findings suggest that: (1) sexual abuse affects long-term health outcomes and healthcare utilization; and (2) physical health sequelae of abuse may differentially affect females, depending upon the pattern of abuse characteristics.
 
Characteristics of the sample (n = 268) 
This study investigated the relationship between coping styles and problem behaviors among a sample of substance-abusing homeless youth. Homeless youth (n = 268) were recruited through the only drop-in center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Results revealed that youth with higher task-oriented coping reported less delinquent behaviors while those with higher emotion-oriented coping reported higher levels of anxiety/ depression and higher delinquency. Contrary to expectations, youth utilizing higher avoidance-oriented coping skills showed fewer HIV risk behaviors, fewer anxiety/depressive symptoms, and less frequent alcohol use. Findings emphasize the need to examine coping strategies in the context that individuals are situated.
 
This intervention aimed to decrease health-care workers' experience of automatic pilot (mindless functioning) when performing high risk procedures. An academic detailing visit resulted in a significant increase in compliance with safety guidelines and a decreased incidence of other unsafe practices among 80 health care workers of two hospital units. The effects of mindlessness on health behaviour may be far reaching and the model described in this paper can be used to develop appropriate interventions.
 
Top-cited authors
Sarah Grogan
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
Valerie A Earnshaw
  • University of Delaware
Cornelia Betsch
  • Universität Erfurt
Gbedjissokpa Mariette
  • University of Parakou
Agnes van den berg
  • University of Groningen