Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume)

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 2043-6289
Print ISSN: 1753-1934
Publications
One hundred and six consecutive cases of osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, treated by tendon interposition arthroplasty as described by Weilby, were followed prospectively, with assessment of pain, mobility, pinch and grip strength at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Patient satisfaction was reviewed at 26 and 52 weeks. Preoperative visual analogue scores for pain averaged 65 and decreased postoperatively to an average of 12 at 52 weeks. The main decrease in pain occurred during the first 3 months after operation. Mobility was improved or unaltered in 82%. Average grip and pinch strength reached preoperative values (41 kPa and 20 kPa respectively) between 12 and 26 weeks after surgery and were significantly greater (58 kPa and 34 kPa) at 52 weeks. Recovery after suspension arthroplasty takes 3-6 months, which may be a disadvantage to be considered when advising patients who are considering operative treatment.
 
Dupuytren's disease has a high rate of recurrence after treatment. In this study we have assessed the usefulness of histological staging in the prediction of recurrence. We have also verified whether there is a correlation between histological staging and features of Dupuytren's diathesis. We studied 139 hands in 124 Caucasian patients treated between 1997 and 2004. There was a significant difference in the recurrence rate between the three histological types (P = 0.04). Histological staging was independent of features of Dupuytren's diathesis. This study confirms that histological staging is a reliable method for predicting recurrence. However, it should be used in association with clinical data to determine precisely the prognosis of patients suffering from Dupuytren's contracture.
 
A. Preoperative view of the left index finger of a patient with DIP joint osteoarthritis. There was pain on movement, moderate swelling and ulnar deviation of the distal phalanx. B. Intraoperative view showing the same DIP joint exposed following elevation of the 'H' flap, division of the collateral ligaments and removal of all tissue lateral to the extensor tendon, which remains intact. C. Lateral intraoperative view showing the resulting joint space once osteophytes have been removed and the end of the middle phalanx excised. The extensor tendon remains intact. D. Intraoperative view after insertion of the silicone implant. E. The patient can immediately flex the joint to 408. F. There remains an extensor lag of 158, which is accentuated visually to 308 by dorsal bony swelling under the extensor attachment to the distal phalanx, which cannot be removed easily at surgery.  
This study reports the results of Swanson replacement of 131 DIP joints for painful osteoarthritis and two for ongoing pain after injury. Thirty-seven arthroplasties (28 patients) were carried out with extensor tendon division and repair, and postoperative immobilization for 8 weeks. Ninety-four (60 patients) were then carried out without tendon division, allowing immediate mobilization. At assessment after a mean period of 57 months, the mean postoperative range of movement was 39°, and the mean extensor lag was 11°, with significant improvement of both in both operative groups. The severity of pain improved significantly following surgery. All but one patient were satisfied with the cosmetic result of replacement. The overall complication rate was 7/131(5%). Three joints developed cellulitis and one developed osteomyelitis, requiring subsequent fusion. Two joints had subsequent fusions because of persistent lateral instability and marked ulnar deviation and one had a persistent mallet-type deformity, corrected by tendon shortening.
 
Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is the first and only United States Food and Drug Association approved nonsurgical treatment for patients with a palpable Dupuytren's contracture cord. However, the Food and Drug Association has only approved injection of 0.58 mg of this enzyme into one palpable Dupuytren's contracture cord at a time. This review reports on the early outcome of 144 patients treated with the entire bottle of enzyme, approximately 0.78 mg, along with use of a novel slow intracord multi-cord technique. Use of 0.78 mg of enzyme, with the slow intracord multi-cord technique is safe and allows one to inject multiple Dupuytren's contracture cords at one setting. Correction at metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, taken individually, are comparable with the Collagenase Option for the Reduction of Dupuytren's studies at 43° and 33°, respectively, however due to the multi-cord injection, we achieved 94° average immediate and 76° average final combined metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal contracture releases per bottle of enzyme. Implementation of the slow intracord multi-cord technique has the potential to improve current treatment for Dupuytren's contracture with resultant significant healthcare savings.
 
Seventy-one patients (93 implants) had a de la Caffinière prosthesis implanted between 1980 and 1989 and were reviewed and reported in 1997. We reviewed this series 10 years later. Similar outcome measures were used as in the original study, pinch and grip strength measured and validated outcome scores obtained (DASH and EQ-5D). Radiographic outcome was assessed. Twenty-six patients with 39 implants were available for review at a mean of 19 years (range, 16-26 years). Survivorship at 26 years was 73.9% (95% CI, 61.2 to 86.6) for re-operation and 26.0% (95% CI, 0 to 52.7) for all failure. Patients had satisfactory power and thumb mobility and continued to be satisfied without pain. Registries should log such prostheses and add to implant survival data.
 
