Journal of Graphic Era University

Online ISSN: 0975-1416
Publications
Article
The Indian Himalayan mountain region is globally renowned for biological diversity. The Himalayan mountain system contributes 10% of the world bird’s species and about 8% of the world’s bird species breed in this region. However, bird species are not evenly distributed from East to West Himalayan region; various factors are responsible for bird’s diversity gradient seen in this mountain chain. The present article is briefing on the bird’s species diversity patterns in the Indian Himalayan region and is largely based on the work carried out under Wildlife Institute of India and University of Chicago collaborative research work titled ‘Study of bird species numbers and densities in east and west Himalayas’ and has already been published in many research papers.
 
Article
The Himalayan region is very well known for the unique ecosystems. The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) forms the major part of the Himalayan region. The vegetation along an altitudinal gradient comprises of tropical, sub-tropical, temperate, sub-alpine and alpine types and supports a great variety of forests with unique species that vary from east to west and from low to high altitudes. The present study is based on the review of literature and surveys in some parts of the IHR. A total of 10,503 species (10,452 species of Angiosperms and 51 species of Gymnosperms) are reported from the Himalayan region. The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) represents 18,940 species of plants representing Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Pteridophytes, Bryophytes, Lichens, and Fungi. A total of 6745 species of Angiosperms (604 trees, 1049 shrubs & 5092 herbs) belonging to 225 families, 1768 genera are recorded from the Trans, North-West and West Himalaya based on surveys and review of literature. Diversity of the orchids, medicinal plants, wild edibles, other economically important plants, factors affecting floristic diversity, impact of climate change and conservation initiatives have been discussed. Appropriate strategy is suggested for the conservation and management of floristic diversity.
 
Article
Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are amongst the key global commodities and an important component of international trade. They are important in livelihoods of rural people all over the Himalayan region for meeting food, medicine, construction materials, and income needs of subsistence communities. The sector needs focused developmental planning that can bring substantial economic and environmental benefit in the Uttarakhand state. Based on an extensive analysis of three important categories of NTFPs, viz. medicinal plants, edible wild plants, and bamboo this paper highlights potential of this sector for food security, income generation and environmental conservation by adopting a pro-people approach in Uttarakhand state. Suggestions have been provided for improving the existing framework and programmes that can maximize economic, social, cultural and ecological benefits.
 
Article
TCP suffers from low throughput when TCP/IP traffic is extended over satellite networks characterized by large latency and high bit error rates. Achieving high data rates using TCP/IP over satellite networks can be difficult. This paper presents architecture for a transparent gateway which uses connection splitting and spoofing to enhance Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance over satellite channels. Connection splitting is a technique to split end to end TCP connection between sender and receiver by placing intelligent gateway i.e. TCP Performance Enhancing Proxy (TCP-PEP) in network path. Implementation of Connection splitting and Spoofing mechanism requires capturing a TCP connection, intelligently processing data packets and acknowledgments at driver level for spoofing; and establishment of communication between driver and user space application for buffering and forwarding. Although, a driver level design is difficult but efficient as it reduces overhead and is what we choose. This approach is transparent and need no modifications in existing TCP/IP stack of user’s machine. Another advantage of using the approach is that no additional network component is required as it can work as a router and can improve the performance of TCP connections as well at the same time.
 
Article
To use Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID), an integral feature of a TrueBeam linear accelerator (linac) system, for implementing dosimetry based comprehensive Quality Assurance (QA) protocol needed for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) modality. Varian makes TrueBeam Version 2.0 linac system with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), and VMAT treatment modalities were used in the study. The linac is equipped with a Multileaf Collimator (MLC) having 120 leaves (millenium MLC) and an EPID (aS1000) having megavoltage photon (MV) detector system. The EPID has an active imaging area of 40 cm x 30 cm with 1024 x 768-pixel matrix with a pixel resolution of 0.39 mm. It is capable of capturing 14-bit images at 30frames per second. We carried out the following QA tests using the EPID: i) Dynamic MLC (DMLC) dosimetry test ii) DMLC positional accuracy test (Picket Fence test) for fixed and rotating gantry modes iii) DMLC positional accuracy test during rotation with intentional errors iv) dose rate and gantry speed tests during RapidArc delivery and v) DMLC leaf speed test during RapidArc delivery. All the tests were analysed with Microsoft Excel application. Deviations of the EPID pixel values from known regions of interest during the various tests with respect to open fields were estimated for accuracy assessment. DMLC dosimetry test showed a maximum deviation of 0.16 % with respect to reference condition at 0º gantry. The maximum positional accuracy of DMLC was found to be 0.28 mm for fixed gantry and 0.26 mm for rotating gantry. For varying dose rate and gantry speed, the average of the absolute value of all deviations Diff(x) was 0.43. The MLC leaf speed variation during RapidArc resulted in the average of the absolute value of all Diff(x) of 0.20. Similar results have been obtained with a film based QA tests. The time taken in performing the above tests with EPID is far less as compared to the conventional methods. EPID based QA tests are reliable and quick. We believe that protocols developed for performing QA tests with EPID can replace the conventional methods of QA. EPID based QA will result in considerable time saving and thus helpful in increasing the patient throughput in a clinic. Also, the quicker and automated QA procedure based on EPID lends itself to better compliance and hence better treatment quality.
 