This study reviews the literature on the anatomy of the connective tissues surrounding the distal interphalangeal joint and further characterizes the three-dimensional relationships of these structures with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging. Ten cadaver fingers, fixed in a solution of 5% agar and 4% formalin, were imaged utilising an ultrashield 16.4 Tesla ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging, yielding a total of 4000 images. Images were analysed using Osirix™ (version 5.5.1 32 bit edition) for three-dimensional reconstruction. We found numerous conflicting descriptions of the connective tissue structures around the distal interphalangeal joint. Based upon our literature review and imaging studies we have defined precisely Cleland's ligaments, the oblique proximal septum, Grayson's ligaments, the dorsal plate, and the interosseous ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint.
 
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dorsal dimelia in a series of 160 consecutive patients with congenital anomalies of the hands and feet, and to investigate the distribution of dorsal dimelia and the concurrent anomalies. Five cases (3.1%) showed evidence of dorsal dimelia and the distribution of dorsal dimelia was similar to the distribution of concurrent anomalies in all five cases. Another 11 cases of concurrent dorsal dimelia with other congenital anomalies have been reported previously with a positive match in the distributions in all cases. This similarity in the distribution in all 16 reported cases (including the five cases in the current study) is statistically significant. It is concluded that dorsal dimelia in humans is not as rare as it is generally thought to be, and that it may be viewed as an error of dorso-ventral patterning, which occurs in the same distribution as other concurrent anomalies.
 
Govard Bidloo (1649-1713) was trained as a surgeon at the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, and later in his career, he became a professor of anatomy in The Hague and Leiden. At the end of the 17th century, he performed dissections on the corpses of executed criminals to teach and study anatomy. Based on his findings, he published a magnificent anatomical atlas in 1690, entitled Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body). The talented painter Gerard De Lairesse, a pupil of Rembrandt, made the drawings of the anatomical dissections for the atlas in close collaboration with the dissector. The drawings of Bidloo and De Lairesse represent, in a unique and artistic way, an early series of anatomical preparations of the arm and hand from more than 300 years ago.
 
Joseph Swan was born in 1791 and appointed surgeon to Lincoln County Hospital in 1814. In addition to his clinical work, he carried out what were probably the first animal experiments on nerve injuries. These were mostly on rabbits, in which the sciatic nerves were partly or wholly divided, had a section excised, or were ligated. He found that regeneration could occur, even after neurectomy. He reported these results, together with his experience in human patients and the effects of neurectomy in a horse, in an essay of 1819, which won the Jacksonian Prize of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and is still preserved there. In 1827 he moved to London, where he devoted himself mainly to dissections of the nervous system and was active in the College. He retired to Filey in Yorkshire, where he died in 1874.
 
Eighteen patients who underwent revision non-vascularized bone grafting and internal fixation after failed surgery for scaphoid nonunion were reviewed after a minimum of 8.2 years. Eleven of the nonunions were located in the middle and seven in the proximal third of the scaphoid. The mean interval between injury and the revision procedure was 6 years. Sixteen of the 18 nonunions healed, two after a third attempt. Three patients with healed nonunions and one patient with persistent nonunion required salvage procedures for progressive radiocarpal arthrosis. In the remaining 14 cases, the mean loss of wrist flexion/extension arc compared to the contralateral wrist was 36 degrees . Mean reduction of grip strength and key pinch was 9.3 kg and 0.9 kg respectively. The QuickDASH score was 18 and a visual analogue pain score was 21/100 at follow-up. Wrist degeneration increased in all but one case during the observation period. Thirteen of 16 patients with union and one patient with a persisting nonunion experienced moderate symptoms.
 
Eighteen out of 18 rheumatoid patients (at one centre of a two-centre 30 patient study previously reported) with a mean age of 56 years, and 72/72 operated joints were randomized to Avanta/Sutter or Swanson MCP prostheses and followed for 5 years. Both ulnar deviation and extension lag were improved already at 6 weeks and remained improved at 5 years. The Avanta prosthesis had a better range of motion (ROM) than the Swanson. Six of nine patients with Avanta/Sutter implants had at least one implant fracture compared to 1/9 patients with the Swanson implant (P = 0.05) but fracture did not change the outcome subjectively. The ROM at 3 months correlated with the occurrence of an implant fracture at 5 years and a greater early ROM may be related to implant fracture. At 5 years patients remained satisfied and the deformities remained corrected.
 