Article
Fatty acids have been reported in several researches targeting cure and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides having so many contradictory reports about fatty acids related to the issues of human health, there are many evidences that point towards the beneficial effects of PUFAs and essential fatty acids on human health, even in AD. This study investigated the interaction of fatty acids and phyto-constituents for the inhibition of BACE enzyme (mainly responsible and prominent target for amyloid hypothesis) through in-silico approach. Phyto-compounds from Picrorhiza kurroa, Cinnamomum tamala, Curcuma longa, Datura metel, Rheum emodi and Bacopa monnieri, which are well known, were screened. For screening of drug molecules, Lipinski's rule is usually used. Because of this rule compounds like Bacoside A, Picroside II are usually excluded from docking/binding studies because of their higher molecular weight as they do now follow the Lipinski's rules. The same applies to fatty acids, like Linolinic acid. On the basis of in-silico experiments, our study suggests that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and some saturated fatty acids of medicinal plants can have BACE inhibition activity and can possibly modulate Aβ formation. Our study also suggests that compounds that are excluded by Lipinski's rule/filter during bioinformatics based screening due to their molecular weight should also be tested in experiments as we hypothesize that Lipinski's rule is not absolute.
 
BACE protein file PDB file: 5ENM
Article
Fatty acids have been reported in several researches targeting cure and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Besides having so many contradictory reports about fatty acids related to the issues of human health, there are many evidences that point towards the beneficial effects of PUFAs and essential fatty acids on human health, even in AD. This study investigated the interaction of fatty acids and phyto-constituents for the inhibition of BACE enzyme (mainly responsible and prominent target for amyloid hypothesis) through in-silico approach. Phyto-compounds from Picrorhiza kurroa, Cinnamomum tamala, Curcuma longa, Datura metel, Rheum emodi and Bacopa monnieri, which are well known, were screened. For screening of drug molecules, Lipinski’s rule is usually used. Because of this rule compounds like Bacoside A, Bacoside A3, Bacopaside II, Bacopasaponin C, Baimantuoluoline C, Daturameteline A, Cucurbitacin B, Cucurbitacin D, Cucurbitacin E, Cucurbitacin I, Cucurbitacin F, Cucurbitacin R, Picroside III, Kutkoside, Picroside II are usually excluded from docking/binding studies because of their higher molecular weight as they do now follow the Lipinski’s rules. The same applies to fatty acids, like Linolinic acid. On the basis of in-silico experiments, our study suggests that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and some saturated fatty acids of medicinal plants can have BACE inhibition activity and can possibly modulate Aβ formation. Our study also suggests that compounds that are excluded by Lipinski’s rule/filter during bioinformatics based screening due to their molecular weight should also be tested in experiments as we hypothesize that Lipinski’s rule is not absolute.
 
Article
The focus of this study is on flexible actuators which act as soft muscles and can produce large amount of deflection (bending) on the application low voltage less than 4V, which can be applied for various applications of robotic arms, manipulators, medical devices, aerospace applications and for structural health monitoring. In this study, vibration analysis of beam structure of polymer composite of (PVDF/CNF) material is carried out using Finite element analysis. The vibration analysis is carried out for six modes with one end fixed and both end fixed boundary conditions. The obtained results from the analysis showed the minimum failure frequency with different mode shapes at different boundary conditions. The analysis can be very much helpful in prediction of the safe working conditions for the complex structures.
 
Article
Drug repurposing and drug combination have been suggested as a major strategy to counter the spread of antimicrobial resistance in clinical and community settings. Drug repurposing explores the potential of existing drugs for new indications with respect to human disease. Mainstream anticancer drug paclitaxel and vinblastine were tested as potential efflux pump inhibitors in in vitro assays. Both the anticancer drugs failed to produce zone of inhibition on MHA plates inoculated with Salmonella Typhi in disk diffusion testing. MIC obtained for the two drugs were found as 80µg/ml (Paclitaxel) and 160 µg/ml (vinblastine) respectively. When tested for synergy with kanamycin and ciprofloxacin, paclitaxel and vinblastine resulted in indifference (FICI value =1 for both the antibiotics). The combination of anticancer and antibiotic drugs showed bacteriostatic nature in the absence of 3log10 reduction in viable Salmonella CFUs over 24 hrs time period in time kill assay. Whereas the marginal activity was observed in EtBr cartwheel assay as compared to control. Thus in vitro studies paclitaxel and vinblastine cannot be repurposed as antimicrobial against Salmonella Typhi.
 
Cylindrical shape Al Nanoparticles Figure 2. Spherical shape Al Nanoparticles  
Article
In the present work, In-situ polymerization technique synthesized epoxy alumina polymer nanocomposite. Dispersion of alumina nanoparticle of rod shaped and spherical shape with size 20nm-50nm, were achieved by ultra-sonication processing technique. Effect on mechanical properties (Tensile and viscoelastic properties) because of the post curing temperature on nanocomposites were determined. Postcuring temperatures 60, 80, 100, 120 and 1500 0 C were selected. Tensile strength with young's modulus, and storage modulus of neat epoxy specimen as well as nanocomposite with different wt.% of nanoparticle showed decrement with increase in temperature, while glass transition temperature increased. Mechanical properties were maximum for nanocomposite with 0.1 wt. % nanoparticle for all Postcuring temperature. It was observed that Nanocomposite with rod shape showed good mechanical properties.
 
SECUREWEB tool
Boolean based blink SQL injection
Article
Security of web applications from attackers is one of a challenging task in cloud computing infrastructure. Unsecure source code is one of a top reason for cyber-attacks, due to which valuable data like username, password, credit card information or even personal information related to aadhar enabled biometric system, can be compromised. Most of the vulnerabilities in web application source code is related to Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), these vulnerabilities are SQL, NoSQL, LDAP Injection, Broken Authentication, Sensitive data exposure, XML external entities, broken access control, security misconfiguration, Cross site scripting (XSS), Insecure deserialization and insufficient monitoring and logging etc. Vulnerable web applications are the hot spot for hackers. According to Symantec's Internet Security Threat Report published in July 2017, more than 2 lakh attacks against websites occur each day and more than 76% websites hosted in cloud contain un-patched vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a new innovative conceptual security tool name as SECUREWEB. This tool will detect vulnerabilities in web application source code and automatically patch detected vulnerabilities and return secure source code free from any identified vulnerabilities. This tool works on the concept of proxy based source code analyzer SECUREEYE model for detecting OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities and SECURESOLUTION model for auto patching of detected vulnerabilities.
 
Article
Ginkgo biloba is widely used for its pharmaceutical potential due to it’s medicinal value. Its medicinal properties are directly related to the presence of the phytochemical constituents, mainly the terpenes trilactone (ginkgolides and bilobalide) and flavonoid glycosides that are likely to be influenced by a number of soil, biogeographic and climatic factors as well as the age of the tree. The present study is aimed to investigate the influence of the age of Ginkgo tree with respect to the total phenolic and total flavonoid content, antioxidants and flavonoid glycosides along with the antimicrobial activity following Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results exhibited great variability in all the phytochemicals, under study, showing significant decline with ageing of the Ginkgo tree. However, the antimicrobial activity that was determined in terms of strong inhibition on a range of microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) in plate assays, varied in this respect to limited extent.
 