A 39 year-old farmer sustained a closed rupture of the left brachial artery, which was successfully managed by emergency vein graft repair of the artery. Adjacent nerve trunks were seen to be intact, but stretched. Burning pain in the distribution of the ulnar nerve started at day seven postoperatively, and worsened over the ensuing years. There was no response to membrane stabilising drugs, amitryptiline, nor to regional sympatholytic or local anaesthetic blocks. Neurolysis of the ulnar nerve, which was densely adherent to the dilated vein graft, abolished his pain.
 
This retrospective study evaluates the results of 41 consecutive hand and forearm operations in 19 patients with systemic sclerosis performed between 1985 and 2000. The mean age of the patients was 50 (14-84) years. Twenty-seven operations were elective and 14 were acute, carried out for skin breakdown and/or skin necrosis. One minor wound healing problem occurred in the elective group. In the acute group, seven of 14 operations healed uneventfully. Four patients had necrosis/infections after surgery, which required further surgery. Two patients had repeated wound infections. Another patient only healed after he stopped smoking. In systemic sclerosis, surgery performed electively does not seem to have increased difficulty with wound healing. Even larger operations, such as wrist arthrodesis or wrist replacement, can be performed safely. In acute cases with spontaneous skin breakdown and/or necrosis and/or critically ischaemic fingers, wound healing is more precarious and several procedures may be necessary to achieve skin healing.
 
The German surgeon Otto Hilgenfeldt (1900-1983) was a great innovator in European hand surgery in the 20th century, particularly in respect of the tactile (sensate) thumb and grip reconstruction in amputation injuries. His experience, beginning in the 1930s, helped him to treat hundreds of soldiers with mutilating hand injuries from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. While totally isolated and without any access to international publications, he devised many innovative ideas such as a neurovascular middle finger transposition for pollicization (first case done in July 1943) and a sensory dorsoradial first metacarpal flap for thumb resurfacing. His book Operative thumb replacement and substitution of finger losses published in 1950 is regarded as one of the most important German contributions to modern hand surgery. Hilgenfeldt's life and work remain fascinating and exemplary from a historical and surgical point of view. Many of his pragmatic surgical solutions remain valid despite the advent of microsurgery.
 
We analysed hand and wrist injury and disorder related liability claims in the Netherlands to identify causes and to contribute to the prevention of such claims. Data was collected from 743 hand and wrist claims filed between 1993 and 2007. Consultants were involved in 417 claims (56.1%). Treatment in the emergency department (ED) accounted for 64.9% of these 287 claims involved residents (59.5%). The majority of accepted claims in the ED included treatment by general surgeons (89.2%). The percentage of accepted claims was highest in the general surgery group (26.4%). Of accepted claims in the ED which involved a resident, 93.2% involved a general surgery resident. Better training and supervision is indicated. This paper supports hand injury treatment by adequately trained surgeons and preferably, where possible, by a trained hand surgeon.
 
We compared the biomechanical strength of the 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor with a traditional Bio-SutureTak suture anchor in repair of ulnar collateral ligament injuries. Iatrogenic ulnar collateral ligament injuries in 18 cadaveric thumbs were repaired and used to test for load to failure and cyclic loading. The average force required to generate a 2 mm gap was 7.7 N for the 2.5 mm PushLock and 6.3 N for the Bio-SutureTak (p = 0.04). The ultimate load to failure was 28.0 N for the 2.5 mm PushLock and 18.8 N for the Bio-SutureTak (p = 0.16). There were no statistical differences between the two suture anchors under cyclic loading. The 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor provides significantly stronger resistance to 2 mm gap formation at the repair site and is less likely to fail at the suture-ligament interface. However, there was no difference in the load to failure between the two suture anchors.
 
Twenty-two consecutive major replantations carried out over a 5-year period were assessed with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Only two patients suffered guillotine amputations. The remainders were either crush, or crush avulsion amputation. Replantation was successful in 20 cases. When analysed by Chen's criteria, there were three Grade I, nine Grade II, six Grade III and two Grade IV results. Most patients with successful replants put the hand to greater use with time and replantation greatly added to the overall well-being of the patient. We consider major replantation as a worthwhile procedure. Radical debridement, bone shortening and well laid out protocols to reduce the ischaemia time are important for success. The technical details which we believe to be important for success are outlined. With decreasing numbers of such injuries in most countries, this paper may help surgeons faced with an occasional patient with a major amputation to make the right decisions.
 
Top-cited authors
Andrea Atzei
  • PRO-Mano Treviso - Italy
Marc garcia-elias
  • Institute Kaplan
Robert A Gerber
J. Carel Goslings
Diane Nam
  • University of Toronto