Locations of study site (Badrinath Holy Pilgrimage)
Article
The present study was conducted in the Badrinath holy pilgrimage in Western Himalaya. Lichen collected from seven localities (Badrinath, enroute Bhimpul to Vasudhara, Mana, enroute Vasudhara to Mana, Bhimpul, Vasudhara Glacier and enroute Vasudhara to Bhagirathi Glacier). The highest overall IVI (6.64) was recorded for Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca. The maximum number of lichens have been documented in Badrinath locality (139 spp.) while minimum (6) in enroute Vasudhara to Bhagirathi Glacier. The Badrinath has also express maximum 71 site specific species, while the Vasudhara Glacier has only 2 species. The dominance has been computed maximum (0.17) for enroute Vasudhara to Bhagirathi Glacier while, minimum for the Badrinath (0.01). The lowest Simpson Index value (0.83) has been recorded in enroute Vasudhara to Bhagirathi Glacier while the highest (0.99) in Badrinath. The lowest value of Berger-Parker diversity index (0.03), as well as the highest values of Brillouin, Shannon, Menhinick, Margalef and Fisher alpha diversity indices (7.20, 4.78, 8.03, 24.2 and 100.6 respectively) from the Badrinath locality, designates it as a site of highest species diversity. While enroute Vasudhara to Bhagirathi Glacier locality shows the highest value of Berger-Parker diversity index (0.17) as well as the lowest values of Brillouin, Shannon, Menhinick, Margalef and Fisher alpha diversity indices (1.75, 1.79, 0.35, 0.88 and 1.03 respectively). The value of evenness and equitability has been computed maximum (1.00) for enroute Vasudhara to Mana and Vasudhara to Bhagirathi Glacier localities, on the other hand, minimum (0.086 and 0.97 respectively) in the Badrinath.
 
Performance evaluations of PI controllers for POE Luo Converter
Close Loop Control for POE Luo Converter. 
Hardware kit 
Closed Loop response of conventional PI Controller with sudden disturbances of 20%of rated supply voltage at 0.003sec and 0.005sec. 
closed loop responses of BFOA-PI Controller with sudden disturbances of 20% of rated load at 0.01sec and 0.02sec. 
Article
The Positive Output Elementary (POE) Luo converter is a developed DC-DC converter. Due to the time-varying and switching nature of the converter, its dynamic behavior becomes highly non-linear. PI controller is incapable of providing good dynamic performance for such converter and hence optimized techniques have been developed to tune the PI values. In this paper , design and implementation of ZN-PI, Bacterial Foraging optimization algorithm based PI (BFOA-PI), Modified Bacterial foraging optimization algorithm based PI (MBFOA-PI) controller using and TMS320C5420 DSP have been developed and experimental results of the closed loop performances of the POE Luo converter under supply disturbances and load disturbances are presented and analyzed.
 
Article
Packed milk of different brands and configuration are available in the market. Normally buyer faces the problem during the selection of suitable brand according to his/her requirement. In the present study, IBM 14.5 Statistics Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software is used to analyse the buyer behaviour towards the purchasing packed milk based on twelve parameters. Dataset is created using IBM 14.5 SPSS software and the data were collected through questionnaire from employees around Uttarakhand. Present study uses the correlation method to ascertain the influence of parameters on buyers packed milk purchasing behaviour.
 
The Hindu Kush Himalaya and the river basins.
Vegetation zones and dominant forest types found across the HKH (Chettri et al. 2010).
Status of threatened species (Source Xu et al. 2019).
Trend in number of publications on ecosystem services in the HKH, and number of these that predict/suggest/report a decline, increase, or stable state of ecosystem services (source Xu et al. 2019).
Map showing 'Trans-Himalayan Transacts' and 'Transboundary Landscapes' in the HKH.
Article
With 22% global land surface area, the mountains ecosystem is home to 13% of the total human populations. Evolved as a unique ecosystem, the mountain adds value with diverse ecosystems; tradition and culture as well as ecosys tem services for socio-economic development in the mountain areas and beyond. As it caters half of the humanity with its diverse types of ecosystem services, the realization of its significance are still limited in national, regional and global discourses. In the conservation front, there has been a significant progress in the concept and practices from species focussed interventions to habitat and ecosystem/landscape conservation approaches. The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), known as the highest mountain ecosystems in the world is also the water tower for the region often referred as the third pole. This unique ecosystem is an important repository of biological and cultural diversities and source of varied ecosystems services to 240 million people living within and about a one third of global population living downstream. The region has been in spotlight for being part of the 36 ‘Global Biodiversity Hotspot’ as well as climate change hotspot. However, our understanding the dynamics of changing landscapes and climate and its linkage to people, mostly challenged by poverty are limited. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Devel opment (ICIMOD), an inter-governmental regional knowledge and enabling centre, has been instrumental in developing knowledge about the dynam ics of these fragile ecosystems and support its regional member countries through science based integrated approaches. Since its inception, ICIMOD has been engaged in developing knowledge and supporting policies for moun tain development focusing on socio-economic, ecological and environmental dimensions. In this paper, we present the retrospect of our understanding and learnings in the HKH through transboundary landscape management and regional cooperation mostly focused on conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services perspectives. The paper reflects on changing paradigm and complex process for strengthening regional cooperation in the HKH.
 
Continued
Article
The Himalaya, as provider of goods and range of ecosystem services, is vital for sustaining life of millions of people in uplands and billions in lowlands. Indian National Action Plan on Climate Change has recognized the region vital for ecological security of the country. However, growing demand for bio-resources, combined with inadequate appreciation for values of goods and services provided by Himalayan biodiversity, has led to the unsustainable use of these resources, leading to environmental degradation in the region. The paper also looks into the scenario as to how recent pandemic of COVID 19 has brought increased focus of people on bio-resources of the region. More importantly it has suggested conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity to ensure for sustaining the continuous flow of ecosystem services and goods. Biodiversity in the region provides several opportunities, however, under changing scenario, we need to think afresh and differently on possibilities of finding better and optimal livelihood options, and the issues of conservation in the region. In this context, larger focus on conservation education has been stressed as a way forward. This paper attempts to build a case for the biodiversity in Indian Himalayan Region through a SWOT assessment. Certain cases have been elaborated wherein the outlook has changed to harness the values.
 
Natural populations of Brahma Kamal in Kedarnath valley; (A) Madhu Ganga, (B) Maha Panth, (C) Cheer Ganga, (D) Hathi Parvat 
Article
Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. (Brahma Kamal) is an endangered medicinal herb of the high altitude Himalayan region with immense cultural significance. This study is on the analysis of micro and macro nutrients in the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils from S. obvallata. The amount and availability of nutrients absorbed through the plant roots is an important factor affecting growth and development. The macro-elements and micro-elements are essential for healthy plant growth. For the present study, soil samples were collected from four sites where this species was known to be present as well as from area where the plant was introduced in recent times. The results indicated that soil nutrients, including Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn ranged from 0.22 – 2.02, 0.56 – 1.27, 0.00 – 19.23, and 0.00 – 2.02 ppm, respectively. The amount of available carbon, potassium, and phosphorus ranged from 0.64 – 0.99 %, 99.83 – 301.35, and 8.93 – 26.90 Kg/hectare, respectively. This investigation gives baseline information about the nutrients in rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil of S. obvallata. Such data are expected to be helpful for developing conservation and restoration strategies for this endangered plant.
 
a shows the extreme left position of the guides in the transfer zone (beginning of the transfer) 
Article
The traversing mechanism on a winding machine causes the yarn guide and hence the yarn to reciprocate. It was thought that a very interesting work would result if this reciprocating motion could be eliminated. This work is an attempt to eliminate the too and fro motion of the yarn guide wherein the guide profile ensures proper transfer of yarn with the desired pattern and pitch. The change in yarn direction after completing one axial traverse poses the most challenging aspect in designing an efficient guide profile. With idealizing assumption of the yarn behaving as a thin wire under the taut condition between three support points at the top ring, profile point on the guide and the bobbin, the ideal profile for consistent guidance of the yarn has been developed.
 
Article
To stay competitive, hotels need to develop a viable customer retention strategy. Since a key to the successful development of such a strategy rests with customer loyalty management, hotels should identify the most profitable ways to build and maintain a loyal customer relationship. In an effort to understand the basis of customer loyalty and its relation with customer satisfaction and image of the hotel a study was conducted in four hotels (Radisson, Taj Mansingh, Haytt Regency, and Maurya Sheraton) to cover various aspects of loyalty benefits. This included respondent’s rating of various loyalty benefits, services received, variety of loyalty programs and their rating. Preliminary a descriptive study, the study includes 100 respondents, 25 from each Hotel. The collected data is statically analyzed using various hypothetical tests to verify the relationship between various factors shaping customers attitude and loyalty for a given hotel.
 
Article
The three southernmost provinces of Thailand are most disrupted by insurgency. However, there had been no empirical evidences which particularly addressed its influences on service delivery of child development centers in selected municipalities of the three provinces. The qualitative approach was utilized in interviewing nine key informants, derived from purposive sampling. The results revealed that the insurgency influenced the quality of learning and care by disrupting learning activities and process. interrupting process of providing care for children and diminishing parents' trust and acceptance of service delivery. Insurgency also influenced the staff's potential by changing their behavior in delivering services, disrupting their opportunities in improving knowledge and skills. accumulated fears caused the staff to lose motivation in delivering service to customers. Nevertheless, the study found that regarding the element of customer focus the insurgency did not hamper the interaction between the staff and the parents. In fact, they developed better relationship and collaboration. According to most informants, the insurgency did not influence the centers responses to the parents' needs and feedbacks. However, there were some problems pertaining to cultural sensitivity in the insurgent area. The study recommends that the Thai government and related organizations to prepare alternative plans for carrying out activities and learning process, pay more attention to security of children and staff, focus on staff's career advancement and maintenance of workforce as well as raising awareness of sensitive issues in the conflict zone.
 
Per Capita consumption of different country (Source: CIA World Factbook) 
A rising share of thermal power since 1971 
Article
There is growing interest in creating the smart grid mainly reducing carbon footprint and outage. Countries with the vast population like china and India are in the race for implementation of the smart grid pilot project in selected areas. However, there are some serious technological and economic constraints on their implementation. This paper is an exclusive study on the status, challenges, and possible solution related to the technological aspects from India perspective. Since the smart meter is an integral component in the smart micro grid implementation, the technological issue and challenges are particularly discussed in this paper. An actual implementation of a smart meter for Indian domestic consumers in laboratory environment shows the possibility of its adoption in residences.
 
Groups of soil lichens resulting from bootstrap-cluster analysis (Bootstrap No= 100) based on ecological (distribution in three macrohabitats along the elevation gradient and association with other vegetation) and morphological characters (thallus morphological groups).
Values of Lichen community and environmental variables in the three macrohabitat types of C hopta-Tungnath landscape.
Article
India is a rich centre of lichen biodiversity. Soil inhabiting lichens (Terricolous lichens), are potential group of lichen species which can be calibrated for ecological indicator studies, as their direct growth on the soil make them very sensitive to any change in the topographic and climatic environment. In the present study soil-inhabiting lichens of Chopta-Tungnath tract in Garhwal Himalayas, are defined on the basis of ecological and morphological characters using Hierarchical bootstrap- Clustering, and the various habitat and climatic variables are analysed for their effect on the determination of structure and distribution pattern of terricolous lichen community, using Correlation- Regression analysis. Of the three macrohabitats identified along the elevation gradient maximum soil lichen diversity was observed at middle elevation (3000-3400 mt.) A total of nine lichen species belonging to four families, seven genera and five morphological groups I thallus type (Squamulose, Squamulose-Fruticose, Leprose, Fruticose and Foliose) were identified. Squamulose was dominating morphological group, followed by fruticose, dimorphic, foliose and leprose forms. Soil lichen exhibit maximum associations with mosses followed by angiosperms, only few soil lichens were found growing on ground. Among the environmental variables soil pH and minimum and maximum temperature were positively related to lichen diversity whereas relative humidity and elevation negatively influenced soil lichen community. Cluster analyses revealed six lichen groups on the basis of their maximum distribution at middle elevations, dominance of moisture absorbing lichen groups (fruticose and foliose) and maximized associative growth with mosses.
 
No. of computations per frame for TSS & DS algorithms
Article
Over the last couple of decades, video processing and coding/decoding has grown exponentially. The processing power of the computers available has grown in almost equal proportions. However, with the introduction of newer video standards, which are further more complex, it has become imperative to work on more optimized algorithms and implement them efficiently and judiciously. A number of parallel implementations of the algorithms have also been introduced, including using reconfigurable systolic arrays for the same. In this paper, we compare the two most commonly used search algorithms, Diamond Search and Three Step Search for motion estimation and decide which one is better for a given type of video sequence. This information can help in better decision making regarding the choice of the algorithm for a certain video sequence and save time by as much as 50%.
 
Box plot graphs representing average concentration of total phosphorous in dairy wastewater
Box plot graphs showing average removal rate of total Phosphorus from dairy wastewater
Box plot graphs showing average total Phosphorus load in dairy wastewater
Methods for analysis of Physical parameters (APHA, 2005 and Hach manual)
Article
This investigation was carried out to observe the effects of filter materials on contaminant removal efficiencies of Vertical Constructed Wetland (VCW) units. Nine real scale VCW units were operated for a period of 12 months (Jan-Dec 2016) for treating dairy wastewater. All nine VCW units were filled with different sized filter materials (gravels and sand) and were planted with Arundo donax at surface. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) for all the units was fixed as 24 h. The major water parameter focused in the present study was total phosphorous (TP). The findings of this study revealed that all the three filter media (10 mm & 20 mm gravels and sand) were efficient in removing phosphorus from dairy wastewater. The average concentration of TP in the dairy influent was recorded as 39.3 ± 9.8 mg L-1. Average TP concentration in gravel filters (CW-1 to CW-6) were recorded in the range of 16.9 to 18.1 mg L-1 while in sand filters (CW-7 to CW-9), it ranged between 2.2 to 3.9 mg L-1. The reduction of TP in the effluent was more in case of sand filters (2.2 ± 2.6 mg L-1). The removal rate in sand filters showed noticeable reduction as compared to gravel filters. Maximum removal rate of 94.1% was also observed in sand filled units while minimum removal was seen in gravel beds (54.7 to 58.1%). Hence, the results of this investigation recommends the use of sand as the better option for TP removal and a good alternate for designing VCW in future wetland construction.Journal of Graphic Era University
 
Box plot graphs representing average concentration of total phosphorous in dairy wastewater
Box plot graphs showing average removal rate of total Phosphorus from dairy wastewater
Box plot graphs showing average total Phosphorus load in dairy wastewater
Article
This investigation was carried out to observe the effects of filter materials on contaminant removal efficiencies of Vertical Constructed Wetland (VCW) units. Nine real scale VCW units were operated for a period of 12 months (Jan-Dec 2016) for treating dairy wastewater. All nine VCW units were filled with different sized filter materials (gravels and sand) and were planted with Arundo donax at surface. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) for all the units was fixed as 24 h. The major water parameter focused in the present study was total phosphorous (TP). The findings of this study revealed that all the three filter media (10 mm & 20 mm gravels and sand) were efficient in removing phosphorus from dairy wastewater. The average concentration of TP in the dairy influent was recorded as 39.3 ± 9.8 mg L-1. Average TP concentration in gravel filters (CW-1 to CW-6) were recorded in the range of 16.9 to 18.1 mg L-1 while in sand filters (CW-7 to CW-9), it ranged between 2.2 to 3.9 mg L-1. The reduction of TP in the effluent was more in case of sand filters (2.2 ± 2.6 mg L-1). The removal rate in sand filters showed noticeable reduction as compared to gravel filters. Maximum removal rate of 94.1% was also observed in sand filled units while minimum removal was seen in gravel beds (54.7 to 58.1%). Hence, the results of this investigation recommends the use of sand as the better option for TP removal and a good alternate for designing VCW in future wetland construction.
 
Article
Every business should be guided by business ethics i.e., moral principles which are considered by the society as right, and so, should govern and guide the activities of the business. In short, they are the moral principles and rules of conduct which should govern and guide the activities of a business. Business ethics require that the business should be conducted according to the recognized moral principles. Business ethics are derived from social values and laid down the norms of behavior for the business. By laying down the code of conduct, business ethics guide the businessmen in their business activities.
 
The graphical representation of inventory cycle  
Behavior of total cost TC (m, k) with time t  
Article
In this paper, we developed an Economic order quantity model for decaying goods with stock and time reliant demand rate under inflationary environment and time discounting over a fixed time horizon. Shortages are also permitted and are partially backordered. The results are discussed with a numerical example and particular cases are also discussed briefly.
 
Article
In this paper, we put forward the literature review related to filter design issues and various design topologies to implement the practical edge coupled coplanar waveguide filters. One of the main objectives of this survey paper to find out the comparison between various designs topologies on the basis of several parameters like providing flexibility to minimize analysis complexity, bandwidth and size reduction of edge coupled coplanar waveguide filters without loss of accuracy. Another objective is to provide the novel approach in order to help a researcher to find the suitable edge coupled coplanar waveguide filter design topologies.
 
Article
Metal forming operations in industries are performed by the sheet metal processes. In sheet metal work deep drawing plays a major role to form the desired shapes. Improper design process leads to defected parts which are not acceptable due to ergonomics as well as aesthetics. Enormous defects during drawing have been discussed in the literature. FEA of sheet metal drawing was performed by using a blank. During the drawing operation wrinkling and tearing were observed experimentally. FEA as an effective tool has been concluded for this technique. The results will help in optimizing the process by changing the input parameters and help the industry to perform hit and trial on simulator rather than virtual environment.
 
Article
After commencing the derivative trading in India, Mathematical finance becomes an emerging field for applied mathematician and financial engineers. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss the mechanism of derivative and how a financial phenomenon (derivative) can be mathematised.
 
Conceptual framework for pervasive m-healthcare
Article
Vision of pervasive computing includes wireless communication and information processing anywhere, anytime using mobile sensor devices connected seamlessly. Pervasive environment characterized by highly dynamic, open and diverse infrastructure where resource-restricted dissimilar mobile objects have the ability of Ad-hoc network set-up, self-organization and cooperation for information exchange and distributed operation unknown by the user. In such open computing environments, traditional security schemes and encryption algorithms cannot be always applied to address the security assurance challenges. Therefore, concepts of trust and reputation evaluation emerged by researchers. In addition to that in human-centric healthcare applications, reliability and trustworthiness between communicating nodes, quality of information assessment cannot be effectively ensured through hard security concerns. Thus soft security analysis becomes an important aspect for enhancing the security assurance and degree of trust in ICT enabled application and services where information is ubiquitous. In our proposed research work, we explore existing pervasive security and trust methods to assess the challenging gap. We put forward need of soft security and proposed a trust metric for trust based security assessment with classical clustering technique for energy-efficient resource restricted trusted and secure communication. Major security attacks and impact of signal strength on security for unnoticed pervasive services also evaluated. In winding up, we present pervasive healthcare application framework especially focused to awareness and quality remote care for diabetes, to realize and validate the conceptual model with case study.
 
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IT investment played a crucial role in the growth of the U.S. economy. IT prices is the key to understanding the resurgence of American economic growth. The period 1995 - 2003 have been sub-divided in order to focus on the response of IT investment to the accelerated decline in IT prices. With the growth of input per capita between investments in tangible assets and investments in human capital, the world economy experienced a surge in investment in IT after 1995. With the help of different levels of output per capita, the differences in per capita output levels are primarily explained by differences in per capita input, rather than variations in productivity.
 
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In this paper, we have developed a new heuristic algorithm for n jobs two machines (𝑛 × 2) flowshop scheduling problem in which processing times is associated with their respective probabilities. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal sequence of jobs to minimize the makespan (total completion times of jobs) and the total mean weighted flow time of jobs. The transportation times of the first machine to second machine are also being considered. Further, jobs are attached to their weight to indicate their relative importance. We also calculated the utilization times of machines. The algorithm is justified by the numerical illustration and Gantt chart is generated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. The proposed heuristic algorithm is easy to understand and provide an important tool for decision makers.
 
Influence and scale values
Landuse
Rainfall pattern 
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Groundwater is often referred to as the 'hidden' component of the hydrological cycle because it is not directly observable. However, in many areas, the groundwater resource is huge, and its occurrence and hydrological significance cannot be neglected in water management and planning. Identification of groundwater potential zone is main objective of present work for Ghagger Watershed, Himachal Pradesh. GIS and Remote Sensing is used for identification of groundwater potential zones in the study area. Landsat 8 satellite data is used to generate land use and land cover maps as well as your Geomorphological maps for the study area. Soil maps are used as available. Digital elevation model are acquired using CartoSAT-1 satellite Data. Weighted overlay method of raster dataset for analysis is used to identify groundwater potential zone of study area. The layers landuse, Elevation, slope, geomorphology, rainfall pattern, drainage pattern and soil were considered and the influence and scale values set to different feature according to their importance in groundwater potential areas. After analysis, five zones of groundwater potential are generated as, very poor, poor, moderate, Good and very good were identified for the study area. It estimated is for study area that 49% and 29% part is lies in moderate to good zone of groundwater.
 
Top-cited authors
Pradeep Kumar Sharma
  • Graphic Era University
Vikram S. Negi
  • GB Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment
Ranbeer Rawal
  • GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development
Indra D. Bhatt
  • GB Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment
Deepa Minakshi
  • Graphic Era University